-RSB Couch v. Jabe et al, No. 7:2011cv00034 - Document 51 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 7/24/2012. (tvt)
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< :Y + h % ' ' e * . , AT ROANOKE, VA F1ED t . JUL 25 2 1 22 J IC ULA I THE UNI STATESDI TRI COURT N TED S CT . BY: yCL RK Z '' s o. L v FO R TH E W E STERN DI STRI O F V I G I I CT R N A R O AN O K E D I ISIO N V W ILLI M R .CO UC H , A Pl ntf , ai i f V. JO H N M .JA BE,etaI, . D ef endant s. C i lA cton N o.7: cvvi i 11- 00034 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) M EM O M ND U M O PI I N N O By: H on.Jam es C.Turk Seni U nied St D i ri Judge or t ates st ct W ilmn R . li Couc a V igi a i a e pr e ng pr K , ie a c vi r g sac i h, r ni nm t oc edi o f l d i l i ht ton p ru n t 4 U. C. 1 8 wi j rs dinv se i 2 U. 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OP 803. 2 VDOC Ope ai Pr e e(t ' 8 2go r pli ifso dei a r c i o r tng oc duz 1OP' 03. vens antf r rng nd e ept f ) 2 l nm t s o 'ubs rbe o publc tons c e t d out i ofVD O C f c lte . O P 803. alow si a e t Cs c i t , iai rae s de a iii s ' 1De e ntJ be e t d t o nea l i ntc lv s onsofOP 803.2t te se d i t tmei vi plitf' f nda a nac e w ry de i a er i ha xitd urng he i nvol ng an ifs cl m s Thefrtve son ofO P 803. wasefe i i Augus 2007 a t s condveri w a efeci i ai . is r i 2 fctve n t nd he e son s f tve n N ove be 201 TheA ug t2007 ve son r l t t t publc tonsPr e tng yourHe t a Saf t and The m r 0. us r i e a es o he ia i ot c i a1h nd e y J ihous Lawve ' Handbook.The dif r e be we t ve s onsa e no ed when r eva . O P 803. w a al e rs f e enc s t en he r i r t el nt 2 s a e d a n onNove be 1 201 butt tltrrvii doesno a yt pli ifscai s m nde gai m r , 1, ha ae e son t ppl o antf ' l m . or r a r ce ve publca i die tfom a l tm at s c s l ast y do notpos a de , nd e i i tons r c r egii e our e o ong he e tra t tesc iy ds i ieo g o o d ro tefcl ya da en t erme tlo (n tj h e t o h e urt , icpl r o d r e f h a it n r o d ti na t imae n i rha ltton.2 ( Ps803. ( ns n Af.no.43-)Enc. ,B. a 2. OP 803. rquie e biiai '' 0 2 Robi o f ( 1 lA ) t ) 2 e rs i a e t d e ur pe m i s on f om t Fac lt Uni Hea orde i nm t s o t c e r s i r he iiy t d s s gnee ...prort o de i i o r r ng, s c i ng t oro he w i e r c vi a publc ton by s itng a Pe s na Pr ry Re s ' ubs rbi o, t r s e ei ng ia i ubm ti r o l ope t que t' f m ,whi h i onl one pa l or c s y - ge ong. A pr ppr ved p i a i i s ili pec ed f r c nt a nd ea o ublc ton s tl ns t o o r ba orot rpolc vi a i w he i a rvesa a f ciiy. A ppr lofone i s ofa publc ton he i y ol tons n t ri t a lt ova s ue iai doe notc tt e bl nke a ova f s e uenti s orpublc tons f om t s m e ve r s ons iut n t ppr l or ubs q s ues ia i r he a nda . Any publc ton notor r d orr eved i a o da wih a 1a iabl pr dur ,i l i iai de e ec i n cc r nce t l pplc e oce es nc ud ng pr a ova , ilnotbe de i r t t i m a e. The Fac lt U ni H e gi t i a e a e ppr l w l lve ed o he n t iiy t ad ves he nm t wrte r cor w hy a publc ton i notalow e u e OP 803. it n e d iai s l d nd r 2. B. PROTECTI Y OUR H EALTH AND SAFETY NG On J n r 29,2009,de e ntRyde r ceve i t ACC ma loom t book a ua y f nda r e i d n he ir he Pr e tnc Y ourH e 1h a Sa e y,whi h w a dit i t by Prs Lega N e s a a e s d ot c i a t nd f t c s s rbu ed i on l w nd ddr s e t pl i tf . Pe O P 803. Ryde wasnotpe m it d t gi pl i ift book be us pl i if o a n if r 2, r r te o ve a ntf he ca e a ntf di no obt i pr a ovalby f lng a Pe s lPr ry Re d t a n e ppr ii r ona ope t ques f t onn. St f t d pl i tf t t a f ol a n if ha t book a rved a ga hi t o o i :pl i ifc d a l t V D O C t desr t book, he ri nd ve m w ptons a ntf oul low he o toy he orpl i ifc d f l outt r s t p e ppr lf a ha a vi iorr t i ve t book a ntf oul il he equi ie r a ova onu nd ve s t e re he w ihi t r y da t m ai i bac t pl n if a ntf s yshe coul noto ai a ova bef r t n hi t ys o l t k o ai tf .Pl i if a d bt n ppr l o e t book a ved be aus t pu i he s n t book t hi uns i ie a w ihoutc r ,but he ni c e he bls r e t he o m olc t d nd t ha ge 2OP 80 .2defne S u i ton'a û a wrtencomm uni to s h a news pes m aga nes newsete sor 3 i s t blcai ' s < ny it p as cain uc s pa r. zi , l tr ot rpe i ca s books br hur s ca a ogs orpa he r odi l , , oc e , t l , mphlt t tc n be s crbed t o or r f om a l gii a e e s ha a ubs i o r de ed r e tm t m aior rve . A t ai or ve 'i aç ihe , g ni ton,o gov r e ala y t publs or l de ndor' t l der ndor's < s r or a zai r e nm nt genc hat ihes ' m publ diti t publc tonst o h t m a lora r cogni e busnes / ndort tasa us la r gul rbus ne s s rbu es i a i hr ug he i e z d i s ve ha ua nd e a i s pr desm alor s r cet t publctr ovi i der evi o he i h ougham ai o d c t og orde rme a nor aly e gesi m al l r er aal pa t nt nd m l nga n i or rs l sasa s t nta par ofisbus nes .' de a e ubs a i l t t i s' 2 heopt t ha a viio r ti vet booka m ali t hi Theviiordi no a vewihi ed o ve st r ere he nd i t o m. st d t ni t n