Barber et al v. JTEKT Automotive Virginia, Inc. et al, No. 7:2009cv00441 - Document 138 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 5/4/2012. (lab)
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I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN D I STRI O F V I I I CT RG N A ROAN OK E DI I ON V SI RO GER BA RBER, ERI GODFREY, C ED D I SI M ON S, R . E M J , a nd RY AN Y OUN G , CL ERKS OFFI U. . ST COURT CE S DI . AT ROANOKE. VA FI LED MA 2 i 2 1 Y 22 J ULI C. UD BY. . LERK D UF L RK Y Ci lA c i N o.7: c 00441 vi ton 09- v- Pl i if , antfs M EM O R AN DU M O PI O N NI J TEK T A UTOM OTI E V I GI I , N C. V R NA I a nd J TEK T N ORTH A M ERI , N C . CA l , By: H on.G l n E.Conr d e a Chi U nie St t D it i tJ ef t d a es s rc udge De e nt . f nda s Thi ca e i ve hos ie wor e r nm e , a i ldi c i i i a t l 'l s s nvol s tl k nvi o nt r c a s r m naton, nd m awf u r t i ton c ai s br e ala i l m oughtby f bl c m a e a i tt i pr vi usem pl our a k l s ga ns he r e o oyerunde Til V I of r te I t Ci lRiht Ac of1 4,42U. C.jj200 e s ,a 42U. C.j1 he vi g s t 96 S. 0e, t eq. nd S. 981.Thec s i ae s p e e tyb fr t ec ur o t d fn a t' to f rs mmayj d me t Fo t r a o ss t rs nl eo e h o t n he ee d n s moin o u r u g n . r he e s n e f t be o ,t co tw ilgr nti pa t nd den i pa tt def nt 'm oton. orh l w he ur l a n r a y n r he enda s i 1. Fact and ProceduralBackzround1 ual The pl i t fs i t s c e w e e,a t tm esr l va t t sl s t e pl d by J a n i f n hi as r t he i e e nt o hi aw ui, m oye TEKT Autmoi Vigi a,nc.(ûTEKT',i Dae le, r ni z Pli ifRoge Bar r($ r r', o tve r ni l I J ' n lvil Vigi a. antf ) r be $ be' Ba ) abl kmae, hie byJ ac l was r d TEKT i Augus 200 antf ErcGodfe (l rf',ablc n t 4.Pli if i ry CGodfe ) a k mae, shie byJ l wa rd TEKT i J y2005.Pli ifRya Young(t n ul antf n d Young',ablc mae,was ' ak l ) hied by J r TEKT i Augus 2005 a a tr q ti i Se e be 2006, asr hi e by J n t nd, fe uitng n pt m r w e rd TEK T i n ' Thec tpr en st fct i t lg m os fvorbl t t plitfs t nonm ovi pa t Te r sFl our es t he a s n he iht t a a e o he an if, he ng ry. r y' oor Faho .n v Bul go Id s.n .7 3F2 6 4, 0(t Ci.1 8 ) s ins lc. . ri tn n u .lc, 6 .d 0 61 4h r 9 5. n 2 Pr o t iscl i i 201 , J i r o t osng n 0 TEKT wasone oft manuf c urng l tonsf J he a t i oca i or TEKT Norh Am e i a. t rc I , c i alo adeenda i t sc e. nc.whih s s f nt n hi as S p e e 2 0 .Plitf Ed i Smmo s J. t mmo s' aba kmae wa hr db J e tmb r 0 7 anif de i n , r (t si n ', lc l, s ie y TEKT ) i M a c 2008. n rh A. Fact underl ng hos ie w ork envi s yi tl ronm entcl m s ai Att hea toft pl ntf s l ui i t ra l ga i t ta c tle ofr i ha a s e he r he ai if ' aws t s hei le ton ha ultr ac al r s m nt a di c i i ton pe m e t d J nd s rm na i r a e TEK T' w o k e r m e dtrng t i e pl e w ih t S r nvi on nt li he r m oym nt t he Com pany. 1. B arber A c or ng t Ba be ' de ii t tm on J c di o r r s poston esi y, TEK T e pl esf o a f iiy i m oye r m ac lt n J pa bot û a guys'a m e be soft ts a nhé d he ' nd m r he çuppor c ew' r e r d s r ltm e t t r ' ef r e eve a i s o - Gldi rBaia (t aia ') a he blc e oye ,a aS l y.S ( ke No.94- a a my lsge : ls ge', not r a k mpl e s i ke ' Doc t B mor ' 37 t 91 03. Howe r ac or ngt Babe ,hei nke 'e t t Ca awa 'afe Babe as d -1 ) ve , c di o r r t ' mo y' pihes t ded y' tr r r ke f t J pa e e pl yee t sop a a t rhe r r e t i s t hi lne s r i or4 td.t93 he a nes m o s o t nd fe epo t d he s ue o s i upe v s . L=a - 96. Babe c de i hi de ii t theddn rpo tt r ilsur t J ) r r once d n s poston ha i ot e r he aca l s o TEKT' huma S n r s ur sd rm e a t tm et t y oc ure i t a t fr ttmet tBa be br c e o ce epa t nt t he i hat he c r d- nse d, he is i ha r r oa hed t tpi ofhaasme ordici nai wihJ he o c r s nt srmi ton t TEKT ma e ntwasonAprl21 2009.(Is nag me i , Ll a 9 98; ke No.9 23,Ex.11 ) Furher e Babe t tfedi hi de ii t the t 4, Doc t 27. t mor, r r esii n s poston ha pe s nal ha no be n t br ofa r caly c r e har s m e tdurnghi e o e r o ly d t e he unt ny a i l ha g d a s n i s mpl ym nt wihJ t TEKT.( cke No. 37a 1 ) Do t 94- t 00. 3 Th s alg t nsb Bab rtn b teoh rpanif a d srb difa aec ro rtdb te ee l ai y r e a d y h te litfs s e cie nr) r orboae y h e o d p sto tsi n o Yo h Hahi d Ctls i d ', po u to ma a e a aJ e o i n et y f s i s wa a lahwa a' a rd cin n g r t TEKT ma ua trn fcly i mo ) n fcuig aii t iNaa Jyn.F rsvrl er, srcnl i20 9Hahwa ataeldt teJ n r,aa o eea yasmoteety n 0 , si d rvle o h TEKTpati Daeil, ln n lvl e Vignat l tu th wok r i po u t nmeh d .( c e No 9 - 1a 6. Du igHahi d ' vst, e r ii o nsrc te res n rd ci to s Do k t . 43 t ) rn s wa as ii h o s wo drfroteblc e o e a t n es'ejann ta h dds b cuetv ro ewa uigtetr ' ul ee t h ak mplyes st kyy x liig ht e i o eas < ey n s sn h em. mo ' e ' (d a 9. Hahi d afr dta h h dn t e ndsil e b J l. t ) s wa a fime h t e a o b e lcpi d y TEKTfrhiu eo tetr t n e . (d a n o s s f h em t k y' I .t mo ' 1. 0) 4 Li s t cour not t tBals t tfedi hi de ii t tt r ilsur c s afe h kewie he t es ha iage esii n s poston ha he aca l s ea ed tr e rpo tdt est aint t eh ma r s u c sd p rme t ( c e No 9 - 4 a 2 0 . e re h iu to o h u n e o r e e a t n . Do k t . 4 2 t 0 -01) 2 2. G odf y re Godfe sde ii t tmony r veae s r y' poston esi e ld omeoft s m ei de st tBar r he a nci nt ha be a e s i hi de ii G odf e t s ii d t tJ ddr s ed n s pos ton. r y e tfe ha TEKT m a ge sf om a f ciiy i J pa na r r a lt n a n viie t Daevil plnta lughi yr erdt bl kwor r asç std he l le a nd a ngl efre o ac ke s s monke .'( ke No. ys' Doc t 94- a 1 ) Furhemor,Godfe sae t taVit mes ta lade nnme PhuocLe 29 t 43. t r e r y ttd ha ena e e m e r d ($ ' rfre t Baia ea aC n e ' (d a 1 5) Go fe as sae t a Letl h m C ' eerd o ls g s t k y. L= t 1 . d ry lo tt d h t o d i Le ) mo ' t the w o d ne rbe a t m l a rbec us I TEK T don' t nk bl c m e m a good t m ha ul ve ea e de a eû J t hi a k n ke ea la s' (d. t11 ) Howe r Le' haasi be vi di notsopa meel wods I ta e der. l a 7. ' ve, s r sng ha or d t t r y r . nse d, i Se tmb r2 0 , d r ywin se Led lco syta e d t a ea wrpg iao n n p e e 0 8 Go fe t e s d ç iiu l lk j uc tp nd a ) t r u d ma ( ls g lsfc . (d. t48) Baia e ' a e' 1 a . ' A tone poi i hi de ii Godf e a tc a e ge r i d a s r i t the ha nt n s pos ton, r y r i ul t d ne alze s e tons ha d t e ntlig (TEKT)a o tLefry as' (d a 6 , . Ho v r ltri h sd p sto h t e eln J b bu o e r. I . t 5 71) we e, ae n i e o iin, e ' c ede t the di notr por t t ls tpi i i nt'o J onc d ha d e t he t iage a ng ncde 't TEKT' hum a r s c s Ba S n e our e de rme tt =a 11 and,f t nnor t thedi notrpo ta ha a s ntr ae c ens pa t n j .t 6) # urhe e,ha d e r ny r sme -eltd onc r tJ o TEKT mana me untla itr iw wih J ge nt i n ne ve t TEKT ofi asonAprl2 2009.(#.t111 fcil i 2, J=a , ' Doc tNo. 21 Ex.71) I fc,Godfe e ane t tt r s t theha neve ke 92- , . n at ry xpli d ha he ea on ha d r pr vi l r pored any r ci lc e nst t hu a r s c s de r m e w a t the ' e ous y e t a a onc r o he m n e our e pa t nt s ha t was s ae o ( s j ba d . . i ntwa tt ma eip b i ta ( e k e t n s' ( c e No 9 c rd f hi) o n . d d ' n o k t u lc h t h ) n w hig . Do k t . 4 ' 29a 111) Godfe as t tfedt ti heha rpore t haa s ntt huma rs c s t . ry lo esii ha,f d e td he rsme ,he n e oure depat ntwo dha çt d( Bowes(( we s',as r iora J rme ul ve iol CJ r C Bo r' upe vs t TEKTI lndt nli ) , a he t woul ha ma ihade f me.5 (#aat1 . Furhe e a r fom Le' c d ve de t r r or ' J ' 04) t nnor, pa t r s omme nt . conc r ng J e ni TEK T' a l ged s ntm e st a dsbl c t a l de s Godf e a fr e t tno S le e i nt ow r a k e m ea r , r y f im d ha Crcs tr 'weee rdiecedt r hi pes ly.(d. t11 ) ta ite ms' r ve r t owad m ronal I a 0. 5 Thec tno e t tBowe swasha ngat ra i , a ltrs lr a i hi wih J our t s ha r vi littous nd ae exua, eltons p t TEKT plnt a ma a e Ke Morw.( c e No 9 -5a l , c e No 9 - a 5 ; c e No. 4 3 a 3 . n g r n ro Do k t . 42 t 5 Do k t . 426 t -6 Do k t 9 -4 t 2) ' 3. Si m ons m Si lrt t t tm ony ofBar ra God r Si ons depostont tm ony as mia o he esi be nd fey, mm ' ii esi lo f cus on t a l ge y ha as i be ort tw asdie t d t a d B a i age Si m ons o ed he le dl r s ng havi ha r c e ow r ls . m o e v t tLefe ntyr erdt Baia asad bsr ed ha rque l efre o ls ge t monke ' ( ke No.9 28a 71) y.' Doc t 4- t . Furhe m or ,Si m onsm e i d a ce t i phot r ph o Ba i a c a ni J pa s w rtng, t r e m ntone ra n og a f ls ge, ont i ng a ne e ii t twa cr ul t a ound t J ha s ic aed r he TEKT plnt W he Si monsque toned aJ pa em mz ge a . n m si a nes a r co e ni t m ea ng oft wrtng,hema err ponde t t wrtngr pr s nt t nc r ng he ni he ii t nag es d hat he ii e e e ed he wor t dd monke ' (#=a 43. Si y. J . t ) mmonsa sre t tt phoogrphpr ' se td ha he t a oduce byt defndmzs d he e t i dic r i nott phot rpht tSi n s ovey s he oga ha mmonss w a t pl t6 (d. Howe r Bals ge a t he an . I ) ve , ia afime i hi de ii n t tt phot a pr e by t def nda si dic r wa t fr d n s posto ha he ogr ph oduc d he e nt n s ove y s he phoogrphi quesi ; ( ke No. 24a 238 ) t a n ton. Doc t 94- t -39. Si m o a s t s ii d co r ng t Ba i a t pi i i nti Se e be 2008 m ns l o e tf e nce ni he ls ge a ng nc de n pt m r - a or ngt Si cc di o mmons LewrppedtpeaoundBaia sfce, k,a chet (#=a 29. , a a r ls ge' a nec nd s. J .t ) W hen Si m ons a ke Le w hy he had t pe up Bals ge Le l ughi y r s m s d a d i a , a ngl e ponde t e 1 he i a d, $ l, s W mol ' (d. W hieBaia wa siltpe up,Si rkey. 1 ) l ls ge s tl a d ' mmonsesore hi t t huma c td m o he n r ouresde rme wheet ys kewihW a Hylon.td a 29 ) Si nssae es c pa t nt r he po t nda t L= t -30. mmo ttd: So Itl W a dat a Le (iltk st etp ,srpsi ao n Gldmy ' he d el n h t e sc a e h a e ta t r u d a i rs a , a ound hi bod a I s i s t ng ne t be do a r s y, nd ad omehi eds o ne boutt t And pl ha . us c le m o y,wha e r a l d nke t ve . A nd t n s tt s a ound,t kes he ha t ke t t pe of Gl di yr s he he tm r a r nd, a s he a f a m ' he d, ou hi body, t hi on t ba k a s d,W el,e r a ar nd s pa s m he c nd ai l ve ybody pl ys 1 1 a . '1 t ke c r of i. A nd pus Gl m yrou t door a ae t hes adi t he . (d.a 30. Si I t ) mmonsase t t t i ta ofs pe ngordici i ngLe,Hylons Lebac s red ha,nse d us ndi s plni t ent k t t pr o he oduc i lne w he e he l ughe a utt i de f t ee da bef e he w a ton i , r a d bo he nci nt or hr ys or s 6 The phot aph pr uc i di c r r pr e sa de o t a i o t pr ogr od ed n s ove y e es nt m nsr ton n he operus ofequi nta e pme nd c nan Jp n s a dEn ls tnn d srbigteo eaino tee uime t ( c e No 9 2 , s 5 ,12. o tis a a ee n gih e s eci n h p rto fh q p n. Do k t . 2-0 Ex . 0 7 ) 7 Thecour not t , a or ng t Ba iage he r quesed t be i t phot r ph a i f ct t the t es hat cc di o ls , e t o n he og a nd, n a , ha <ies p sn frpcues. ( c e No. 42 a 2 0 41) F rh nn r, lsg sae t t ewa n t p e tk l) o ig o itrll' Do k t 9 -4 t 4 - . u te o e Baia e ttd ha h s o u st l ' r g r i gt ep t g a hal rt eJ pa e ewrtn wa ta ltd it En l h f rhm .(d a 23 ) e a d n h hoo r p fe h a n s i g s rnsae no g i o i 1 . t 9. i s 4 tr n tdbyJ emiae TEKT.