King v. Flinn & Dreffein Engineering Co., et al, No. 7:2009cv00410 - Document 205 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 7/30/12. (sas)
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ŠE sOFFCEU.. S CGJ RK' I > DIX RT ATR- f E, - VA FI LED I THE UNI S N TED TATESDI TRI COURT S CT FO R TH E W ESTER N D I STRI O F VI G I A CT R NI R OAN O KE D I VISI ON J UL 2 2 2 . J : CH A RLE S K IN G , C as N o. 7: cve 09- 00410 Pl ntf ai if, M EM O M N D U M O PI IO N N V. By:Jam esC .Turk Se or U ni e St t D i t i tJudge ni t d a es s r c FLI N & D RE FFEI ENG I EERI G N N N N CO. , D e e nt f nda . Thi ma tri be or t Cour on De e ntFlnn & Dr f n Engi e i Co. s te s f e he t f nda i efei ne rng (T&D' ' M otonf SummayJ % ' s i or ) r udgme .Plitf ChalsKi ($ ng' fl a Opposton, nt anif re ng 6 Ki ' ied n ) ii t w hi h D e e o c f ndan hasr pled. F& D hasa s m ove t srke t o a f da t s it i t e i lo d o ti w f i vis ubm ted n o p st nt i sz r j d me tmoi n ta o Plitf Kiga t a o Bar J l o p o io o t l i s mma y u g n to :h t f anif n nd h t f ry oms n. O r la g e w a he r on J y 1 201 a t m a t r a e now rpe f dipos ton. Fo t a r um nt s a d ul 1, 2, nd he te s r i or s ii r he ras stf t beow, e ons e orh l F&D' M oi t Sti ( Nos.1 1 )aeDENI a is s tons o rke ECF 69, 71 r ED nd t M oi f Summa yJ ton or r udgme ( No.1 )i GRANTED. nt ECF 41 s l z FacualandPro dura Bac ound t ce l kzr Asrq ie wh n c n iei gamo infrs mmayj g n ,h f csaec n tu d e urd e o sd rn to o u r ud me tt e a t r o sr e i t lghtm os f a e t K i t no m ovi pary. Se Se bul O f s e Lt v. m . n he i t avor bl o ng, he nng t e a k f hor s d. A HomeAsur Co.3 F. 408, ( hCi. s . , 77 3d 418 4t r 2004) A. SmihAut i Pr ducs . O. t omotve o t Co ny(W . Smih' pr edse lc mpa ç O. t ' oduc te ompone sf t c si oflr tbi rg'tuc . ) nt or he ha ss age s g i 'r ks A m ong iscus om er w er Fr ghti ,Pet bit M ack,and Vol O n A ugus 1 1995,A . . t t s e ei lner er l, vo. t 7, O Smihe eedi oanEqui ntPurhas Agre n (k r e nf'wihF&D whe enA. t ntr nt pme c e e me t d e me ) t Ag r i O. Sm ih ordered an i t alheatprocessi s t fom F& D t i t latis f lt i t ndusri ng ys em r o ns al t aciiy n 1 . Ro n k , r ii.De.sEx. , 8 Pl sEx. .Th h a p o e sngs se c n itdo tre a o e Vign a f' 1 ! ' . , ' 3 e e t r c si y tm o sse f h e maorc j ompone s a Ause ii Fur nc ($ ' aQue hM a hi (t nc ),a a nt' n tntzng na e ç ) . AF' nc c ne ûoue h' nd Te rngFur e(û '.Ata he t a ma apar oft Agre ntwe epr asa mpei nac ' ) tc d o nd de TF' t he e me r opos l nd dr wi f ea h oft s pi c sofe pm e ,whih wer de i t d t ûspe fc tons' a ngs or c he e e e qui nt c e sgna e he i ciia i . ' The A gr e e di t t d t any r e m nt c a e hat eque t by A. .Sm ih t c ng t Spec f c tons a w e l ss O t o ha e he ii a i , s l a rs s e pons st t e c nge r que t ,we e t be m a i wrtng.Fi l t A gr e e e o hos ha e ss r o de n ii naly, he e m nt c ai d am e ge a i egr to clus co e a i t ti c tt e t e ieag ee nt ont ne r r nd nt ai n a e, nt mpltng ha t onsiut d he ntr r me be w e n t pa te . The he tt e ts t m wasm a ac ur d,as e bl d and i t le f om t e he r i s a r a ys e nuf t e sm e ns a l d r tr i e t t s cc pt d O Sm t n Se e be 1 95 t r ug Dec m be 1 pt m r 9 h o h e r 996. Afe be ng t s ed,i w a a e e by A . . ih i M ar 1997. ch Thepur e oft hea pr ce sng s t m i t t ke r l tvel i xpe i g r n pos he t o s i ys e s o a e a i y ne ns ve, a de va i t see r is a c r e y t l a l nd onver t m i o hi sr ng h r ist tw e e s t bl f us i he vy t he nt gh t e t a l ha r uia e or e n a tuc c s i.Thehea pr s i ord a te t' oc s i c r k ha ss t oce sng, i t r a 'pr e s s omprs d oft eebasc se . he ie hr i t ps Fi s , he s e lr i i he t d i t AF t t m pe a ur s ofm o e t n 1 00 de e Fa e t i . r t t t e a l s a e n he o e rt e r ha 6 gr es hr rhe t The t hotsee i ta poredt t Que h,wheei i dous dwihwae t trpi yc s n,he t l s r ns t o he nc r t s e t tr ha a dl ool i t ne rr om t m pe a ur . Be aus t r l a e notc ed unior iy nota1 t m ol c es to a o e rt e c e he ais r ool f m l1 he e ul co r c o e pa a t s m e r t - t r l m a be m e dit t d o bow e durng t nt a t r x nd t he a a e he ais y co s or e r d i he que hi pr s . W he bowi ordit to o ur,i oc ur i e ael upon r l s of nc ng oce s n ng sori n cc s t c s mm di t y eea e t t di t tc a t r i i t que h be durng t q he ool es ha l mp he a l n he nc d i he uenc ng pr e s Bec us t hi oc s . a e he s t m i d i ne t ta por fa r is bowe r isf lt ad nc t ough t pr ce s a yse s esg d o r ns t l t a l, d al ai o va , hr e he o s , nd s etm esr r m anuali er i om i equie nt venton. 2 Afe a r i i que he , i i te ee tdfo t eQu n ht aDr gCh i l Hy rui tr a l s nc d t s h n j ce r m h e c o a an. d a 1c amst nlf t ri ont t t rngf na c r co r he ithe al o he empei ur ce hage nveyo (' Cha geConve ', rS TF r yor' 2 ) wheeu ni ta l i ot Te rngFur e(TF' . Thetooraoundt TF Chage r po trves nt he mpei nac t ' ) l r he r Con yori s i r f om g e e a w a e ' hi s i r c t o w asknow n t m any ve s lppe y r r as nd t r t s lppe y ondii n , o M e a s e pl es i l ng K i The TF Cha ge Conve c i t ofel ve r l r wih t l a m oye , nc udi ng. r yor ons ss e n ole s t s oc t on t e ,whi h a e drve by a c i pow e e by a fve hor e e e e ti pr ke s he nds c r i n ha n rd i - s pow r l c r c m ot . O nc a see r i r c st TF,i i r hea ed t a i e m e a e t m pe a ur ofl s or e t l a l ea he he t s e t o n nt r di t e r t e es t n 1 de e Fa enhe t w hi h us l a e i r t s a dit tons c us d dur ng t ha 300 gr es hr i, c ualy m lo a e ny s or i a e i he q nc ng pr es . The r i i t n di c r ed t a c - n c ue hi oc s a l s he s ha g o ooldow onve , tnaly di c r d yor and i l s ha ge f r fna c t m odii a i bef e i i pa ka d f de i r t t pl nt sc t e s o i l usom f c ton or t s c ge or lve y o he a ' us om r . The TF Cha ge Conveyori c r l d f o a ne r ope a orpl t or t tc t i a r s ontole r m a by r t a f m ha on a ns t h s r e c pu e