Lorenz v. Fed Ex Express, No. 7:2010cv00487 - Document 51 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 8/17/12. (sas)
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w pprsOF I t. DIT COUA FCE l S . S. ATROANOKE, A V FIED L I THE UNI S N TED TATESDI TRI COURT S CT FO R TH E W ESTE RN D I STR I T O F V I G I I C R N A ROANOKE DI SI VI ON MA YC RSIEL R N R H ITN O E Z ABC 17 2 1 02 x m ct uD CL RK k E B;$ c R Y x C i lA ct on N o.7: cvvi i 10- 00487 , Pl ntf ai if, M EM O R AN DU M O PIN I N O FEDER AL EX PR ESS C OR P. , By: H on.Jam es C.T urk Seni U ni ed StatesD i t ctJudge or t s ri D ef endant . Thi c s i beor t Co to Def ntsM otonf rSlmmayJ s a e s f e he ur n enda ' i o l r udgme .( . nt DktNo. 40) Pli ifM a yChrsi Lo e (Tli if'ofçlornz',fl aRes ei Opposton, . antf, r itne r nz ' antf ûv e ') ied pons n ii ( . 46) a Dee ntrple ( t No. ) Orla g ntwashel onJ y25, 2, DktNo. , nd fnda e id,Dk . 48 . a r ume d ul 201 a t m a t r i now rpe f di pos to nd he te s i or s ii n.Fort r as s tf t bel ,Def nda ' M o i he e ons e orh ow e nt s ton f SummayJ or r udgme ,( . 40)i GRANTED. nt DktNo. ,s 1. Fact and ProceduralBaekground ual Plitf sc anta s rsf Til Vl cams ()hosiewor e r nta a anif ompli s e t our te l li : 1 tl k nvionme s rs tofsxdic i nai ( s xdici nai ( rtlai a ( wr ultr nai e ul e srmi ton; 2) e srmi ton; 3) eaiton; nd 4) ongf emi ton. ( t No. a 1 .Consr i t lgh mos fvorbl t Lornzt fcsaeasf l . Dk . 26 t 2) tued n he i t t a a e o e he a t r olows A . Pl ntff sT erm i i ai i ' naton Pl i ifw a e pl ye by Fe a ntf s m o d dEx asa c i rba ed ou ofFe our e s t dEx' Roa s noke,Vi g ni ri a fclt Sheta fre t t Roa fclt i Aprl2005.( . 46a 1.Bewe nJ y a iiy. rnserd o he noke a iiy n i DktNo. t ) t e ul 2000 a Apr l2005 s w a e pl d asa c i r a Fe nd i he s m oye oure t dEx' W a e t w n,Com l c i tf c lt s t ro e tcu a iiy. ( . 26a !5) W hiet r s wor dwihouta sgniia dicplneis .( . DktNo. t . l hee he ke t ny i fc nt s i i sues DktNo. 46a 1 .Pli ifwa tr natd o Aug t2, 1 a trrc vi t e dici i r ltesi a t ) antf s emi e n us 20 0, fe e ei ng hr e s plnay etr n 1 t vemont pe i 1( . .41 1a 1 .Pli ifrc i daPef ma eRe nd ri wel h rod. DktNo - t ) antf e eve ror nc mi e n J nuay201 ( . 415) aPef nceRe nde i J y201 ( . 416) a a a r 0, DktNo. - , ronna mi r n ul 0,DktNo. - , nd W ani Letri Augus 201 ( . 41 1.Fe t ntr nae Lornzi ac or nc r ng te n t 0, DktNo. - ) dEx he emi td e n c da e w ih Fe t dEx' A c e a e Conduc Polc 2- a Pe f r a e l pr m e Polc 2- whi h s c pt bl t i y 5 nd r o m nc m ove nt i y 50, c ea hsaet tt e s dicplnaylter wilno lyr ul i tr nai ( . . c tt ha hre uch s i i r et s l nual es t n emi ton. DktNos 412, 413) Pli ifwasawar t tr eptoft e dicplnaylte snonnal rs t i - . antf e ha ec i hre si i r etr ly e uled n e m na i tr nai ( tNo.417a 66: 1 . Si ehertr i ton, Lornz' r e ha bee emi ton. Dk. - t 8- 2)2 nc e s outs ve n co e bya he fmal co ir whoi pef mi s e suly.( . 41a !95) verd not r e e ure, s ror ng ucc s f l DktNo. t . B. FedEx' Polci s i es Em pl s a Fe oyee t dEx m a a pe ldi c plna y a to t y be i ve a e unf i by utlz ng a y p a s i i r c i ns he le r ar ii i gre nc pr du eknowna t SGuaa e FarTrame '(; ' pr es .TheGFT iva e oce r s he d rnted i e t nt' t GFT' oc s ) pr e sco it oft e seps The fr ts e i r vi w oft diput d di ci i r a ton by t oc s ns s s hr e t . is t p s e e he s e s plna y c i he Mana ngDie t i t e oye sditit ( . 41 1 .Pli ifnotst tOpeai gi rcor n he mpl e' src. DktNo. - 0) antf e ha rtons M a ge Ow e a Hum a Re our esRe es nt tve W is wer a s pr en a t r vi w na r ns nd n s c pr e a i l on e l o es t t he e e byt M a gi Die t .( . 46- a 11 ) Thesco sepi ve rvi byt he na ng r cor DktNo. 2 t 5 . e nd t nvol s e ew he Regi lVi Pr sde .( . 411 .Thet r se i vesr e bya a asboad, ona ce ei nt DktNo. -0) hid tp nvol eviw n ppe l r c pr s d ofFe om i e dEx exe utves w hi h i c c i , c s onve atFedEx Hea ned dqua t r i M e phi , re s n m s Te see (#.. nne s . J ) Fe polce pr bi s xua har s ntr aiton,a s xdic i nai ( . . dEx iis ohi t e l asme ,etlai nd e srmi ton. DktNos 41 1 ;411 ; 1 1 ;41 1 ) we r Pli ifdiputst tFe e orest s polcis - 3 -4 4 - 5 - 6 .Ho ve, antf s e ha dEx nf c he e i e . 1D ic plna y lte si udebot W ar ng Le tr a Peror nce Rem i r . s i i r e tr ncl h ni te s nd f ma nde s 2Thi co o medt FedEx' t ca pr c i . Ther co d r te t o y o i t nce whe e a e pl yee r ce ve s nf r o s ypi l a tce e r el c s nl ne ns a r n m o e i d t eedicplnar l tr a wasnottr i t Tha e oyee' crum sa sw e efct l ditnc fom t e hr s i i y etes nd e m naed. t mpl s ic tnce r a ualy si t r hos o Lo e za dt ed c so wa ma eb aM a a i gDie t rn tiv v d i t ep e e t a e ( t No 41a ! f r n n h e iin s d y n g n r co o n ole n h r s n c s . Dk . . t 9) 4. 2 ( . 46a ! 1 .Fe a srst ti prvi se oye tai ngont s polcesa DktNo. t 2) dEx se t ha t o de mpl es r ni he e ii nd t Opera i M anager Ow ens,Oper i M anagerThur on,and Seni M anagerK endrck hat t ons atons st or i ha alrceve tani ont epolcis ( . 41a !1 .Pli if howe r c e t t d 1 e i d r i ng hes i e . DktNo. t 3) antf, ve , ontss he a ua y oft s tai ng bec us Sc i r i t Ro ke s a i n r c i d onl o s xua deq c hi r ni a e t oure s n he ano t to e e ve y ne e l ha as m e awa e s c as ,w hi h w a c r s nt r ne s l s c s onduc ed i 2005, a i a gem e r e ve onl one t n ' nd i na ' m nt ec i d y s xua haasmen a r s tani cas i J nuay200 ' ( . 46a ! 1 ) e l r s t waene s r i ng l s n a r 6. DktNo. t 3 . 7 A ddii ly,Fe tona l dEx e pl yee a e pr de wih a l e na EEO pr e e t ta l s m o s r ovi d t n nt r l oc dur ha low e pl ee t r por ,a m ana m e t i ve tga e c ai sofunl w f t e t e ,i l ng m oy s o e t nd ge nt o n s i t , l m a ul r a m nt nc udi haa s ntrtlai a dic i nain.(d..I t c eofTil V1 camss te rsme ,eaiton, nd srmi to I ) n he as te l li ubmitd t oug t l em a EEO pr e e,t Lega D e rm e diec st M a gi D iec or s hr h he nt l oc dur he l pa t nt r t he na ng r t ' o fc ,nc nu cinwi Hu nRe o r e ,oc n u t f r ln siain.Th fie i o j n to t ma s uc s t o d c a o ma ivetg to h e i s i ton r s t i t c e ton ofa l s i tve Re r . The co pl ntf m sa nve tga i e uls n he r a i n nve tga i po t m ai or nd I tga i Re t e confde i la onl s r d w ih t c pl i ng em pl ' m ana r nves i tve por ar i nta nd y ha e t he om a ni oyee s ge s i t f m ofdieci s i nec sar ( . . - a 115: 1 11 1 . - a 90:- 1 1 5n he or r tve ,f e s y. DktNos 414 t 2 - 6:3, 8 t 82 , 08: 41 Pl i i fdo notdiput t tt l e na EEO a ntf es s e ha he nt r l pr ed le o r t s a de c i oc tr pe a e s s rbed;s onl di put t ti r ulsi a f la a qua e he y s es ha t es t n ul nd de t i si tonofcai .( . 46a ! 9,1 1 ) I pa tc a,Pli ifase t t tno al nvetgai l ms DktNo. t ! 0, 7 . n riulr antf srs ha t l w ines e t i de sar i e vi we by m a ge e ;r t rm a t s s o nci nt e nt r e d na m nt a he nage entonl i e vi w st e m y nt r e hos winese t twilgi a wesfvorbl t ma ge nt Dk. 46a ! 1 . t s s ha l ve ns r a a e o na me .