t ry da , t boo was d t oye hit ys and he k es r d. Pl i iffl d a r ul rgr e a ntf ie eg a i vmw e a tnotr ce vi Pr t c i Y ourH e t a Sa e v, bou e i ng o e tnc alh nd f t r quesi t tOP 803. be r s t a l i a est r c i publca i f o a ove e tng ha 2 evied o low nm t o e e ve i tons r m ppr d ve ndor w ihoutpr a ova . Def ntBr xt n f s t e ppr l enda a o ound OP 8 2 t be c tt i la 03. o ons iutona nd de enni pl i if s r gul rgre nc t be unf unde D e e t ned a ntf e a i va e o o d. f ndantG a n uphe d Br xt s nua l a on' de s o o M a c 9,2009. ci i n n r h C. J LHOUSE LAW YER' HANDBOOK AI S On O c obe 6,201 A CC m a l o s a fr c i t book The J ihous La ve ' t r 0, ir om t f e e ved he a l e w rs Hand k, c waspubls d by t Ce t rf Consiutona Ri sa add e s d t boo whih ihe he n e or tt i l ght nd r s e o pl i tf . D e e ntSwi herno ii d pl i tf t the c d notr c ve t spublca i n bec us a n if f nda s tf e a n if ha oul e ei hi i to a e he di notf l a Pe s d ie r onalPr ry Req s f r f pr a o . ope t ue t o m or e ppr val Pl ntf fl a r gul rgre nc on O c obe 8 201 r que tng t V D O C r vi e OP ai i f ied e a i va e t r , 0, e s i he e s 803. t a l w hi t r e ve publc to f om a ho i e ve 2 o lo m o ec i i a i ns r ut r z d ndor w ihoutflng a Pe s na s t ii ro l Pr r y Reque tf m f rpr a ova . On O c obe 1 201 t V D OC Di e t ri onne ope t s or o e ppr l t r 9, 0, he r c o nf d VD O C i a esa s a ft ti a e coul r c i Pr s Le lN e s publc tons i a t r nm t nd t f ha nm t s d e e ve ion ga w ' i a i f hid pa t pa d f rt publca i bu i at s s ilne de t obt n pr a o lvi a Pe s l ry i o he i ton, t nm e tl e d o ai e ppr va a r ona Pr ryRe s f m t r evet publc ton.( .sFis Rep.( 34)Ex. ) TheVDOC ope t que t or o ec i he iai Pl' rt s no. F. nm ended OP 803. on N ovem ber 1,2010,t r lectt s new polcy. On N ovem ber9,2010, 2 o et hi i de e ntBr xt de e m i d pl i if sr ul rg i va t be unf f nda a on t r ne a ntf eg a r e nce o ounded be aus Sw i he c e s r a o i t l pr ve e pl i iff om r e vi The J ihous La y r sH a ppr pr a e y e nt d a ntf r ec i ng a l e w e ' ndbook ashe f ie a ld t t e a Pers o il onalPr opert Reques f m f pr y t or or eappr ,asr r by t pr ousver on of oval equi ed he evi si 803. A fert new polcy becam e ef ectve,however,Sw i gave pl ntffa copy ofThe 2. t he i f i sher ai i 3 J ihous La a l e wversHa ' ndbook on De mbe 1 201 ffy- e n da a trt boo a rved i ce r , 0, it s ve ys fe he k ri n t m a loom . D e e he ir f ndantG a m a uphe d Br xt sgre nce r pons on D e m be 1 201 r n l a on' i va es e ce r 0, 0, bec us pl n ifhad notobt i pr ppr li ac or nc w ih t pr vi ve s o of 8 2. a e ai tf a ned ea ova n c da e t he e ous r i n 03. THE CONTRACT On J nua y 11 201 A CC m a lo s a fr c i d a c ofa c r c be w e n t a r , 0, ir om t f e e ve opy ont a t t e he V D OC a Cha a n Se vi esoft Chur he ofV igi a,whi h a f ee pe s m aie t nd pl i r c he c s r ni c r r on ld o pl ntf . Sw i he t t Contac a co ule wih Br t a t y det nni d t t ai i f s r ook he r t nd ns t d t r on, nd he e ne ha pl ntf co d no r ce ve t Co r c be a e i wasnota d um e nor aly pr de t ai i f ul t e i he nt a t c us t oc nt m l ovi d o i a es Pl i if s s eque r ul rgre nm t . a ntf ' ubs nt eg a i vmw e w a dee e unf s m d ounde 3be us t V igi a d ca e he r ni Fr dom ofl or tonAc ($ A' alge ydi notaf da i t a rg t or ror ee nf mai tû VFOI ' le dl d ) for n nmae ny iht o de pos es t Cont a t r r e st w he he a i a e ora f e pe s n i taly r ue t d i. s s he r c , ega dl s o t r n nm t r e r o nii l eq s e t4 G a m a uphe d t sdec s on on M a c 30,201 ACC s a fs e nty c ule w ih t r n l hi ii rh 0. t f ubs que l ons t d t he O f i e oft Ator y Ge r lofVi g ni a ga pl i ifa c oft Co r c o J 1 fc he t ne ne a r i a nd ve a ntf opy he nt a t n une 4, 2011 a o m a el e ght e m ont a trt Con r c a rve a t m a loom a t e day , ppr xi t y i e n hs fe he t a t r i d t he ir nd hr e s b f r d fn nsfldterfrt t nf rs mmayj d me ti t sa to eo e ee da t ie h i is moi o u r u g n n hi cin. o 3Br xtn di notpero m t Leve Ir viw oft sr gulrg iva e. ( iv n e ( . 1 a 7) a o d f r he l e e hi e a re nc Gre a c s no 4-) t . 4TheVFO I r a i pe tnentpa t A e ds n ri r: Nopo iino t sc a tro Ch pe 21( 3 -7 e sq.o Tie3 s lb c nsr e t afr a y rvso fhi h p e r a tr j 0 1 8 t e ) f t 0 hal e o tu d o fod n l rght t anype s i r e aedi asae,oc orfder c r ci lfciiy,whehero no s f clt i i so r on nca c r t n tt l al e al ore tona a lt t r t uch a iiy s ()lctdi teCo nwe l o (io eae p ru n t teCo rcin P iaeMa a e n Ac i o ae n h mmo at r i p rtd us at o h re t s rv t n g me t t h ) o ( 5 .- 61e sq. Ho v rti s b eto sal o bec ntu dt p e e t nic reae pes nfo j 312 t e ) we e,hs u scin h ln t o sre o rv n a n ac rtd ro r m . e r snghi c tt i l pr e t rght,i udi bu no lm ie t hi rgh st calf e de i xecii s onsiutonaly otced i s ncl ng, t t i td o, s i t o l or vi nce n hi f s avori a c i i pr e i n rm nal os cuton. VA. DE j22 3 0 ( . CO .