t r i lt tc t ol t he tt e tlne. The TF Char Conve ha ouc c e n om t r e m na ha on r s he a r a i ge yor s t o m ode : a om a i a m a l l a om a i m ode, he TF Cha ge Conve ,i l ng t w s ut tc nd nua . n ut tc t r yor nc udi he c i a s oc ts t ,i i c t ntm o i a t r t of 1 6 . f tpers ond. By ha n nd pr ke ysem s n ons a ton t he a e . -1 7 ee ec con r s,i m a lm ode,heTF Cha ge Conve so m o ng.An ope aoron t ope a o ta t n nua t r yor t ps vi rt he r t r pltor ca m ovet c af m n he onveyorf r r orba kwa d by r pe e yt hi t monior o wa d c r e atdl ouc ng he t s r n i on. Ope a o sa t pl nt i l ng K i kne how t pl ce t TF Cha ge c ee c r t r t he a , nc udi ng, w o a he r Conve i m a ua m ode. yor n n l 1 Ki ' brefr er t t spar oft s t ast G-r f Tabl .' The ar one a t sa e t he ç anser f e' y e ng s i ef s o hi t he ysem nd he m - he t e us t tans tr l t t TF Char Conveyor. See Bal Dep.86-92. Varousw ines es and abl ed o r por ais o he ge az i t s , F&D,cal i t Dr Chai a i anefor t a d c usi t Cour w iladher t t l t l t he ag n, nd n f t o voi onf on, he t l e o he ater nomencl ur at e. 2Agai , K i ' O pposton bri r er t t spar oft s t ast ITF Enty Tabl 'asoppos t n ng s ii ef ef s o hi t he ysem he I r e' ed o t TF Char Conveyor l ever ot par oft r d,i i r e r t asa conveyor l t s he ge . n y her t he ecor t s ef r ed o . n hi Opi on,t tTF Enty Tabl' and KTF Char Conve ' ar us i er hangabl ni he G r e' t ge yor' e ed nt c y. 3 A. Smih' plnti Roa O. t s a n nokewa e nt l t ke ove by To rAut otvei s ve ualy a n r we om i n Ap i 1 9 a dt e b M eas- a o e l . s tla' i lt 2 0 .Kigj n dMeas rl 9 7, n h n y tlaRo n k ,nc (Meas' n ae 0 0 n oie tla t ) i 2003, nd t a f r e t t H e tTr a Ce li M a 2006.M e a s orispr de s or , n a r ns e r d o he a e t l n y t l a, t e ce s s c e t d as utont de wih t pr e ofbo d r is I taned isope aor t us a r a e ol i o al t he oblm we a l. t r i t rt s o e s c al d i t t pe i ly- esgnaed ool ba ialy,a24-nc l pi wr nc t m a pult bowe r l sc l i h ong pe e h o ni a e d ais s h t tt y co d c i o t o h t s t . Ki had m a pul t d bow e r is uc ha he ul ontnue n hr ug he ysem ng ni a e d al hundr ds oftm e . e i s On Se e be 29,2006,Ki and a c ope a o ,BilFr em a w e e t t ron t pt m r ng o- r t r l e n, r oge he he c r plto m . The no i d t tabowed r i wa ta ii ng fom t Dr g Chan ont ontol a f r y tce ha al s r nstoni r he a i o t TF Cha geConve .Thebowe r i wasno m o ng.Ki wiho knowi whehe t he r yor d al t vi ng, t ut ng t r he TF Cha ge Conveyo w as i a om a i o m a lm ode l f t pl t or t a es t bow e r r n ut tc r nua , e 4 he a f m o ddr s he d r i. l f c , heTF Cha geConve r m ane i a oma i mode a wa ne rpl c d i al n a tt r yor e i d n ut tc nd s ve a e n m a ua .Ki pu hi gl so r ti d t pi wr nc a e er d t f nc a e whih n l ng t s ove n, ereve he pe e h, nd nt e he e ed r a c s pa a e t o r t pl t o f om t m a hi r N ow w ihi a a m ' l ngt oft TF e r t d he pe a or a f nn r he c ne y. t n n r s e h he Cha ge Conve , hooke t pi w r nc ont t fa oft C- ha bo e r la r yor he d he pe e h o he l nge he s ped w d ai nd pus i f wa d i o t TF.A tt spoi ,he w a w ihi i hesoft s nni s oc t A s hed t or r nt he hi nt s t n nc he pi ng pr ke . t fonte o t bowe r lr c dt trtr lri i t TF( whieKi swrnc he r nd f he d ai ea he he is ole nsde he and l ng' e h wassill dont r l,t ri d c b k,' c c usdt pi wr nc t srkeKi tl odge he ai) he al d ked ac 'whih a e he pe e h o ti ng ki i t f e.Ki t n l thi f i o t we foor Afai hewoul f lbac r ,he n he ac ng he os s ootng n he t l . r d d al kwa ds i tnc i l r c d f r r whi h c us d hi gl d l tha t ge c ugh i t TF Cha ge ns i tve y ea he o wa d, c a e s ove ef nd o t a t n he r Conveyor' rur i chai and spr s m ng n ocket Ki r . ng eached t f eehi l thand w ih hi r ght but o r s ef t si , t s oc tc ug t tha aswel Asars t Ki s frds veea de omi ij i he pr ke a ht ha nd l. e ul, ng ufee e r nd f r ng nures t bot hi r g a l tha o h s i ht nd ef nds. On Se e r 1 2008,Ki fld s ta i tF&D i t Cic tCour f t Ciy of pt mbe 7, ng ie ui gans n he r ui t or he t Roa noke. M or t a yea l t r on O c obe 7, e han r ae, t r 2009,F& D r m ove t a ton t t sCou t e d he c i o hi r. On J y 5, 1, ih l ave ofCour,K i fl an Am e ed Co pl nt O n M a c 8, 2, ul 201 w t e t ng ied nd m ai . r h 201 a i wihl veofCour,Ki fld aSec Ame edCo ai (t ', c i now t gan t ea t ng ie ond nd mpl nt dSAC' whih s ) he opeai Compli i t sc e. TheSAC alge c us sofacin fr( )ne i ntdesg of rtve ant n hi as le s a e to o 1 glge in t he tte ts tm;( neglge fiur t wan;( br c oft i idwarnt offt s he a r a yse 2) i nt al e o r 3) ea h he mple ra y ines f apa tc arpur e;( brac oft i idwarnt ofmec tbiiy;( )brac ofa or riul pos 4) e h he mple ra y rhana lt 5 e h n e es war nt ofs f o rto a ( bra hofa e es wara yofno tp o r ton. xpr s ra y ae peain nd 6) e c n xpr s rnt nso pe ai F&D a k teCo r t e trs mmayj d me ti isfv r cami t a Ki gi bardfo s s h u to n e u r u g n n t a o , li ng h t n s re r m rc r bec us ( )hec r eda ope a obvi ha r ,( hewasc rbut iy e ovey a e 1 onfont n n nd ous zad'2) onti orl ne i n;( Ki se oye maeily atr dt he tte ts tm bef ehi a i nt ( he glge t 3) ng' mpl r tral le e he a ra yse or s ccde ; 4) a s dt rs ( )heha nots sume he ik; 5 s hownt tF&D' pr uc wa unr s bl da r ;( ha s od t s ea ona y ngeous 6) t r weenoe e swara isoft t Ki cli ' 7 a i idwarnt of hee r xprs rnte he ype ng ams ( ) ny mple ra y , me c ntbiiywasco rcual diplce ( )Ki se oye wa aknowl ea eusrof rha a lt nta t ly s a d; 8 ng' mpl r s edg bl e t hea tea s tm;a ( Ki scai aeuntmeypurua tt t Vigi aStt eof he t r t yse nd 9) ng' l ms r i l s n o he r ni aut Re e.Afe r c vi Ki sOpposton t ism o i F& D a s m ove t srkeKi s pos tr e ei ng ng' ii o t ton, lo d o ti ng' atd v ta wel sta o Bar J h s n s b t di o p sto t s mmayj d me t fi a i, s la h t f ry o n o , u mit n p o iin o u r u g n . e 1 St andardofRe e viw k-l f n to o amoinf rs mmayj d