( tNo. t 7) Bo h t G FT a l e nalEEO pr e esa e publc ze t a lem pl s i t t he nd nt r oc dur r ii d o 1 oyee n he Em pl ye H a o e ndbook,Em pl e Polc M a l a pl que hung i e pl e b e k a ea a oye i y nua , nd a s n m oye r a r s t FedExfclte ,i udi t Roa a iiis ncl ng he nokes r ni fclt ( tNo.41a ! 11. Vigi a a iiy. Dk . t ) 3 C . Pl ntf s Chai ofC om m and ai i f' n W hieemplyedbyFedExLor r pore t Opeai M a rOwe .( . 41 l o enz e td o rtons nage ns DktNo. a !4 .Opeai M a ge Owe a M a e Th sonrnt da t da opeai a t t ) rtons na r n nd nag r urt a he y-o- y rtons the Roa fclt (# M a r Owe a Thurt r pore t Se orM a ge Ke n noke a iiy. JD. nges ns nd son e td o ni na r vi Ke rc (d.. Se orM a rKe iki rs nsbl f o rtonsa t e sai i ndik. l ) ni nage ndrc s e po i e or peai thr e ttons n w eser V i g ni and s e ds hi tm e be w e n t f c lte , s tng Ro t n ri a pr a si t e he a iii s vi ii anoke be w e n onc a t e e we ka do eamo t ( tNo . a !4; a !4 .Se irM a a e Ke d ikrpo t t e n nc nh. Dk . s 41 t 46 t ) no n g r n rc e rs o M a ng Di e t Ro r Cent r w ho i ba e i Ri hm ond a i r s nagi r c or be t e, s sd n c nd s e ponsbl f t entr i e or he ie ditit ( . 41a !4) src. DktNo. t . D . Pl ntf Perf ance R ecord ai irs orm O n J nua y 28,201 Lor z wasi s d a Pe f r a e Re i ra Dec s on D a by a r 0, en s ue r o m nc m nde nd ii y Ma nage Thur t s a i t tLor nz ha f ie t us Co i rBes Pr c i e i t o i t nc s r s on t tng ha e d a l d o e ur e t a t c s n w nsa e eale t tmont ( . 26a !42) Lornz' fiur t f lw Coure Be tPrcies rir ha h. DktNo. t . e s al e o olo ir s a tc r ule i Lor nzfii t e natemptt dei rfvepac es ( . 41 5a 1.The es td n e alng o ve t o lve i kag . DktNo. - t ) di ci i y l t al m entons s alot i t s plnar eter so i ever her ns ances wher Lor f l t us Cour erBes e enz aied o e i t Prciesi 2009.(d..Rahert nf lwi he De ii Da i tucinsandc ei a a tc n 1 ) t ha olo ng r cson y nsr to ompltng n aci n pl n,Lor nz us t De son Dayt wrt am e a to a e ed he cii o ie mor ndum , c s c e t W is n. whi h he opi d o lo The m e or nd i ude t s a e e : i f el ha t a m os da l unwant s xua m a um ncl d he t t m nt $ e t t he l t iy I ed e l haasme ,i i dai a vul rlngua i (ili bii mefom pe f mi i t r s nt ntmi ton nd ga a ge s sc nhi tng r ror ng n he pr ci ma refi e l ' ( . 26-) l rs e,Owe is Lornza esrbed nne fcinty.' DktNo. 3 . n epons ns sued e n i tgai s pe i frhe fiuet t ni a a tonpln.( . 26a !44) nvesi tve us nson o r alr o ur n n ci a DktNo. t . On M ay 24,2010,M anagerOw ens i ued Lor an I ss enz nvestgatve Sus i f i i pens on or alge y la nghertu kr l ngwhies dei rdapac ge.( . 26a !42) le dl e vi r c umi l he lvee ka DktNo. t . 4 Lornzdiputst ts lf t tuc pmni (d.. OnJ 1 201 Lornzr eve a e s e ha he e the r k ng. 1 ) une 5, 0, e ec i d D o m e ed Co elng and Per o m a e & Ate nc l te f om M a ge O w e be us cu nt uns i f r nc t nda e e t r r na r ns ca e s ha alge yfle outdoo tgsi ore tya ha i operytmedhe bra .( . he d le dl ild r a nc rcl nd d mpr l i r e ks DktNo. 2 a !5 ) Lo e zo j ce b c u es ebeiv doh rmaec u ir h dc mmitdsmi r 6 t 0 . rn b e td e a s h le e te l o res a o te i l a vi ainsa ha r eve nodici i r aci Dk. . a !50a 26- . olto nd d ec i d s plnay ton.( tNos 26 t nd 6) On J y 1 201 Owensga Lor nz aPe f m a eRe i ra Dec son Da f a ul 0, 0, ve e ror nc m nde nd ii y or pa t r ofpoorpe f m anc ( . 46a !56 . Spe iial onJ 30, 0, e ha te n r or e. DktNo. t ) cfc ly, une 201 Lornz d s obl n ton o he f m obl e t rylt pa kage .(d.. Thi pr em wasi addii t ot rperor ancepr em snotd hit ae c s l ) a andaMay6,2010a J 25,201 fiur t flow Coure Bes Pr cie .( . bove nd une 0, al e o ol ir t a tc s DktNo. 416a 1 .Lo e za ano j ce a di r s o s sn Owe salte d s rbigoh rmae - t ) r n g i b e td n n e p n e e t n etr e ci n te l c ir whoha c oures d ommit smia vi ai a ye ha rcevednodicplne.( t Nos 26 ted i lr oltons nd t d e i s i i Dk . . a j51a 26-) t nd 6 . On Augus 2, t 2010,Lor nz r c i d a W a ni Le t r f ralege y f s f ng com pa e e e ve r ng te o l dl al iyi ny doc nt i vi ai ofco nypolc ( . 26a !53 .OnJ y 1 201 Lornz ume s n olton mpa iy. DktNo. t ) ul 4, 0, e r c de a delve y a t m pta t G . l a i w he s w a no phys ca l o G . pr r y. e or d i r te t he E. oc ton n he s t i ly n E. ope t ( . 41 1a 1 .Latrt ts day,s rco d adei yatmpta 2: DktNo. - t ) e ha ame he e r ed lver te t 59pm butdi no d t sg i a t g r sai lcaedo sdet delveyaea uni 3: in n t he uad tton, o t uti he i r r , tl 05pm.(d..Lornz l) e e a ne i w rtng t Fe xpl i d n ii o dEx w hy s di no be i ve s ha f s te c pa d um e s he d t le he d al ii d om ny oc nt . ( . 26-) Ont s meda Fe t mi tdLornzbec us s hadr c i dt e DktNo. 7 . he a y, dEx er nae e a e he e eve hre ds il r lteswi i t lemo ts ( tNo. 6a !5 ) icpi y etr t n wev nh . Dk . 2 t 3 . na h 5 E. Pl nt f ' A le i ai if s l gatons 1 Ale to so xu l r sme . lga in fse a Ha a s nt Lo e alege t tOper to M a e O we , r tonsM a ge Thur t n,a r nz l s ha a i ns nag r ns Ope a i na r s o nd Se irM a a e Ke d iks be tdh rt ds iln r a to a dtr n t nb s do no n g r n rc u j ce e o icp iay ci n n emiai a e n o dici naor a r alaor a mus ( . 46a !5) Furhe,Lor nzcai t tc ran s rmi t y nd et it y ni . DktNo. t . t r e l ms ha eti c wokessxualyha a s he .( . 46a !7) Howe r Pl ntf a t t tnet rof o- r r e l r sed r DktNo. t . ve , ai if dmis ha ihe he die m a ge s M a ge sO w e and Thur t n- norSe orM a r r ct na r na r ns so ni nage K e i k e rs d r ndrc ve ai a hi t m a herbe i ve s w asbe ng t e t d dif r nty be a e ofhe ge rorbec us nyt ng o ke le he i r a e f e e l c us r nde a e ofhe algai o sxua harsme ,( . 46a !6) ort tt yeve pe s ly r le tons f e l a s nt DktNo. t , ha he r ronal s b e tdh rt a y sx l a a s n, Dk . 4 a !7 . u j ce e o n e ua h r sme t ( tNo. 6 t ) W ih r r t s c fc al gai nsag ns he c wo ke s Lor nzalege t ton t ega d o pe ii le to ai t r o- r r , e l s ha a o ma ey J y 21 2009, i m or ng s t c wor rGr g M c an dsood wih hi lgs ppr xi t l ul , durng ni or, o- ke e cl i tt t se a r a sr dhi ge tl whieLornzsooda r sfom hi ' ( . 26a !3 . pat nd toke s nias l e t cos r m. DktNo. t 0) ' M a rThurt wa alge ypr e tdurngt se ountr (d..Ar nage son s le dl es n i hi nc e. I ) ound J y 31, ul 2009, Lo e c am st tM c an s r nz l i ha cl i hove he S gans ac e ,a grnd hi fon sdei o d r s i t ount r nd i ed s r t i nt a Lor nz' bac i i t c irche koutr j tbeoet srtha fe me tng.'( . e s ksde n he oure c oom us fr he tec nd lx ei ' Dkt No. 6a !31.LiaCo i galg d ywin se t si cd n .(d..l S p e e 2 0 , 2 t ) s wln le e l t e sd hi n ie t 1 ) n e tmb r 0 9 Lornztldac an agans Fe i fdea dsrc co t ( . 26at!33 .She e ie omplit i t dEx n e rl itit ur. DktNo. ) ale s i or e he m a ge oft c pl i a t tw ihi da t ha a s e by he l ges he nf m d r na r he om a nt nd ha t n ys he r s m nt r co- kese c ltd.(d..Spectc ly,s camst tRihadEwes af l c ir ma wor r s aae l ) ii al he li ha c r r, olow oure , de fcilg t e mi c ngo a s xa he whiet yweei t br kr a a esur s miki r l e t r l he r n he ea oom.(d..Lornz I) e f t ral est tJ y Shedona Ti Ra e weeprs nt (d..A fw da ltr Lornz urhe leg ha a l nd m msy r e e . I ) e ys ae, e over head M ccl n and Ew er tl y yeli 'abouta doct per or i a pr t e exam wih ai s toudl lng' or f m ng os at t 6 hi mout (d .On Se e r1 2009,Lo e wr ealte t M a e Owe i or ng s h. L=) ptmbe 2, r nz ot etr o nag r ns nf mi hi oft s i i nt ofhaasme .