- 7 3 C) 4 E. PLAI FF' CLAI AND DEFENDANTS'RESPONSES NTI S MS Pl ntf a g s t tno l tm a e pe ogi alr a on e s e t pr bi hi f om ai i f r ue ha egii t nol c e s xi t d o ohi t m r r c i ng t booksm er l be a e he di no tl a Pe s e e vi he e y c us d t ie r onalPr pe t Reque tf m f o ry s or or pr a ova . Pl i ifa s a g t tno l gii a e pe ogi alr as exi t t de a hi e ppr l a ntf l o r ues ha e tm t nol c e on sed o l y s r c i oft Cont a tbe us de e nt bele d a f e pe s obt i t Cont a tvi t e e pt he r c ca e f nda s i ve r e r on a ned he r c a he VFOI . Pl i ifs c a e t tt bur n oft pr a o lpr es w oul r quie hi t A a ntf pe ul t s ha he de he e ppr va oc s d e r m o wa tt e r lwe ks' s nd S e r dola s' ocommuni aewih pe ewho wan t s nd i k ve a e 'and pe i ve al lr 't s s c t t opl to e hi publca i ns Pl ntf a l gest tt i talde al o t t o books a t Con r c m i t o . ai i f le ha he nii ni s f he w nd he ta t vilt t eFis Ame d n rg t ofe s e h, n h c ncu e ta h û a s fe e ij r oae h rt n me t ih t r e pe c a d e o ld s h t e i s u fr d nu y h asa pr m a e r s t'ofbe ng i ta l de e t e do um e s Pl i i fr que t de l r t y oxi t e ul' i nii ly ni d hes c nt . a ntf e s s c a a or r i 'apema ntij ton'a uns cfedc ns t y,punii andnomi lda ge . elef r ne nunci , nd pe ii ompe aor , tve, na ma s D e e nt f l t afi vi ofA . f nda s ied he fda t Robi on, he VD O C Chi ofCo r c i ns t ef r e tons Op rto s i s p o t ft i mo in f rs mmayj dg n .Ro i o a k o e g sta eain ,n u p r o her to s o u r u me t bns n c n wld e h t i a esha nu e ousw a ofe r s ng t i Fis Am e en r g s i l ng or rng nm t ve m r ys xe ci i he r r t ndm t i ht , nc udi de i publc tons fom a oved vendor , ea ng m a e i sf om t prs lbr r a usng l te s ia i r ppr s r di t ral r he i on i a y, nd i e tr , vi ia i n,a phone c l t c m uni a e wih t publc M os i a esa s ha a c s t st to nd als o om c t t he i. t nm t l o ve c es o r di a / t e s on. a o nd or el vi i Robi on a r t O P 803. spr a ova r uie e f publc tons m i m i st ns ve s hat 2' e ppr l eq r m nt or ia i ni ze he a o ofi om i una horze ie st ti a esor ra t ,r uc s t tm e s a f m unt nc ng ut i d t m ha nm t de nd, hus ed e he i t f r vi w a ha e m a l Fa iiy s a fm us r vi a 1pu i to bef e de i rng t m t e e nd ndl i. c lt t f t e ew 1 blca i ns or lve i he o i aes e n i a i a eha be n a t iedt o derapublcai be aus t publc ton nm t , ve f n nm t s e u horz o r i ton, c e he ia i m ay vi at VD O C polci f publcatons or s iy. l a pr ousy appr ol e i es or i i ecurt f evi l oved or i der s di sappr oved,s af m us i tm or tm e and efortt det m i w het t i a e silw ant a t f t nves ei f o er ne her he nm t tl s 5 pad butdia oved publc ton by ma lng i o oft f ciiy. Robi on a r t tt i s ppr iai ii t ut he a lt ns ve s ha he pr ppr lr quie e r duc t c lc c us d whe a i a e pa f s m e hi t ea ova e r m nt e es he onfi t a e n n nm t ys or o t ng hat c nno be pos es ed a r duee t blr n on s a ft i tga e e h a e r p i ton a t s s nd e s he zde t f o nves i t ac nd ve y ublca i t tari sa af c lt t de e mi isorgns ha rve t a iiy o t r ne t i i . Robi on al o a r t tt pr a o lpr es he psm a nt i f c lt s urt ns s ve s ha he e ppr va oc s l i a n a iiy ec iy. Pur ua t V D O C polc an i a e w ho doe notha pr a ova c s nt o i y, nm t s ve e ppr l annotr e ve t pa ka , ec i he c ge a s a fdoe no ne t f t r i tga e t l gii ac oft pac ge. Robi on e a ns nd t f s t ed o urhe nvesi t he e tm y he ka ns xpl i t tt r ha be n i t nc w he a out i pa t ti t s ug e co r band b m a lng a ha he e ve e ns a es n n s de ry res o m gl nt a y ii pa ka t ta a s t be f om a l gii a e ve c ge ha ppe r o r e tm t ndor Onc t dec ptve pac . e he e i kage a rvesa ri nd sa fdo notha apr a o r ques,saf m a d s eoft pa ka wihou f t r t f es ve e ppr val e t t f y ipos he c ge t t urhe l lr notly. The V D OC i pl m e e 8 2' pr ppr la pa e pr ce est pr o e m e nt d 03. s ea ova nd ym nt o dur o om t i a es r pons biiy and l w f be or a pa toft r habiia i pr es a t r d e nm t ' es i lt a ul havi s s r he e lt ton oc s nd o e uc o de spl e w ih t i e i ofde r udi ve or . The pr a ova pr e sens esi a es r r ac d t he nt nton f a ng nd s e ppr l oc s ur nm t a eno pe m it t r cevepublc tonsofa ki on atilbassorwhi h ha notbe n r t r ted o e i i ai ny nd ra i c ve e pr pai t e ur t ta publc ton i r c i d f om a a hor z d s c a t ve e d o ns e ha i a i s e e ve r n ut i e our e nd he ndori s ale dy pai Robi on a st tve ra d. ns ver ha ndor ofe bele t tt VD O C i r pons bl f s tn i ve ha he s es i e or e urng t ta i a e' bil a e pai sm pl be us a i a e i i t V D OC ' c t ns i ha n nm t s ls r d i y ca e n nm t s n he S us ody. St f i bur ned w hen a ve r a t m p st us t V DO C t m edi t a busne stans c i a f s de ndo te t o e he o ae i s r a ton wih a i t 5 I t ve scursaj t n nmae. f he ndor e e udgme a i ta i t f a unpai bilsafmus nt gans n nmae or n d l, tf t 5Fore xampl , OP 803. ss urt r vi w pr es m a i i t a ve ' r t n orr f polc a t VDOC e 25 ec iy- e e oc s y nvalda