me ti t s k o ti t r i a yc s , ûfhe u cin f to o u r u g n s o mo e u f hee s n a e l i .a yg n n d s u ea t a ymaeil a ta d i t eei n c s ,oc nsr ej dca tme . , n e uie ip t s o n tra f c, n ,f h r s o a e t o e v u iil i e and ener by avoi ng an unnecess y t aland by pr di a s gy di ar ri ovi ng peedy and ef i entsum m ar fci y diposton. Blndv. rol & S.R. Co.406F. 8 8 ( hCi.1 .I c i rng s ii ' a ' Nof k R. , 2d 63, 66 4t r 969) n onsdei as ummayj gme moton,t Co t e t f t,a a i e e est bedrwnfo r ud nt i he ur viws he acs nd ny nfr nc o a rm 5 t ef c s i t lghtm os f vor bl t t no o ngpa t Se Unie St t v. e d. hos a t , n he i t a a e o he nm vi ry. e t d aes Dibol lw.369U. 654,655( 962)( rc im) l , S. 1 pe ura .Summa yj me i a opraewheet r udg nt s ppr it r he m ova û ho st tt r i no ge ne d s e a t a m a e i f c a t m ova i e il d nt t w ha he e s s nui i put s o ny t ral a t nd he nt s ntte t j d me t samatro lw. Fe . Ci. 5 () Mo e v r s oug na te f a ' d R. v P. 6 a . r o e, umma yj d me tma b ' r ug n y e s hta t t e ie y ofacli orde e eorpa tofa cam orde e e.1 oug s o he ntr t am f ns r li f ns d. A g n i is o mae il a t xit wh r ra o a l j r r c u dfn ta te e une sue f tra f c e ss ee e s n b e u o s o l id h t h nonm ovi pa t i entted t a ve di ti is f vor Ande s v.Li t Lobb I ,477 U . ng ry s il o r c n t a . r on bery v. nc. S. 242,252( ) Themovi pa ybeast i ta bur nofs ngt lc ofage ne 1986 . ng rt r he niil de howi he a k nui diput ast t maeilf t i t c e.Ceoe Cop.v.Cart, U. 31 323( 986) s e o he tra acs n he as ltx tet477 S. 7, 1 . On eamo infrs mmayj d me ti p o e l ma ea d s p o td h we e ,h tb r e c to o u r u g n s r p ry d n u p re , o v r ta u d n s fst t nonmovi pa t M a s hiaEl c l us Co.v.Ze t Ra o Cop . 475U . 57 hit o he ng ry. tus t e . nd . nih di , S. 4, 5 7( 9 6 .A mo igp ryi e tte t s mmayj d me ti terc r a awhoec u dn t 8 1 8) vn a t s n i d o u r u g n f h e o d s l l ol o l ad a r tona t i roff ctt fnd i f voroft non- ova . W ilam s v.Gr fi 952 F. 820, e ai l re a o i n a he m nt li i fn, 2d 8 3(t Ci. 9 ) Bu i ev nwh r s mmayj d me ti a p o raeo ter c r s fr 2 4h r 1 91. tç j e ee u r u g n s p r p it n h e o d o a g m a i a c e, c tm a pr ry de lne f a va i t ofr a ons t gr nti. For s H il de n as a our y ope l c i , or re y e s , o a t' ' e t ls Eal Le r ncCt.I .v. rv ani rsnc Lukha d, F. 23 245(t Ci.1 4) Ac or r 728 2d 0, 4h r 98 . c dhnd z v. ïw Clr 561F. 261, ( hCi. ak, 3d 271 4t r 2009)(e ogni ngadvioyco teenotsafr ng r c zi s r mmit e fo di d src c u t iceine nwh r s mma yj g n sa d r i me) Fial, ic t e itit o r ds rto ve e e u r ud me t tn ad s t. n l sn e h y r l va e n s i t s c s occ r d i V igi a t cl i si t s a ton a e ba e on s a e l w , e e nt ve t n hi a e ur e n r ni , he a m n hi c i r s d tt a a t sCo r' j rs ito i b s do dv riyo ct e s i ,h Co r a p ist es b tnie nd hi u ts u idcin s a e n ie st f iz n h p te u t p le h u sa t i v l ofVi ni Seabul O f s e,377 F. at418. See generaly Ere R .Co.v.Tom pki 304 aw rgi a. k f hor 2d l i ns, U. 64,78( 938) S. 1 . Afia t o d caain u e t s p o t ro p s amo inf rs mmayj d me t fd vi r e lrto s s d o u p r o p o e to o u r u g n s m us be ç ade on pe s lknowl dge s toutf t t tw oul be a i s bl i evi nc and t t m r ona e ,e ac s ha d dm s i e n de e, s how t tt a f a orde l a i co pe e tt t tf o t m a tr s a e ' Fed. .Ci P. ha he f i nt c ar nt s m t n o es iy n he te s t t d. ' R v. 56()4) W heeanafda ts te i s r ofori oppostont amotonfrs c( . r fi vi ubmitd n uppo t n ii o i o ummay r j udgme fal c r dit t afintsprors nt tmony,heCour ma deci t c i r nt lty onta cs he fa ' i wor esi t t y lne o onsde t afd viaspar oft s he fia t t he ummayj me rco d.Se Ro boug vW yeh La .I .91 r udg nt e r e hr h t bs. nc 6 F. 970,975( hCi.1 ;Bawikv. oe Co1 .736F. 946,960 ( hCi.1 . 2d 4t r 990) r c Celtx ' , p 2d 4t r 984) 11 1. D i si scus on Un e p o u t la iiylw, e o ey . . g is ama ufcu e f ra ij r c u e b d r r d cs ib l a rc v r . a an t n a tr r o n n u y a s d y t ispr uc c n be a e us ve, m pl x, nd di fc tc e ,e pe i ly be us o t t od t a n l i co e a f i ul onc pt s c a l ca e f he ma tr a dee e a ot rr e etbls df g r nijpr t la lt an ny ems nd fns s nd he uls sa ihe or vigi a oducs ibiiy, d be us oft r s tng i ons s e ,i no c lc i pr e nt ca e he e uli nc i t nt f t onfi tng, ec de . Batsv.Tow- otrFor itCo.978F. 1 6,1 ( hCi.19 . t M o klf , 2d 38 389 5t r 92) A . M ot ons t St ke i o ri 1. A f i tofC harl K i fdavi es ng The Cou tfr tt ke up F& D ' m otonst sr ke Fi s , D m ove t s rke Ki s r is a s s i o ti . r t F& s o ti ng' A fi vi,s it d i Opposton t F& D ' Sum m a y J m e M oton. Se Ex.1 t Pl' tda t ubm te n ii o s r udg nt i e 7 o .s Opp. l hi a fda t K i s e r t t f l i n s f i vi, ng w a s o he olow ng The wr nc srki m ei t f c c us d met l e my ba a e whi c e e h ti ng n he a e a e o os l nc ch aus d m e t i tnctvel r ac outf s po t I di nots i and f l The co t o o, ns i i y, e h or up r . d lp al. ndii n oft noor w here Iw as s he tandi di nothave anyt ng t do w ih m y I s of ng d hi o t os bal ance or m y handsgeti puled t t ng l hrough t ehai and s he n procket 1 . s t ne c us ons a l ce a i t m y f c asa r ul ofbe ng s r k by t usai d ont i nd a r tons o ae es t i t uc he wr ench. Ki Af. ( mpha i adde .F&D a g t thi e tr afda tmus besrc nsbe a e ng f :8 e ss d) r ues ha s nie fi vi t tike c us he hasel her sw or i udi i i er ogat es and i deposii t i ony,t he slpped. sew e n, ncl ng n nt r ori n ton estm hat i Se ,e g. K i D e 91 e . , ng p. -92. The Cour unde s a t tK i sve s on ofe t i t the t r t nds ha ng' r i ven s s ha 7 utlze t pi wr h t ma pult t bowed r i;t wr nc ki d bac a hi hi i t ii d he pe enc o ni ae he al he e h cke k nd t m n he f e H e l thi ba a e,a i an e f tt c t h hi s f g hi ha c ac . os s l nc nd n f or o a c m el, ot s nds augh i t c i a t n he ha n nd s oc t W hehe t tc tt esatsi 'i no hi mor t n aqui eove