(d. t4 . we e,h dee d nsp it ot ed caaino Do l a 0)Ho v r te fn a t on t h e lrto f n Kni t J gh , TEKT' Seni Ge r lM a ge o Empl eReltons who sa e t tt , S or ne a na r f oye ai , t t d ha t e l i m e a e y w ass pende pe ng a i t g ton i o t m a t rand w a t nni t l s m di t l us d ndi n nvesi a i nt he te s e na ed e s t nf t ei ( )hour a trt i ien.'( cke No.9 8at!8. ha ory- ght 48 s fe he ncd t' Do t 2) A c or i t Si m ons t r ci ly ha a sng a m os r a J c d ng o m , he a a l r s i t phe e t TEK T a f c e m or fe t d e e ly e t a us Baia e Lea da oh rVit n s e o e na dP ilpHu n mp o e s h nj t ls g . n n te en me e mply e me h li y h (t 1 'ha t l uii dt tr û a ky't rfrt blc e oye s ( ke No.94d h') biualy tlze he em i c 'o e e o a k mpl e . Doc t Huyr bl 28 a 63. Furhemoe,Si t ) t r r mmonstsiidt thehe r awhiefmaee oye s û edon' etfe ha ad t e l mpl e ay,û W t ne t do a hi Le t bl kysdoi. (d.a 69. ed o nyt ng. t he ac t' 1 t ) ' Si m onsal o t tted t tr c a l ha a s ng be vi rw a diec e pe s ly a hi . m s es ii ha a i ly r s i ha o s r t d r ona l t m Acc r ng t Si ons Huynh cal Si monsna ss h asû gge ,'l o di o mm , led m me uc E ni r' t monke 'i ac ' y,'d ky,' bl a t ' t#za 57. Afe Si nsrporedt haa s ntt EdBrdly,J nd s ' J . t ) tr mmo e t he rsme o boy. a e TEKT' huma S n r s ce m a ge a t tm e,Br dl y s m pl pule Huynh of oft pr e our s na r t he i a e i y ld f he oduc i lne a s ton i nd poke t hi brel (d.a 58. Thena -ali r ume a utt we ltr Si o m ify. I t ) mec lng es d bo wo eks ae, mmonstsiid. ette (d. Howe r t r or co ansnoe de es esi t tt r umptvena c li was l) ve,he ec d nti vi nc ugg tng ha he es i me-alng e rrporedt t huma r our sde rme .Ta Niel Cû cey' ,awhiepr ton ve e t o he n es ce pat nt nya c y Ni 1 ' ) t oduci wor r s t n it d Si mons c am s t tf ngt tHuy t e t N wor wih ... ke , ubsa ta e m ' l i , esiyi ha nh û d he us d t Smmo s. . a o te e yd y e eyh u . ( c e No 9 - 5a 3 ) Nieytsiidt a s e i n . . b u v r a , v r o r' Do k t . 4 3 t 9. c l etfe h t h ' r por e Huynh' i s a na e c li ofSi m onst Bower ,butt tBow e s s m a iy e td s nce s nt m - a lng m o s ha r um rl dimisdNiel sc ant tli Niel t t woryabou i,ha' j thow ( hji. s se c y' ompli ,elng c y t o r not t tt ts us Huyn s' ' (d.a 63. Howe r Ni l sae t t atrSi l t ) ve, cey ttd ha, fe mmonsrporedt is t Brdly,Brdly e t he sue o a e a e t merg ou'andCt d't na -ali (d.a 40. t ca iht t' t oppe 'he mec lng. l t ) s The de e nt t ke i s wih Si m o 't s i o c nc m i t har s i be vi f nda s a s ue t m ns e tm ny o e ng he a sng ha or t ta l dl w a diec e a hi pe s na l nii ly, he de e n ' poi t Br dl s ha lege y s r t d t m r o ly.l ta l t f nda t s nt o a ey' de ii t si o i whih Br dl y sa e t t afe hes ke wih Huynh c poston e tm ny,n c a e t t d ha , tr po t once i m ng Si o 'r por ofnn e c lng,Br dly r po td ba k t Si mmons who s i t thewa mm ns e t m - ali a e e re c o m , ad ha s : aife 'wihhow Brdlyha ha e t st ton.( ke No.94- a 63. Addii ly, t tsid' t s a e d ndld he iuai Doc t 27 t ) tonal t r or de ons r t s t t whe J he ec d m ta e ha , n TEK T ofi i s tr ti e v e e Si m o o A prl21 fc al i s nt r i w d m ns n i , 2009,Si m ons m e i d not ng a m ntone hi boutH uynh o a ot r e pl e r e rng t hi asa r ny he m oye ef r i o m ( ig r' ra a( n y. ( c e No. 2 2 , 1 3)M o es e i l S mmo ddn t t g e'o s s ke ' Do k t 9 - 4 Ex. 3 . r p ct l i ns i o n mo ' ka y, e e s y s a e t tany de oga or t r sha be n die t a hi pe s ly. Si m o a s xpr s l t t ha r t y em d e r c ed t m r ona l m ns l o s a ed durng t Aprl2 1 i e vi w t tt na e- a lng c as afe Br e conf o e Huy tt i he i nt r e ha he m c li e ed t r adl y r nt d nh i fc, i n prie Br de b saigta ty o c ntl ( a e lsp e e c i h r. n a t Smmo s as d a ly y ttn h tû lu a el Brdly ' rs n e s e e' g ' (d. Si I ) mmons de ii r prs nt t frttmet thealeg t ta r ile t t ha ' poston e e e s he is i ha l ed ha ny aca pihes d be n diec e a hi pe s ly, ha Huynh ha us d t t r s C gge ' a ( orke ' a t t e r t d t m r ona l t t d e he e m t ni r' nd t t y,' nd ha m t na e c lng pe s s e a t rBr dl y s he m - ali r i t d f e a e poke w ih Huynh. The de enda sal o a s r t t afe t f nt s s e t ha , t r hi Aprl21i e viw,Si onsco a t t huma r our esde rmentandt a s i ntr e mm nt ced he n es c pa t he nonym o us he plne f unr l t d r s , di notr por t tt nn e c lng ha r um e l i or e a e ea ons but d e t ha he m - ali d es d. 4. Young Li hi ot rt e co- ai i f ,Y o alo t s ii t ta l r a ountofr c a ke s he hr e pl ntfs ung s e tfed ha a ge m a il ani i t J mus n he TEKT plntwa die t d t r Baia I hi de ii Young sa e t t a s r c e owa d ls ge. n s poston, t t d ha t c c a f om J pa viie t J e hni i ns r a n s t d he TEKT pl n i Dal vil a ca l d Ba i a a i onke ' a t n e le nd le ls ge s m y. ' ( ke No.94- a 211 3. Youngas s ofaphoogrphofBaia onwhih Doc t 38 t -1 ) lo poke t a lsge c s me n h dwrte t ewo di n e . (d a 2 9)Ho ve ,i eSi n , u ga sre o o e a i n h r t k y' I . t 0 . we r lk mmo s Yo n se td t mo ' t tt phot r ph pr ha he og a oduc d i di c r by t d enda t i no t pho ogr ph t w hi he e n s ove y he ef n s s t he t a o ch wa r e ng.(Is s efni Ll) Young t tfed i hi deposton t r alhar m entw as al o di ed athi and at es ii n s ii hat aci ass s rect m ot bl em pl her ack oyees. A ccor ng t Y oung,t Ja di o he panese t echni ans r er ed t hi and ot ci ef r o m her ba ke l e sa ç a g tr 'a dç ai me es' (4 a 21 . Youngalo satdt tLe lc mpoy e s t n se s' n i fa mb r.' 1 t 2) g M ' s t e ha -. . t dhi ononeoc sont td a kpe edon' ma g t m lad s' (d.a 1 6. ol m ca i ha t c opl bl t ke ood ea e er.' l t 9 ) A c or ng t Y oung,J c di o TEKT m a ge e r us d t a kno l dge Ba be a a t a l a r na m nt ef e o c w e r r s e m e de , sa i f rexa e t tt boa d i a o t et tlse al oft tnm l a r lse Ba be as t tng, o mpl, ha he r n n fk ha it d l he e e de s it d r r abascpr ucinwor rwhe i fc,Bar rwasat m l de .(d.a 17 ) You as i od to ke n,n a t be ea ea r 1 t 3. ng lo men i d t thehad s n r i g a ft i t ba lr m sa t plnt i l ng t wor tone ha ee acal r fii n he tloo t he a , nc udi he d S i g r' (d. t1 8) Ho v r Yo n a k o e g dta rca ga ft i t b t oo t g e. 1 a 8 . we e , u g c n wld e h t a il r fiin he ahr ms n ' wo dbepei c lyE cac o .'(d. Acc di t Young,hes f e pe s lyfom ul rodial s rthed ut' I ) or ng o s uferd ronal r r c a l ha a sng be vi rtloug t ac i ofBow e s hi s r s . Bower w a a i ly r s i ha o lr h he tons r , s upe vi or s s d a ial arcsy Yo ngtsiid (d a 4 ) Ho v r t s b tn it t sg n rlz d t sc l a it' u etfe . I . t 4. we e ,o u sa tae hi e eaie b y ' a s ri Y o s e ton, ung sa e onl t tBowe sw oul i e hi , r a hi di f r nty t n t ot r t t d y ha r d gnor m t e t m f e e l ha he he e oyee ,a fit tai hi pr ry.(#=a 44- ) Younga mpl s nd al o r n m opel J .t 47. cknowldgedi hi de ii e n s poston t the ha ne rr pore a c e nst t h a r s ur s de r m e ort m a ge en , ha d ve e t d ny onc r o he um n e o ce pa t nt o na m t a ha ne rutlz d t a nd d ve ii e he nonym o hel i as e tngt t i he ha s r pore hi c e ns us plne, s ri ha, f d o e td s onc r , heflt a h wo l ha el s hs o a dta hsc n e wo l h v f l no d a e r.( z et h t e u d v o t ij b n h t i o c ms ud a e al n e f a s J . e # a 1 0 2 8 9) t 9 , 0 -0 . 5. Testm ony ofot w ines concerni t alegedl hostl w ork i her t ses ng he l y ie envi ronm ent Thepli if a s s antfs lo ubmi i t r c d t s n de a a i ofM i ke Alen Campbe l t n he e or he wor clr ton c y l l, a blc J a k TEKT empl oyeewho wast r na e i Aug t2008.Ac or ng t Ca pbe l e mi t d n us c di o m l, Snumeouswor r a me sofmana me used i ppr it rcitlngua i l ng k r ke s nd mber ge nt l ) na oprae a s a ge ncudi t wor C gg rwihoutrprmand. Doc tNo. 4a !2. Ca he d ni er' t e i ' '( ke 94- t ) mpbela sre t t o t l se td ha, n wo oc s ons s r por e t us oft w or û gge ' t W iki on, he t n- a r our es ca i , he e t d he e he dç ni r' o l ns t he hum n es c 8 The de enda spoi outt Young mentoned t tga t r' < afa ' e er esf t fr ttme i f nt nt hat i he t ngs e 'and t i ' r f enc or he is i n M hi de ii he m a no m e i oft s sur i hi s n c r es fld wih t EqualEm pl s postonde nton he e l s n s wor ha g ie t he oyment Opport t Co m i son, he compl nt ort a e d c tmiy m s i t ai , he m nde ompl nt ai . 7 ma ge ,bu ,t Campbel' knowldge W iki o t k no c r tveaci a i tt na r t o ls e , l ns n oo orec i ton gans he p r er tr.(d a !3) F rh r r , mp elsae t t efRo bn , p od cine gn e ep tao s I . t . u temo e Cn b l ttd ha J f b is a r u t n ie r o ma a e wihwh m Ca elwo k dco ey o tne l y drcs lng a ea j k s td a n gr t o mpb l r e ls l, fe mp o e a ita u g nd o e . L. t . !4. ) The pl i i f a s s i t s n de l r to o How a d Dow e, bl ck J a ntf s l o ubm t he wor c a a i n f r a a TEK T e o whowashied i Fe ua y 2008afe pr vi l wor ng a J mpl yee r n br r tr e ousy ki t TEKT on atm por y e ar ba i . A fe J ss tr TEK T of e e D ow e f ltm e e pl e ,Dow e w a i or e t the w oul frd ul-i m oym nt s nf m d ha d h v t sg ad c me tsaigta h t a t wo kS n a t g ttej b. ( c e No 9 - 7 a e o in o u n ttn h t e t d o r u d ys o e h o ' Do k t . 4 1 h ' a !3)Do sg dted c me t e a s h n e e t j b; o v r Do sae oh r t . we ine h o u n b c u e e e d d he o h we e , we ttd, te whiea M usi e o t nd lm mpl yeeswe enotr quie t sgn adoc ntoblgi t m t wor on r e rd o i ume i ng he o k terS b ahd y.(d. Fu temo e a trs fei gawo k rltdij r t hsn c a db c h i a b t a l ) rh r r, fe u frn r -eae nu y o i e k n a k, Dowe' do t a horze hi t wor llghtdut ' (#.a !!4-5. Howe r aJ s cor ut i d m o k éi y. J t ' ) ve , TEKT r p e e ttv i ome Do ta tec mp n h dn lg td t f rhm.(I a !5) Do e rs naie nfr d we h t h o a y a o ih u y o i Ll t . we s c i r d t sodd bec us û he co pa pe ted ca a i n e pl e w ho we e hu ton t ons de e hi a et t m ny nnit uc s a m oye s r r he j bt wok l h d t . (d. o o r i t u y' I ) g ' The pl i tf s a s s i t s or d l r ton ofDw a W is n,a J a n if l o ubm t he w n ec a a i yne l o TEK T e pl e m oye w ho r s g d i M ay 2006. W is n sa e t tBo e s one oft pl ntm a er ,i r d w hie e i ne n l o t t d ha w r , he a nag s c e hi t m aesa t p o ot t m ove e oye swho ha be n t r a whie,pa tc a l blc l nd hen r m ed he r mpl e d e he e l ri ulry a ks andohe mi iis' ( cke No. 1 a !5. Anot rmana ri or d W is t t t r norte . Do t 94- 8 t ) ' he ge nf me lon ha J TEKT w asgoi t t a n hi t be a t m l de ; e r whe Bow e s l r d oft s ng o r i m o ea ea r how ve , n r ea ne hi , W is saed,s 4pr edo oft whieg i ta ' (d.a !6. Ac or ngt W is lon tt he t omot ne he t uys nse d. l t ) c di o lon, ' Bowessae t tûs ha rt rha awhiegu i c r ' (d.a !7. W is n a sre t t r ttd ha the d ahe ve t y n hage. l t ) lo se td ha ' he a t m p e t tl a c pl i tw ih t uni b t to oft t d m e ' nf m e hi t te t d o i e om a n t he on, ut ha ne he s hea n' i or d m hat hes ul d opt c ai orelehei d tha aj ' (d. t!8. ho d r he ompl nt s û n' ve ob. 1 a ) di ' 8 The s n de a a i ofSha Cr ghe d, whie J wor clr ton wn ai a a t TEKT e pl e,i a s s itd m oye s lo ubm te b t pl ntf s Ac or ng t Cr i he d, bec mea r t tJ y he ai if . c di o a g a he a wa e ha TEKT m ant i d unma ke i ane r d bi r t tc a ne a i ton m a e i l f om w he t pl n w a fr tope i 2002. nde s ha ont i d pplca i t ra s r n he a t s is ned n ( c e No 9 1 a ! 