( . 26a !3 .Subs que l Lor nzwa ake t m hee ncde s r s nt DktNo. t 4) e nty, e ss do s ta I er lEEO c ant whihs di ( . 26a !35) ubmi n nt na ompli , c he d. DktNo. t . I J nua y 20l a a sr t h a fe m ee i Lor nz ove he M c ai c pl i t t n a r 0, t t e c nd l x tng, e r ad cl n om a n ha tej b i n tfna y r .Fu te , e ak db GlnW is nh w t ewo ke vr n n h o s o u n mo e rh r wh n s e y e lo o h r n io me t was M c ai s a e t ti w a hos ie bec us d ou ha e m i s a a bunc ofs t hes , cl n t t d ha t s tl a et Y ve ne e nd h nic , s thes' ( t No.26a !39) m Ra e as co ntdt tmorl wa l bec us of nic .' Dk . t .Ti msy lo mme e ha ae s ow a e ma nage e ' ac om m oda i oft twhi ng c y bi t ta e ups ta m nt s c ton he û ni r ba es ha r e boute r hi ve yt ng, icudn s me o eo g su e' (d) OnJn a y21 2 0 Lo e zif r dSe irM a a e n l ig o j k r e t r . l .. a u r , 01 , r n n o me no n g r ' Kendrc oft ei i s ( . 26a !40) ik hes ncdent. Dkt No. t .Sheas noe t tM ccli ha p e ousy lo td ha an d r vi l s wihedhe bewee hi efa a t rmaec ir (4,.Lornzalge t ti rs ns and c r t n ms l nd nohe l oure . L ) e le s ha n epo e t t s c r Ke rc satdG r oft r s ni' ge haasment r nni rmpa t o he e oncens nd ik t e û t he ea o ts sxual r s l u ng a n, pa w e ha o m a ve ne nage r nni t s t. . 1m e Ree sr mzng ar r u ng he or . . an, d' u i ound lke hi ha r son tr i s i' i e. W e' t l d a utt sbef e . . Be aus he snota e t w a rt bel up a down lke ve a ke bo hi or . . c e ' bl o nde he t nd i wene hi t t sot rsuf s mst begetngoutofha ..wa outofha ..'(d.. ed m o,hi he t f ee o ti nd . y nd..' l ) On J nua y 27,201 Lor w r t t M a a r 0, enz o e o nage Ow e i o m i hi t ts i e d t r ns nf r ng m ha he nt nde o co i t doc nthe ha a s nta une te t nta dicplne.( . 26a ! ntnue o ume r r sme nd qualrame nd s i i DktNo. t 41. ) O n o abou M a 27,2010, r a l gest ta m a e c i m a c tc l orw ol r t y Lo enz le ha l ourer de a als f white die t a he ass wakedpas hi ( . 26a !49) ai ifwasuna et sls r ced t r he l t m. DktNo. t .Pl ntf bl o s ciialyi ntf whoma t c tc ls ( t No. a !54) Thi wast onl ne pe fc l de iy de he a al. Dk . 46 t . s he y w i t ns ance ofhar m entaf erher Sept ber2009 l t erand herOct ass t em et ober2009 I er EEO nt nal c ant (d.. ompli . 1 ) 7 2. I e nalEE 0 Compl nt and EE O C Compl nt nt r ai s ai s Ar oundOcober1 2009,Lornzs te asco l el lEEO c ai .( . t 4, e ubmitd e nd nt ma ompl nt DktNo. 26a !35)3 I t co ai Lor nzmadealgai t ts wa bei haase byc ir t . n he mpl nt e le tons ha he s ng r s d oures M c an,Shel Da e,a Sa l (d .S cfc ly,s compli ofDa e' cli don, pont nd mue. L=) pe iial he aned pont s miogynitctr a ns he ,Sa ue ' c s si iade gai t r m ls omm e t ts had k t l gs'Sa nt ha he t y e ,' muelsr pe td pur ' e ae a t m pt t hug he ,Sam uelsho s pl y wih o he m al co i s whie i di pa c a t f c te s o r ' r e a t t r e urer l n s t h, nd he a t t tSa lsl thi S d'cu i t tu k.(d..Afe s ti t sc antasLornz ha mue' ef s l ' ps n he r c I ) tr ubmitng hi ompli , voi e pased by s s ome f lo coure ss he r c re Ga y Rock y lt a herc i r û eca t el w ir he a d ou ir r el o not oure , s W n' s y (uc any e. ( . 26a !36) n, Ocobe 29, a s k' mor ' DktNo. t ' .The on t r 2009, po eus dt Fe Da nt e he dEx i ec s tm t amounc durngmor ngs td e M ccli gil Tesai onlne1 fr ntrom yse o l e, i ni or,s g Gr an sc, s s i 02 o you.'( . . a !37)4 Lornzalege t tbot M a e Thurt a M a e Owe ' DktNo 26 t . e l s ha h nag r son nd nag r ns wer i cl epr miyt Da nt whe hemad t a e n os oxi t o po e n e he nnounc me .(4,. e nt L ) On N o be 24, vem r 2009,Lor nz r ce ved a l te f om M a i Diec o Ce e s a i e e i et r r nag ng r t r nt r t tng he ltr EEO c ai hadû e t r hl ivesi t ' ( . 26- a 2) The r nenal ompl nt t n hooug y n tgaed. DktNo. 2 t . be ' i s i t o co l nve tga i n nc uded t tFed t d i n iy s e pr c i st tm a be i ons s e w ih ha Ex û de tf om di a tce ha y nc it nt t ourpolcis c t ea phios phy. (d..Spe fc l t tSamue lkel hugge t mae i e , ulur nd l o ' I ) ciialy ha ' li y d he l dipac randt se hi ni e ( . 4121a 7) Theot algai ofhaasme s the witd s ppl. DktNo. - t . her le tons r s nt wer no c r ae ( . 4121. e t orobortd. DktNo. - ) 3Pl i ifpr vi l fl d an l er EEO c pl i i M a c 2007. ( tNo 2 a ! 1) Lo e zalg dta a ntf e ousy ie nt nal om a nt n r h Dk. . 6 t( 5. rn l e h t e M ana rW hitd plc Lor nzon apad i tgai s pe i f e edi t vehour on s f a f ii ge te a ed e i nvesi tve us nson or xce ng wel s hit nd alng t tk po e be ks ( tNo. 6a ! l) OnMa l, 0 7 Loe zrc ie alt rfo Ma a igDi co o a e rp r ra . Dk. 2 t 5. y 7 2 0 , rn eev d et rm n gn r tr e e Ce trsai gh rcam h d E e t o o g l i v si ae . ( tNo 2 - a 2 . Th iv sia in c n ld d t t n e ttn e li a t n h r u h y n e tg td' Dk . . 6 1 t ) e n e t t o cu e ha be ' g o F d ç i ie tf s mep a t e t a ma b ic nsse t t o rp l is c lu ea p io o h ' (d) e Ex ç d d n i o r c i s h t y e n o itn wih u o i e , u tr nd h l s p y. I .. d y c c ' Subs que l Lornz tl acompl ntwih t EEOC ale ngdic i nai bas on he s x a a a e nty, e ied ai t he lgi s rmi ton ed r e nd ge nd r tlai n ( t No. 6 a !2 ) S ewa is e aRih t S elte o J n 1 , 0 9.( t No. 6 a !2 ) eaito . Dk . 2 t 7 . h s s u d g t o u etr n u e 9 2 0 Dk . 2 t 9 . 4Te aha p e ousyac us M ccl n ofs lharss e (d) ss d r vi l c ed ai exua a m nt 1 .. 8 . Lo e zfldas c ndEEOC c mpan o F buay4 201 .( tNo. 6a !4 ) Th rn i e eo o lit n e r r , 0 Dk . 2 t 4 . e c antalge dic i nai ont bassofsx, ,a as aleg rt iton.(d.. ompli le d srmi ton he i e age nd lo l ed ealai l ) Lornzrc ve aRi t Suelte onJ y29,201 (d.. e e ei d ght o etr ul 0. I ) Lornzfl at r l ena EEO c antonFe u r 1 201 ( . 26a !4 . e ied hid ntr l ompli br ay 5, 0. DktNo. t 4) l t tc ants alge ha a s n a rtlaton.(d..Thecompl ntr tr tdma of n ha ompli he le d r sme t nd eai i l ) ai eie ae ny Lornz' pro co ens ( t No.4129) M ac 1 201 Lornzr eve alte fom e s ir nc r . Dk . - .On rh , 0, e ec i d etr r M a gi Die t Ce e sai he cli ha i e t r hl i si t ' ( . 26na ng rcor ntr ttng r am d s n hooug y nve tgaed. DktNo. 5 be ' a 2) Thei si tondi notc r r t a camsa f undnovi ai ofFed Polc t . nve tgai d orobo ae ny li nd o oltons Ex iy vi ains ( . 41 30a 8) olto . DktNo. - t . Lornzalege s fl at r EEOC c an f l nghe tr nai ( . 26 e l s he ied hid omplit olowi r emi ton. DktNo. a !54) Thec antalgedsxua haasme ,slci dicplne, wrngul t . ompli le e l r s nt ee tve s i i and o f tr nai (d..Howe r t EEOC camsnott ha r c ve t sc ant ( . emi ton. 1 ) ve ,he li o ve e ei d hi ompli . DktNo. 26a !55 .Consque l Lornztlda he c ai i Fe a y2011 whihma t t ) e nty, e ie not r ompl ntn bnzr , c de he s mecli a t c an t wa ne rrceve (d..OnJ y29, 1, enzrceve a ams s he omplit hat s ve e i d. l ) ul 201 Lor e i d aRihtt SueLetr ( . 26- . g o te . DktNo. 