s m a i s pr ke . t r ha onsiut slp' s t ng e ha bbl r e ntc . Ha ngr viwe t moton,t o vi e e d he i he ppostont r t a r lt d e bis t M oton t Sti ii he e o, nd ea e xhi t, he i o rke t Af i vi ofCha l s K i i DEN I . he fda t r e ng s ED 2. Af i tofBarry Johnson f davi Se ond,F& D m ovest s r ke t a fda to Ba r J c o ti he fi vi f r y ohns n,c a m i t tva i o l i ng ha rous as c sofhi afi vi a e no ba e on pe s na know l dge. J pe t s fda t r t s d ro l e ohns w ast e nee i on he ngi rng m a ge a A . .Sm ih;whie t a t da tm a no ha m ete h a e r t l i al na r t O t l he fi vi y t ve ac nd ve y ec m c rq ie n o Ru e5 () t eCo r i stsidta t eafd vi s b tn ilyc mpl swi te e u rme t f l 6 c ,h u ts aife h t h fia t u sa tal o i t h e h Rul andt tJ on ha s fce pe s na knowldget t siy t t s ci cm at r e ha ohns s ufi int r o l e o e tf o he pe t i te s obe tdt byF&D.Ac or ngl t smotoni as DENI a bot t Ki a J o jce o c di y,hi i s lo ED, nd h he ng nd ohns n a f d vis we e u ii d i t Cour ' c i r ton ofF& D ' M oton f Sum m a y J f i a t r t lze n he ts ons de a i s i or r udgm e , nt w hi h i t nst now . c t ur o B. Sum m ary Judgm ent 1. O pen and O bvi H azard ous F trt o tn sta Kigc n o r c v rf rhsij re be a et yweec u e b &D is c n e d h t n n n t e o e o i nu is c us he r a sd y a ope a obvi ha r A c or ng t F&D ,t co bi ton ofa s i r toora a n n nd ous za d. c di o he m na i lppe y l nd r ni ung r d c n a s oc ts t m ,t whi h Ki w asi c os pr m iy,c ns iut un ng, ua de hai nd pr ke yse o c ng n l e oxi t o tt es a o n a obvi ha r ofwhi h K i s d ha be n a a e. Unde V igi a l w ,$ n pe nd ous za d c ng houl ve e w r r r ni a i a pl i i fm a notr ove dam age f br c ofa i ple w a r nt i t pur r e de e of a ntf y ec r s or ea h n m i d r a y f he po t d f ct w hi t pl ntf com pl ns wasknow n,vi bl orobvi t hi .' W ood v.BassPro Shops, ch he ai if ai si e, ous o m ' l , S. 2d 1 ,1 ( .1 (uoi Br ketv. relBr .l ,1 S. 2d897, nc.462 E. 01 03 Va 995) q tng oc t Har l os- nc. 43 E. 8 9 2( .1 6 )(n en 1 u tt nmak o te ) Smi ry as c e su o e a o vo s 0 Va 9 5 )itr a q oai o r s mi d . i l l , u c sf l p n nd b iu t a def ns w ila s ba r ove y f rcl m sr t d i ne i nc e e l l o r ec r o ai oo e n glge e.Se Fr e a v. e Co p. 11 e e m n Cas r , 8 F. 1011,1 4( hCi.1 .Thus i t Cour co ude ,a amat oflw,hatt haz r 3d 01 4t r 997) ,f he t ncl s s ter a t he ad w a o n a ob ous a 1ofK i scl i sm us be dim i s s pe nd vi , 1 ng' a m t s s ed. Ki doesnotdi pu e t e s e e oft e f c s Ra he ,Ki ur st Cour t ng s t he xit nc hes a t . t r ng ge he to d si u s b t e tedee ta dt eh z r Theh z r , n p st, ster c ifo h s it ih ewe n h f c n h a a d ng a ad Kig o is wa h e ol r m i m a pul ton oft bow e r l t s r c lc d notha be n ope and obvi t a r a o bl ni a i he d ai; hi e oi oul ve e n ous o e s na e pe s A cc di t K i ç he d e tw a t f iur oft u ua de TF Enty Ta e t r on. or ng o ng, ' ef c s he a l e he ng r d t r bl o c onve bow e r is butt r s tng ha a d w a t s y d a l, he e uli zr s he udde a une n nd xpec ed ki kbac c us d by t c k a e t r ln ngi ot r lr' P1' Opp.1 Thekikba kt toc ure whe t ri he aijmmi nt he ole.' .s 9. c c ha c rd n he al jmme it t er le wh nhetidt ma p aeiwi t piewrn h, ngman an , s a d n o h o lr e re o niult t t he p e c Ki h itis wa notope a obvi n nd ous.I s n uppor oft st or hes t hi he y, ubmist e tr por ofDr Fa ha t he xper e t . r d Booe ha hi Dr Booe ha , m e ha c le ne r o nest tt s s g . . s ghi a c ni a ngi e , pi ha he udde a unex c e n nd pe t d ki kba oft r i c e by t bow e r lhitng t fr tr l rand ki ki ba k, w e la c ck he a l aus d he d ai ti he i s ole c ng c as l s t ni poitc eae byt chan a s oc twe e lt n ha a dsunknowa et t or na y he p n r td he i nd pr ke r a e t z z bl o he di r per on. s P1, Ex. ,: -4. .s 28 !2 3 Ki rlesonM o e l ti .nc. Va n,471S. 2d489( .1 .I ng ei m n ndusres I v. ucha E. Va 996) n Mo e l m n ndus r e , he pl i ifwasa e pl e ofM i e r a c t uc i c ti s t a ntf n m oye s ne , ons r ton once n. A spa t r r of isw o k i buidi a po ton ofa br dge t l M i e rha pur ha e s ve all r M or n t r n l ng ri i unne , s ne d c s d e r a ge ge conveyor unis t tans twetconcr e al a t t o r por et ong rack. Each conveyoruni consi ed ofa l ge t st ar 3Ki alo subm ist exper r tofDr. Davi Thomps who opi t Ki di notpe cei t t epor ng s t he d on, nes hat ng d r ve hat hewasputi hi s fa rs and t ttby no m eanswasi an ç n and obvi tng m el t ik ha l t ope ous'haza ' Pl' Opp.22, rd. .s ' . Pl' Ex. Bu t i uiyont o na do o n s d f n ei a o j ci ,a dno as j cie .s 37. t he nq r he pe n bvius e s e e s s n b e tve n t ube tv , o .W ha Ki s j ci l p r ev di no r lva t tea lss M o e ve , . mps n' Iga ne t ng ube tvey e c ie s t ee nt o h nay i. r o r Dr Tho o s e l concl on ast whet t hazar w a çopen and obvi 'w ilnotbe acc ded any wei . usi o her he d st ous' l or ght 9 r c a a - ha bi mount d on awhe e unde c ri ge Thi s t m , r by amot rwa e t ngulr s ped n e eld r a ra . s yse whe e o s us d t m ove t co yorunisbac a f t a o t t a k i o de t de i rc r t f om e o he nve t k nd orh l ng he r c n r r o lve onc e e r t c r t m i ng s t t t st oft b i s ns a r nty w or d w el untlt da o he onc e e xi ie o he ie he r dge pa , ppa e l ke l i he y f teplitf sij r , ee po ta e ye u d: h an if nu y wh ru n rg d ns e M i e rs e pl e r ul ry c e ned t c s ne ' m oye s eg a l l a he onve s t m . yor ys e The e pl ess a d t m oye pr ye he s tm wih waera t n t hi yse t t nd he û pped of 'c me t tha dred a be m eafi dt c f e nt ha d i nd co fxe o t co he nveyo c r ompone s M ie rse oye r gul ry sood on t r isi or rt nt. s ne ' mpl es e a l t he a l n de o c ea c r a n pa t oft c l n e t i r s he onve s t m . i e di no w a n isem pl snott yor ys e M s ner d t r t oyee o sa ont r l whie c e ni t c t nd he ais l l a ng he onve u t . yor nis Onted yVa g a wa ijze ,h ma hn swe es h d ldt rman sainay fr h a u h n s n l d te c ie r c e ue o e i tto r o r c ea ng. n a de rur f o t es a i he r tne,a he e pl e ac i t d t s de l ni I pa t e r m he t bls d ou i not r m oye tva e he i di c r uni w ihoutw a ni s t i t unde c r i w he s oft co yorunis i s ha ge t t r ng, e tng he r a rage el he nve t n moton. ugha sf twa pi d bewe n am o ng whee a t unde c ri r i. i Va n' oo s nne t e vi l nd he r a rage al He f w ast a d i t tni poi ' w he e t whee a t r i m e . a r oot r ppe n he ' p nt' r he l nd he a l t V ugha w a n s u et m ovehe f ta t whee r l d o rhe f t a e a lg. hiehe f nabl o r oo nd he l ole ve r oo , nkl , nd e W l r oot w ass ilpi tl nned by t w he ,s f l of t r i,s t i ng m uli e f a t e ofbot he el he e l f he a l us a ni tpl r c ur s h he tbi a he f bul r i a nd r i a. M or n l . 