e ndor s e ur e und i y, nd he asum e nor po i lt f a bilng is .Theim aewoul notr c vet publcain,heve s s es nsbiiy or ny li sues n t d e ei he i to t ndorwoul d de a pa e , t i a e woul r f s pa e on t basst VD OC co ica ed,da a ordesr m nd ym nt and he nm t d e u e ym nt he i he nfs t m ged, toyed t pu iaton. he blc i 6 p o e st j d me t r m t ei maesa c u td d c t ef n s is ec e k , n mo io a d r c s he u g n fo h n t ' c o n , e u t h u d ,su h c s a d ntr n de tf ndsfo t i t sac ountuntlt j me i s tsid. duc u rm he nmae' c i he udg nt s aife ll. A p ryi e tte t s a t s nild o umma yj d me tt tepe dng ,h ds o eya ds ls r r u g n Cf h la i s te ic v r nd ico u e i m a e i l on tl ,a a a f d t s w t tt r i no ge ne i s ast a m a e i lf c t ra s i e nd ny f i avis ho ha he e s nui s ue o ny t ra a t a dta t emo n i e t ldt j d me ta amatro lw. Fe . . v P. 6 c. Maeil n h t h va t s ni e o u g n s te f a ' d R Ci. 5 ( )6 tra t ' f c sa e t e ne es a y t esabls t el m en s o a pa t sca e ofa t o Ande s v. a t r hos c s r o t i h he e t f r y' us c i n. r on Li ry Lo I ,477U. 242,2 ( 98 .A g nui is ofmaeilf te ssi,i be t bby. nc. S. 48 1 6) e ne sue tra ac xit f n vi w i t r or a a lr a ona e i e e sdr w n t r r m i a lg m os f r bl t t e ng he ec d nd 1 e s bl nf r nce a he ef o n i ht t avo a e o he non- vi pa t aras bl f tfnde c ul r t aveditf t nonmo ng ry, e ona e ac-i r o d eunz r c or he mova t Jl The n . .s t m ovi pa t hast bur n ofs i - ç ha i , ntng outt t dit i tc t t tt r i ng ry he de how ng i t s poi i t o he s rc our - ha he e s a a e e ofe de t s n bs nc vi nce o uppor t nonm ovi pa t s c s ' Ce ot x Com . Ca r t , t he ng ry' a e. ' l e v. t e t 477 U. 31 3 (1 6) l t mova s tsi st sbur n,he t non- ntmus stfrh S. 7, 25 98 . f he nt aite hi de t n he mova t e ot s cii adm i s bl f c st tde ons r t t e s e e ofa gen ne i s off tf ti l Fe pe fc, s i e a t ha m ta e he xit nc ui s ue ac or r a . d. R, v P. 6 c ; ltx, 7 U. a 3 2 2 .A p ryi e tte t s mmayj dg n i t e Ci . 5 () Ceoe 4 7 S. t 2 - 3 a t s n ild o u r u me t f h r or a awhol coul notl a ar to ti roff tt fnd i f voroft nonec d s e d e d ai nal re ac o i n a he mova . nt W il msv. ifn 9 2F.d 8 0 8 3(t Ci. 9 ) Co ves l, u r j d me ti li a Grfi , 5 2 2 , 2 4h r 1 91. n rey s mmay u g n s i ppr pra e i t e de i s f c e f a r a o bl f tfnde t r t a ve di ti f vor na o i t f he vi nce s uf i i nt or e s na e ac - i r o e um r c n a oft non- ovi part A nder 477 U . a 248. he m ng y. son, S. t Eve i t r i nodiput a t t evi ntar f t,s n f he e s s e s o he de i y acs umma yj r udgme i not nt s appr i e w her t uli at f ualconcl onst be dr opr at e he tm e act usi o awn ar i di put O ver t eetv.K y. e n s e. sr 6The pa tesr ei r as bl a e i tnotcet tt cou tm a c r a m o i t dim i t r e e es r i ec ved e ona e nd xplci i ha he r y onve t ton o s ss hat ef r nc malr o tietepe dn sit amoinfrsmmayj d me twh nteClr is e at l Ro e o on t e tes usd h la ig no to o u r u g n e h ek su d i y sb r oi . me c S eFe R. v P.1 ( ) Ro e o o v Ga s n 5 8F.d 3 9, l ( t Ci.1 7 ) e d. Ci . 2 d ; s b r . nio , 2 2 0 3 0 4 h r 9 5 . 7 Ce .Liel .Co.950F. 931 937( hCi.1 ) A c t ynotr ol diput f t, nt f ns , 2d , 4t r 991. our ma es ve s ed acs w e g t e de e orm a det r i tons o c edi lt Rus el v. i r vne Cor ,65 F. i h he vi nc , ke e m na i f r biiy. s l M c od p. 3d 1 1 (t Ci.1 ;Sosbe v. u p 797F. 1 1 ( h Ci.1 6) A c ur 229, 239 4h r 995) e e M r hv, 2d 79, 82 4t r 98 . o t a e sast e t e de oft no m ovi pa t a r s vesal i t r lc lc sa cc pt nz he vi nce he nng ry nd e ol l n e na onfi t nd i e enc s i t non- ovi pa t s f vor Cha bol a s d Fr nc v.Sm ih,597 F. 406, nf r e n he m ng ry' a . r m ce e a e t 2d 41 ( hCi.1 .tW he opposngpa te tl t difrntsore ,oneofwhihi bltnty 4 4t r 979) û n i ris elwo fee t is c s aa l c nr dce b t er c r s ta n ra o a l j r c ul beiv i, c u t h udn t d p o ta itd y h e o d, o h t o e s n be u y o d le e t a o r s o l o a o t ta veso o t ef csf rp r o e o r ln o amo in frs mmayj g n . S otv h t rin f h a t o u p s s f u ig n to o u r ud me t' c t . ' Ha s 55 U. 3 380( ) t nnor,apa t tc nnotce t age neis of ni , 0 S. 72, 2007 .Furhe e ry ça rae nui sue m a e i lf c t ough m e e s c a i o t buidi ofone i e e e upon a he .' Be l v. t ra a t hr r pe ul ton r he l ng nf r nc not r' a e Ha d 7 9F.d21 , 4( t Ci.1 8 ) rf r,t eeu s p re s e uain. .sn t r y, 6 2 3 21 4h r 9 5 .Theeo e imlr n u po td p c lto . i o g e o g t d f a as mmayj g n moin. En i v. tl snof . Ed c Ra i n u h o ee t u r ud me t to ' n s Na 'As ' Bus & u . do. ' l ,53F. 55,62( h Ci.1 . A pl ntf c nno us ars et amotonf s nc. 3d 4t r 995) ai if a t e e pons o i or ummay r j d me t oc re td fce isi ac mp an c aln e b ad f n a tsmoinf rs mmay u g n t o rc eiince n o lit h le g d y ee d n ' to o u r j d me t S eCla i e v. c vt, 5 F.d3 4 3 6(t Ci. 0 9 ( o igta aplitf u g n . e o nng r M De i 5 5 3 2 , 3 4 h r 2 0 ) n tn h t an if t ma n ta n ac mpan t r u h ag me ti ab ifo p sn