3 4. Cr ihe dsae t a a o tca fo J p nma et ehrng Do k t . 4- 9 t ! - ) ag a ttd h t n fi il rm a a d h ii de ii a ofen ma e re i J pa eon t a i to s cii al no i whehe t c sons nd t de ntis n a nes he pplcai n, pe fc ly tng t r he a pia t we eb a ko wht .(d a ! 5 6. Ac o dn t Crihe d t J p eo fca p lc n s r lc r ie I . t ! - ) c r i g o ag a ,he a mws fiil uiiedt wor C ange g'a codef i ntf ngwhehe a a i ntwasbl k.(d. t tlz he d t or bur ' s or de iyi t r n pplca ac l a Cr ghe d e ai d t t a t ttm e J ai a xpl ne ha, t ha i , TEKT o d apl i Or nge g,So h Ca olna, wne ant n a bur ut r i t twassafdprmaiywihblc e oye .(d. ha tfe i rl t a k mpl es l ) The pl i t fs a s s i t s or d l r i ofSha H unt r a bl c J a n if l o ubm t he w n ec a aton wn e , a k TEKT em pl . A cc di t Hunt r J oyee or ng o e , TEK T m ana m e f t r a pr c i ofr m ovi bl k ge nt ose ed a tce e ng ac em pl sf om t i postonsa w ihoutr a on, e s gni t m t m or phys c ly oyee r he r ii nd, t e s r as i ng he o e i al dema ngpostonsa t Daevil plnt ( ke No. 22a !3. o Mach2009, ndi ii t he l le a . Doc t 94- t )Ar und r H unt w a m ove f o hi pos ton o t tai lne t t pa t ya d,w hi a co di t er s d r m s ii n he r n i o he r s r ch, c r ng o Hunt , st mos physc l de ndi de rme a t plnt l a !4. Hl e ase t erwa he t ialy ma ng pa t nt t he a .(d. t ) mtr sred t the w a gi n no r s f t t a f ra t the w a r pl c d o t t a n lne by a w hie ha s ve ea on or he r ns e nd ha s e a e n he r i i t e oyeewhowa tkenoutoft pa t yad.(d Thedee nt pr s nte de s esi mpl sa he rs r L=) fnda s e e vi nce ugg tng t tH unt r s r as i entw a nota dem oton i t ti di no i ve a r duc i ofpa o ha e ' e s gnm s i n ha t d t nvol e ton y r b n ft.( k t 9 - a !3 ) Fu temo e t ed fn a t p itt e ie c idc t e eis Doc e No. 2 8 t 2. rh r r ,h ee d n s on o vd n e n iai ng t t afe H unt rc pl i d a ha , t r e om a ne boutt r as i e , a e i tga e t m a t ra he e s gnm nt Br dl y nves i t d he te nd di c plne t s r s who a horze t r s i e f rhi f iur t pr pe l no iy s i i d he upe vi or ut i d he ea sgnm nt o s a l e o o r y tf Hune oft r a o be ndt ta fr ( cke No.9 27a 73 ) Brdlyt nofeed tr he e s ns hi he rnse . Do t 4- t -74. a e he fr Hu e ar sinme bac t hi prvi posto butHuntrr s nde û ' fnehe ej t ntr ea sg nt k o s e ous iin, e epo d,s m i r ,us l la mehee. (d.a 74. e ve r' 1 t ) ' 6. O t r e de e i t r or he vi nc n he ec d Se r lda a t Bals et pi i de , TEKT e f c i l o ha e is ve a ys her he iag a ng nci nt J f e tve y ver ul d t m a ge e i s ve a key a ea oft pl nt A spa toft s ove ha ,J na m nt n e r l r s he a . r hi r ul TEK T of i al f c d fci s or e Li W iki on,t t nnda l ns he he humanrs ur e ma e ,or in.( ke No.94- a 11. l e o c s nag r t esg Doc t 39 t ) n t m e tng i w hi J he e i n ch TEK T ofk i l i or e W iki o oft rde s on,W iki on w a t a s nf m d l ns n hei ci i l ns s pr e e wih al tert tpr ded,i pe tne tpa t es nt d t et ha ovi n ri n r: Thes c lnge i ude . . . o a lt t sabii e t wor or e due t e hale s ncl ur biiy o t lz he kf c o r l tons p i s s w ih em pl esa co i d hi e pl e a i hi s ue t oye nd ntnue gh m oyeetunove t r W e ha co l ve nc uded t t we m us c nge our culur a pe f m a e ha t ha t e nd r or nc , wih bo h bei c nge s t n i l and quikl Ot r s our r ltons p t t ng ha d ubsa taly c y. he wie, ea i hi w ih e pl es Toyot and t f t e d el e ofo busnes a e a r s t m oye , a, he u ur ev opm nt ur i s r t ik. Afe c i rng t mat rve y c r f l weha decded t twe mus tr onsde i he te r a e uly, ve i ha t brng i ne a dif r tm a ge e t i c ran ke ar s of t pl n . lam i n w nd fe en na m n n e ti y ea he a t s r y t s y t t your a e i o of t e,a we w il be b i ng i a ne o r o a ha r a s ne hos nd l r ngi n w h a r our esm a er um n es c nag . ( cke No.9 1 )Att tmeoft me tng, iki onwasunawar oft Baiagetpi Do t 4- 3. he i he ei W l ns e he ls a ng i i ntand,f t r or w a unawa e ofa c pl n s ofr c alha a s e ordi c i i ton nc de ur he m e, s r ny om ai t a i r s m nt s rm na i a t plntdu i he tnur ( ke No. 39a 1 9,32 )JTEKT rplc W iki on t he a rng r e e. Doc t 94- t 8-1 -33. e a ed l ns wihBrdly.( t a e Docke No. 27a 9 0. t 94- t -1 ) The ea t r i J nua y 2009,J r fe , n a r TEK T c onduc ed a m a t y di r iy ta ni i w hi h t nda or ve st r i ng n c t com pa r vi w e w ih e pl yee isequa e pl e oppor uniy and ha as m e he ny e e d t m o s t l m oym nt t t r s nt he r i ng m oye polc es9 Att t a ni , e pl eswer e ur ed t c a tt h a r s lce ii . e nco ag o ont c he um n e otr s 9 J TEKT' e le plymentopporuniya haasm e polc pr vi d, i pe tne pa t S qua m o t t nd r s nt ies o de n ri nt r: 2. Equa Em pl e Opporuniy Polc l l oym nt t t iy J TEKT i a e s n qualopporuniy empl r W eae c mit t m ai ai ng awor a t t oye . r om ted o nt ni kplce fe fom pr bied empl e co re r ohi t oym nt nduct i l ng dic i i i o ha a s , ncudi s rm naton r r s menton t bassof he i a y ca sp o e tdb lw; a ) eaito f re g gn i p o e t d a tvt . . n l s r tce y a gnd r t l in o n a ig n r tce ci i . . a y Empl ym en Di c i i ton o t s rm na i The Com pa i c m it d t m a nt i ng a wor a fee of di c i i to o t ny s om te o i a ni kplce r s rm na i n n he b ss o a y poe td ca s icu ig rc ,c lr n to a o ii,. ..( een fe c l d ai f n rtce ls, n ldn a e oo, ain l rgn h riatr al e t oe tdCh rce itc' . . û tce aatrsis' . . pr ) 10 de t nto o he m a er wih a ha a s e tordic i i ton c parme r t r nag s t ny r s m n s rm nai once ns Empl swe e r . oyee r alor m i d t t i e ry 2008,J s e nde ha , n a l TEKT ha e tbls aheplnet o whi h e oye s d sa ihed l i hr ugh c mpl e co d a ul nonym ous y r por c er t a t r pa t s r i . l e t onc ns o hid- ry e v ce The i l t M a c 20 a bl c em pl e na e J s W oolol r pored t J n, n a e r h 09, a k oye m d a on f k e t o TEKT pl ntm a a nage K e M or ow t the ha be n r e vi mz r n r ha d e ec i ng onym ousd t ' not a noos s a hi t e ' es nd ha e t s d s ( c e No. 4 3 a 1 -1 ; c e No 9 27a 2 ' c e No. 2 8a ! 1 . e k. Do k t 9 - 4 t 4 5 Do k t . 4- t 3 Do k t 9 - t 1) , Furhe r W oolol r poredt theha be nEl al aNi rbyoneoft c t nuoe, f k e t ha d e sclled gge he ompany' t s op e neesi fon of1 ot re oye a acee r tonofmypr ton. ( ke No.9 2a ngi r n r t 0 he mpl es t lb ai omoi ' Doc t ' 4- t A fe r c vi t s r por , TEKT i m edi t y l unc an i tga i i w hi h t r e ei ng hi e t J m a el a hed nves i ton, n c 111(i) Iaasn n .. sc lrsre t The Compa w ilno t e ae ha a s e bas d on a Pr t td Cha a e itc,a ny l t olr t r s m nt e ny oece r ctrsi nd wil a a o it me l est pr ve and/rsopan s hhaas men .Har s lt ke ppr prae asz o e nt o t y uc r s t r asmenti br dl s oa y dei d a a co uc,w hehe v balorph ialt td g aes i ulsorofe a pe s or fne s ny nd t t r er ysc , ha enir t , ns t fnds ron gr on t bassofaPr e t Char trsi whee: oup he i otced ace itc r ( )sbmiso t s c c nd c i ma ea e piio i l itr o e ly n; l u sin o u h o u ts d n x l t rmpi t em f mpo me t c c ( ) sb sin t o rjcin o sc c n u t i u e a a b ss fr a y a v re 2 u miso o r ee t f u h o d c s s d s a i o n d es o empl e de son;or oym nt cii ( )s c c n u th d te p r s o efc o itreig wi a e o e ' wo k 3 u h o d c a h upoe r fet f nefrn t n mply es r h pef r ro manc orcr tng a i i i i ofensveorhosiewor ng e r en . e eai n ntm datng, f i tl ki nvionm t ( c e No. 2 1 , .1 . Do k t 9 - 8 Ex 1) J TEKT' Em pl e Ha S oye ndbook alopr de ac s ovi d ompl ntpr e e: ai oc dur l you ae a a e ofan c f r w r y onduc t m a vi at t spolc plas contc t Hum an t hat y ol e hi iy, e e a t he Res c s De rm e i meditl ...t i o t Co pa oft compl nt Appr it our e pa t nt m aey o nf nn he m ny he ai . oprae se wilbetkent i si t t cli a no iyyouofar s uton. J tps l a o nvetgae he am nd tf e ol i TEKT wilnott e ae l olr t r t iton a i ta e pl e who ma a r por unde t spolc orwho pa tcpaesi a ealai gans n m oye kes e t r hi iy rii t n ny i tgai ofac pl nt.... nvesi ton om ai Al r t wil be r f re t Hum a Re oures f i tga i r ew or oter l epors l e er d o n s c or nvesi ton, evi h appr it a ton. Hum a r s ce wilc oprae ci n e our s l onduc apr t ompt t r , ho ough i si i t dee ne nve tgaton o tnni whatha t n pl e. A1 f t conc r ng a r por wilbekep c i il.... l J s ake ac l acs e ni ny e t l t onfdenta f TEKT conc ude t spolc ha be vi a e i wilt kepr l s hi i y s en ol t d, t l a omptcorec i a i r as bl desgned r tve cton e ona y i t end t vi ain a t pr ve any f t vi a i fom occ rng. Such c r tveaci o he olto nd o e nt urher oltons r uri oreci ton m a i l dici i r a ton a i ta y ncude s plna y c i gans nyone f ound t ha vi ae t s polc up t a o ve oltd hi iy, o nd i l ngi edit tr na i ofempl ncudi mm ae e mi ton oyment . (d. At h tmeo t erhrn e c o t eplitfssg e a k o e g me t c ri n t err c ita d l ) t e i f h i iig, a h f h an if in d c n wld e n s e tf g h i e ep n yi u d r tn i go t s p l is ( c t 9 - 7a 2 - 7. c e No 9 - 9a 3 - 1 Do k t . 4- 8a 21 n e sa d n f he e o i e . Do ke No. 4 3 t 3 2 , k t . 4 2 t 0 3 ; c e No 9 2 t c Do 23 Do k t . 4 38a 6 - 4. * , c e No 9 - t 0 . ) 6 c ompanyofi i sc fcal onduc e walt wal i e vewsofa1 e pl es1 scheduld addii t d l-o- l nt r i l m oye , 0 e tonal m a t y di r iyta ni a i taedt pr e sofupda i r publs ng,a cic a i ndaor ve st r i ng, nd niit he oc s tng, e ihi nd r ultng t c ny' e le oyme oppo t t a haasme polcis ( ke No. 8,Ex. he ompa s qua mpl nt runiy nd r s nt i e . Doc t 92B. I a tont i tai isown i enali siai J ) n ddii o niitng t ntr nvetg ton, TEKT e itdt adoft nlse he i he Bott tCount SheifsDe rme (s rf sOfie' t i tgaeW oolol s eour y rf pa t nt E if fc ' o nvesi t she l f k' alg to s (d; c e No. 4 2 a 2 . Ho v r W o lokp o e lr eyu c o e aiea le ain . I .Do k t 9 - 7 t 7) we e, of l r v d ag l n o p rtv s t She ifsOfi atmptdt i e ve hi i rltont hi alegai .1 ( oc No 92he rf tce te e o ntr iw m n eai o s l tons1 D ket 8, . Ex. Doc tNo.9 33a 87. Thee fe,onAprl22, B; ke 4- t ) ra tr i 2009,J TEKT andW oolol a e dt f k gre o s tl hi cli a onM a 1 2009,hepa te e c e t s tlme a e me .( ke No. ete s am nd, y , t ris xe utd he ete nt gre nt Doc t 92- a ! 1 -21) 8 t! 9 . On M a 1 t s m e da t tJ y , he a y ha TEK T a W oolol e ut d t s tl m e a e m e t nd f k xec e he e te nt gr e n , Baia erp re t hstn la e t a h h dr c ie a; ae' oe 1 ( c e No. 2 8a ! ls g e o td o i e m e d r h t e a e ev d ( t'n t.2 Do k t 9 - t h 22;Doc tNo. 24,Ex.1 4. Agan, TEKT i di eyco a tdt SheifsOfiea ke 923) i J mme atl ntce he rf fc nd arn e f rBaia ea doh rwin s e t beitr iwe ( c e No 9 - a !2 ; c e ra g d o l g n te t e s s o ne ve d. Do k t . 2 8 t 3 Do k t s s t' en ocke Docke No. No.9 27,Ex.1 6. The onM a 7,3Ni el f 28 ) n, y 1 c y ound aShae'not i herl r ( t . 