471S. 2d a 491 TheVigi a Supr me Co tf ca ndus, E. t . r ni e ur oundt tsnc t r wa ha i e he e s c lc i e de e a t w he he t l p poi s ' e e a ope a obvi ha ar po ntng onfi tng vi nc s o t r he t ni nt ' w r n n nd ous z d, i i a i t t e r t tm o ofa m e hani ale ne r w ho s a e t twhie t haz r ofni ga n o he xpe t es i ny c c ngi e , t t d ha l he a d p poit waswelkno t t ei hi fed,t y a eno da r t ta eobvi t mos pe e . ns l wn o hos n s i l he r t nge s ha r ous o t opl I6 at491 1 -92. K i alo poi st t Four h Cic t sde s on i Fr m a v.Ca e Cor ,11 F. d ng s nt o he t r ui' ci i n ee n s p. 8 3 1 1( h Ci.1 whihuli eyconr shee.J eGln W ila a l s 01 4t r 997) c tmatl tol r udg e lims pty umme upt d he r e ntf c si hi o ni bel : el va a t n s pi on ow Upo r evi hi Cas 11 (r cor,( antfjFrema e mi dpori ofte n ec i ng s e 30 ta t j Pli if e n xn ne tons h a compa ngm a ,a alo i pe td t ta t is l.Pro t t a ci nt hehad c nyi nual nd s ns ce he r c or te f i r o he c de , m ow ed hi yar t i and s ead f ii oncew ih t t act . On t day ofhi s d w ce pr ertlzer t he r or he s ij y,Fre nwa notusngt s tbet W hiemowi ne rase pembn nti nur e ma s i he ea l. l ng a te nkme n hi back yar Fr an drove t tact overa partaly bured boul s d, eem he r or il i der. A lhough t t he Deee( sprvi ta t jha ne rdones t mowe blde oft Cas 11 bei r hi e ous rcor d ve o,he r a s he e 30, ng s slghty l er st ck t t oft boul . Fr an i m edi el st et i l ow , nz he op he der eem m at y opped t he ta t ,de es edt cl cht die gepowert t bldesa t whe s a r ie r cor pr s he ut o s nga o he a nd he el, nd as d t mowe de k s t tt bl eswoul no srket r k whe r t td.Hi pln wa he r c o ha he ad d t ti he oc n esare s a s t t n r l a e t c ut h t s n t bl desi t a r i o de t de e m i i t y ha o he e e s he l c o pi he a n he i , n r r o t r ne f he d be wa pe by s rki t r k. Fr e a c ai st thi f w a o t br ke pe , en r d t i ng he oc e m n l m ha s oot s n he a dal whih i l ae i cl epr miyt t s e rtoconr pe (ç '.Hei f t c s oc td n os oxi t o he pe d ai tol dal iSRC') n ac hadbot t br kea t SRC de r s e Thus whe he r l a e t cut h,heta t h he a nd he p e s d. , n e e s d he l c t r cor m oved f r r o rt e oft e ba e . Fr m a w a una e t s o ort o wa d ve he dge he m nkm nt ee n s bl o t p o r ai c r oft t a t . He l a f o t m ac ne, was sr k by t bl de and eg n ontol he r c or e pt r m he hi but t uc he a s s v r l ij r da teta t rr l dd wntehl. e eey n u e s h rco ol o h il e Fr ma v.Ca eCom .924F. pp.1 6,1 ( . Va.1 . Thec epr e edt til ee n s , su 45 461 W D. 996) as oc ed o ra' , t ej r f u di fvo o teplitf a da r e hm $ . mil ni d ma s 1 . t1 6 . h u y o n n a r f h an if n wad d i 38 li n a ge . d a 4 0 o Afe t vedit Cas br ug arne moi f j tr he r c, e o ht e wed ton or udgme a amat oflw,whiht nt s ter a c he d sr c c ur gr nt fndi i e ala, he pr m iy oft pe s a t a e e oft i t i t o t a ed, i ng, nt r i t oxi t he dal nd he bs nc he o r orpr s nc c r de c w e e ope a obvi us ha r ofw hi h t pl i ifs d pe at e e e ontol vi e r n nd o za ds c he a ntf houl hav be n a a e. The Fourh Ci c tr ve s d,fndi t tt haz d w asnott pr m iy of e e w r t r ui e r e i ng ha he ar he oxi t t pe l a t a e e ofa con r de c Ra he ,i c l d,t ha r w a t tk he he da s nd he bs nc t ol vi e. t r t onc ude he za d s ha ' t peda sc d e iy be i dve t nty c ngag d and t tc ng m entc d c us t m ow e t l oul as l na r e l oe e ha oe age oul a e he ro l r h be a e t br kesw oul notove de t SRC , a t tt s ha ar wasif rf o u c c us he a d ni he ' nd ha hi z d ' ûa r m obvi ,' e m a 1l F. a 1 5, s ci ly i lg o t s i o f o t pl i tf s e r ous' Fr e n, 8 3d t 01 e pe a l n i ht f e tm ny r m he a n if xpe t t tt br ke s d ha over w e ed t SRC i a ope a o sm ula ousy pus d bot ha he a s houl ve po r he f n r t r i t ne l he h ped s The c tf al . our ound t tt e r t s i ony a o t ha he xpe t e tm l ne t woul pr ve a c us on a a m a t r d e nt oncl i s te ofl w t tt ha a d c us d by t br ke' f iur t ove r de t SRC was S ous '' 1 a ha he z r a e he a s a l e o r i he obvi .' d. (g l n t defc i o s ac rce t tra ona ea pr nt( rons ma CW he he e t s f uch haa tr ha e s bl nd ude pes j y r as bl dif rast w he he a ac i n c d ors d ha bee r as na y a i i e e ona y f e o t r n c de t oul houl ve n e o bl ntc pat d fom ise se o no ,he t c s i ge r l onefrt j y. Fulzv.Del i Am. r t xitnce r t t n he a e s nealy o he ur ' t ' haze . l .677S. 2d 27 27 nc, E. 2, 4-75( 2009)(ntr lquottonmaksomitd) Hee alhought Va. i ena ai r te . r, t he cal i a cl e one,i lghtofD r Booeshaghis opi on,Ki has s it enough ûconfi i l s os n i . ' ni ng ubm ted l lctng e ie c 't s r ies mmayj dg n o ti is e t tl, d re si Vign a vd n e'o u vv u r u me t n h s su .Ulmaey un e xitng r ii i Supr m e Cour a Fourh Cic tpr c nt t Cour i notconvi d t tF& D c n be e t nd t r ui e ede , he ts nce ha a a r e s mmayj d me to teo e a do v o sd fns rs . wad d u r u g n n h p n n b i u ee epd e 2. C ont i or N e i nce r but y glge F&D ne a g st tKi c nnotr ove be a ehewasc rbut iy neg i nt xt r ue ha ng a ec r c us onti orl lge . W hie t ope a obvi de e e a t c rbut y ne i e e def ns a e r l t