8) F. Fed Ex' lnves i i s t gaton Folo i c m pa po i i s M ana ng D ie t r Ce e ,wih as i t e f o t H u a l w ng o ny lc e , gi r c o nt r t s s anc r m he m n Re o c D e r m e ,i tga e e h ofLor nz' c ai s A spa toft i ve tga i s ur es pa t nt nves i t d ac e s lm . r he n s i ton, Ce trviie t Roa ne std he nokef iiya itr i aclt nd ne vewedPlitf' mana r a co- ke s ( . anifs ges nd wor r. Dkt No.419at23: 27: .Thei si tverporsdeal whihi vi l wer i e ve da 9- 3) nve tgai e t tis c ndi duas e ntr iwe nd s c fc ly not t tc i rM c ai w a on m e c l a f 72 da ,durng t pe i i a l es ha oure cl n s di al e ve or ys i he i si tvepei a t una et r pondt Lornz' algai .( . 4121a 3) nvetgai rod, nd hus bl o es o e s le tons DktNo. - t . The i tgaton gener ed a det l sevennves i i at aied page r eport t concl on ofw hi w as t t , he usi ch hat he 9 mao i o Lo e z scamswe eu s b tnitd Dk . 4121.Ho ve, ne a d j rt f rn ' li y r n u sa t e .( tNo. - ) we r Ce tr n a Hum a Re o c s Re es nt tve W is di de e m i t tc i r Sa ue ha lke y hugge a n s ur e pr e a i l on d t r ne ha oure m l d i l d maedipac a t sedhi ni es asLornzha al d.(( a 7) Therpor die td l s ther nd wit s ppl , e d lege 1= t . J e t rce t tSa la t dipac rbec eedr r ngt i i p opraewor be vi .(d. t ha mue nd he s the ouns l egadi her na pr it k ha or l a 8) Addii ly,Se orM a erKendikwa die tdt e ur Lornza M c anweenot . tonal ni nag rc s r ce o ns e e nd cli r woki i cos pr miyon adal ba i.(d.. r ng n l e oxi t iy ss l ) H. St andard ofR evi w e St r j unmay udgmen i pr rwheett r i noge neis a t a mae ilf ta t s ope r khee s nui sue s o ny tra ac nd temo i gp ryi e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. Fe R. v. 5 () l h v n a t s n i d o u g n s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 a . n l ' c n ieigamoinf rs mmayj g n,t c u t srq ie t ve t ef csa dd a o sd rn to o u r ud me t'he o r i e ur d o iw h a t n rw t r a o bl i e e s i a lghtm os f vo a e t t nonm ovi pa t ' Sha v.St oud,1 e s na e nf r nce n i t a r bl o he ng r y.' w r 3 F. 791 798( hCi.( t i omitd) cetde ed,51 U. 81 ( 994) A ge neis 3d , 4t r) ciatons te , r, ni 3 S. 3 1 . nui sue ofm a e i f c e s sw he a r tona f tfnde , nsde i t e de i t s m a y t ral a t xi t n a i l ac i r co i r ng he vi nce n he um r j me r or c d fndi fvoroft no movi pat Ri iv. ea 557U. 557, udg nt ec d, oul i n a he n- ng ry. cc Destfno, S. 5 6( 0 9 .A moinf s mmayj g n s u dn tb g a td d ne stee tr rc r 8 20) to or u r ud me t ho l o e r ne d ls h nie e o d u s o arg tt j d me t t s c cai a t la en r o f rc nr v rya de tb ih s h ws i h o u g n wih u h lrt s o e v o o m o o to es n sa ls e y a fr a i l t tt a fi m tve y ha he dver e pa t ca tpr va lunde a c r um s a e ' Cam pbe lv. s ry nno e i r ny i c t nc s. ' l He t. lma , Aso s.n .21F.d5 , 5(t Ci.1 9 ) S mmayj g n s o db wi Coe n & s c .l c, 3 2 5 4 h r 9 4 . u r ud me t h ul e t e e e howe r i t co tfnds a tras r pul r viw oft r or t tno r a ona e nt r d, ve , f he ur i , fe c u ous e e he ec d, ha e s bl j yco drtu aveditf t non- ngpat Se Eva v. c .Applcains& Se' ur ul etm r c or he movi ry. e ns Te hs i to l v. Co.80F.d95 958( hCi.1 . , 3 4, 4t r 996) 10 Ho v r tg e uneis e o maeil a c n o b b s do me es e ulto o te we e ,t jn i s u s f tra f d a n t e a e n r p c ain r h g buidi ofonei e e eu a he . r c v.Ceot Cop.736F. 946,963( hCi. l ng nfr nc pon not r' wik 'Ba l ex , 2d 4t r 1 4) I e ihemeeexitnc ofas i il ofe de ei s 98 . nde d t t r se e cntla vi nc n uppor'f t nonmova ' t'or he nts p iinwil o d fa amo inf rs mmayj d me t d ro v Li e t Lo b ,nc, 7 osto ln t ee t to o u r u g n .An e s n . b ry b v l .4 7 U. 242, 2( 98 .Thus tc l or sae nt ofo ni aei ufi e t dee tg1 S. 25 1 6) ,doncus y ttme s pi on r ns tcint o fa a moi f s ton or ummayj me . r udg nt' 'Monkv. tr 7 F.Supp. 8 8 ( D. .201 Pote, 23 2d 60, 73 E. Va 0) ( tngEr nv. tdStts 591F.d31 31 4hCi. 0:.I t cone ofTil Vl cii wi Unie ae , 3 3, 9 t r 201 n he txt te I cl i s t Fo t Cic thase a ne t tbec us i uppored s c a i i i uf i i t . . a m , he urh r ui xpl i d ha a ek uns t pe ul ton s ns fc en . weg n r l c nsd rs l-e vngo no swih u o jciec nobo ai nn t infc nl e e al o i e efsr i piin to t be tv o r to o sg iia ty y pr tve' Eva ,80F. at962.Furhe mor t e de pr s nt d mus be a s i e oba i a' ns 3d t r e, he vi nce e e e t dmisbl e d n ea dt tee tn t tti n t d sil,ça p ryma o j c t themaeil ie t vie c n o h xe t ha i s o a misb e ' j a t y be tha t l tra ctd o s po tordipu ea f c c ml bepr s nt i af m t twoul be a s i e i e de e.' up r s t a t a ot e e ed n or ha d dmi sbl n vi nc ' Fe R.Ci P.56()2) d. v. c( . 11 A nal s 1. ysi Pli ifha c ede t tt r i nodie te de ofdici nao yc antf s onc d ha hee s rc vi nce s rmi tr onduc.( . t DktNo. 46a !6) I t a e ofs hdiec e de e, antf ss xdici nai rt iton,a t . n he bsnce uc r t vi nc pli if e srmi ton, ealai nd wr ngu tr n to camsaes b e t oteb r e -hit gs h meo M c n el u ls o f l emi ain li r u j c t h u d n s fi c e f Do n l Do g a n Cop.v.Gre 411U. 792( 973) e n, S. 1 . A . Sex D i m i i scri naton U nde t M c o l Doug a f a e or t pl ntf m us pr r he D nne l l s r m w k, he ai if t oduc e de e s fc e e vi nc ufi i nt t pe tt fc fnde t c l ( )t tpli ifi ame o nui he a t i r o oncude 1 ha antf s mberofapr e t cas;( t t otced l s 2) ha s s frd a a ree oy ntacin;( t ta t tmet e oye t t a s he ufee n dve s mpl me to 3) ha t he i he mpl r ook he dvere e pl ym entac i n pl i ifw a pe f m i a a l lt tm e he e pl r sl tm a e m o to a ntf s r or ng t eve ha t r m oye ' egii t e cains a ( t td hewa te tddifrntyt n smial st tde oye outi xpe tto ; nd 4) ha s s s rae fee l ha i lry iuae mpl es sde t prtce ca s' Br kmanv.Snow,21 F. p' 20l, ( h Ci.2007)(ppl ng he oe td ls . oc ' 7 Ap x. 206 4t r a yi Autvv. C.De t ofHuma Res,8 F. 1 1 ( hCi.1 7).l t pli if r N. p'. n . 20 2d 384, 385 4t r 98 ) f he antf d onsr t a pr m a f c e c e ofdi c i i ton,t bur n s f st t em pl yert pr s a em t a es i a i as s r m na i he de hi t o he o o e ent l tm a e,no di c i i t y r as f t a r e e pl m e a ton. M a y v.Sha a a egii t n- s rm na or e on or he dve s m oy nt c i cKe l l, 360F.d463, ( h Ci. 3 468 4t r 2004) On t e oye put f t algii t non. ce he mpl r s orh e tmae, dic i na or r a on,t bur n s fsba k t t pli ift s t pr fr d r as i a s rmi t y e s he de hit c o he antf o how he ofe e e on s pr t xtf di c i i ton. 1 a 468e e or s rm na i d. t 69. I t pr e c e,a t ug Pl ntf i a m e be ofa pr e t d c a s a he n he es nt as lho h ai i f s m r ot c e l s nd r t mi ton i a ad r ee pl er na i s n ve s m oyme a ton,Pli ifha f l t s nt c i antf s aied o how t fnalt r quie he i wo e r d e e e s Fis ,Pl i i fc nnots l m nt . r t a ntf n how s w aspe f m i s ts ac or l a t tm e ofher he r or ng a i f t iy t he i t m i ton. Dur ng t pr c di t e ve m ont Lo e r c ve t r e di c plna y l te s The er na i i he e e ng w l hs r nz e ei d h e s i i r e t r . fr tl te w a f f ii t a t m ptt de i rpa kag ,s c fc l bec us Pl i ifha f ied is e tr s or a lng o te o lve c es pe ii aly a e a ntf d a l t f l Cour e Be tPr c i eson J nua y 25 a J nua y 28,r uli i fve pa ka whe e o olow i r s a tc a r nd a r es tng n i c ges r Plitf di note natmptdelve y.