92- a !24.Docke No. 24,Ex.1 ) J 8t , t 9236. TEKT a i co a tdt a horte f t i gan ntce he ut iis or her a s s a e. A fe an e ens ve i tga i Ba i a w a a r s e a l t rco e s t s it nc tr xt i nves i ton, ls ge s r e t d nd a e nf s ed o 1 0 The ei e viwsu a t d an s ntr e ne rhe umbe ofis t t a or ngt t defnda s had o uredmany r sues ha, cc di o he e nt, cc r mo tsb frh n a dha no b e pe iu l rp re ( c e No. 2 8a !28)No o l ddtepanif nh eoe a d n d t e n rvo sy e o td. Do k t 9 - t . t ny i h litfs r por du i t s it r e st ge alc tr ofr ci ha a s e t ale dl pe m e t J e t rng he e n eviw he ner ulu e a al r sm nt hat lge y r aed TEKT,b Babe , ut r r Godfey,a Y o r t durngt i e ve st tt y ha bee t vitm sofdicrm i ton i t f m of r nd ung epored i he ntr iw ha he d n he ci s i nai n he or vai a ree pl e aci .Thes ii fcsu l ngt ei vi lcam sofr aldicrm i ton rous dves m oym nt tons pecfc a t nderyi hes ndi dua li aci s i nai w ilbedic s d i r Al f oft pli if tl c r wiht EqualEm pl entOppo tniyComm ison l s us e nfa. l our he antfs ied ha ges t he oym ru t si beo eisi t gteisa ts i.Do k t . 22 Ex. 7 Do k tNo . 48 9 - , 4-3) fr n tui h n tn ut( c e No 9 -2, 7 , c e s 9 -, 4 9 9 2 . t n . 1 1 Eve ualy, bot J nt l h TEKT ma ge e a t SheifsOfi de opeddoubt r ga di t veact of na m nt nd he rf' tce vel s e r ng he r iy W o lok' cams ( c e No 9 2 a 4 - 3) o f l s li . Do k t . 4- 7 t 2 4 . ' 2 AsofM a 1 2009,J y , TEKT wasc i ngt r po t teW oolol i i nt by wor ngw ih l ontnui o es nd o h f k ncde , ki t aw enf ce e au horte ,i e vi ng al e pl yees a r bls ng a s dulng tai ng ise or m nt t iis nt r ewi l m o , nd epu ihi nd che i r ni t quale pl m oyme nt oppo t t a haas mentpolci ,a r publs ng ise runiy nd r s i es nd e ihi t quale plym e opporuniy.Furhe mor ,J m o nt t t t r e TEKT had pose a$2, r wa d f a td 500 e r or nyonewho f r s dt compan wih i or tonconc ni t i ntt oft unihe he y t nf mai er ng he de iy he c lrtb hn teWo lokicd n.( c e No 9 -0 Ex 49) up i e id h ofl n ie t Do k t . 22 , . . 1 3 M a 7,2009, a t day t tJ y w s he ha TEKT he d ismanda or tai ng r gar ng is ha a s enta l t t y r ni e di t r s m nd dic i i to polcisi t wa oft W oolol i i nt s rm nain i e n he ke he f k ncde . 12 a to igt eM a 1a dM a 7n t s ( c tNo 9 - 6 Ex.1 6) OnNo e e 1 , 01 , uh rn h y n y oe . Do ke . 2 2 , 6. v mb r 8 2 0 Bals gepl d guit i Bott t ia e ly n e our Count Cic tCour t at i t obt n mone by f le y r ui t o temptng o ai y as pr t ns s Att tm e ofB a i ag s g ly pl ,bo h Godf e a Si m ons w e e pr e i t ee e . he i ls e' uit ea t r y nd m r es nt n he gale yandalege yt e tne Balsge.( ke No. 24a 1 lr l dl hrae d ia Doc t 94- t 66-74. Howe r bot ) ve, h Godfe a Si ry nd mmonsde t salgai ( cke No.9 29a 1 -84;Doc tNo.9 28a ny hi le ton. Do t 4- t 82 ke 4- t 21 -1 . Th r atr Baia ewa sn e c dt atr o i ac r to t b f lo db atr 6 7) e e fe , ls g s e tn e o em f nc re ai n o e o lwe y em ofpr ton. Ba i a w a r l a e f om i r e a i on M a 11, 1,a w a t n pi ked oba i ls ge s e e s d r nca c r ton y 201 nd s he c up by t I i ai n a N aur lz ton Se vce whih hed Ba ia a ade e i f ciiy. he mm gr to nd t a ia i r i , c l ls ge t t nton a lt ( ke No. 24a 20 ) OnAugus 1 2011 Bals gea rdaganbefr t Cic t Doc t 94- t -22. t , , ia ppeae i o e he rui Cour ofBot t tCount o a m oton t m odiy hi s n e e. Dur ng t hea i Ba i a t e our y n i o f s e t nc i he rng, ls ge i i td Si onsa t m a t r nd be nd t ( ae' e s he 4 a alegai n t t mplcae mm s he se mi hi he $ t 'not s c mel- n l to ha h Si mmonsde e .( ke No.94- 6'Do tNo.9 28a 21 -1 )Att c l i oft nis Doc t 1 , cke 4- t 4 6. he oncuson he he rng,hec te nae Bals ge' pr to ( ke No.94- 6. ai t our tnni td ia s obain. Doc t 1) B. Fac s unde l ng r i ldi cr m i i c ai s t r yi ac a s i naton l m Apa tfo t pli if 'ale tonsr r ng age r c t eofr i lha as me , r r m he antf s lga i ega di ne al ulur ac a r s nt tle o t pl ntf sc a m t tJ lr e f he ai i f l i ha TEK T t k r ci ly di c i i t y a r e e pl ym e ac i oo a a l s r m na or dve s m o nt tons a i tt m . ga ns he 1. Barber Ba be t tfe i hi de ii t tJ r r esi i d n s pos ton ha TEK T di c i i t d a ns hi by de ng hi s rm na e gai t m nyi m c r a n pr oto a by u a r y de otng hi . W ih r s tt t de a ofpr m oton e t i om i ns nd nf il m i m t e pec o he ni l o i c a m s Ba be a l ged i t c pl i t t c r r t c pa polc J l i , r r le n he om a nt ha , ont a y o om ny i y, TEKT f ie t pos al d o t va i j o ni a i ta ha c de oyee ,g nerlywhiee o e ,t fl t rous ob pe ngs nd,nse d, ndpike mpl s e al t mplye s o ilhe o ngs ( ke No. 1a ! 1 ) I hi de ii Ba be fie t i ntf a s cfc peni . Doc t 2 t 2. n s poston, r r ald o de iy ny pe ii 1 4 Pr ort t salega i , Bai geha mai ai c it tyt theaoneha ace a t a c t toft i o hi l ton lsa d nt ned onssen l ha l d td s he r hiec he n tssh me ( c e No 9 2 ) oe c e . Do k t . 4-4. postont the l tt ough t ha c ng s tm . l t d,het tte t t whiehe o e ve ii ha os hr he ndpiki yse nsea esii d ha , l bs r d t sha piki prci afe tohe pe e idi notafec hi pes l ( ke No. 37 hi nd c ng a tce f c t r opl,t d f t m ronaly. Doc t 94at87. ) W ih r s c t hi unf rde oton c ai ,Ba be t tfed t the w a de ot d fom t t e pe t o s ai m i l m r r es ii ha s m e r he pos ton ofTe m Le de oft AD Li t t pr ii a a r he ne o he oduc i c r de m e . A c di t ton ontol pm nt cor ng o Ba be , r c i d no tani a trhe waspr r r he e e ve r i ng fe omot t t a lad a t r f e, e c o ed o e m e er nd, he e or r a hed ut tJ o TEKT ma me t s c es h tani (i a 5 nage nt o e ur uc ri ng. 1 t 4-55,61 ) Howe r J -65. ve, TEKT m a ge e tf ie t gi hi t t a ni he s na m n a l d o ve m he r i ng oughta i f c ,g hi c l c i or e s nd, n a t ave m ont i tng d r c nc migh s o r s o i l is (d a 6 . Afe sv rl n h o no rc ii gt etann o e n i j b e p nsbite . l . t 3) tr e e a mo t s f t e ev n h ri ig i ta h n e e , r e wa d moe a r pa e b awht fmae ( =a 6 - . Th h t e e d d Bab r s e td nd e lc d y ie e l. J t 6 69) e # de e nt poi tt e de i t r co d s f nda s n o vi nce n he e r ugge tng t tBa be w a de ot d due t s i ha r r s m e o s b tn adj bp ro ma c .( za 5 5 - 6 5 , 0 61 6 -6 ) u sa d r o ef r n e J . t 0, 5 5 . 8 6 - , 3 4. # 2. Godf y re Godf e t tf e i hi de ii t tJ r y es ii d n s poston ha TEK T dic i i t d aga ns hi by de ng hi s r m na e i t m nyi m c r a n pr otons Acc di t Godf e he a ple f a num be oft am l a rpostons e t i om i . or ng o r y, p i d or r e e de ii durnghi tnur wiht c ny.( ke No. 29a 94,1 ) J i s e e t he ompa Doc t 94- t 39. TEKT ma e nt nag me itr iwe Go fe f rtepo iin a dtl hm ta dhe g v t be tn eve a dmo e ne ve d d r y o h sto s n o d i h tl l a e he s itr iw n r g t nlkey ( jhadat m la poston. (#za 1 ) J ha i l he ea e der ii ' J . t 39. TEKT mana me aloi or d ' ge nt s nf me Godfe t tt hii de iinswo dbemad ba e on sni iy.(d. t1 ) Howe r ry ha he rng cso ul e s d e ort I a 48. ve , depieGodfe ssni iy,J st r y' e ort TEKT ga t tam l de postonst whiee oye s (d.a ve he e ea r ii o t mpl e . I t 47. The e fe,Godfeya idf abac pta la rpostonwhihwasfle byawhie ) r a tr r pple or ku e m e de ii c ild t e oye overwhom Godfeyha s ni iy.td a 1 -48. mpl e r d e ort L= t 47 ) The de e nt poi tt e de i t r or s f nda s n o vi nce n he ec d ugge tng t to oft t nm l ade s i ha ne he e e r postonsf whih Godfe a pledwasgi nt Babe, sc pl ntf.( ke No.92-2, ii or c ry p i ve o r rhi o- ai if Doc t 2 14 Ex.1 )Thedee t f t rsaet tGodfe wa no hiedfrt postonsi quesi 05. fndan s urhe tt ha ry s t r o he ii n ton duet hi lc ofmait nc e re e.( ke No.9 36a 52. Thedee nt aloa sr o s ak nena e xpeinc Doc t 4- t ) fnda s s se t t tJ ha TEKT ofe e G odf e a t a l ad poston on t s c fr d r y e m e er ii he e ond s f , tt tG o r y de lne hi t bu ha df e c i d t ep sto d et fmi r s nsbite .( c e No 9 - 4a 3 - . Ad iin l ,h h o iin u o n l epo i l is Do k t , 4 3 t 9 40) dto al te y i y de e nt poi t t pori oft r co d t ts w st ta f c ltest hni i n pos ton was f nda s nt o he ton he e r ha ho ha a iii ec c a ii ce tds cfc lyf rGo fe a dgve t hm wi ar ie ( k t 9 - 6a 5 ; c e rae pe iial o d ry n i n o i t as . Doc e No. 4 3 t 2 Do k t h No. 29a 73. Howe r Godfe ase t i hi de ii t tt spr in i ve a 94- t ) ve , ry s red n s poston ha hi omoto nvol d l sdeia eposton.( ke No.9 29a 1 ) es srbl ii Doc t 4- t 42. 3. Y oung Y oung t s ii d a hi de ii t tJ e tf e t s poston ha TEKT di c i i t d ag ns hi by f c ng hi t s r m na e ai t m or i m o r i on t s pa aeocc i ,by unf il d yi hi ac ti pr esgn wo e r t asons ary en ng m era n omoton,a by f ii t i nd alng o honorhi wih a hi ve e a a ds W ih r s c t hi r i na i n cl m s Y ot g t s ii t t m t c e m nt w r . t e pe t o s es g t o ai , m e tfed ha J TEK T unf ry f c d hi t r s gn durng bo h ofhi t r s ofe pl e w ih t c pa ail or e m o e i i t s em m oym nt t he om ny. The r c d s e or ugge t t t durng Y o s s ha , i ung' fr tt r ofe pl e ,J s is e m m oym nt TEK T t r i t d hi f e m na e m or atnda is .( ke No.94- a 38-39;Doc tNo.92- 8,Ex.6. Howe r Young te nce sues Doc t 38 t ke 1 ) ve, t tfe a hi de ii t the w a f r e t r i a t rBo e s hi s r s , aie t es ii d t s pos ton ha s o c d o esgn f e w r , s upe vi or f l d o ac wldgedoco s notst tYoungt ne i t a c f hi abs es ((sa 43 ) kno e tr ' e ha ur d n o c ount or s enc . Ll t -44. W ih r s c t hi s c t r ofe oyme , her c d s t e pe t o s e ond e m mpl nt t e or howst tYo r sgne a trhe ha ung e i d fe rt nedapostved ugt t ( ke No. 20,Exs 36,38. l t c an,Yo aleg eur ii r es. Doc t 92. ) n he omplit ung l ed t tawhieempl whoha as f ldad u ts wasnotr uie t r sgn.( ha t oyee d lo aie r g et eq rd o e i Docke No. t 21 a ! 1 ) Howe r Youngltrconc de i hi de ii t ta1oft e oye whofie t 7. ve , ae e d n s poston ha 1 he mpl es ald t ts cii dr ts weete tdt sme i t te r l tt ij .( ke No.9 38 ha pe tc ug et r rae he a ,n ha veyone os her obs Doc t 4a 1 1) t 49-5 . 15 W ih r pe tt hi de alofpr to cli , t es c o s ni omo i n am Young a s re a hi de ii t the s e td t s poston ha wa unf ry de e apr oto ba ed o hi r ce Ther co d de onsr t t tYou a id s ail ni d om i n s n s a . e r m ta es ha ng pple f raKaz n 5tcmiinp sto a tr e o sypef r n wo ko aKaz np o e t o ie 1 e l ca o iin fe prviu l ro mig r n ie rj c. ( c tNo.9 38a 9 ) J Do ke 4- t 2. TEKT di notofe You a i eviw and,i t d,ga t d fr ng n ntr e nsea ve he Kaze postont anohe a i nt (d. t90. I fc,Youngt tfeda hi d iint t i n ii o t r pplca . I a ) n a t esii t s eposto ha, upon lar ng ofYoung' a ia i f t Kaie posto hi s r ior Bowe s t e t ne e ni s pplc ton or he z n ii n, s upe v s , r , hr a e d t tr n t h se o me t 1 . t . Th r c r s g e t ta W ikn o ,h h ma o emiae i mply n .(d a 48) e e o d u g ss h t lis n te u n r s r sm a era t tm e,r nke t a i n sf rt poston, a ng pa tc a w e g e ou ce nag t he i a d he pplca t o he ii pl ci ri ul r i ht ons ort atnda e, khitr a knowldgeofKaze ( ke No.9 39a 41 ) eni iy, te nc wor so y, nd e i n. Doc t 4- t -42. Ac o dn t W i i o Yo n sp i r so yo p o atn a c labs l tl'pa e ar l i c r ig o l ns n, u g' ro hit r f o r te d n e t l o uey' ly d oe n k g he de ii t rnkYoungl rt nohe c nddaes (#. t42. r cson o a owe ha t r a i t . J=a ) Yot a s a l ed i t c mg lo leg n he ompl i t tJ ant ha TEKT dic i i t a i thi by f lngby s rm naed ga ns m aii r c g iehm frh sln o aie' fo t o t eKaz np o e t e t ec mp n ee tdt e o nz i o i t n v tv 'ef rs n h ie rj c wh n h o a y lce o i r wa dt wht e o e sf rt i ef rso tesmep o e t ( c t 21a !21) Th e r wo i mply e o her fo t n h a rj c. Do ke No. t . e e def nda st ke i s w ih Young' a s r i t tJ e nt a s ue t s s e ton ha TEK T' de i i nott r S c s on o ewar hi w a bas d d m s e on hi r e r f r nc ng t por i oft r co d de o ta i t tG odf e r ce ved t e s h s ac , e e e i he ton he e r m nsr tng ha ry e i hr e uc a r .