s mma yj d me t; l u y o me d o lit h o g ru n n re p o ig u r u g n ) Gi r mo v.Gae . c l & Co.38 F. 1 2,1 ( 1hCi. ts M Donad , 2 3d 31 315 1 t r 2004)(a . s me) D EFENDANTSA RE I UNE FROM DAM AGES. MM D e e nt a e en il d t q ii d i m univ i t ri vi lc pac te . f nda s r tte o ualf e m t n hei ndi dua a ii s D e e nt as e tt tt c ai s a s r e a i tt m i t i i vi lca c tesa e f nda s s r ha he l m s e t d ga ns he n he r ndi dua pa ii r bar byt docrneofquaiidi red he ti lfe mmuniy.Quaiidi t lfe mmuniypennis( r ntofii s t t t nme fcal gove pef mi dicrtonay f tons.. gobe s ed fom labiiyf cvida gesi ofra ror ng s ei r unci . t 1 hiled r i lt or i l ma ns a s t rconductdoesnotvi at cl l esablshed s at ory orcons iutonalrght ofwhi a hei ol e eary t i t ut tt i i s ch 8 ra o a l pes nwo l h v k o . Halw v. tg rl , 7U.. 0 , 8( 9 2 . e s n be ro ud a e n wn' ro Fiz ead 45 S 8 0 81 1 8 ) ' Qualte i ii d mmuniypr de i t ovi s mmuniyfom s trt rt nameedee et la lt Thus t r ui ahe ha r fns o ibiiy. , whet ra def nda c n c ai qua ii i m uniy i a pt e q s i o l w a i pr ry he e nt a l m lfed m t s z ue ton f a nd s ope l r deer ne prtil Sa irv. t 533U. 1 200- ( ) o m zedpqohe Mr t mi d era . uce Kaz, S. 94, 01 2001, ve l - t r ounds hyPe s v. la 555U. 223( aron Calhan, S. 2009)( r ti lwe c t t diceint deemi pemitng o r ours he s rto o tr ne whihquaii di c lte mmuniypr t a l efrt. t ong o nayz is) O nc a de e e f ndantr i e t qua ii d i m uniy def e a pl ntf be r t bu de t a s s he lfe m t ens , ai if a s he r n o s how t ta de e nt s c ha f nda ' onduc vi a e t pl i if srght a t de e t ol t d he a ntf ' i , nd he f ndan m us pr t t t t ove ha t rghtvi a ed w a no cl a l e t bls d a t tm e oft i de t r ce ve qua i i d he i ol t s t e r y s a ihe t he i he nci nt o e i lfe i mmuniy.He yv. nel,501F. 374,378( h Ci.2007 .t-heunlwf nes oft a ton t nr Pur l 3d 4t r ) dl a ul s he ci mu tb a p rn whe a s se fo t ep rp cieo a o j ci l r a o a l o fca s e p ae t n s e s d r m h e s e tv f n b e t y e s n b e fiil ve c r dwihknowldgeofesabls dlw. Lo zv. ns 91 F. 48 48 ( hCi. hage t e t ihe a ' pe Robi on, 4 2d 6, 9 4t r ' 1 0) Se Andes v.Criht 483U. 635,6 ( 98 (ç- si no t syt ta ofiil 99 . e ron ec on, S. 40 1 7) tl s t o a ha n fca -hi ac i n i pr e t by q lte i m uniy unl st ve y a ton i que ton haspr vi us y be n to s ot c ed ua ii d m t es he r c i n si e o l e hel u a f ...buti i t s y t ti t lgh ofpr e s i l w t unl w f nes m us be d nl w ul t s o a ha n he i t e- xi tng a he a ul s t a r n .) ppa e t' . ' The pr t c i oft Fi s Am e e e e t prs i a es O ' o e tons he r t ndm nt xt nd o i on nm t . Lone v.Es a e of tt Sha z 482U. 3 3 ( ) M orionv.Gar ht 239F. 648 65 ( hCi.2001. baz , S. 42, 48 1987 ; rs rag y, 3d , 6 4t r ) N one he e s a i a e' cons iutona r g sm us be eva ua e w ihi t c e of t l s , n nm t s tt i l i ht t l t d t n he ont xt i a c r t o The Supr m e Cour hasl c utone t tç our sa e i1e p d t de w ih nc r e a i n. e t ong a i d ha û t r l qui pe o al t c t i r asng y ur ntpr e sofpr s a i s r t o .... Pr uni rv. a tne 4l U . he nc e i l ge obl m i on dm nit a i n ' oc e M r i z, 6 S. ' 396,405( 97 .Thec r C ta c ddefrnc t t ofi aswhor aprs oves eng 1 4) ou tl mus c or ee e o he fcil un ion, re i 9 a coo di tng ism a a pe t ,i l ng s c iy,dicplne a ge r a i sr ton.' nd r nai t ny s c s ncudi e urt s i i , nd ne al dm nita i ' Lo a ev.Le 472F.d 1 4,1 ( hCi. ) velc e, 3 7 99 4t r 2006 . Thi def r nc i a hi ved by a r to ba i t s . The cour c i er f ur f t st s ee e s c e a i nal s s e t t ons d s o ac or o de e m i i prs r ul tons a e r as bl r l t d t l gii a e pe ogi ali er s s t r ne f i on eg a i r e ona y e a e o e tm t nol c nt e t : ( )whehe t r i ai i rtona co ton'bewe nt prs r ulto 1 t r hee s s d, ai l nneci ' t e he ion eg ain val ora ton a t i e es a s re byt gove n nt orwhe he t si e e ti c i nd he nt r t s e td he r me , t r hi ntr s s ç ormot a t r nde t polc mbirr orirtona''( whehe t e e s o e r he iy tay rai l' 2) t r s t le na i m e of e r sng t rght. .r m a n ope t prs i a es'... é t r tve ans xe ci i he i . e i a n o i on nm t ' ; ( wha i c t de ie ac ommod tonwo dha ons c iysaf 3) t mpa t he srd c ai ul ve e urt tf, i ts a t al ai ofprs rs ur s a ( whehe t r e s a nmae , nd he loc ton ion e o ce ' nd 4) t r hee xit ny , ç ous e y ale na i s' o t c le d r gul ton ora i w hi h m ay û obvi , as t r tve ' t he ha l nge e a i cton, c s ugges t ti i tno ras bl buti (nsea a e gge aedr s et t ha t s l t e ona e, s i t dl n xa r t epons o Pri concer ' son ns.' l a 200( i Tur v.Safe 482U. 78,89- (98 ) A pl ntf be r t uli t d. t quotng ner lv, S. 92 1 7). ai if as he tmae bur n ofe t bls ng t ta prs n r gul ton orde i i i unc tt i l H a e v. a t de s a i hi ha io e a i c s on s ons iutona . us V uch , 993F. 1 1 ( h Ci.1 .Theco t tCe pe tt deemi tonsofprs 2d 079, 082 4t r 993) ur mus d s c he tr nai r ion ofiil'whe a yi t Tur rfcor.Unie Sttsv.St t,925F. 83,86( hCi. fcas' n ppl ng he ne a t s td ae