( t No. - a 1.Thes c lte c afe anif d ve te i r Dk . 415 t ) e ond etr ame tr Pl i tf i e t delve y tm e ofpac ge ,r s tng i 30 l t pa kage on one pa tc a a n if gnor d he i r i s ka s e uli n ae c s ri ul r da ( tNo. 6at1 .Thet r lte wasgi natrPl ntf c e tdfledei r rc ds y. Dk. 41- ) hid etr ve fe ai if r ae as lvey e or f apa tc a dei r t t G. fciiy.( . 41 a 1 .Alhoug Pl ntf ge rly or riulr lvey o he E. a lt DktNo. -1 t ) t h ai if neal di put s t tt r w e e va i pe f m a e r s f hert r i ton,s ha notof e ed a s e ha he e r ld r or nc ea ons or e m na i he s f r ny e de e t s vi nc o how t tFedEx bele d s w a pe f r i a a a ce abl l vel Furhe ha i ve he s r o m ng t n c pt e e . t nnor e, Lor nz hasa it d t com m itng t unde l ng a t t tf m t ba i ofhe di c plna y e dm te o ti he r yi c s ha or he s s r si i r l t s. Pl ntf sas i t tshe beleved s w asm eetng expect i becaus m al eter ai if serton ha i he i atons e e courer who had s m iarper or ance i ues w er notdi ci i doesnotcr e a m at i i ue is i l f m ss e s plned eat eral ss 1 2 offc.A pli ifsowntsi ny t a esa ihage neis a t whehe ghe at antf etmo t nnot tbls c nui sue s o t r t panit wa me t (h e ly /s e pe tto s' Kicv. msed 3 F.d1 , 4 ( t litf s ei t e mpo e ) x cain . n Ru f l, 28 3 45 1 9 4h l ng ' Ci. r 2003) Rahe,dgl i t pec ptonoft decsonma rwhih i rlva , t s l. t r tit s he re i he ii ke c s ee ntnot he ef ase s ntoft pli if'Eva v.Tec . s sme he antf. ns ' hs Apps & Se v Co.80F. 954,960 ( h Ci. . r . , 3d -61 4t r 1 (ntr lquotton maksomitd) Fe ha s 996) i ena ai r te . dEx s hownt tLornzwasexpei i ha e rencng r c rngdifc tescompl tnghe r ut sa wasr evi dici i r l te s i a co da e uri fiuli ei r o e nd ec i ng s plna y et r , n c r nce w ih c m pa polc f he r pe t f iur st m e te c a i . Ea h ofPl n if s t o ny i y, or r e a ed a l e o e xpe t tons c ai t f dicplna y l te swasr e d bef r ha byHummzRe our sRe es nt tveW is n, s i i r et r eviwe o e nd s ce pr e ai lo who Plitf ha a te di not ngdici naoyi naur ( .No. a !!33- 6) anif s dmitd d hi srmi tr n t e. Dkt 41 t J 3 . Fu t r or e c oft dici i r l te ss r i d t G FT r e pr s , i w hi r he m e, a h he s plna y e t r u v ve he evi w oce s dur ng ch Fe e utve ont a asboadrviwe a u dt dicplnay ltes ( . dEx xec i s he ppe l r e e d nd phel he s i i r etr. DktNo. 41a ! 51 6 , 0 .Th , e a s Plitf h sfie t s o F d b l v ds ewa me t t ! , 0 9 ) us b c u e an if a ald o h w e Ex ei e h s ei e ng e c ai , r nzhasf ie t s tsy t sr uie ee e t xpe t tons Lo e a l d o aif hi eq r d lm n . Se cond,Lor nz c l ots e a m how t ts waste t d dif r nty t n em pl s out i t ha he r a e f e e l ha oyee s de he pr t c e c a s W ih r r t herfr tdi c plna y l te ,a m al cou i rr ei d a s m ia o e t d l s . t ega d o is s i i r e t r e r e ec ve i lr dicplnaylte whe heha t atmpt' ka .( . 41a j48 .W ihrgar t t s i i r etr n d û te 'pac ges DktNo. t g ) t e d o he no t r lte ,f f stcai ofde i r tme ,FedEx pr s t d e de e t tt e ma ec ir hid e tr or alii ton lve y i s e en e vi nc ha hr e l oure s wor ng unde t s me ma ge ,M a e Ke i hadr c i d smia dicplna y lte s ki r he a na r nag r ndrck, e eve i lr s i i r et r fom fliyi dei r rco ds ( t No. a !88 .W ihrgadt Pli ifsuli t r asf ng lvey e r . Dk . 41 t ) t e r o antf tmae t r i to Pl i ifwast r i t d i a or nc wih cla l e t bls d Fe polc f e m nai n, antf e m na e n cc da e t e ry sa ihe dEx iy or r c vi t e dici i r l te s wihi t e ve m ont a polc ofw hi h Pl ntf w a a a e e ei ng hr e s plna y e t r t n w l hs iy c ai i f s w r . B. W r ongf T e m i i ul r nat on The el m ent ofwr ngf t r i ton a e i ntc lt t e of s x di c i i ton, e e s o ul e m na i r de i a o hos e s rm na i exc pt f t f t ee e .I ac am f wr ul e m i to t pl ntf mus s or he ourh lm nt n l i or ongf t r nai n he ai if t how t the ha r pos ton,a t rs w a t nni t d,r m a ne ope orwasf led by a sm ia l q lf e a i a ii fe he s e na e e i d n il i l r y ua ii d pplc nt outi t pr e tdcl s Hilv.Loc e M atn Logitc M g .35 F. 277,285( h sde he otce as. l khe d ri sis mt, 4 3d 4t Ci. r 2004)(nba .W ihrgadt t f t rquiedelmen , antf ha notpr de a e nc) t e r o he ourh e r e t Pli if s ovi d ny e de et the poston r m aned o n orwass e nty fle by a sm ia l qua iid vi nc ha r ii e i pe ubs que l ild i l ry lfe i vi lout i oft pr e t d c a s ofwhi h pl i tf w a a m e be . Fe ndi dua s de he ot c e l s es c a n if s m r dEx ha s a e s tt d t Pli ifsr e a e c r nty bengpe f m e by a he f m ae e oye who i me tng hat antf out s r ure l i ror d not r e l mpl e, s ei e ttons ( . 41a 95) Thus f t sr s naone Pli ifscam f wr ul xpecai . DktNo. t . ,or hi ea o l , antf li or ongf t m i ton c l ots e H il 35 F. a 28 er na i a m ucc ed. l, 4 3d t 5.A c or ngl Fe c di y, dEx i e il d t s m a y s ntte o um r j d me to Lo e z swr n f l emi aincam. u g n n rn ' o g u tr n to li C . H os ie W ork Envi tl ronm ent To m a a c a m ofa hos ie wor e r nm e bas d on s x di c i i ton a pl i if ke l i tl k nvio nt e e s r m na i a ntf mu t h w ta teo fn igc nd t ()wa u wec me ()bae o g n e ' 3 lufiin l s s o h th fe dn o uc: 1 s n lo ;2 s d n e d r ( ) i fce ty , s s ver orpe v i t a trt c to ofpli ifse oym e a t c eae a a i e e r asve o le he ondii ns antf mpl nt nd o r t n busve wor e r nt'a ( t tt r i s bassf i i la lt t pli ifse oye . k nviomne i nd 4) ha hee s ome i or mputng ibiiy o antf' mpl r ' Mos -Grntv.CiyofHac sown, F. 3 3 ( hCi.2010 ( tngConne v. bv a t ert 630 3d 26, 34 4t r ) quoi r Ce rlW hol alrsI ,5 F. 1 1 ( h Ci. 9:.I t pr s ntc e Pli ifha nta es es nc. 73 3d 67, 75 4t r 200 n he e e as, antf s f ie t de o t a e t t r a f t e e e sofhe c a m . a l d o m nsr t he hi d nd ourh l m nt r li Fis ,Pl ntf has f ie t s r t ai i f a l d o how t tt of e ng co uc w a ts fci nty s r or ha he f ndi nd t s suf i e l eve e pe va i t a t rt co to ofpl i i f se pl e a t c e e a a i wor r s ve o le he ndii ns a ntf m oym nt nd o r at n bus ve k envionm ent' M os r .' bv-G r ,630 F. at334. Even i accept ast ue i t r entre y, ant 3d f ed r n hei i t 1 4 Pli ifsalegai nsofha a s e do notm e tTil Vl ' dema ng sa r f a hosie antf l to r s m nt e te ls ndi t nda d or tl w o k en r e . W hie t Cour doe no c r vionm nt l he t s t ondone t alege t e t e oft Pl i if he l d r a m nt he a ntf , ûheei al b t e wh t a j siibyb c le sx l aa s n a dwh ti meey û r s i ewe n a c n u tfa l e ald e ua h rs me t n a s rl t ne cudebe vi .'Ziki v. i t 5 F. 220, ( hCi. ) l d,Til VI i no a r ha or' s e M nea, 47 3d 228 4t r 2008 . ndee te I s t t ne a c viiy c 'be aus i t twe et c e' woul beltg tngpas s t r l i lt ode' c e f ha r he as ç ge we d ii a i t undown i n e rs ma cic sanc . I ve o ny r um t es' d. ' TheFo t Cic thassatdt tt deemi whehe aras urh rui t e ha o tr ne t r e onabl peron,d.