( cke No. 38a 1 1 ) wa ds Do t 94- t 8 -83. C. Factsunderl ng ret i i cl m yi alat on ai The pl i if a s tt tt de e nt cl e t Dal vil pl nti r t la i n f t r a ntf s s er ha he f nda s os d he e le a n e a i t o or hei com pl nt o r i ha as m e a di c i i ton. The r c d r l c st t a ound t s m e ai s f ac al r s nt nd s r m na i e or efe t ha , r he n tm e t tJ i ha TEK T a r e t s t l W oolol scl i s H i a hi e M a tM a s , e i nto J g e d o e te f k' a m , s s g t t ui pr s de f TEKT N orh Am erca,s an em ai t JTEKT ofici si w hi M at uiexpr t i ent lo t al n ch s essed hi desr t expl e s ie o or t pos i lt ofcl i t D al vil pl t l ea e ha e t s c r f l La tw e k,we ha he s biiy os ng he e le an : i s ndl hi a e uly. s e pl ve 1 5 Etai n' i a J nes t r r f r i t i l ophy orpr tc st tf < ze ' s apa e e m e e rng o ç os l phi ac i e ha ocusupon c i ontnuousi ove e mpr m nt o p o e s si ma ufcu i , n i e rn , . a d b i e sma a e n . ( c e No 91a l n 5) f r c s e n n a trng e g n e i g . . n usn s n g me t' Do k t . t 8 . . ' 16 ta eldt (TEKT' p a ti Dae ilj a l a etidt c lult h w bgi c wec ud rv le o J S ln n lv l , nd h v re o ac ae o i mpa t o l e ha efo ta se i gttl od cin fo VA t (n t e J v r m r n fn n o a pr u to r m o a oh r TEKT fclt i Te n se l' a ii n n e s e . y ' ( ke No.9 6. Thepli if as a sr t tafe t Dae leplntcos di 201 Doc t 4- ) antfs lo se tha, tr he lvil a l e n 0, J TEK T m oved s e ofisD a e le e pl yee t t Te nes ee f c lt how e r no o t om t l vil m o s o he n s a iiy; ve , ne f he pl n if orot rpe s who fl r c alha a s e c pl i sw e e of e e s h ai tf s he r ons ied a i r s m nt om a nt r f r d uc o runiis Thedef nt poi tt t pori oft r c d whih s ppo t te . enda s n o he ton he e or c howst tJ ha TEKT ofi i l c e plt d cl i t Dalvil f iiyduet e onom i co e nsi a e ry a fc as ontm a e osng he e le aclt o c c nc r n s a l s Se tmber2008.( ketNo.92- 2a !5. Ac or ngt t dee nt,t de iint cos pe Doc 1 t ) c di o he fnda s he cso o l e t pln wa concusvel madei eal 2009,welbeor a EEOC c r sweetld.td a he a t s l i y n ry l f e ny ha ge r ie L. t ! 1 ) Furhemor t rcor s esst tt de sont cos t Dae leplntwa ma 0. t r e,he e d ugg t ha he cii o l e he lvil a s de by J TEKT r pr e a i i J pa who w e e notf m ii rwih t f t unde l ng t i t nt e es nt tves n a n r n la t he ac s r yi he ns a lws i.(d) a ut I . D. Fii ofl ui and moton f s lng aws t i or umma yj r udgme nt The pl i if i ta e t s l w s ton N ove be 2, a ntf s nii t d hi a ui m r 2009,a tl a ln e d nd i ed t m nde compl n on J ne 1 201 l t ame d c ait u 0, 0. n he nde ompli , hepl n if ad nc d fvec us of ant t aitfs va e i a es acin:t r i dici nai cli , unde Til Vl a oneunde 42U. C.j1 1; to wo acal s rmi ton ams one r te I nd r S. 98 t hosiewor e r wo tl k nvionme cli , underTil VI a oneunde 42U. C.j1 ;a nt ams one te 1 nd r S. 981 nd o er tlaincam u de Til Vl.Th d fn a t fldamoin frs mmayj d me to n eaito li n r te 1 e e e d ns i e to o u r u g n n M a c 28 201 The pl i if f l d t i b i fi opposton t t m o i on A prl6, 2,a r h , 2. a ntf s ie he r r e n ii o he ton i 201 nd t de e nt fl d t i r pl bre on A p i 1 201 The c t r or a gum e ton t he f nda s ie he r e y i f r l 6, 2. our hea d al r n he moton o M a 3, 2.Themoton i t r f erpef diposton. i n y 201 i s he eor i or s ii 17 I l. Di scuss on i A. Legals tandard l c nsd rn amoin frs mmayj d me t n e Fe e a Ru eo Cii Pr c d r 5 , n o i eig t o u r u g n u d r d rl l f vl o e ue 6 o û he c ti r quied t vi w t f t a dr w r a onabl i er nc i a lg m os f vor bl t our s e r o e he ac s nd a e s t e nf e es n i ht ta a e t t no o he nmovi pa t ' Sha v.Stoud,1 F.d 7 798( hCi.1 4) Thec t y ng ry. ' w r 3 3 91, 4t r 99 , our ma g a t u r u g n o l wh n ve ngt rc r a awh l a d i tel h mo t rn s mmayj d me t ny e , iwi he e o d s o e n n h i t s g f vor bl t t nonm ovi pary,t r i no g nui i s o m a e i lf c a t non o ng a a e o he ng t he e s e ne s ue f t r a a t nd he m vi pat i e tt dt j dg n a amatro lw.Ceo e Co p v. tet47 U. 31 , 2 - 4 ry s n ie o u me t s te f a l ltx r . Cart, 7 S. 7 3 2 2 ( 986) Ter sFl rFas ons l v. lnconl .l ,763F. 604,61 ( hCi.1 5) 1 . rv' oo hi ,nc. Buri t nduss nc. , 2d 0 4t r 98 . F rap ry' e ie c t r ieag n ieis eo mae il a tta a o d s mmayj d me t o a t s vd n e o as e un su f tra f c h t v i s u r u g n, t ee d n emus b C u ht a ar a o a l j r c udrtr av r itf t en n vn h vie c t e t c h t e s n be uy o l eu n e dc or h o mo ig s pat ' Andes v.Li rvLobbv.l , U. 242,248( ) ry.' ron be t nc.477 S. 1986 . B. A nal i ys s 1. H ostl w ork envi ie ronm entel m s ai Til Vl make i unlwf f a e oye So dic i i t a ns a i vi wih te I s t a ul or n mpl r ' s rm na e gai t ny ndi dual t t r pe tt hi c pe a i t r s cond tons orprvie ofe pl e , a e ofs es c o s om ns ton, e m , ii , i l ges m oym nt bec us uch i vi lsr e' 42U. C.j2000e a( ) Be a et n e oyee' wokenvionme i a ndi dua' ac .' S. 2()1. c us f mpl s r a r nt s t r orc ton ofe pl ent Til Vl c e t a hos iew or ng en r ne ca e of em ondii m oym , te I r a es tl ki viom nt us aci ' E. O. v.Ce .W hol alr,l ,573F. 1 1 ( h Ci.2009) Tos vi ton. E. C. nt ' es es nc. 3d 67, 74 4t r . ur ve s mmayj g n o acam o arcal h tl woke v rn n , pan ifmu t u r ud me t n li f a il osie r n io me t a litf s y de nsrt t tar s bl j yc dfndt t ()heex re e unwelomehaa s n ; mo tae ha ea ona e ur oul i ha: 1 peinc d c rsme t ( t ha a s ntwa ba e onhi rc ( t haasme wass tce l s veeorpe v i 2) he r sme s sd s a e; 3) he r s nt ufi inty e r r asve t ale t c tonsofe oyme a ce t a a i amos r a ( t r i s o tr he ondii mpl nt nd rae n busve t phee; nd 4) hee s ome basi f i posi labiiy on t em pl . Bassv.E..Depontde N em olrs& Co. 324 F. s or m ng i lt he oyer l z , 3d 18 761 765(t Ci. ) Thedee nt i t sc eaguet tt pli if'hosiewor , 4h r 2003 . fnda s n hi as r ha he antfs tl k e r nvionme cli sm us f i be us t pl ntfsha f ie t s i s fcinte de t nt am t a l ca e he ai if ve a ld o ubm t ufi e vi nce o pr t t r a f t e e t oft i cli s Acc di y, hec twilf c isa l i ove he hid nd ourh l men s her am . or ngl t our l o us t nayss on t s ee e soft hosiewor e r nm e cli s he e lm nt he tl k nvio nt am . I de e m i ng whe he conduc i s fc en l s ve e orpe v i unde t t r n t r ni t r t s ufi i ty e r r as ve r he hid elme ,ac t us l t t ko alt oft cr um sa s' Ha rsv.Fo klf Sys.l . e nt our m t ook o he ç t iy he ic t nce . t ' ri r it . nc, 51 U. 1 23( 993) seas i a 21 2(ttngt tt s veeorpevasveee nt 0 S. 7, 1 ; e lo d. t -2 sai ha he e r r i lme i cu e b t as be tvepr n a da o j ci eprng .Ck lv n c n ie ai n i y icu e n ld s oh u j ci o g n n b e tv o ) i ee a t o sd r to s ma n ld l t feq nc oft dic i i t y c uc ;iss vert , t ri i physca l t e t ni or he r ue y he s rm na or ond t t e iy' whehe t s i ly hr a e ng hum ii tng,ora m e e of e i u tr nc a whe he i unr s na y i e f r w ih a la i r f nsve te a e; nd t r t ea o bl nt r e es t n e oye swor pe f ma e.' Sprcg v.Di mpl e' k ror nc '' i s amondAut Gl s 242F. 1 1 ( hCi. o as, 3d 79,84 4t r 2 01 (u tn Lis uv. Fo dS r .I c, 5 F.d 1 7 1 3( t Ci.1 9 ). 0 ) q o ig sa S. o e v.n .1 9 3 7 , 8 4h r 9 8 ) W ih r pec t t f t ee e , n e oye ' la lt f ha as i c t es t o he ourh lm nt a mpl rs ibiiy or r sng onduc i ts de e m i d by co i i w he he t aleg har s m e waspe e r t d by a s r i ororby t r ne nsderng t r he l ed a s nt m ta e upe v s anon-upevioy e o s r s r mplyee.Buri t I .l v. lrh,5 U. 742,764-65( 998 . lncon ndus, nc. Ele t 24 S. 1 ) S 'e ly ri s be t ovc ro sla ii t avci z de o e fra a to a eh si ç l mp o e s u j c t iaiu ibl y o itmie mply e o n cin bl o tl Al t e e r n ce e by as pe vs wihi dit (rs ce sveyhi r a hoiyove t nvionme t ratd u r ior t mme ae o uc si l ghe) ut rt r he em pl .,6 j .a 765. How e ,whe no t ngi e e pl e a ton i t ke $a de e ng oyee ,1 d t ver n a bl m oym nt c i s a n, 1 f ndi e ly rma riea afr tv d fns t l b lyo d ma e , u j c t p o fb a mpo e y as n fimaie ee e o i ii r a g s s b e t o r o y a t pr pond r nc oft e de .'Ll Thedee ee a st elment::()t tt e e a e he vi nce' ts fns mbrce wo e s ta ha he em pl re r i e r s bl c r t pr ve a co r tpr pty a s xua l har s i oye xe c s d ea ona e a e o e nt nd r ec om l ny e ly a sng 1 6 To dee newhehe ahar s e peper t i as vio f pur e ofviarousla lt , a court tnni t r asm nt r taor s uper s r or pos s c i ibiiy m us dee m i whe he t peper t pos e s st ta t iyt t t bl e pl e a ton'ag ns t t tr ne t r he r taor s s e he tuhort o ake angi e m oym nt ci ' ai t he plitflWhitnv F e sI c, 01F.d2 12 (t Ci. 01 ) Ho v r s c a to i i n tds o iv i anif te . rd'. n .6 3 3 , 45 4h r2 0. we e, u h uh rt s o ip st e n y i dee m i ngwhet ronei as r s ;i t d,ac tmus alo c ul û he f aur soft e pl e tr ni he s upe vior nsea our t s ons t ç r e t e ot he m oym nt r ai 't dee m i w hehe aper tao qualfesa as r s .l eltons' o tr ne t r per tr ii s upe vior d. 19 beha or a ( t tt pl ntf e oyeeun e s bl fie t tkea ntgeofa vi , nd b) ha he ai if mpl r a ona y ald o a dva a ny pr ve i orc rci o t te prvi dbyt e oye ort a dha ohewie' J e ntve ore tve pporuniis o de he mpl r o voi nn t r s .' . Z S hie pr t ta e pl rhad pr ul t d a a i r s m e tpolc w ih c pl i ' l oof ha n m oye W om ga e n ntha a s n i y t om a nt pr e e i notnec s a y i e r i t nce a a m a t rofl w ,t ne d f a s a e polc oc dur s e s r n ve y ns a s te a he e or t t d i y s t bl t t e pl ym e cic s a esm a a r i t y be a es e i a c e w he uia e o he m o nt r um t nc y pp opra el ddr s d n ny as n l iaigt efrt lme to t ed f n e' l .s eas S rz s 2 2F.da 1 7(Th i g tn h is ee n f h e e s . d; e lo p i c , 4 3 t 8 û e t ' isi to a de oc me t f(n a t-a as n poiy ,nc n u cinwi a a e u t n tu in n nfr e n o a nih r sme t l j i o j n to t n d q ae t c h com pl n pr ed e a d t e pl ri e t bls ng t ti hase r i e r as bl c r t ai t oc ur , i he m oye n s a i hi ha t xe c s d e ona e a e o pr ve tdici nai '(ner lquottonmaksomitdl;i (t-o ve,t mee e n s rmi ton. it na ' ai r te l d. C lwe r he r l pr mul to ofan a iha as me polcy, m atrhow wel- onc i wilno s fc t o gai n nt- r s nt i no te lc eved, l t ufi e o s how t r qui ie l lofca e w he e t e pl rha a m i s e e t polc i ba f t or he e st eve r r he m oye s d ni t r d he i y n d aih hasrndeedii fe t lbya tngun e s bl '(ntr lquotto maksomitdl.tAnd e r t nefcua ci r a ona y. i ena ' ain r te ) t w hie pr t ta e pl e f l t f fl t cores l oof ha n m oye aied o ulil he r pondi oblga i ofr as bl c r t ng i ton e ona e a e o avoi ha i notlm ie t s wi a unr s bl f iur t us a compl i pr ce ur d nn s i td o ho ng ny ea ona e al e o e ny ant o d e pr d byt e oye ,ade ovi ed he mpl r monsr ton ofs h f l ewilnor ly s t et s tsy t ta i uc aiur l ma l ufk o aif he em pl r s bu de unde t s c el m e oft de e e. Bur i t I us . nc. 5 U . oye ' r n r he e ond e nt he f ns ' ' lng on nd . I , 24 S. at765. W he t pe pe r t r doe no qua iy asa s r i or a e pl rm a be la e i n he r t a o s t lf upe v s , n m oye y i bl n neg i nc unde t f t e e e i i k lge e r he ourh l m nt f t new ors ul ha known a ho d ve boutt ha as m e a he r s nt nd fie t tkeef vea tont sopi.Oc te v.Sc l Pr .335F. 3 3 ald o a fedi ci o t t helre olon ods, 3d 25, 33-34(t 4h Ci. r 2003)(nba .Toa dla lt t e oy ,a trr c i ngnotc o t haasme , e nc) voi ibiiy,he mpl er fe e evi ie f he r s nt m us r pond w ih ' e e a ac i r a o y c l ul t d t e t ha as m e t' E. O . v. t es t i m di l ton e s nabl a c a e o nd he r s n . E. C. r ' St tRe as I . 