ots 2d 4t r 1 ) 991. a . Pr e tng you Hea t and Sa e v and The J ihous La ver sH a ot c i r 1h ft a l e w ' ndbook Pl i iff ist s a ntf a l o how t tadef nda ' c ha e nt s onduc i vol ng Pr e i yo H e t a t n vi ot ctnc ur alh nd Sa e v a The J ihous La v r sH a f t nd al e w e ' ndbook vi a e t Fis A m e ol t d he r t ndm e ,a de e nt a e nt nd f nda s r e il d t qua ii d i m uniy f om da a i t ri vi ua c pa ii s 1 R obi o ntte o lfe m t r m ges n hei ndi d l a c te . ns n 1Pl ntf nam e G a ma and Br o a de enda sbas on t rLe Ia Le 1 greva r pons s ai if s r n axt n s f nt ed hei vel nd vel 1 i nce es e , r pe tvey,a es ci l boutt t books An a i sr orsafe-he-ac denilofagre e i no as fcintbasst he wo . dm nitat ' trt f t a ivanc s t ufi e i o e tbls t tadm i sr t ' i ve e i t a t alde i tonofac tt i rght Se Boge v.J ns sa ih ha nitaors nvol m nt n he c u prvai onsiutonal i . e r oh on, No. :0c - 1 4, 0U. DitLEXI 1 2 7 , t* 6 2 0WL 51 4 6 , t* ( . Va De . 5 2 0 7 1 -v00 9 201 S. s. S 3 6 9 a 2 , 01 7 3 4 a 8 W D. . c 1 , 01 ) ( ingBr o sv Be r ,1 7 F. p' 9 3, 2 ( r Ci. 0 6 )(id n t a alg to st a p io o fcasa d ct i o k . a d 6 Ap x 2 9 5 3 d r 2 0 ) fn i g h t le a in h t rs n fi il n a i sr t sr po d i dm nitaor es nde nappr itl t i ae' ltrfldgreva esdo no esa iht i ve e oft e opraey o nm t s ae-ie i nc t tbls he nvol m nt hos o fcasa da miitao si t ea lg du d ryngd p ia in , f', 38F. ' l 7 ( t Ci. 01 ) fii l n d n srt r n h l e n e l i e rv to ) a fd 4 e App x 6 4 h r 2 1 . Furhe mor ,neihe G a m a norBr xt a hor t c le d polc and a def nda ca otbe hel la e i a t r e t r r n a on ut ed he ha l nge i ys e nt mz d ibl n j 1 a tonf as di t sa toromiso unde at yofr po ts i .Se M onelv. p' ofSoc. 983 ci or ubor na e' c s in r heor es ndea uperor e l De t e t bls s a va i r tona c s a i he ld, a i l onnec i n f t Augus 2007 OP 803. r qui e e tt tpl i if t o or he t 2 e r m n ha a ntf nee d t f l a Pe s de o ie r onalPr ry Req s f nu f rpr a o t r c ve Pr e tng vour ope t ue t o o e ppr val o e ei ot c i He t a Sa e v a The J ihous La ye ' H a alh nd f t nd a l e w r s ndbook,a Robi on des r be t i pa ta nd ns c i s he m c c pl t r m o loft Pe s lPr ry Req tf r r uie e w oul ha on VD O C om e e e va he r ona ope t ues o m eq r m nt d ve o rtons Se J v. C.Prs r 'Labo Uni l ,433U. 11 1 ( 9 ) pe ai . e ones N. ione s r ons nc. S. 9, 28 1 77 (e nii co t s dgi duedeee et c rci lpr e so l'deemi tonsof rcog zng urs houl ve frnc o ore tona ofsinas tr nai p noo ia o j ci s.Th p e p o l oiye h n e i ttto a s c rt b r d cn te e l gc l b e tve) e r a prva p lc n a c d nsi in l e u iy y e u ig h u a o ofsa fa tme ne d t ha e,s r e a dipos i omi m ai.Pr a ova vi a m unt t f nd i e o ndl c e n, nd s e nc ng l e ppr l a Pe s na Pr pe t Reque tf m e ur t ti a esdi noto de publca i t tw oul r o l o ry s or ns ed ha nm t d r r i tons ha d cl a l c tt e di a o d m a e i ,whi h woul c e t a tona a i sr tve bur ns e ry ons iut s ppr ve t ral c d r a e ddii l dm ni ta i de . AsRobi on de c i s pe mitng t ale na i ofnotr quii a i a et tl aPe s l ns s rbe , r ti he t r tve e rng n nm t o ie r ona Pr pe t Re o ry ques f r f publc tonsf usr t sve t o m or i a i r ta e ndor a V D OC saf be a e ofi a es s nd t f c us nm t ' i biiy ort ilng s t pa f m a e i l pr ort r c i ,out i r 'a t pt t s uggl na lt mw li ne s o y or t r a s i o e e pt sde s tem s o m e c r ba a t i tt i lbur nst pr es u e c e a dialowe booksfo onta nd, nd he ns iutona de o oc s npr dit d nd s l d rm unknown m ai ordervendors. l Pl i ifc d ha obt i d t s booksby c pl tng t sm pl one- ge Pe s nal a ntf oul ve a ne he e om e i he i e, pa ro Pr pe t Re o ry ques f r orby ha ng a a ntr t i ve t m .8 Pl ntf f ie t s i a Pe s nal t om vi n ge e re he ai i f a l d o ubm t ro Pr ry Re ope t ques f r f t s boo ,a he doesnotes a i h t the w ilbe d ni d t o m or he e ks nd t bls ha l e e pos es i oft e books i he fl s a Pe s s son hes f ie r onalPr ry Reque tf ope t s onn. Se M a e v. a t r e hl r Sl te v, 489F.Su 798,800( D. .1 (ndi tngnoFis Ame pp. E. Va 980) i cai rt ndme vi ainwhee nt olto r S r s, 3 U.. 5 , 6 n. ( 9 8 . ev .4 6 S 6 8 6 3 7 1 7 ) 8On Nove be l,20ll t V DOC aganr viedOP 80 2t alow i aest r cevebooksfom am alor er m r he i e s 3. o l nm t o e i r i d s ur ea pai by fi and fm iy wihou prora ovali t i aecomplt aPe s Pr ry Re es o c nd d rends a l t t i ppr f he nm t ees ronal ope t qu t f r a trab o arv sa af cl y.( v. 0l OP 8 32( o 482)a 2 3) Th s t er v so sil e ur sa o m fe o k rie t a ii No 2 1 t 0 . n . - t - . u , h e ii n tl r q ie n i aet fl aPes nm t o ie ronalPr ry Re tf m t r ceveabo ope t ques or o e i ok. i omi lte sweedeni t a i t be a et i t rf e t fl o aconsntf m) nc ng etr r ed o n nmae c us he nmae eus d o il ut e or . 