(ttng e s i sai t pere i ofahosiewor e r n t tbeob e tveyr s bl t ceaeacai ), he c pton tl k nvionme t t mus j ci l ea ona e o r t l m' woul fnd a w o k envionm e hos ie, ur sl ok (a a 1t cic s a es i l ng t di r r nt tl co t o tt l he r um t nc , nc udi he f e nc oft di c i i t y co r que y he s r m na or nduc ,iss ve iy, he he i i phys ca l t e t ni or t t e rt w t r t s i ly hr a e ng hum ii tng,ora m e e of e i u t a e;a whe he i unr s na y i e f e w ih a la i r f nsve ter nc nd t r t ea o bl nt r er s t n e o swor pe fr nce. Si et v.De tofCor. uc. 11 F.App' 1 9,1 (t mplyee' k roma ' ngl on ' p' r Ed , 5 x 1 22 4h Ci. r Nov.1 2004)( i Faa rv. aRaon,524U. 775,787- ( 998).Hee,he 7, quotng rche Boc t S. 88 1 ) r t c onduc al d by Lor nzi l t lege e ncudesoc so lc ca i na omm e son Lo e sa nt r nz' ppea a eorc tc ls r nc a al m a i he ge r ldiec i occ s ona l w d g t es s e ofw hi h w e e notdie t a de n r ne a r ton; a i l e es ur , om c r r c ed t Lor nz;m a e c w or r e e l o- ke s ngagi i hor e a ofa s e ha s xualna ur , c s onal ng n s pl y om w t e t e' a i oc i t nc ofunw a e phys c c a t i l ng huggi a be ng pr s ed up a i tby a ns a es nt d i al ont c , nc udi ng nd i es ga ns m a e c w o kero m or t n one oc ason, nd a co- or rl vi l d' cont i r i t l o- r n e ha c i a w ke ea ng t voi ' a ne s n he Fe tuc ( .No.46a ! 1 .The eoc sona i de ss e dove apei ofs veal dEx r k. Dkt t 6) s ca i lnci nt pra r rod e r m ont a e nots fci ntt c ea e a w or pl c t ti û r e t d w ih di c i i t y hs r uf i e o r t k a e ha s t m a e t s r m na or pe i i dai rdiul andi ul, Harsv. klf Sys-l ,51 U. 1 21( 993)(nt na ntmi ton, i c e ns t' ri For it . nc. 0 S. 7, 1 ' i er l q ttonsa ciai omitd) rt rt yaee mpl oft r be vi , d rs s' uoai nd ttons te , ahe he r xa es û ude ha or' t ihnes, c ' boo ' 15 a t ei c ai n lo fc lr o eo c mme t'ha teFo rhCic t a fu d i ufiin t nd h t c so a f-oo j k r o n 't th u t ruih s o n ns fce t o o gvers t aTil Vl cai ofahosiewor e r i ie o te 1 l m tl k nvionme ,Ziki 5 F.d a 228. nt s e, 47 3 t Se ond,Pl ntf has f l t s w t tt a l ge ha a s en ca be a t i e t c ai if aied o ho ha he le d r s m t n trbut d o Fe dEx.Pl nifhasad te t tnoneo he ma gese rs j ctdhert s xua haa s t aitf mitd ha f r na r ve ube e o e l rsmen. ( . 46a !7) I t c eofhaa s n bye o s asopposdt mana me , DktNo. t . n he as rsme t mplyee , e o ge nt ie pl r a e la e onl f t i o n neg i ncei f ii a t r a t lorco t uc i dm oye s r i bl y or he r w lge n a lng, fe c ua nsr tve knowldge,otkepr mpta a quaea tont sop (heharsme l' M i l v.Civof e t a o nd de t ci o t t a s nt. kes t ' Dur m,1 F.d 3 332( hCi.1 .Furhe e wheea empl rsr po et ha 83 3 23, 4t r 999) t nuor, r n oye ' es ns o r pored ha a s e i ha ed i a o da ewih t c e t r s m nt s ndl n cc r nc t he ompa se tbls d polc a ny' sa ihe iy nd i l ncudesc onduc i a i si to a t ki aci n t a es t fndi i apr tng n nve tgai n nd a ng to o ddr s he i ngs n ompt ma rs hc nne , uc onduc i t e ona y c l ul t d t e t har s m e a t r f e r as bl t s û as bl a c a e o nd he a s nt nd, he e or , e ona e r asamat oflw.'E. O. v.Xe xe Col ,639F. 658,671(t Ci.2011.Thi i tue ter a ' E. C. r s ' p. 3d 4h r ) ssr e ni t ha a s nts e nty roc ur .L Fi ly,t Fourh Cic thasnotdt t ve f he r sme ubs que l e c s i nal he t rui e ha tg iti to ofa a ihaa s ntpolc pr desc li pr t tt gmpl r tdjsrbuin n nt- rsme iy ovi ompelng oof ha he e oyeq e r i e r as bl c r i pr ntng a p o pty c r c i ha a s e . The onl w a t xe c s d e ona e a e n eve i nd r m l or e tng r s m nt y yo r butt spr i t s e hi oof s o how t tt e oye a pt d ora nit r d an a iha as me polc ha he mpl r do e dmi se e nt- r s nt iy i bad f t ort tt polc wa ohe wie de e tveordysunc i l' Ba r t v. n aih ha he i y s t r s f c i f tona . r et Apple ' id Ra a Ene c Cor , F. 262,266(t Ci. )(nena quottonsa ciai dint r v p.240 3d 4h r 2001 itr l ai nd ttons omitd) te . Pl i ifha f ie t r u eFe antf s al d o ef t dEx' e d ncet tisi si ton ofPli ifss xua s vi e ha t nve tgai antf e l ha asm e alegai nswa pr r s nt l to s ompta s fcinta am atroflw. l f c ,t onl a pe tof nd ufi e s te a n a t he y s c t pr s t Pl ntf specii l chalenges i w het FedEx f l i he oces hat ai if fcaly l s her uly nvestgat her cl m i ed ai be a e asPl i tf alege ,FedEx di noti e vi w a lwine s t a l ed i i s ofs xua c us , a n if l s d nt r e 1 t s es o leg nc dent e l 16 ha as me , r t ronl i e vi r s nt but ahe y nt r ewedt e i vi sFe beleve woul gi a we s hos ndi dual dEx i d d ve ns r fvorbl t ma ge nt ( t No. a ! 9,1 .Howe r Pli ifse de et tFe a a e o na me . Dk . 46 t ! 7) ve, antf vi nc ha dEx f ie t f ly i si t he cli si i ufi e t c e t age neis ofdipu edm ae i a ld o ' l nve tgae r am s ns fcint o r ae u nui s ue s t tral fc.Pli iftrtagues baedont de ii ofM onceSmih(û t ',a he Fe a t antf is r , s he poston i t tSmih') not r dEx e pl e w ho a l ge y w ines e M c ai sac i nsa t s r t h a tex m ee i t tFe Ex m oye , le dl t s d cl n' t o t he t e c nd l tng, ha d di notitr w a1t winesest t i i n.( . 26a ! 1 .Smih' de ii d ne de 1 he t s o he ncde t DktNo. t 7) t s poston c anssae e st d t hi by o he Fe e o e who we ealo noti t r e by ont i t tm nt ol o m t r dEx mplye s r s n e vi wed FedEx. H o e ,Sm ih' s a e e t ,o he t n hi own s a e e t the wasnoti e vi wed w ver t s t t m n s t r ha s t t m nt ha nt r e by Fed a e not ng m or t n i dm i s bl hea s y. I dm i s bl hea s y i i uf i e t Ex, r hi e ha na s i e r a na s i e r a s ns fci nt o ce t ag n n is eo mae ilfc.S eF d. Ci P. 6 c( )(k )pat ma o j c ta rae e uie su f tra a t e e R. v. 5 ()2 ça ry y be t h t g t m ae i lc td t ..diput af c c nnotbepr e e i a f m t twoul bead isbl i he tra ie o . s e a t a es nt d n or ha d m si e n e de .' Cons de i t a i s bl e de e,Pl i i fha onl s n t tFe vi nce ' i r ng he dm s i e vi nc a ntf s y how ha dEx f l d t aie o i er ew one aleged w inesst one i dentand f l t i ervi t aleged har nt vi l t o nci aied o nt ew he l asserabout o i i n be us hewa on me c la . Tha e de e i i ufi i t c e t age ne ne ncde t ca e s dial e ve t vi nc s ns fcent o r a e nui is o ma e i lf t bec us Fe s ue f t ra ac , a e dEx' i tgai n ofa lge s xua ha a s e i notr uie s nvesi to le d e l r s m nt s eq r d t b pefc,ine donl beras bl a pr .Xexe Cor ,639F.da 674(t ai if o e re t t e y e ona e nd ompt r s p. 3 t i ntfs pl of e f e t tt i em pl rc d ha do m or t r m e t a r e ef e t o t t n e l ha he r oye oul ve ne e o e dy he dve s f c s f he e pl e' c m oye s onduc . ButTil V I r quiesonl t t e pl rt ke sepsr a ona y lk y t te l e r y hat he m oye a t e s bl i el t so t haasme .). Hee,e c ofFe si si tonspr uc ddealdrpors ( . o tp he r s nt' r ah dEx' nvetgai od e tie e t. Dkt No.41at! 1 ) Furhe mor aspa toft 2009i tg i t wine s t s oft 9 . t r e, r he nvesiaton wo t ses o ome he m os s r o oft a l ge s xua ha as m e conduc de ed w ine s ng t c t e i us he le d e l r s nt t ni t s i he onduc a t nd Fe dEx' i e vi w ofs x a t o lf m a e e pl e yi l d no f rt r c e nsr r ng s nt r e i ddii na e l m oye s e de u he onc r ega di i ppr it s xua be vi .( t No. a ! 2124) Thef tt tPli ifdiput t tt na oprae e l ha or Dk. 41 t ! - . ac ha antf s es ha he 17 ha a s te d o t tt r ma ha be n af w a tona i i sofaleg s xua r s men nde r ha he e y ve e e ddii l ncdent l ed e l haa s ,( . 46a ! 