5 1F. 306,31 ( hCi.2008) mbel ntl. nc, 2 3d 9 4t r . 20 I a yi t sca el w t t f t i t i tntc s t c tc l st t whe n ppl ng hi s a o he acs n he nsa a e,he our onc ude ha , n viwi a1 oft e denc i t r or i alg mos f vor bl t t pli if ,her a e e ng 1 he vi e n he ec d n i ht t a a e o he a ntfs t e r g n ieis e o maeilfc t a p e ld ag a to s mmayj d me ta t t eh siewo k e un su s f tra a t h t r cu e rn f u r u g n s o h o tl r e r e tcl i s l taly, he c t e t t i a yz ng a hos ie wor envionm e nvionm n a m . nii l t our not s ha , n nal i tl k r nt c a m , he c ti notlm ie t c i r n o y t a l ge ha as m en t tw a die t d a t l i t our s i t d o onsde i g nl he le d r s t ha s r c e t he pli if pe s l ,a t a l t co ti i onc r dwiht tnvionme 'ofwo kpl c antfs ronaly' fer l, he ur s s e ne t he e r c nt r ae hos iiy,a wha e t c our ofo sen r m e , hey s el m a e ee t i vi l tlt nd t ver he ont s ne' vion nt t ur y y xc d he ndi dua dyna c bewe n t c pl i nta hi s r ior' mi t e he om ana nd s upe v s .'Sprggs 242 F. a 1 ,Hovl v. i , 3d t 84' e Fr g lnesLLC, F. 3 3 ( hCi. 1 (tTq ttlt oft crumsa s eihti r 650 3d 21, 33 4t r 201 ) 1( he oaiy he ic tnce i l esc ncud onduc notdie tda t pli if';Ziki v. i t,547F. 220,224-25( hCi. t rce t he antf.) s e M nea ' 3d 4t r 2008 (t de ofag nea amos r ofhosiiytwadt eoft pli ifs( oe td )t Evi nce e rl t phe e tlt o r hos he antf pr tce casli c i rdi t exa nainofalt crumsa e ....Eve t l s s onsdee n he mi to lhe ic tnc s n hought pli if he antf had no e re e t s cii co uc a is i t c t t xpe inc d he pe fc nd t t s ue n he usomer 't tm ony, hersae e t s esi t i t tm n s weenonehee sr e ntbe us t ys pore t pli ifscli . (ntr lq tto r t ls elva ca e he up td he antf ams' i ena uoain ' makso te ( i J ncsv. v. N.Ca olna 482F. 686,696(t Ci. r mitd) quotng enni Uni of ri, 3d 4h r 2007)(n e bancl. l) W he vi w i a 1oft e d nc i t r c d,i udi t e de e s it i t n e ng l he vi e e n he e or ncl ng he vi nc ubm ted n he f m ofde a a i by pe e ot rt n t pl i if , he c r c l or cl r tons opl he ha he a ntf s t ou t onc udest tt r i a ha he e s ge neis ofm a e i f c ast whehert pl ntfsha pr n t tt alege ha a s nui s ue t ral a t o t he ai if ve ove ha he l d r s ment w ass t c e l s ve e orpe va i W hie t de e nt a g i t rbr e st tt a l ge ufi i nty e r r s ve. l he f nda s r ue n hei i f ha he le d ha as m e em a t d pr m a iy f om iol t d r citl ngua us d by Le H uy a r s nt na e i r l r s a e a s a ge e , nh, nd H as wada,and f om t ci cum st hi r he r ances s r ur oundi t Balsage t ng i dent t e i ot ng he i api nci , her s her e de ei t rcor (ncudi t e de a e i t de lrtonsoft pe eot vi nc n he e d i l ng he vi nce dduc d n he caai he opl her t nt pli if)whihs sst tt haasme wa mor pe va i t nt smplsi ha he antfs c ugge t ha he r s nt s e r sve ha he i itc 21 v e a o tdb ted fn ns Ac o dn l tec u t o cu e t ts mmayj dg n i n t iw d p e y h ee da t. c r igy,h o r c n ld s ha u r u me t s o appr praewih r s c t t t r elm e oft hosiewor e r o it t e pe t o he hid e nt he tl k nvionmentcli s Hoyl,650 am . e F. a 3 ($TJ quesi ofwhehe ha a s ntwa s fiintys veeorpe v iei 3d t 33 i( he ton t r r sme s u fce l e r r asv s t ntse i l aquesi offct''quotngPaolnev.UniysCop.879F. 1 1 ( h qui e sntaly ton a .'( i r i s , 2d 00, 05 4t Ci. 9 9 . r 1 8 :) W ih r pe tt t f t elm e toft hosie wor e r m e cai s whehe t es c o he ourh e n he tl k nvion nt l m t r t r i s m ebassf i posng la lt on t e pl r t def nda sf cuson t f c t t he e s o i or m i i biiy he m oye- he e nt o he a t ha , w ih o y t o e e i ,1 t e pl i tf sa it dl f l d t r por a dicrm i ton or t nl w xc ptons 7 h a n if dm te y aie o e t ny s i na i har s m e tc e nst J a s n onc r o TEKT' ma S nage nto htma r our sde rme u i a l a tAprl me r z n es ce pa t nt ntl t e s i 2009.Furhe m or ,t de e nt a g whe t pli tfsr poredt t i i ent pro t t r e he f nda s r ue, n he a n if e t he wo nc d s i r o A prl2009, TEKT r s i J e ponde i m e a e y w ih r m e a a ton r as bl c c a e t e t d m di t l t e di l c i e ona y al ul t d o nd he har s me . He e,hede enda sc end, he ei no ba i f ri a s nt nc t f nt ont t r s ss o mposng la lt on J i ibiiy TEKT bec us i ha no no i oft a lge y hosiewor e vionme and,whe t c a et d tce he le dl tl k n r nt n he ompa wa ny s notfed ofi i nt ofha a s e ,i r ac e i a m a rr as bl c c a ed t e t ii nc de s r s m nt t e t d n nne e ona y al ul t o nd he har s m e . a s nt I ta l t co tnot st tt pl i tf s ha a nii ly, he ur e ha he a n if ve dduc e de e s ed vi nc ugge tng t t s i ha har s m e w a per ta e by bot nons r s y a s r i o y pe s nne a J a s nt s pe r t d h upe vi or nd upe v s r r o l t TEK T, m e ni t tt t o dif r ts a a ng ha he w f e en t ndar a e a i bl The cour w ilfr tc i rt ds r pplca e. t l is ons de he har s m e a l ge y pe pe r t by nons r i or pe s a s nt le dl r t a ed upe v s y r onne ,i l ng t Ba i age t pi l nc udi he ls a ng i i nt t nn e c li byLea Huy and t na c li ofwhih Campbe ls kei ncde , he m - a lng nd nh, he me- a lng c l po n hi s n de a a i A s e a ne a s wor cl r ton. xpl i d bove, he r c d s ges st tt pl ntf sm a onl t o t e or ug t ha he ai i f de y w r por sofha as m e pr ort A pr l2009;f t r or ,t r c d c d s e t r s nt i o i urhe m e he e or oul uppo ta r as bl r e ona e 1 7 Thercor s e d uggesst t prort t c pa swalt walit r ewsi Aprl2009,s eoft t ha, i o he om ny' l-o- l n evi n i om he pl i if r pore t Bals t ng i i nti Se embe 2008 a f rhe mor ,t tSi m onsa oa d a ntf s e td he iage api nc de n pt r nd, u t r e ha m ppr che Br e t r r Huynh' i es a us ofrcilyde ogaol lnguaget dsSi mons adly o epo t s nc s nt e a al r t y a owar m . 22 j r ' d tr naint a J u y s eemi to h t TEKT rs o d defcieyt b t o t o erpo t.Ho v r te e p n e fe tv l o o h f h s e rs we e,h r c d a s i c t st tCa e or lo ndia e ha mpbel, t oc aso ,r pore t us ofr itl ng get l on wo c i ns e td he e acs a ua o W iki on, ugge tng t tt ha as m e occ r d a wasr por e s etm e prort l ns s s i ha he r s nt ur e nd e t d om i i o Se e be 2008, he J pt m r w n TEKT r pl ce W iki on i is m a em e o r ul Ca pbel e a d l ns n t nag nt ve ha . m l a s r st t t hi know l ,W iki on t no c r c i a ton a ns t pe pe r t s s e t ha , o s edge l ns ook or e tve c i gai t he r t a or . Furhe t nnor ,e denc i t r or i c t t tt m a ge e tove hauli Sep e r2008 e vi e n he ec d ndi aes ha he na m n r n t mbe waspr e byJ omptd TEKT' d iet Sc ngegt)culur'asi rltdt Ieltons pis S esr o iha is t e' t eae o t ai hi sues r wihe oyee . ( ke No. 1 )W he viwi t e de ei alg mos fvor bl t t mpl s' Doc t 94- 3. ' n e ng he vi nc n iht t a a e o t epanif,h c u t o ld st tar ao a l j r c udfn t a t ed fn a t k e o h lit s te o r c ncu e ha e s n b e u y o l i d h t h e e d n s n w r f s d ha kno n oft r ci ly hos ie w or e r e t ta l ge y i us d t pl nta houl ve w he a a l tl k nvionm nt ha le dl nf e he a nd t tt de e nt f l d t t pr ptr m e a s e r as nabl c c a ed t e t ha he f nda s aie o ake om e di l t ps e o y al ul t o nd he har s m e . Henc bec us ge ne i s sofm at r a f c e s , he c t ilde y t a s nt e, a e nui s ue e i l a t xi t t our w l n he d fn a t' to frs mmayj dg n a t teh tl wo ke vr n n camsr ltn t e e d ns moin o u r u me t s o h osie r n io me t li eaig o t ha a s e alege y pe per t d by J he r s m nt l dl r tae TEKT' no upe vio ype s nne . S ns r s r r o l Theco twilne consde t har s me al dl pe e r t d by J ur l xt i r he a s nt lege y p ta e TEKT' S s r s s The r co d, hen vi w e i a lghtm os f vor bl t t pl ntf s s t f t upe vi or . e r w e dn i t a a e o he ai if , e s orh num e o e m pl of s r i or ha a s e . l hi s o de a a i n,Ca pbel s a e t t r us xa es upe v s y r s m nt n s w m cl r t o m l t t d ha unna dme r ofma me e oye rcs lngua a s ii ly,ha Ro ns( me mbes nage nt mpl d a it a ge nd, pecfcal t t bbi a p o u to e gn e ma a e)o tne ly drcs ln u g a dj ke .Do ,nhi s r r d cin n ie r n g r fe mp o e a it a g a e n o s we i s won decaai sae t thewa i or d(rua y,bys newhopose s ds pe vs r lrton, ttd ha s nf me ag bl omeo s s e u r io y a hort t thewo dha t ageet wor on Sunda i or t behie de piet f t ut iy) ha ul ve o r o k ys n der o rd, s t he ac t whie em pl hat t oyeesw er t eat di er l Furt m or D owe s at t he w as f t e r ed ff enty. her e, t ed hat urher te e difr nl t nwhiee oye swhen,atrrco rngfom awor r ae ij y, ratd fe e ty ha t mpl e fe e ve i r k-eltd nur JTEK T r used t alow hi t assum e lghtwor dutes.Cr ghead,i hi s or decl aton, ef o l m o i k i ai n sw n ar i 23 sa e t thebe meawa eofbi r i J tt d ha ca r nde s n TEKT' lb a ym a f tng r ci l dic i na o y S irr niesi a aly s rmi t r hii pr ci e by J rng a tc s TEKT s r ior .Fi ly,W is i hi s ' de a a i sa e t t upe v s s nal lon, n s wol clr ton, t t d ha n Bow e sw oul pr o e w hie e pl esove s ni bl k e pl es a f t s a ed t t r d om t t m oye r e or ac m oye nd urher t t ha Bowesonces i t ts woul lahe ha awhieguyi c r e.'