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See e. ,W olfv.M c o m e l 418 U . ie n e nal i on m ni ta i e urt , g. f D l l, S. 539( 974) Bunz v.Swe on, F. 771( t Ci.1 ) 1 ; s ns 430 2d 8h r 970 .TheContac i notaC iai ' r ts l c ton' publ a de i d by OP 8 2, nd pl i tf f ist i ntf orc le a V D O C polc r ul tng s f ne 03. a a n if a l o de iy ha l nge i y eg a i i omi mai fom t publc,lket Contac.Se Ha e, F. a 1 ( i t ta nc ng l' he i i he r t e us 993 2d t 082 notng ha r pli ifbez t uli t bur nofe t ls ngt taprs nr ai i unco tt i l. antf as he tmae de sabihi ha io egulton s nsiutona) M ovi ne t c i r d e nt 'a t t de i pl ntf oft Cont a t t c t ng xt o ons de ef nda s c s o prve ai i f he r c , he our f ndst tpl i iff l t e t bls t ta de e n vi a e t Fi s A m e i ha a ntf ais o s a ih ha ny f nda t ol t d he r t ndm e by del yi nt a ng t Conta t sdelve y. Pl i t f doesnotha a Fi s A m e he rc' i r a n if ve r t ndm e r ghtt obt i g r m e t nt i o a n ove n n r co ds Se St vesv.V on Es he e r . e ee c nbac N o.3: - vh, 07 c 00011 2007 U . D i t LEX I 93079,*7, S. s . S 8, 2007W L 4553709,*3( . Va. c.1 2 ( o J.(t-lheei noco tt i l W D. De 9, 007) M on, ) ûl r s f nsiutona rg ,a s ctc l noFis Ame iht nd pe ii aly rt ndme rg ofac es t govenme tr or .qAst nt iht c s o r n ec dsg he SuprmeCour ha e ane CtheConsiutonisl i net raFr dom o l or tonAc e t s xpli d, (l tt i tef s ihe ee f nf mai t nora OfiilSe r t Ac.')( tngHouc nsv. n fca c es t'' quoi hi KOED.l , U. 1 1 ( 978)( ge , nc.438 S. , 4 1 Bur r C..pl aiyl. J, urlt ) 9Fore m pl ,J beexpl ned i an ans rt pl ntf ' i e r t y,whih pl i iffl d i s rtofhi xa e a ai n we o ai ifs nt r oga or c a ntf ie n uppo s o p sto t d fnd ns sp e na moinfrs mmayj d me tta a imaecnakteLirra o te p o i n o ee a t' u plme tl to o u r u g n h t n n t a s h b ain fh i De r me ofCo r tona Ed ton t make abook a l bl t hi t r pa t nt r ec i l uca i o vaia e o m h ough t VD OC' i a e lbr res he S nm t i a i . 12 De e n si e c pt d pli ifsi omi ma lofaco r c i vi t VDOC, f nda t nt r e e antf nc ng i nta t nvol ng he whi h pl i ifdoesnotha a Fi s A m e m e rghtt pos e . Pr s n of i a sundoub e y c a ntf ve r t nd nt i o s s i o fci l t dl ha t rgh t s r n m ale e i ac r c i lf clt t pr ve t i r to ofie s ve he i t o c ee i ntrng ore tona a iiy o e nt he ntoduc in t m t tunder i s urt g ha m ne ec iy, ood or r di c plne orr ha lt ton. Se e c. Thor gh v. de , s i i , e biia i e. . , nbur Abbot, U. 401 41 ( 989) I i notdifc tt und rtndt i iai t t odel t490 S. , 5 1 . t s fiul o e sa he mplc tons o he r ry a i sr to ofpr s i i a e a e g ve c pl t ac e st t V D O C' co r c s i a e dm nit a i n i ons f nm t s r i n om e e c s o he S nt a t : nm t s w oul t a f m t m s vesi o a t r t s l s t m i i oft V D OC ' c t a t l d r ns or he el nt udio s o upewi e he nuta he S on r c ua o i tonsa w oul a s r t rpe c ve r g sast r pa t be i i r e f r a de a i blga i nd d s e t hei r ei d i ht hid- r y nefc a i s o ny vi ton fo ac r t loblgai Se Lewi v. s y, 8U. 343( 996)(e nii i tsdo r m ontacua i ton. e s Ca e 51 S. 1 rcog zng nmae no ha aFis Ame t ve rt ndme rghtt ta f m t ms ve it ltgain e nes; nbt nt i o rnsor he el s no ii to ngi l Thor uxh, 490U. a 409(e og zngt tmali oaprs c nr a o ybee ce t crult S. t rc nii ha i nt ion a e s nabl xpe td o ic ae amongi tswiht potnilf c di tddir i co uc) nmae t he e ta or oor nae suptve nd t. Robi on a r t ti a e a e ge r ly no pe m it t ac e s VD O C c r c s but ns ve s ha nm t s r ne a l t r ted o c s onta t , he c l s t tt Con r d di notpr s nta s c iy r s a s d no ha be n onc ude ha he ta d ee e urt i k nd houl t ve e di a ove Thus Robi o a know l dgest ts m e c t a t m a i plc t s c iy r s s ppr d. , ns n c e ha o on r c s y m i a e e urt iks alhough Sw i he and Br xt m a ha i or e ty w ihhe d t Contac f o pl i tf f t s r a on y ve nc r c l t l he r t r m a n if or ei e n m on hs Ho ve ,no c e ry esa ihe f de allw r cogniest tpli ifi ghte t . we r l a l t bls d e r a e z ha antf s gua a e d r e ptorpos e s o ofa s a e c r c i nala nc scon r c s whie i a ce a e i r nt e ec i s sin t t or e to ge y' ta t l nc r r t d n is f iii , t ,a def nda t s de ay ofpl i i fr e vi t Co r c i a r ul ofa ç d t ac ltes and hus e n' l a ntf ec i ng he nt a t s es t i ba gues i agry ae ' Se VA. s n a ra. e CODEj2. 3703( (ttngt tt VFOI s dno be ' 2C) sai ha he A houl t c nsr e t gv imae aVF A rg t; o s a v Ha e 5 U. 1 4 1 8( 0 4 (e o tu d o ie n ts OI i hl Br se u . uc n, 43 S. 9 , 9 2 0 ) p r c i ( tngt tquaiidi urnm) noi ha lfe mmuniythil a ofie fom s twhe s make ade ii t s eds n fc r r ui n he s s cson t t e ni co tt i l de iintras bl mia e ndst lw ( t f tlgoveni ha, ve f nsiutonaly fce , e ona y sppr he he a or he acs r ng t cr tnce s c r ed.) M a irel v.Sumne,973F. 295,298( hCi.1 ) he icumsa s he onfont '; cailo ' r 2d 4t r 992 (û fcal aenotla ef badgue s i gryaea ;t yaelabl f ta grs i b i t t ii s r of ibl or ses n a r s he r i e or rns e sng rgh lnes.,)1 i ,.0 Pl i i fdo no a l ge t ta de e ntpr ve t d hi f om c m uni tng wih t a ntf es t le ha f nda e ne m r om ca i t he pu i heuli ael r ceved t Conta tdtrngt sltg ton, hef ist i n iy a blc, tm t y e i he r c zi hi iia i and a l o