1 ,doe notce t age neis ofmaei fc a t t rsment DktNo. t 6) s rae nui sue tral a t s o he r a ona e sofFe si si ton.Xer sCor .639F. a 675( di t te oyes e s blnes dEx' nvetgai xe p, 3d t hol ng ha mpl r Ca û nnotbe he d t a s a r unde w hi h t y a e la e f a a a li ppr i t c uc of c l o t nda d r c he r i bl or ny nd l na opr a e ond t t i e oye ' ( tng Spi rv. ptofCors, F. 7 71 ( hCi.1 ) her mpl es' quoi ) ce De . r.66 3d 05, 1 4t r 995). Th ,he undiputd f c sesabls t tFe hasar ta iha a s e a antus t s e a t t ih ha dEx obus nt- r s m nt nd i di c i i ton polc i f c t tw asa i d t Lor nz' c pl nt ofa l ged s xual s rm na i i y n or e ha pple o e s om ai s le e ha a s ent A pr m pta r a ona e i s i to t k pl c t tge r t d a de a l d r por . rsm . o nd e s bl nve tga i n oo a e ha ne a e t ie e t Furhe m or ,a a r ul oft i tga i n, he c pl ne ofc t r e s es t he nves i to t om ai d onducts opped e iel or t ntr y so d f ram e ur bl perod oftmea trt i si to t ppe o as a e i i fe he nve tga in.Pl i ifhaspr e e no antf es nt d a m isbl e de t diput t ef c s a t ,Pli ifsca m ofahosiewor d s i e vi nce o s e hes a t , nd hus antf li tl k e vionm e ast r ul ofs x di c i i ton f is n r nt he es t e s rm na i a l . D . R et i i alat on Til V l ' an ir t i ton pr s o f bi a e pl rf om di c i i tng a i ta te l s t - e ala i ovi i n or ds n m oye r s r m na i ga ns n e oye l c us he g s lha ma ac r tsiid,a sse orpa tcpae i a mpl e i a e or he s de hage,etfe sitd, rii td n ny be mal ri a i si ton, oce di orheai und t ss ha e .' U. C.j2000 me n n nvetgai pr e ng, rng er hi ubc ptr'42 S. e3() A pli ifmake aprmaf i caefrrtlai bys ng( )t theors e ag a . antf s i ace s o eaiton howi 1 ha he ng ed i apr tce a tviy;( hi orhe empl race a reya i the;a ( t pr ece n oe td ci t 2) s r oye td dve sl gans r nd 3) he ot td a tviy wasc us l conne t d t t a ci t a aly c e o he dver e ac i n. H ola v.W a hi o Hom es l , 7 s to l nd s nct n , nc. 48 F.d208( h Ci.2007) Asumi ar ndot tt pl ntf c prs ntaprmafci c e 3 4t r . s ng gue ha he ai if an e e i a e as, d hebu de s fst t e oye t a tc ae al ii t ,nondic i naor r as f t t t r n hit o he mpl r o riult egtma e s rmi t y e on or he advers em pl entacton.' H ilv.Loc e oym i ' l kheed M ari Logitcs M cm tsl ,354 F. 277,285 tn si . nc. 3d (t Ci. 4h r 2004) S sbur n,howe r i abur nofpr uci no pes in. W a hi t .' Thi de ve, s de od ton, t ruaso ' s ncon ' 18 H om es I ,487 F. a 21 Once t empl rha s n t s t he bur n s fsbac t t s nc. 3d t 4. he oye s how hi , t t de hi t k o he pl i ift pr by a pr a ntf o ove eponde a oft e de e t tt em pl yer s s a e r a ons t e e r nce he vi nc ha he o ' ttd e s w r notistueras ,butweeaprtxt''Hil354F. a 285( i Re sv.Smz ron t r e ons r ee .' l, 3d t quotng eve des Pl ngPr .l ,530U. a 1 ) umbi ods nc. S. t 43 . Fis ,Pl i ifhasf l t m a a prm a f i ca e be a e Pl i ifc nno s w a r t a ntf aied o ke i ac e s c us a ntf a t ho ca alc us onne on be we n t pr eced a tviy a t a r ea ton. l t sc e,Lor nz di t e he ot t ci t nd he dve s c i n hi as e m us pr t the Se e be 2009 l te t m a ge e a s eque l e nalEEO t ove ha r pt m r e t r o na m nt nd ubs nt nt r co pli t al gi s xua ha asm e , m a n s le ng e l r s nt nmong o he t ngs we et c us oft dici i r t r hi , r he a e he s plna y l te ss r ceveddurng t f l ng 11mont a he e nt lAugus 201 t r nai et r he e i i he olowi hs nd r ve ua t 0 e mi ton. Pl i ifhasnotpr en e a die tpr ofr t i t r i e , nd t , e i s on i r ctpr . a ntf es t d ny r c oof e ala o y nt nt a hus r le ndie oof A lhough t Four h Cic thasnota r s e w ha t t he t r ui dd e s d t ypesofi r c e denc m a be ndi e t vi e y co i r t Thid Cicui has s a e t ti r c pr ofa c us c nsde ed, he r r t t t d ha ndi e t oof a al onnec i d a i l ton t y nc ude m t por lpr m iy be w e n t t o e n s an i e v ni pa t n ofr t i t y c em a oxi t t e he w ve t , nt r e ng ter e ala or onduc , t i ncons sen r as by t em pl ye f rt a i t t e ons he o r o he dver e ac i a di f r ntaltea m en ofot r s ton, nd f e e i r t t he e oye s. J udonv. de He t I ,1 F.Supp. 1 1 ( M d. mpl e ' a ' El r a1h.nc. 25 zd 53, 65 D. 2000)(ii Fa rl ctng rel v. a esLiesve sCo.206F. 271 279- ( Ci. Plntr f a r , 3d , 81 3d r 2000). ) Re r ng t m po a pr m iy, he Fo t Cic thasr e t twhe t tl s t e t ga di e r l oxi t t urh r ui ul d ha n t ea t hr e o a f l m ont s pa a e t t r i ton . .a t c a m e pr ec e a tvii s ' hetm e pe i otr hs e r t d he e m na i . nd he l i d ot t d c i te ' t i rod w a t l t esabls a c us lc s oo ong o t i h a a onne ton on t ba i oft m po alpr m iy a one. Pa c l ci he s s e r oxi t l s ua v. Lowe' HomeCts.I ,1 Fe App' 229, (t Ci. s r. nc. 93 d. x 233 4h r 2006) Pl ntf ague t t . ai if r s ha t emporlpr miyi stsi be a e( )s ve da a trgvi a ac a oxi t s aited c us 1 e n ys fe i ng n countofwha ha ne t ppe d a ame tngt Owe ,s rceve aPe f ma eRe nde '2)s verlwe ksafe rcevi t ei o ns he e i d ror nc mi r ( e a e tr e i ng , t M a c 1 201 l t e f om Cent rr r ng t r ulsofFe he r h , 0, e t r r e ega di he es t dEx' i tga i ofhe c ai s s nves i ton rlm 19 s rceve aDoc ntdCouns lngPef nceRe nde ;( s wa gi nt J y201 he e i d ume e ei ronna mi r 3) he s ve he ul 0 Pef ma eRe nde we ksafe flnghe s c EEOC c ant a ( Pl ntf wa ror nc mi r e tr ii r e ond ompli ; nd 4) ai if s tnni tda trflnghe frtlws tag i tFed ( . 46a 3 33 . e nae fe ii r is a ui ans Ex. DktNo. t 2- ) W ih r ga d t herfr ta l gaton,Pl i tf doe no s a et c e soft l te or t e r o is le i a n if s t t t he ont nt he e t r pr dear c d ct ton f t Cou tt r vi t d e mi e t co e s Thus t Cour ovi e or ia i or he r o e ew o etr n he nt nt . , he t c nno c l t l te c tt e pr t c e a tviy. Pl i tf ' s c ale ton sm ia l n t onc ude he e t r ons iut d o e t d c i t a n if s e ond l ga i i l ry f isbec us r ceptofRobe tCentrslte co udi t tt i tg to r a e a al a e e i r e ' et r ncl ng ha he nvesi a i n eve l d n i t nc whe e a Fe nsa e r dEx polc w a vi a e s ii ly t ta f m a e m a ge had s i ie f r i y s ol t d, pec fca l ha e l na r olc t d o t s e ofhe da ht r s gils utc esi vi l to ofFe he al r ug e ' r co ooki n o a i n dEx polc i no a e pl ofa i y, s t n xam e pr e t d a i t A lhoug t r i a t m por ne w ih r ar t Pl ntf st r a l ga i n, ot c e ctviy. t h he e s e al xus t eg d o ai i f hid le to t dicplnewa uphel i t GFT r viw pr es a t r i no e de t tt tmi was he s i i s d n he e e oc s nd he e s vi nce ha he i ng a hi o he t n adie tr ul ofwhe Pli ifc nyt ng t r ha r c es t n antf ommitd t vi ai ofFe polc te he ol tons dEx iy. Fi ly, hie Pl i ifac m a e y s a e s wast r i t d a t r flng a l s ta i tFed na l w l a ntf c t l t t s he e m na e fe ii aw ui ga ns Ex, s ne e t t m e i t l w s twa fl e eve m ont e r i r Pl i i fa s ne e s t he gl c s o nton he a ui s ied l n hs a le . a nt f l o gl ct o m e i t tm or t n f m ont el ps d be w e n Pl i if s a l ga i ofs xualha a s en nton ha e ha our hs a e t e a ntf le ton e rsm t a t frtoft t e dici i r lte st tr ule i he e nt t mi ton. nd he is he hr e s plna y e tr ha es td n r ve ual er nai A cc di y,Pl i t f has f l d t s or ngl a n if aie o how t m por lpr m iy. e a oxi t Furhe m or ,Pl ntf ha