d, hey a e l he n nd ous f ns nd he ont i or glg nc e e r ea e t r no t s m e The open a obvi de e e f us s on t haz r is f by co r s , t he a . nd ous f ns oc e he a d t el ; nt a t a c rbut r neglgenc anayssr vol sa oundt c onti o y i e l i e ve r he onduc oft pl i if I Vigi a, t he antf. n r ni c rbut r neglgenc i a c pl t ba t r co r i ane i enc a ton. Sm ih v.Va. e onti o y i e s om e e r o e ve y n glg e c i t El c. & Po rCo.1 S. 2d655, ( .1 .Se aloFlknev.Ches a & Pooma Te. we , 29 E. 659 Va 963) e s a ape ke t c l Co. Va.97S. 2d650,652( 1 (i c of , E. Va. 957) t one mmotc r a he i dn sf hage not r n mage or n gie tyij rn hm wh nhso f i r t e ecs d ea r a o a ec r wa e l n l nu ig i e i wn al e o x rie u nd e s n bl ae s g u r s i ef t occ rnceofwhihheco ans' Ki c r trcove i heûaldt a t eponsbl or he ure c mpli . ). ng amo e r f s ie o c f a ar a ona e pe s n w oul ha ac e f hi own s f t und t c r um s a s ' Ar rp v. s e s bl r o d ve t d or s a e y er he ic t nce . ' ti E. Ber Eq i Co.3 7S. 2d8 , 2 ( .1 9 ) Thsi a o j ci e a dn ta E. rv up. , 9 E. 21 8 4 Va 9 0 . i s n be tv , n o s be t sa d r .Kel v Va Elc & Po rCo.38 S. 2 21 , 2 ( .1 8 ) u j ci tn ad lv . . e . we , 1 E.d 9 2 3 Va 9 9 . ve Addii ly,i or rf a pl i i ft be c r d w ih co rbut y neglgenc t tneg i nc tona l n de or a ntf o ha ge t nt i or i e, ha lge e m us ha be n apr m ae c us oft pli ifsa cde . Se Lic or v. nc k,35 t ve e oxi t a e he antf c i nt e t hf d Ha oc 2 S. 2d335,337( 1 .E ne al quesinsofne i nc andc rbutr neglge e E. Va. 987) t r ly, to Ge glge e onti oy i nc aefrt j y ... wher ras bl menma drw buto i ernc fom t fcs t y r o he ur but e e ona e y a ne nf e e r he a t,he be m e que tonsof1 f t co t' co si aw or he ur .'Sm ih,12 S. 2d a 659.A c or K e l 381 S. 2d a t 9 E. t c d lv, E. t 222(t di rl t is ofc rbut yne ie i aqueto f t j y. vet ls, d naiy,he sue onti or glg nce s or sin or he ur Ne rhee s when per onsofr onabl m i coul notdif upon t concl on t s neglgence has s eas e nds d f er he usi hat uch i be nesabls d,ti t duyoft ti c ts t r e.) F&D aguest tbyla ngaplc e t ihe i s he t he ral our o o u1 ' . ' r ha e vi ae ofs f t t ti , he ope a o ' sa i f lng t pl c t m a hi i a om a i m ode,a a e y, ha s t r t r s t ton, aii o a e he c ne n ut tc nd utlzi api m e t m ani a e a bow e r i whie s a ng on a s i y szf ce K i ii ng pe nch o pul t d a l l t ndi lpper tr a , ng f ie t ac a a r s na epe s n woul unde t c r m nsanc oft c e. a l d o t s ea o bl r o d r he ic t es he as He e, he e de s r t vi nce hows t K i di no a s e t tt TF Cha ge Conve wasi hat ng d t s ur ha he r yor n ma nualm ode bef r s e ng down f om t pl t o m . A c r ng t K i w he he l f t o e t ppi r he a f r co di o ng, n e t he c r pl tor , di notkno w he he t e pm e w a i m a lora om a i m od a ontol a f m he d w t r he qui nt s n nua ut tc e, nd t to hel thewa nolng ri c r oft sti Ki Af.!7.Bu onc hec ha nce ef, s o e n ontol he etng. ng f t e mne do n f om t pl t o m ,a bef e he us d t pi wr nc t m a pul t t bow e r i,i w a w r he a f r nd or e he pe e h o ni a e he d al t s pa e l obvi t hi t tt m a hi wasi a t a i m ode.Se K i D e 5 8. H e t nty ous o m ha he c ne n u om tc e ng p. -6, c d ha r t ne t t pl t o m a as d Fr m a t as lr t tt m a hi w asi m a l oul ve e ur d o he a f r nd ke ee n o sze ha he c ne n nua m ode; di not Ra he ,a t rhe se he d . t r f e t pped down f om t pl tor ,o e ve a ope a i r he a f m bs r d n r tonal m a hi ,i l ng a m ovi c i a s oc ts t m .H e t n e t e t ga ed a e pas t c ne nc udi ng ha n nd pr ke ys e he n er d he t r a, t he ba re f nc ,whie t TF Cha ge Conve wasi a t a i m od Att spoi ,K i w a rir e e l he r yor n u om tc e. hi nt ng s s a ng be w e n 1 a 24 i he a y f o t m ovi c n a s oc t . K i De 78. t ndi t e 8 nd nc s wa r m he ng hai nd pr ke s ng p. He t n a t c a pi m e h t t fa ofabow e r i,r a ng ove t c i a he ta hed pe nc o he l nge d a l e chi r he ha n nd s r c est d s S eDe.sEx 1 5( an ifse p r' sh mai o a cd n s e a i) p o k t o o o. e f' . 4 Plitf x e ts c e tc f c i e t c n ro . W he Ki w ashol ng t w r nch ove t c i a s o ket ,t e oft wr nc n ng di he e r he ha n nd pr c s he nd he e h ext ended onl aboutt i y en nches overt s ocket Booes he pr s. haghiD ep.81. Then,whie s andi l t ng o a s i r foor he us d t pi w r nc t ty t pus t bow e r i i o t TF. n lppe y l , e he pe e h o r o h he d a l nt he K i r pondst i t Courtdeci t he i conti orl neglgent i Sw oul have ng es hat f he des hat s rbut iy i ,t i d t concl asa m aterof1 t Ki s s wi and co- or s wer al unr onabl i o ude t aw hat ng' upel sors w ker e 1 eas en t eachi hi t do exacty as he di and exacty ast had done f 10 year wihouts an ng m o l d l hey or s t uch i de .TheCour woul as ha t dir r t e r t tm ony i t sc east t lt n nci nt t d lo ve o sega d he xpe t esi n hi as o he a e t da e oft c n a K i sr as bl be i fa t hi own s f t ' P1' M e . n Opp. ng r he hai nd ng' e ona e le s o s a e y.' .s m i 29. Spe fc ly,he ar ue t thi e r st ilt s iy t tunde t c r um sanc i w as cii a l g s ha s xpe t û l e tf ha w r he i c t es t ra o a ef rhm t b le eta h c u dp rom t ema i uaino tes b e t al aey e s n bl o i o eiv h t e o l e fr h n p lto f h u j c r is f l and w ihouti dent' cii t t r t nci ,' tng o he eportofD r Thom pson. 1 at38. Dr.Thom pson i a ci l . d. s vi e i e ; se ri e i i w he he hem a qua iy a a e r on t i s oft c ng ne r hi xpe ts s n t r y lf s n xpe t he s ue he onduc of t r s na epe s i dou f l ea o bl r ons s btu .Butmor i ra l ast Supr m eCour ha e ane e mpo tnty, he e t s xpl i d, 'g he a expetopi oni nots dwl n n r ni s uppore bys fce e de t valdaei i t e soft td ufiint vi nce o i t tn he ye he lw, whe i s a erc df t rnde t opi onu ea ona e,i c l s a or n ndiputbl e or acs e r he ni nr s bl t amot uppor aj r t uy vedit' Br r c. ookeGr Lt v. own & W ila onToba oCo p.509U. 209, ( 993) ' p. d. Br lims cc r , S. 242 1 . Andwh r t eo i o c n