( ke No.9 18a !7. r ad ha he d t t r ve r t n ha g ' Doc t 4- t ) W is a s s a e t t u n a t m ptng t c pl n ofBow e s'a l ed ha as i be vi r a l on l o t t d ha , po te i o om ai r leg r s ng ha o , i e dm gj 'i fnne h m ta h s o l d o t ec mp an o es h i in'h v aj b. (d. t a an'n o d i h t e h ud r p h o lit r le e û d t a e o ' l h d ' a !8. Youngas sae t tBowese bie haasi be virt r hi byatmptng t ) lo ttd ha r xhi td r sng ha o owads m te i t s bot e hi e pl m e a by t e t ni t t nni t hi . o a ag s m oy nt nd hr a e ng o e na e m To t extntt tha as me i pe er t dby s r ior , hecour r ogniest ta he e ha r s nt s p ta e upe v s s t t ec z ha n a tr a i de e e i a ia e t e pl r . H oweve , he c tc ude t t whe vi w i fi m tve f ns s va l bl o m oye s r t our oncl s ha , n e ng t e de e i alghtm os f vor bl t t pl i if,t e i age neis ofma e i f c a he vi nc n i t a a e o he antfs her s nui s ue t ral a t s t whehe t de e n sa e e ild t t a fr ai de e e Ba e on t e de ei t o t r he f nda t r ntte o he fim tve f ns . s d he vi nc n he rc r ,h c u t o cu e t t r a o bej r c ul deemiet t ( l u h gh e o d te o r c n ld s ha a e s na l u y o d tr n ha,t t g t e a ho dee nt' i tt i ofa a ihaasme polc rprs nt aras ese t r fnda s) nsiuton n nt- r s nt iy e e e ed e onabl tp owad prve i t t ofa es frdby (hepli ifq t c ny ( t e ntng he ype bus ufee t antfs,he ompa aced) unr a o y ...neglc i t e or et polc 'o by e or i i i a unf rmamer e s nabl e tng o nf c he iy' r nf c ng t n n ai l . Sprccs 242F. a 18 .seas i a 1 (t-q ç r pomul ton'ofa aniha a s nt i , 3d t 8, e lo d. t 87 Eg-he mee r gai l n t- r sme polcy, m a t how w el- nc i d, ilnots f c t s i no ter lco e ve w l uf i e o how t r quiie l velofc r w he e he e s t e ae r t e pl rhasa i s e e t polcy i bad f ih orhasr nde ed i i f ec ua by a tng he m oye dm ni t r d he i n at e r t ne f t l ci t e s nabl '( i Br v. rv,18 F. 388 396( hCi.1 :) Thedee t' mra o y.'quotng own Per 4 3d , 4t r 999 . fndans d ntte n t t afnnai dee e( t rs c t t haa s ntalge ypeper tdby s ilme t o he fi tve fns wih epe t o he rs me le dl r tae e s r ior)i t rf eatibl is ' l a 1 upe vs s s heeor ra e sue. d. t 88. ' 24 2. R ac aldi c i i i n c a m s i s r m nat o l i A pl ntf m a pr i en i e o ntdic i i ton i t wa . Fis,k ai if y ove nt tonal mpl yme s rm nai n wo ys rt t a pl i ifm a e t bls a c a m ofdic i i ton t ough die torc r um s an i le de e a ntf y s a i h l i s r m na i hr rc i c t t a vi nc t t...di c i i to m otva e t e pl r s a ve s e pl e dec son. H ilv. ha s rm na i n i t d he m oye ' d r e m oym nt i i ' l ' Loc edM a tnLoasi M cmtsl ,35 F. 277, 4( hCi.2004) dl s ondmehod khe ri itcs . nc. 4 3d 28 4t r . s- ec -he t o a e t gs mmayj g n i t p o e du d raCrtx ' rme r , n e whc t f v ri u r ud me t s o r c e n e p ee t fa wo k u d r ih he n e pl ,a t re t bls ng a pr m a f ci c s ofdic i i ton, m ons r t st tt m oyee f e s a i hi i a e ae s r m na i de t a e ha he e pl yer spr f r pe m i sbl r s f t ki a a r e e pl e a ton i ac ua l a m o ' of e ed r s i e ea on or a ng n dve s m oym nt c i s t ly pr t xtf r dic i i to ' l a 285. The pr c s f m ul t o oft r qui e prm a f c e e e o s r m na i n.' d. t e i e or a i n he e r d i a i s howi wilva y i ç fe i f t st tons' M c ng l r n t f rng acual iua i ,' DonnelDougl Co p. Gr e 41 U. di l as r v. e n, 1 S. 79 8 n.3( 973) butf 2, 02 1 1 , ,undame al t pli ifmus prvet thes fr a a re ntly,he antf t o ha ufeed n dves em pl e a ton t oym nt c i t rc r tm s a sw hi h gi rs t a i e e e ofunl ul unde i cz t nce c ve i e o n nf r nc awf dic i nai ' Te De tofCmt Afar v.Bur ne, 0U. 248,253( 981. srmi ton. x. p' ' v. fis di 45 S. 1 ) l a t c c e,howe r a pl ntf es a i he a prm a f c e c e by s i n ypi al as ve , ai i f t bls s i a i as how ng: me e s i i ap oe tdca s ()stsa tr j bp ro a c ; 3 a v ree o me t mb rhp n r tce ls ;2 aif co y o ef nn n e ( ) d es mply n a to ; n ( )dfe e tte t n fo smial st ae e ly e o tiet ep oe tdca s ci n a d 4 ifr n r ame t r m i lry iu td mpo e s u sd h r tce ls . Colma v. d.Cour ofAppe s 6 F. 1 1 ( hCi. 0) I apli ifesa ihe a e n M t al, 26 3d 87, 90 4t r 201 . f antf tbls s prm a f c e c e,( pr um pton o il aldi c i i to a ies and t bur n ofpr uc i i a i as ( es a i f leg s rm na i n r s , he de od ton s fst t e oye 't a hit o he mpl r' o dduc e de ofalgii ae, e vi nce e tm t nondic i i t y r as f is s rm na or e on or t aci .Hovl 650 F. a 336.tl t de e ntc ri t sbur n ofpr tons e, 3d t tf he f nda a res hi de oduci n, he to t pr s m pton r s by t pr m a f c e c e i r bute ' Bur ne 45 U . a 255. Thepl i if e u i aied he i a i as s e t d.' di , 0 S. t a ntf t n m us s he t how t ha t pr f r d r as w a nott t e r s f t e pl e tde i i n, t t he ofe e e on s t he nz ea on or he m oym n c s o ' ' bu i t ad, asa pr t xtf r i e tonaldi c i i to l a 256. t ns e w e e o nt n i s rm na i n. d. t 25 a. Barber Assa e a ve Ba be a s rst tJ tt d bo , r r s e t ha TEKT dic i i t a i thi by denyi hi s rm naed ga ns m ng m ce ti pr m o i a by u aryde otng hi .Asa i ta m a tr Ba be hi s f ra n o tons nd nf il m i m n niil te , r r m el efci l c fe tvey once t thi de a ofpr des ha s nil omoton cai i me il sby a itng t t whiet i l m s rtes dm ti ha , l he aleg ha piki pr es afce ot rpe e i di no af thi pes ly.( ke No. l ed nd c ng oc s fe td he opl,t d t fec m ronal Doc t 9 37a 87. 4- t ) Ba be al o brngs a unf i de oto c a m . The c t t s t e s e e ofa f t l r r s i n a r m in li our no e he xi t nc ac ua diput ,ba e on Ba be ' cli t tJ s e sd r r s am ha TEKT de e hi t r quiietani r ga di nid m he e st r i ng, e r ng w he herBa be w a pe f m i s t s a t iy i hi pos ton asA D Li Te m Lea r t r r s r or ng a i f c orl n s ii ne n de . Howe r t sf c ua diput pr ve i t rala Ba be ha f iedt ca r hi bur n of ve , hi a t l s e o s mma e i s r r s al o ry s de pr ng t the w a t ea e dif r ty t n sm ia l st t nonbl c em pl s t ovi ha s r t d f e en l ha i l ry iua ed ak oyee - he dee nt adduc evi nce( c i undiputdbyt pli if)t t a t s metmet t fnda s e de whih s s e he antfs ha, the a i ha Ba be w a de ot d,a he s m ia l st t d w hieem pl ,Le A l om , a a s de ot d r r s m e not r i l ry iua e t oyee e c w s lo m e f pe f ma - e r s .He ,Ba be c or ror nce bas d ea ons nce r r anno e t bls a prma f c ec e of t sa ih i a i as di c i i ton. Col a 6 F. a 19 I a e nt eve i Ba be co d esa i h a prm a s rm na i em n, 26 3d t 0. n ny ve , n f r r ul t bls i f ci c e, hede e nt ha a nce al ii ae, a e as t f nda s ve dva d eg tm t nondic i i t y r as f hi s rm na or e on or s de o i m ton- nn el t he w asnotpe f m i s ts a t r l a t tm e ofhi de oton. Hovl m y, hat r or ng a i f c o iy t he i s m i e, 650 F. a 336. Ba be hasf l t a 3d t r r aied o dduc a e de e s e ny vi nc uggesi t tJ tng ha TEKT' pr fe e S o fr d r as i a pr t xtf di c i i ton. Bur ne, U . a 256. Hi cl m st the w a be t r e on s e e or s r m na i di 450 S. t s ai ha s te qua i i d t n hi w hie r pl c m e a e i ufi e t s lf e ha s t e a e nt r ns tci nt o how pr t xt See H a nsv.Pe i ee . wki psco. I .2 3F.d2 4 2 8( t Ci. 0 0 (() i tep re to o ted cso ma e whc i nc, 0 3 7 , 7 4h r 2 0 ) û1t s h ec p in f h e iin k r ih s i r lva , tt sl-sesme oft pli if'(ntr lquottonmaksomitdl;Eva v. ee ntno he efa s s nt he antf.'i ena ai r te l ns Tec .Applc tons& Se v Co.80F. 95 960(t Ci.1 (KA pl ntf s hs iai r . , 3d 4, 4h r 996) çE ai if l 26 u s bsa tae alg to a db l a s rin c n ennghls o q aiiains. .alo n u tn itd l ains n ad s et s o c r i i) wn u lfc to . fi t e o d s r v ( d fn nqse pln to o s o ds rmiain.) ip o e a ee da t' x a ain r h w ici n t '. o ' b. G odfre y Godfe as e t t tJ r y s rs ha TEKT dic i natd a i thi by de nghi c ran s rmi e gans m nyi m e ti pr oto ,des t t f c t tm a gem e i o m e hi t tt pr otons woul bebas om i ns pie he a t ha na nt nf r d m ha he om i d ed on s ort To e t bls aprm af ci c eoff l et pr eni iy. sa ih i a e as aiur o omot bas d on r e, pli ifmus e e ac a antf t de taet t( )hebel t apr e t cls ,( hea id f t postoni que to monsrt ha 1 ongs o otced a s 2) pple or he ii n sin, ( )h wa q aiidf rt po iin, nd( )tee o e rj ce tea p iainu d r 3 e s u l e o he sto a 4 h mply r ee td h p lc to n e f c r um s a esgi ng r s t a i e e e ofunl w f di c i i ton. Ande s n v.W e tng ic t nc vi i e o n nf r nc a ul s rm na i ro s i hous e Sa nna Ri rCo.40 F. 248, ( hCi. vn h ve , 6 3d 268 4t r 2005) Thee de ei t rc ds . vi nc n he e or howst t ha Godf e c r y annotesa i h a prm a f c e c s ,be a e t e de e afi m a i y s es st t t bls i a i a e c us he vi nc tr tvel ugg t ha J TEKT' rj cino Go fe ' a piai n d e n tgv rs t a i e e c o ds rmiain. S ee to f d ry s p l to s o s o ie ie o n nfr n e f ici n to c Noto y wasoneoft postonsf whih Godfe a ple a r d t Babe ,butJ nl he ii or c r y p id wa de o r r TEKT a t ly of e ed Godf ey a pr oton,whi h G o r y de lne c ua l f r r om i c df e c i d.Furhe m or e n as um i t r e, ve s ng t tGodf e co d e t bls a prm a f c e c e, he de e nt ha a nc d a l gii a e ha r y ul s a i h i a i as t f nda s ve dva e e tm t , n n ici n t r ra o frrj cigGo fe sa p iain - s e i c ly ta Go fe lc e o dsrmi ao y e s n o ee tn dr y' p lc to s p ct al,h t dr y a k d i s fce m ant na e re t qualf f rt postons.Godfey ha notpr e a ufi int i e nce xpe ince o iy o he ii r s oduc d ny evi nc i ca i t tJ de e ndi tng ha TEK T' pr f r d r a on i apr t xtf di c i i ton. Bur ne 450 S of e e e s s e e or s rm na i di , U . a 256. Fo t s r s , odf e ha f ied t poi t a e de e i t r or c e tng S. t r he e ea ons G r y s a l o nt o ny vi nc n he ec d r a i a ge ne i s ofm a e i lf c r r ng hi di c i i to cl i . nui s ue t r a a t ega di s s rm na i n a m c. Young Y o as e t t tJ ung s r s ha TEKT di c i i e ag ns hi by f c ng hi t r s gn on t o s rm nat d ai t m or i m o ei w s pa a e oc s ons by unf il denyi hi a pr o i a by f ii t honorhi w ih e r t ca i , a ry ng m om ton, nd a lng o m t achi evem entaw ar Young cl m s t he w asunf rl f ds. ai hat ai y orced t r i att concl on ofhi o es gn he usi s 27 fr ttnu wih J is e t TEKT bec us Bowe s hi s r s ,e s n i l s bot ge hi e oymen a e r , s upe vior s e taly a a d s mpl t r co d by f lngt a kno e doc o s not t tYoung t ned i t ac ountf rhi abs nc s e r aii o c wl dge t r ' es ha ur no c o s e e. Ho v rwhl te emi h b afcu l ip t r g r igt eq ai o Yo n sj b we e , ie h r g t e a t a ds ue e a dn h u lt f u g' o y pe f m a e Y o none he es c ote t bls a prm a f c e c e ofdi c i i ton be a e r or nc , ung t l s mm sa ih i a i as s rm na i c us he ha f ie t ca r hi bur n ofs w i t he w a t e t d dif r n l t n ot rs m ia l s a l d o r y s de ho ng hat s r a e f e e t y ha he i l ry st t d no a k e pl ye s iua e nblc m o e .Colm a 626 F.d a 1 0. e n, 3 t9 Alhoug Yot alo a s rst thewasunf il f ce t r i a t c l i n ofhi t h mg s s e t ha ary or d o esgn t he onc uso s s c t nn w ih J e ond e t TEK T,he c e d a hi de ii t ta 1oft e pl eeswho f ied t onc de t s pos ton ha l he m oy a l he d u ts i q e to we ete tdt es me i ta e ey n l ther o .( c e No. 4 3 a r g et n u sin r rae h a ,n h t v r o e os t ij bs Do k t 9 - 8 t 1 -51) He e, hi ownadmison,Youngc nnotesa iht thewaste t difrnty 49 . nc by s si a tbls ha r aed fee l t n s m ia l st t w hie e pl s Col m a 626 F. d a 1 ha i l ry iua ed t m oyee . e n, 3 t 90. Yo ha alo f ie t e t bls aprmaf c ec eofdic i nai wih r pe tt hi ung s s a ld o sa ih i a i as s rmi ton t es c o s deni lofpr o i cl i . Besdeshi own s l - s es m e ofhi qua ii a i ,Young of e s a om ton a m i s e f a s s nt s lf c tons fr no e de e s vi nc uggesi t the w a qua ii d f t K a ze poston. The de enda s poi t tng ha s lte or he i n ii f nt nt o evi nc i t r c d s de e n he e or uggesi t thi pr o w or hit y ofpoorper or a r nde ed hi tng ha s i r k s or f m nce e r m unqualfedfrt poston.Se Ha nsv. psco.nc,203F.d27 278(t Ci. ii o he ii e wki Pe i l . 