pr s n e no e d nc ofi ons sen r as nsby Fe t r e ai if s e e t d vi e e nc it t e o dEx f he or r t r i to The r tona e f t di ci i r a to a Pl ntf ' uli a e t r i ton a e e m na i n. a i l s or he s plna y c i ns nd ai i f s tm t e m na i r s tf t i w rtng a w e e pr de t Pl i if FedEx ne rva i d f om t e expl na i e orh n ii nd r ovi d o a ntf . ve r e r hes a tons a t y we e c nfr nd he r o imed by FedEx He dqua tr whe t di cplna y a tonswe er e d a a re s n he s i i r c i r eviwe s par oft GFT pr s. t he oces 20 . w Ha ng f ie t s vi a ld o how t empor lpr m iy ori onsse o t pa tofFe i is a oxi t nc itncy n he r dEx n t r s f t r i tng he ,Pl i ifa t m pt t pr c us ton by a l i a pa tr of ea on or e m na i r a ntf te s o ove a a i leg ng te n r t laor c e ai t y onduc a dif r nta te t e ofot re pl es The ea gum e s, t nd fe e i l r am nt he m oye . s r nt howe , ver a euns e s ul Pl i if s a gum e t tt di c plne s r c ve i t f m of r ucc s f . a ntf r nt ha he s i i he e ei d n he or Pe f m a Re i r a W a ni Le t r w a i r t la i f pr t ct d a tvii s i r or nce m nde s nd r ng te s s n e a i ton or o e e c i te s unde c byt f tt te h ofhe Pe f manc Re i r a W a ni Let r ,a welashe r ut he ac ha ac r ror e m nde s nd r ng te s s l r uli aet r i ton, sr vi we t ough t GFT pr s a f md t bea oprae. l tm t em na i wa e e d hr he oce s nd ot o ppr i t n or rt ac e Pl i if s a gum e tt the Pe f m a e R e i e s a W a ni Le t r w e e de o c pt a ntf r n ha r r or nc m nd r nd r ng te s r r t la or i na ur ,t Cour w oul ha t a ce tt tt e ie hi r r hy a Fe e a i t y n t e he t d ve o c p ha he ntr e a c t dEx,i l ng nc udi Fe He dqua tr ,wa r t itng agans he - s m ehi ofwhih Pl i ifha pr s n e no dEx a re s s eala i i t r o t ng c antf s e e t d e de e a t Cour fndsi r bl vi nc nd he t i nc edi e. Re r ng Pl i if s a t m ptt s w Fe t e t d he dif r nty t n ot rm a e ga di a ntf te o ho dEx r a e r fe e l ha he l e o e ,t evi ncepr edby Fe mplye s he de oduc dEx s howst tPli ifwa hed t t s me ha antf s l o he a pe f m a s a r asal Fe r or nce t nda ds l dEx em pl es She r c ve di c plna y l te swhe s oye . e ei d s i i r e t r n he vi a e Fe ol t d dEx polc e ,a ha s notr c i d dici i u rt e cic s a s s i i s nd d he e e ve s plne nde hes r um t nce , he wo dha rcevedpr frntalrame .( . 41 a !35 .Furhe,Pli ifha fie ul ve e i eee i te t nt DktNo. , t ) t r antf s ald t ofe a s i ee de t pr he alegai nst to he mal e pl se ge i o f r dmi sbl vi nce o ove r l to ha t r e m oyee nga d n s m ia a tvii f whi h Pl ntf w asdi c plne butw e e notdici i d. i l r c i tes or c ai if s i i d, r s plne Se ond, n as um i ar ndo Pl i ifha p ove a prm a f ci ca e,FedEx ha e eve s ng gue a ntf d r n i a e s s a tc a e anon-e a it y r s n f rPl ntf sdicplnea t r nai n. La i v.M er ri ult d r t laor ea o o ai if s i i nd e mi to uahln to W a h.Aipo t Aut ,1 F. 253,258( hCi.1 .I t pr e c e, antf has s r rs h. 49 3d 4t r 998) n he esnt as Pli if ad it d s w a aw a e t te pl esr c i ng t e di c plna y l te s wihi t ve m ont m te he s r ha m oye e e vi hr e s i i r e t r t n wel hs w oul f ce t r i ton i a cor nc w ih c pa polcy. Ea h oft tm esPl ntf r e ve d a e m na i n c da e t om ny i c he i ai if ec i d 21 adici i r l te s ha vi a e aFe polc TheJ nua y 201 l te wa s nta tr s plna y et r he d olt d dEx i y. a r 0 et r s e fe Pli ifha fvepa kage t ts ne re n atmptdt dei ra t e ofhe r e.( t antf d i c s ha he ve ve te e o lve t he nd r out Dk . No. a !!38- .TheJ y201 dicplnaylte wa is dafe sveali tnce of 41 t 43) ul 0 si i r etr s sue tr e r nsa s pe f m a t tdi notm e te c a i and c m i t d i a e es i num be ofl t r or nce ha d e xpe t tons ul na e n n xc sve r ae de i res W he a ke a lve i . n s d boutt l t delve i sPl i ifa it d t ts ha i r d t he a e i r e a ntf dm te ha he d gno e he dei r prort cls ikai oft pa ka si vi ai ofFe polc ( . 41a ! lvey i iy a st ton he c ge n olton dEx iy. DktNo. t ! 56- .Pl nifst r dicplnaylte wasrceve afe s fliidelcr cdei r 60) aitf' hid s i i r etr e i d tr he asfe e toni lvey rc ds ( . 41a !61.Alho hPli ifco et t he aci consiue e or . DktNo. t ) t ug antf ntss hat r tons tttd f lii ai n, antf a ist ts r c de a dei r a tm p f G. whe s wa o a a sfc to Pl i if dm t ha he e or d lve y te t or E. n he s n sr e nea by G. a nota t a t lG. f c lt te t r E. nd t he c ua E. a iiy.La e t s me da Pli ifr or d a t r hat a y, a ntf ec de de i r a t G . f c lt be or 2: pm ,d pie t f c t ts di nots gn i a t gua d lve y t he E. a iiy f e 59 es t he a t ha he d i n t he r hou e untl3-05 m . Thus f e h oft dicplna y lte sa Pl ntf suli a e s i . p 5 , or ac he s i i r e tr nd ai if tm t t nui ton Fe e na i dEx ha a tc a e a l gii a e non- e a i t y bas s f t a t o s cii a l s r i ul t d e tm t , r t la or i or he c i n pe fc ly t tLor nz vi a e es a i he c pan polc ha e ol t d t bls d om y i y. Fi ly,Pl i ifhasf ied t de ons r t t tFe na l a ntf a l o m ta e ha dEx' a tc a ed r a on w a pr t xt . s r i ul t e s s e e ual Onc t e pl rs a e a l gii a e non- e ala o y r s f t a r e e pl ym e a ton e he m oye t t s e tm t , r t i t r ea on or he dve s m o nt c i t bur n s fsba k t t e pl he de hi t c o he m oyeet pr ve t tt non- e a i t y r s n i no hi m or o o ha he r t la or ea o s t ng e t n a pr t xtf di c i i t o ha e e or s rm na i n.La i l F. d a 258. l t pr s ntc s ,Pl ntf ha uchln, 49 3 t n he e e a e ai if s a it d t t u ryi c dm te o he nde l ng onduc t t1 d t t dici i r l te s Pl i if s e f t t t ha e o he s plna y e t r . a ntf f ors o co e tt di ci i r l te s bas on he ow n pe c pton t to he sw e e notdi c plne f nt s he s plna y e t r , ed r r e i ha t r r s i i d or s m ia c i l r onduc ,o t ts w a pe f r i a w e la ot r e pl sw ho w e e no di c plne t r ha he s r o m ng s l s he m oyee r t si i d 5Thede i y l ton i l at d i i t G .E.f ciiy r rng t Fe coure t sgn i att g d hous lver oca i s oc e nsde he a lt equii he dEx ir o i n he uar e be o e r c ng t delve y l ton. f r ea hi he i r oca i 22 i nots fcintt c e t a ge ne is ofma e i f c . Ti ly v. r tUni n Na ' Ba 1 s ufi e o r a e nui s ue t ral a t nse Fis o tl nk, 55 F. 435, ( h Ci.1 Ctti t pe c ptonoft decsonma rwhih i rlva t t 3d 444 4t r 998) l s he r e i he ii ke c s ee nt o he quesi o rtlai nott opi onsoft gmpl e')c wor r ort r pates')Th , ton f eaiton, he ni he e oye s o- kes hid ri . us ' Pl ntf hasf ie t esa ih pr t . ai if a ld o t bls eext IV . Concl on usi TheCour fndst tLor nz ha f iedt o frs fcintevi ncefom whi h a t i ha e s al o fe ufi e de r c r ao a l j r c ul fn ete u a u ds rmiain,eaito , o f tr n to , r e s n b e u y o d id i r nlwf l ici n to rtlain wr ngulemiain o h t e senc ofahosiewor e r nm e .Ac or ngy,ti he e ORDERED t t he xit e tl k nvio nt c di l i s r by ha D e e nt sM oton f r Sum m a y J f nda ' i o r udgm e ,i G R ANTED i ise ie y. The Cl r ofCou t nt s n t ntr t ek r i diec ed t s nd a c s r t o e opy oft s M e or ndum O pi on a a om pa ng Fi lOr rt a l hi m a ni nd cc nyi na de o l c ouns lofr or e ec d. u t 2. 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