ts p o t u yv r iti c n o p o e l b u e t o p s ee h pnin a no u p r aj r ed c,t a n t r p ry e s d o p o e s mmayj dg n .Ac o dM ao Le c eBae lPr p . S l n .nc, 4 F.d2 0 31 u r u me t c r ir a u sbal o s v. avio l .5 2 2 9 , 1 ( Ci. 2d r 2008)(ûntr yc us r 'e r rpo tc nnotwadof s û iel oncl o y' xpe te r a e r f umma yj r udgme ) Ha ng nt. vi r vi wed Dr Thom ps sexpe tr por , he onl r alba i f hi co l i t tK i s e e . on' r e tt y e s s or s nc us on ha ng' c onduc wasras bl wast tnoopeaorha pr vi l be nij e i t pr s .Pl' t e ona e ha rt d e ousy e nurd n he oce s .s Ex.37 a 5. Dr Thom ps n a s c l st tr ng t TF Cha ge Conve i m a l t . o l o onc ude ha unni he r yor n nua mo ewo l n t a ep e e td o mig tdKig' ij re ,d a 8 0 Bu t a o i o i d ud o h v rv ne r t ae n s n u is i t -1 . t h t pnin s i b s do t ea s mp inta F e ma wo l h veb e c n t tyj gn tec n e o t te a e n h su to h t r e n u d a e n o smzl og ig h o v y r o h poi w her i w oul be m ovi att r e of 1. 7 f persecond,t sam e as i aut a i nt et d ng he at 6-1. eet he n om tc m ode w hie Ki he d t pi w r nc o t pi Thi as um pton hasno bas si t , l ng l he pe e h ver he pe. s s i i n he rc d.Se ,. ,Sna De 79(toggi i t pr es o pus ng (heri)f wadi asow, e or eeg. y p. û ng s he oc s f hi t al or r n l l c r l hi ....Onceyout yourtnge of,a q c yast sgnalgott t mot ontoledfas on ook i r f s uikl he i o he or t sopi,two dsop.'e o t ti ul t '(mpha i a dl ss dde ) I i tueta S n e l y ewh i ij rdwhi p romigaj bi a c r a c wih t s r h t ' mp o e o s nu e l ef r n o n c o d n e t a e i tuc i pr vi d by t e pl ri notguit ofc rbut y ne i nc unl st da r ns r tons o de he m oye s ly onti or glge e es he nge i s a r ntt tno r as bl pe s woul e oun e i.' J sv.M e tPac r Equi Co. s o ppa e ha e ona e r on d nc t r t' one a ke s p. , 7 F. 370,3 23 2d 72-73( hCi.1 3)( tngNo f k& W etr R. v.W ad,1 S. 849,850 4t r 98 cii rol sen R. r 9 E. ( 1 ) F&D haspr e e e de et ta l s asof1 t polc a t Roa Va. 894). esntd vi nc ha t eat 998,he iy t he noke pln wa s h t twhe ar i be a ebowe a wo dnotc a t s uc ha n al c m d nd ul onve ope at ss h a Ki y, r or uc s ng w e e nott e e be r o nt r yond t ba re f nc w hie t m ac ne w a i a om a i m ode. K e t r he r i r e e l he hi s n ut tc us e D e 52. F& D alo poi st Cou t o is Exhi t24,whi h i M e al a' Pr dur f Cha gi p. s nt he rt t bi c s t s s oce e or r ng Bowed Ra l i t Tem pe i Fur c A sr e nther ,t pr dur i a f l s is n he r ng na e. el va e he oce e s s olow : 5.One o r t rm us pl e t TF Cha g Co y i m a pe a o t ac he r e nve or n nualby goi t t Pa ng o he nel Vi w s r e a s e tng Te pe i Fur c e c e n nd el c i m rng na e. 6.Fr (hePa Viwqsr e t TFChageConv ri s e tdandt nt om t nel e c e n,he r em s elce he he c onve i pl e i t M a lby s l ci t ma yor s ac d n o nua e e tng he nualbuto a t t rg oft t n t he op i ht he Scleen. - 7.One ope a orm us s a a t Pa lV i w t ke c t olo t co yor rt t t y t he ne e o ep on r f he nve . 8. o one i t be i i e t s f t ga esa any tm e w hie c N s o ns d he a e y t t i l onveyori i a om a i s n ut tc. Def' Ex. Thi t tm ony w a s .s 24. s es i s uppor e by Da rn Sna who s d t tbe or Ki s td ri y, ai ha f e ng' a i nt M e a s had a polc w he e ope a or w e e nott e e a ga ed a ea whie t cc de , t l a iy r by r t s r o nt r t r l he ma newa i a o a i Sna De 78.Tony Pl t,ama n e nc a e s r s who chi s n ut m tc. y p. unket i t na e r a upe vior s ilw o ksa t M e al apl ,r ca l d a s e y r e i pl ce w e lbef e K i s a ci nt t t tl r t he t s ant e le af t ul , n a l or ng' c de , ha no one s d everbe i de t f houl nsi he ence w hie t m achi w asi aut atc m ode. Pl l he ne n om i unket Dep. t 23.Ac r ngt De sCuser Ceveyonei bot f iii (ncudi Ki wastai dwih codi o nni t ,' l r g n h acltes i l ng ng) r ne t a e phas son note e i a ga e a e whie a m a hi w a i a om a i ' Cus e D e 88. n m i nt r ng td ra l c ne s n ut tc.' t r p. Cusercontnued,toper orsar nott ent a gat ar w hie t m achi i i aut a i .... t i t at e o er ed ea l he ne s n om tc Thi wast beat ma operto whiet ma hi wa i ma lj ngt c yor s o wo- n ain l he c ne s n nua,oggi he onve f w ar whie t ot oper or i ass si i,w ih t spi w r or d l he her at s i tng t t hi pe ench.' f at78: ' #. 13-14. W hen t ma hi wasplc i m a lm ode t chan a s ocke woul sop m ovi ne ry he c ne a ed n nua , he i nd pr t d t ng a l i di t y.1 a 7 Anot rf r e ope a or Gr gor Dy swhol f t pl a mme ael d. t 9. he o m r r t , e y er e t he ant bout Fe ua y 2004, esi i t the w a S r i d t ke p t m a hi i a om a i t ge t r is i br r t tfed ha s û a ne o e he c ne n ut tc o t he a l n t g TFI b tfidd 'la aItewt , a t t r w e eytigi ma u l' Dy rDe 1 :-8 t he , u t in to d l h z h d o h o v r hn n n a . e p. l6 y ' (mphai a e ss dded) Thi wa c ime byt t tmonyofMiha M c nilM ealasRul . s s ontr d he esi c el Da e, t s ' e 3 b)6)wine s M c e De 1 -26, ndissft c ula ,Ti hyFiz rl 0( ( t s , Danil p. 25 a t aey ons tnt mot tgead. Fizg r l D e 1 -97.4 t e a d p. 96 Ki r pc t t Spe i Pr ce sI tucin C$ ' r ai t t bowe ris ng es mds hathe cal o s nsr to SP1' eltng o he ) d al polc wasnotdis mi tduntlOco r3, iy se nae i tbe 2006,i t da a e Ki sa ci nt Se De.s n he ys ftr ng' c de . e f' Ex. a 3.F&D c ede t s Butt da eoft SPIsmpl expl nst da ei wasl de 24 t onc s hi . he t he i y ai he t t oa d i ot Quata c nt he lrk omputrs tm.Sna whos sgnaur a a e ont SPI t tfe t ti e yse y, e i t e ppe r d he ,esiid ha t wasa sandi pr e e a t tm e K i w a hie a t ti w aslke y pos e a t t ng oc dur t he i ng s r d nd ha t i l t d t he ope a o ' s a i Snay D e 82-83. r t r s t ton. p. Ki cli hed dit wa g lwa tane 'Ki De 7: -24,a diput t t ng ams û t he y he s r i d,' ng p. 23 di nd s es ha M e ala had a s f t r e r rng t c ts a e y ul equii he onve t be puti m a yor o n nualbe or ent r ng t ga e. I f e e i he t d a 6: -9. Butw he as a t 4 n ked boutt tai ng he had r e ve r a i t t hea t e tc l,Ki he r ni ec i d el