3 4, 4h r 2000) (tIti t pece i oft decsonmake whihi r lvan,no t s l- ssme oft t(1 s he r pton he ii r c s ee t t he efase s nt he pli if'(nt na quottonmaksomitdl; nsv. hs Applc tons& Se v. ,80 antf. i er l ai ' r te l Eva Tec . iai r Co. F.d9 4, 6 ( t Ci.1 9 )(t pan ifs u u sa tae alg to sa db l a s rins 3 5 9 0 4h r 9 6 iA litf ) ns b tnitd l ai n n ad se t ( e o c n enn hg )o q lfc to s. . al ods r v ( d fn a t' e pa aino s o o c r ig i wn uaiiain . fit ip o e a e e d n ls x ln to r h w s dici nain.). s rmi to ' Fi l w ih r pe tt Y o naly, t es c o ung' c a m t tJ s l i ha TEK T di c i i t d ag ns hi by f lng s rm na e ai t m aii t honorhi w ih ce t n pe f r anc r a e a a ds t c r not si ta l t tt r i o m t rai r o m e-el t d w r , he ou t e nii ly ha he e s s t nta q ton a t w he he f iur t r ce ve a a r cons iut s a a ubs a i l ues i s o t r a l e o e i n wa d tt e n dver e e pl ym e t s m o n 28 a to Se . ..Do g a v. no a 5 9F.d5 9 5 3( C. r 2 0 ) na ye e t Yo n cin. e eg, u ls Do v n, 5 3 4 , 5 D. Ci. 0 9 .l n v n , u g pr esno e denc t tr c plye a y r ei J oduc vi e ha a e a d n ol n TEKT' de ii no t besow s h a r S c son t o t uc wa ds on hi - i f t t e de s s t tG odf e a Si m ons a clm ul t atl a tni s h m n ac , he vi nce how ha r y nd m c l a ed e s ne uc a a ds d i t i e pl e w ih J w r ur ng he r m oym nt t TEK T. H e e, ort f egoi r as ,Y o has nc f he or ng e ons ung f ie t de o taet e se eofa ge ne is sofm aera f c r ga di hi al d o m nsr t he xitnc ny nui s ue t il a t e r ng s dic i i ton cai s s rm na i l m . d. C ulur ofha s e t e ras m nt Th panif a g i t erb if h ti ra o a l j r ma as tn t tg ea v re e litfs r ue n h i re t a $ e s n be u y y lo i d ha t d es a h e o mplymenta tonst nag ns t pli iflweei or da las i pa t t ci ake ai the antfs r nf me t e t n r by he ovewhel nge de ofrci haa s nt' ( ke No.94a 5 ) l e snc ,t plitfs r mi vi nce a al rsme . Doc t ' t 2. n se e he anif a gue t tt a m os r ofha a s e t ta l ge y pe m e t d J r ha he t phe e r s m nt ha le dl r a e TEK T' w or a S kpl ce de monsr t t tt de e nt a i agans t pl i if we em otva e byr c a taes ha he f nda s' ctons i t he antfs r i td a il dici nai Se ec.M e t v. dDomi onFri tLi sl .601F. 289,300 ( h srmi ton. es . , nit O1 ni egh ne nc, 3d -01 4t Ci. 01 )(ee mii t a s mmayj d me t sia p o raeb c u eat o p rt c lu e' r 2 0 d tr nng h t u r u g n wa n p r p it e a s k r o ae ut r' c o dsrmi t r a i sc udb atiue t t ut t d cso ma e)l Th c u t f ic i nao y nmu o l e t b td o he lmae e iin k r.8 e o r r i o e v s t tdit i tc t i t scic t i l ng t sc t have be s r ous i a yi bs r e ha s r c our s n hi r ui, nc udi hi our , en c upul n ppl ng t Fo t Cic t stc por t c t e 's a r a e a ned i M e rt,onl t t e c e i he urh r ui' i or a e ulur ' t nda d s xpl i n r it y o hos as s n whih t r i e de et tr c a a muspe va sa1lve soft ma c he e s vi nc ha a i l ni r de 1 e l he nage mente r nm e t nvio n . E. , a im iiv.Be al Che olt l ,Ci lAci No.7: c 213,2011W L 1 :.Alm a l r und vr e , nc. vi ton 09- v4791 , 01 a *9( . Va Apr 1 2011,You v. tdPac Se v,Ci lAci No. t W D. . . 8, ) n: Unie rel r . vi ton DKC 08- 86, . 25 2011W L 665321 a *11( M d.Feb.1 2011;Bur nev.Grenvil Te hni lCo1.C. ,t D. 4, ) di e le c ca 1, A. I B l Pa S ng,t c tnot st t i M er i , he Fou t Cicui c t d t c por t c t r ofha as m e o y D S i he our e ha , n rt t l rh r t ie he or a e ulu e r s nt nl a a fcort bec i r d i deer i ng whehe t deenda ' lgii ae,nondic i i t y r s f tki s a t o onsde e n t m ni t r he f nts e tm t s rm naor ea ons or a ng a a reempl e aci we epr txt .M erit 60lF. a 295.Assaed a n dve s oym nt ton r ee ual rt, 3d t tt bove,hecou ti oft t r s he opi ont tt pl ntfsha f ie t e tbls e prm af i ca esofr ci dic i i ton i t m soft ni ha he ai if ve ald o sa ih ven i ace s a al s rm nai n er he M cDonnelD o l a ytca fa ewor l ugas nal i l r m k. 29 No. 0 -v- 3 6 J C, 01 W L 5 1 4 , t* ( S. De .1 , 0 .I t ec u tsve 6:8c 0 7 4-M 2 0 21 5 4 a 7 D. C. c 6 201 ) n h o r' iw, t si nots h a c e. W hie t r i e de e t tt day-o- y w o ki e r e wa hi s uc as l he e s vi nc ha he t da r ng nvi onm nt s be e w ih a tona e r i ove t nes t r i no r a e de e f om w hi h i m i be i pled s t t c i bl ac al r o , he e s e l vi nc r c t ght m i t ts h a a m os r pe v de t e pl e de i i m a ng pr es . l e asouti d ha uc n t phe e r a d he m oym nt c son ki oc s nde d, lne a bove t r i e de e t t c t a y. , he e s vi nc o he on r r The ef e be us t pl ntfsha f l t c r t i bur n ofde onsr tngt r or , ca e he ai if ve aied o ary he r de m tai he e s e ofa ge ne i s ofm a e i lf c r ga di t rdi c i i ton cl i s t c tm us xi t nce nui s ue t r a a t e r ng hei s rm na i a m , he our t ga t defnda s moi f rsl r j me wihr pe t t s cams rnt he e nt' ton o lmmay udg nt t es cto he e li . 3. R et i i cl m alaton ai The pl i if a s cl i t tJ a ntf s l o a m ha TEK T c os d t Da e le pl nti r t la i f t i l e he l vil a n e a i ton or he r c ompli t ofhar s m e a dic i i ton,i vi a i ofTil VI. Til Vl pr bis ans a s nt nd s rm na i n olton te l te 1 ohi t e oyesfo ç srmi ti a i ta ofgheile oyee ... c eghee oye j mpl r r m s c i nagngq gans ny t r mpl s be aus t mpl es di hal o e a pr tc ma a unlwf e o n prci by( teV1) orbe us ve) ppos d ny acie de n a ul mplyme t a tce Til l, ca e (h e ly e lh ge . . a t iae i a ymmme i a iv si ai n' n e Ti eVI.4 t e mpo e s av ) . p ri p td n n c r n n n e tg to 'u d r t I 2 l U. C.j2000e3() Theelme sofart itoncam unde Til Vl ae:( )e ge nti S. - a. e nt ealai li r te 1 r 1 nga me n ap o e tda tvt ; 2 a v ree ly n a to a d( )ac u a ln b t e tep o e td r tce ciiy ( ) d e s mpo me t cin; n 3 a s l ik ewe n h r tce aci t a t e o e a ton.Colm a 6 F. a 1 tviy nd he mpl ym nt c i e n, 26 3d t 90.I apl i ifesa ihesaprm a f antf t bls i f c e c e, he bur n s fst t def nda t pr f ra l gii a e nonr t la o y r s f ris a i as t de hi t o he e nt o of e e tm t , e a i t r ea on o t de so Dowev.TotlAci Aaans Povet i Roa ciin. a ton i t rv n nokeValy,1 F. 653,656(t Ci. le 45 3d 4h r 1 .Thebur nt ns fsba t t pli ift rbu t d e ntspr ferdras J998) de he hit ck o he antf o e t he efnda ' o f e e on. #. A fe r vi w i t e de e i t r or t c t ncl t r e e ng he vi nc n he ec d, he our co udest tt r i a g nui ha he e s e ne i ue ofm a er alfactr di w het t pl ntf shave s ss t i egar ng her he ai i f hown t a caus lnk exi t hat al i ss bewe nt pli if pr eceda tviy(e tngi tnc ofrci haasme a t e he antfs' ot t ci t rpori nsa es a al r s nt nd 30 S son o os he e le a dicrmi ton)9and JTEKT' decii t cl et Dalvil plnt Therc ds s i nai 1 e or howst t ha, . a ou t e ofAprl2009,t pr s d ntofJ r nd he nd i he e i e TEKT Norh Am e i as nta e ala ki o he t rc e n m i s ng t r J TEKT ofi i st e o e t pos i lt ofc osng t Dal vil of i e. Thi e ai w ass nt tc al o xpl r he s biiy l i he e le f c s m l e a t rt Ba i aget pi i de ,a t r Si m onsha c pl i ofHuynh' ha as i be vi r fe he ls a ng nci nt fe m d om a ned s r s ng ha o , a a trt W oolol not and noos di co r Furhe nd fe he f k es e s ve y. t nuor , he e ai w a s n a ound t et m l s et r he s m etm e abei si ty bef r ,J a i , l t lgh l o e TEKT a e t s tl W oolol scli a J gr ed o e te f k' am nd TEKT ofi as tcil i t l e e t pl n i f t une rh m a oft co pl i s o r ci ha as m e a n ewi w d he ai t f s o a t ny he m a nt f a al r s nt nd dicrm i ton t ta e a i s i t ss t W hie t c t e ogni st tot re de e i t s i na i ha r t s ue n hi ui. l he our r c ze ha he vi nc n he r c dm i s e or ght ugge tt tt de i i t c os t Dalvil plntha isge i i Se e r s ha he c son o l e he e le a d t ness n pt mbe 2 08f re o o cr ao ,h c u t o ld s h tara o bej r c u dfn ta ac u a 0 o c n mi e s ns t e o r c ncu e t a e s na l u y o l id h t a s l lrk e sed be w e n J il xi t t e TEKT ' dec son t Cl et pl nta t pl i if 'pr e t d ac i t z s i i o OS he a nd he a ntf s ot c e tviy.o Furhe t nnor a t e, lhoug J h TEK T ha a nc a l tm a e, s dva ed egii t nonr t la or r s f t ki t e a i t y ea on or a ng he ad ree pl e aci t co tlke s c ude t t bas o t tm i oft e al ve s m oym nt ton, he ur i wie oncl s ha , ed n he i ng he m i s ntby of i a sf om J e fci l r TEK T Nor h Am e i r ga di t pos i e c osle oft D a e le t rca e r ng he s bl l tr he l vil p a t ara o a ej r c udd tr n ta J ln, e s n bl u y o l eemie h t TEKT' p o frdr a o wa p ee t a.He c , S r fee e s n s rtx u l n e bec us ge ne i s ofm a e i lf c e s ,t co t ilde t de e n s m oton f r a e nui s ues t r a a t xit he ur w l ny he f nda t ' i o s mmayj g n a t tepanif' eaito cam.1 u r ud me t s o h litfs r tlain li 2 1 9 Thedeenda sco i t i vi oft pr e td a i t t t pl ntfs de sont tl t EEO C f nt nfne her ew he otce ctviy o he ai if' cii o ie he c ag s Ho v rtec s lw d mo srtsta a e o e sc mplit( eh rafr l h re . we e,h ae a e ntae h t n mply e' o an wh te o ma EEOC c mpan o a o lit r ls f ma v r a o wrte c mplitoma a e n)E o si tsp oetdatvt wh ntee o e es or l eb l r i n o an t n g me t < ntt e rtce ciiy e h mply r t c u unde sood,ors d ha undert t tt pli ifwasopposng dic i i t yc rt houl ve sood, ha he antf i s rm naor onduc.'Bur s v. own, t' ce s Br No. 02 1 2 1 WL 51 1 0 a * (t Ci. e .1 , 01)(in Rih r o v Riha dCn v Sc . s. l 1 -08 , 0 2 7 9 , t 9 4h r F b 7 2 2 ct g c adsn . c ln t. h DitNo. , i 5 F Ap ' 61 , 1 (t Ci. 0 2 2 . px 5 6 7 4h r2 0 :. 2 0 Th c ut e o nie ta arao a ejr c udd tr n t th d fn a t eetdt co etepa tn e o rrc g z s h t es n bl uy o l eemie ha te ee d ns lce o ls h ln i r pons t co pl i sofha as m e b peo e ot rt n t pl i if ;ho e ,t sf t fndi g woul not es e o m a nt r s nt y pl he ha he antf s w ver hi ac ual i n d pr ft t t pli if 'r t iton cam bec us t pl ntfsfl w ihi t z ofi eesspr ece by Til ove aal o he antfs eala i li a e he ai if al t n he one ntr t ot td te VI.Th mps n v N. . t i e s LP 1 1S. . 63 8 0( 01 ) l o o . Am S anls . , 3 Ct 8 , 7 2 1. 2 1 Ho v rtec u t lga tted fn a t' to f r u r jd me a t panifYo n ' we e,h o rwil rn h ee d n s moin o s mmay u g nt so litf u gs r t iton cl i be us Young ha f l d t esa i h a prm af ci ca e Bec us Y o admit dl r s gne hi e ala i am ca e s aie o t bls i a e s . a e ung te y e i d s e o e wih J mplym nt t TEKT onJ uay 20,2009,s ve a m onhsbeor t J an r e rl t f e he TEKT Norh Am e i ofi al s ntt t rca fci s e he e alr r ngt pos i ecl u eoft Dalvil f iiy,i i dubiuswhehe Y o ca e tbls ac allnk m i egadi he sbl os r he e le aclt t s o t r ung n sa ih aus i bewe n a pr e t daci t a J t e ny otc e tviy nd TEKT' de sont cl t pl t Asdicusedabove Young c de t t S cii o ose he an . s s , once s ha 11 1. Conc us on l i Fort r s s tf t a he ea ons e orh bove, he c t ilg anti par a de i pa tt t our w l r n t nd ny n r he d fn a t' to f rs mmayj d me t S e iial,h c u t l g a t h moinwi ee d n s mo in o u r u g n . p cfc l te o r wi rn t e to t y l h r s tt t pl ntfs dic i i ton cai ,a wilde t m o i n wih r pe tt t e pec o he ai if ' s rm na i l ms nd l ny he to t es c o he pli tfs hosiewor e r a n if ' tl k nvionme cai . Furhe r , heco twilgr ntt de e nt ' nt l ms t nno e t ur l a he f nda s motonwih r s tt Yot g' r t lai n cli ,b wilde t moton wih r pe tt t i t e pec o m s e aito am ut l ny he i t es c o he r m ai ng t eepl ntf s r t la i c a m s e ni hr ai i f ' e a i ton l i . TheClr i die t d t s nd ce tfe c esoft smemor ndum o ni a t ek s rce o e rii d opi hi a pi on nd he a c panyi or rt a lc c om ng de o 1 ouns lo r cor e f e d. ENTER:Ths V & d yo Ma , 01 . i a f y2 2 Chi fU nied St t D i ti tJ e t a es s r c udge hewaspr ry f ce t r i ba edon hi postvedrg t t l a e nt t c tco l st tYounghas ope l or d o esgn s s ii u es. n ny ve , he our ncude ha fie t e tbls t thes fr a ad s e o e a ton,a hehadr sg hi e pl e l bef et ald o sa ih ha ufe ed n vere mplym nt ci s e ined s m oym nt ong or he cl t eoft Dal leplnta t ,wa nota fcedby J ost r he evil a nd, hus s fe t TEKT' decso t cl et f iiy. S iin o os he aclt 32