de tf ny p eu iefo ted ly On icd n o d lyi d l rn panif smal r m afe rj dc r m h ea . e n i e t f ea n ei ig lit hi i fo r e ve f pe s doesnotco tt e a deni lofa c tt i lr g ,a i ol t d i i s ofm a l r on ns iut a ons iutona i ht nd s a e nc dent i mi shandlng do notri t t l ofa consiutonalvi aton. See D avi v.G oor 320 F. i se o he evel tt i ol i s d, 3d 3 351( Ci. 03) Bui v. one ,71 F. 925,926( h Ci.1 3) Pe ronv. mms 46, 2d r 20 ; e J s 7 2d 4t r 98 ; a s Si , 3 F.Supp. 515,51920( M d.2003 , f d,88F. p' 639( hCi.200 ( czim) 45 2d - D. ) af Ap x 4t r 4) per trn ( unpubls d) Se as Pi v.Letr 52F.d73,75- (t Ci.1 )(e ogni ngne ien ihe . e lo nk se, 3 76 4h r 995 r c zi glg t actonst i rnge on an i at sFi tA m endm entrght do nots at any cons iutonaly i hat nf i nm e' rs i s t e tt i l sgniia cam) Pl ntf fist esa iha dee ntsmaii i e t ke ppli if i fc nt li . ai if al o tbls ny fnda ' lcous ntnt o e antf fo c mmu iai gwiht p bi, n hsmeec n l so o aû r xmae'n u ya da r m o nc tn t he u l a d i r o cu ins f t o i t'ij r n c p def nd t s t d f t 'i kee ng t Co r c f om hi f e ght e m o hs a e i uf i e t e an ' d aih' n pi he nt a t r ba m or i e n nt r ns fci nt o af drle .Se As r tv.lba,55 U. 662,678- ( 9)(ec ni ngt tlbesand for eif e hcof q l 6 S. 79 200 r og zi ha a l c ncusonsaenote il t a asumpto oftuh) Ac or ngl defnda sa ee ildt o li r ntted o n s in r t . c di y, e nt r ntte o qualted i m uniy f pl i if s Cont a tcl i . ii m t or a ntf rc am 1 Ev n i p ai ifdi haverght unde V FOI ,hes rght woul notbea tona evi 42U .S. j 1 8 b c u e 0 e f l ntf d i s r A t ei s d ci bl a C. 9 3 e a s t y d nota i f om f der l The Supr me Cour ofV igi ahasnotadd es ed t quesi ofwhe hera he o rse r e al aw. e t r ni r s he ton t n i em a us a i e m e a y t ob an VFOI doc e si r c l a be us t l w i nots tl d o t s nmat y e n nt r di r o t i A um nt ndie ty, nd ca e he a s e te n hi poi t none oft def nt coul ha vi a e a clary esa i he l t t ex e t tt e uton or n, he enda s d ve ol t d e l t bls d aw o he t nt ha he xec i i e pr ato ofVFO I i plc t sa f de a rght nt r et i n A m ia e e r l i . D e e nt a e i m une f om da ac i t i ofi i c pa ii s f nda s r m r m es n he r t c al a c t e . Pl ntf a s r ques suns c te dn a s a i tdef nda si t i ofi i lc pac te . ai i f l o e t pe ii d m ge ga ns e nt n he r tc a a ii s The El event A m endm entbar s t i f alcourt f m oney dam agesagai tan h s uis n eder s or ns d ons ni Stt ' Edel nv.J da 41 U. 651 663( 97 .Thi i d unc e tng ae. ' ma or n, 5 S. , 1 4) s mmuniye e t t xtnds o t r s oft St t ,' nc udi s a e a nci s a s a e of i e s a tng i t i of i i lc pa iy. tm a he a e ' i l ng t t ge e nd t t f c r c i n he r fc a a c t M tHe lhvCiy Sc Dit Bd.ofEduc. Dovl,429U. 274,280( 977) Grvv. ws 51 . at t h. s. v. e S. 1 ; a La , F. 426,430( hCi.1995) Vigni hasno wave iss r gni 3d 4t r . ri a t i d t oveei mmuniyt j1 t o 983 da a s a tons The ef e t El nt A m e e ba sda a aga ns de e nt i t r m ge c i . r or , he eve h ndm nt r m ges i t f nda s n hei o fca c p cte .W il M ih. pto S aePoie 4 U. 5 , ( 9 9 . fiil a a i s lv. c De ' f tt l , 91 S. 8 71 1 8 ) i c B. EQUI TABLE AND D ECLARATORY RELI ARENOT A PPROPRI REMEDI EF ATE ES. Pl i ifha ale y r ei d The J l eLa ye ' H a a ntf s r ad ec ve aihous w r s ndbook a t Co r c ,and nd he nt a t eq t bl r i t r e ve t m i now m oo . The A ug t2007 O P 803. i no l re f tve, uia e elef o ec i he s t us 2 s onge f ec i a a ne O P 803. e f ctve M a c 1 2011 alow spl ntf t r c ve publca i f om nd w 2, f e i rh , , l ai i f o e ei i tons r Prs Le lN e s whi h publs s Pr e tnc Y ourH ea t a Saf t t Ce e f i on ga w , c i he ot c i 1h nd e y; he nt r or Cons iutonalRi s whi h publs s The J iho e La ve ' H a tt i ght , c i he a l us w r s ndbook;and t N a i l he tona Lawye sG uid w ihou prora ova i t i a e fl sa Pe s r l t t i ppr l f he nm t ie r onalPr pe t Req s f a tr o ry ue t onn fe t pu i to a ve a afciiy.( .sFis Res e( 34)Ex.C;Robi onAf. 1 ) he blcain ni s t a lt Pl' rt pons no. ns f ! 2. Thus e n i pl i ifhad no f ie t esa i h a c tt i , ve f a ntf t a l d o t bls ons iutonalvi a i n, he c tfndst t ol t o t our i ha e t bl r i f i no ne s r a de a a o y r le i nota o i t Se Pub. f a r quia e ele s t ces a y nd cl r t r e i f s ppr pra e. e A f is Aso its I c v. c v r 3 9U. 1 1 1 2( 9 2 (oi gt a ad ca ao yj d me ti a s cae s n . Riko e, 6 S. 1 , 1 1 6 ) n tn h t e lr tr u g n s matrofj ci dicei . te udi al s rton) 111. Fort f e ngr a ons t c tga sdefnda s'motonsfrs he orgoi e s ,he our rnt e nt i o ummayj r udgme , nt d ne p an ifsmoin f rs mmayj d me t a dd ne a mo tpanifsmoint r sid e is litf to o u r u g n, n e is s o li tf to o e cn t pr e tve or r he ot c i de . The Cl r i die t t s nd c e oft sM e or ndum Opi on a t a om pa ng e k s r c ed o e opi s hi m a ni nd he cc nyi Or e t pl i tf and c d r o a n if ouns lofr c d f r de e nt . e e or o f nda s EN TER : s& Thi F y . d yo J l, 2. a f uy 201 ' 1 6 rU nie St t D i 'tJ e t d a es s c udg