tve o he t r a e l ng r ple i us ,yo know,ba i t a ni t te r e i d: t t u l s c r i ng ha ve ybody ge s u t r f om e c ot r' l a 5 t p he e r a h he .' d t 3. To be s e,Ki ha s it d s e e de e t tt r w asno polc one w a ort o he . ur ng s ubm te om vi nc ha he e iy y he t r Fore m pl ,D ye a s t s i i d t tdurng hi tm e a t pl nt t r w asno abs ut r e a t xa e r l o e t fe ha i s i t he a , he e ol e ul s o whehe t mac ne ha t beplce i m a ua modewhe a ope a orgotwihi a c ran t r he hi d o a dn n l n n rt t n e ti 41 i aly,i edi el aferKi sacci , Sna s ng' dent nc dent l mm at y t y poke wih BilFr t l eeman,K i sco- aorwho ng' oper t r emai d on t pltor att tm e oft acci . Fr ne he af m he i he dent eeman s d,û1s d ha puti i manual I ai ( houl ve tn . wih 1 had put i i manual' St t of Bil Fr man,Sep.29,2006, Def' Ex.34. Si iary, i a s tn . ' m . l ee .s m ll n sae n j s af w d ysatrtea cd n , nga mitd,< s l ha pu i i ma ua lwihwe ttme t u t e a fe h c ie t Ki d te <We houd ve t t n n l s woul have put i i m anual....wher lr l mess d up was not havi i i manual' St .of d tn e ealy e ng t n a ' mt CharesKi Oct 1 2006,Def' Ex.35. l ng, . , .s d sa c o i.Rah r h came ta iwa atu g n c 1. Dy rDe 5 :4 5 Cae itn e f t te , e li d h t t s j d me t al' e p. 0 1 -1 . ry ' W al anot oper orsai t t e w as no ds et r e orw or r e aboutappr ker, her at d hat her taf y ul k ul oachi ng m ovi eq pm e t twas i a o a i m ode. W a ke D e 41: 1 4. BilFr e a K i s ng ui nt ha n ut m tc ' ' l r p. 1 -1 l e m n, ng' co- pe aoron t da oft a ci nt t sii d t the din' bei vet theorKi ha o rt he y he c de , e tfe ha d t le ha ng d vi a ed a s e y r e on t da oft a ci nt e m a De 77. He a s t tted he di ol t ny af t ul s he y he c de .Fr e n p. l o es ii d no putt m a hi i m a lm ode be a e he di no t nk t r i w a bowe s ver l t he c ne n nua c us d t hi he a l s d e ey e nough,a t tKi sa tonson t dayoft a c de twe econsse wih hi ta ni I nd ha ng' c i he he c i n r it nt t s r i ng. d a 78,81 Buts e tc r di t iy,Fr em a a s i c t t twhe a r i w a bo e he t . om wha ont a c orl e n l o ndi a ed ha n a l s w d, w a t a ned t putt s t m i m a s ri o he ys e n nualm ode. l a 35. d t Eve t ki a1 ofK i s e de e astue, hem os f vor bl i e e e t be dr w n i n a ng 1 ng' vi nc r t t a a e nf r nc o a s t tt r i adipu east whehe ,a t tme ofKi sa c de , e a s ha apubls r e ha he e s s t o t r t he i ng' c i nt M t la d ihed ul pr ve i o r t sf om goi ne t m a hi w he i w a i a om a i m ode. A pa tf om e ntng pe a or r ng ar he c ne n t s n ut tc r r ge r ied sae e sabouthow hea t d i c or t wih hi tai ng, nghasnotbr ne alz t tm nt c e n onf miy t s r ni Ki ought f t a s i tlaofe de t tM e a s afima i l i tu t d isope a or t ke p t orh c n il vi nce ha t la fr tvey nsr c e t r t s o e he ma c nei aut hi n omatcmodewhiea tmptng t ma pu ae bowe r l . Thi i note ugh t i l te i o ni l t d ais6 ss no o s vi s mmayj me .Se ge r l Vilai v. ohall AisI ,281F. 1 4, ur ve u r udg nt e ne al lirmo Al sand r nc. y 3d 05 1 ( hCi. 061 9t r 2002)( ge neis ofmaeilfc wheeonl evi nc i tu ol bo ae no nui sue tra a t r y de e s inc w rtd a s l-e vng'e tmonyl Na' Entr.l v. r ,201F.d 3 335( hCi. nd efsr i 'tsi ; tl es,nc. Banes 3 31, 4t r 2000) (el-er ngafdavi i ufi i tt s vves s fs vi fi t ns tcen o ur i ummayj me ) r udg nt. 6Ther i evi n he e d endi o how t ts ha ome ot r oper or , when dealng wih m id t he at s e s dence i t r cor t ng t s i t l o moder t y bowed r l may ha ha a c t orpr ctce ofdeclni t putt TF Char Conveyor a el ais, ve d usom a i i ng o he ge i manualmode bef e mani a i a bowed r lwih t pi wr n or pultng ai t he pe ench. ButIcusom or us ca ç t age nnot e xcuseconduc whi i ot t ch s herwie neglgentwher ...t cusom orus is fi notr onabl s e or s i e he t age tel s eas y af a e uaef ispu ea oc a in. Re dv.Ca l e& M a tn.nc.2 S. 2d 8 4,8 ( .1 74 d q t or t mos nd c so ' e ' ryl ri l , 02 E. 7 77 Va 9 ) (n ena qu tton ma k omitd) I ohe wo d ,Ki s a ton do no be me ra o bl smpy itr l oai r s te . n t r r s ng' c i s t co e s na e i l beca e hi cowor salo act unr ona y. us s ker s ed eas bl M or r t c nc ofaki kba k wa a r ntt a r as eove , he ha e c c s ppa e o ny e onabl pe s I i e r on. t s c mmo k o e g t a p higa ans a o j c, s e ilyalr emea o j c, yeii o n n wld e h t us n g i t n b e te p cal ag tl be tma l t c r i t nc orr c i M o e r i w a know n t e pl esa t pl ntt tbow e r is es s a e ea ton. r ove , t s o m oye t he a ha d al s e i e ki ke bac Se H ol rD e 24-26;Grm D e 1 - l J om tm s c d k. e de p. i p. 91 92. n ones t Fourh , he t Cic trves t dititc tss misonofco rbuor ne i ncet t j ywheea rui e red he src our' ub s i nti t y glge o he ur r n e oye puthe ha i ama hi t ce ni a e t tst ' tonhadbe npr s da t mpl e r nd n c ne o la t jtr he t op'but e ese nd he m a hi had c e t a com pl t hal. 723 F. a 373. He e,e c l t oppos t w ast e. c ne om o ee t 2d t r xa ty he ie nl Ki se ng t ppedi i t ga e puthi s fwihi i he ofam o ng,he dut co yo s t m nsde he t , m el t n nc s vi avy y nve r yse w hie o a s i r t oor a pus d on a l r s e lr lw ih a 2 i h pi wr h. Att l n lppe y l , nd he a ge t e ai t 4-nc pe enc he ve y l a t a r as r e s , e onabl pe s unde t e c r um s a es w oul ha e ur d t t m a hi e r on, r hes i c t nc , d ve ns e hat he c ne wa i ma s n nualm ode be or a t m ptng t m a pul t t bo ed r l Thi ,K i f ie t do. f e te i o ni a e he w ai. s ng a l d o Und rV i g ni l w , i guit ofc r bu or ne i nce a t ba r d f om r ove y on a e r i a a he s ly ont i t y glge nd hus r e r ec r ne i nc t or The m oton i G R AN TED ast K i sneg i ntdesgn a ne i e glge e he y. i s o ng' lge i nd glg nt f iur t N r cli s a l e o va n anA . 3. W arrantes i a. W het t TF Char C o yor w as I ude i t Sc of her he ge nve ncl d n he ope Suppl o t A gr m ent y f he ee . Ne ,heCour add es esKi swa r nt cai . Asat es d ma tr t pa te xt t t r s ng' ra y l ms hr hol te , he ris di a e ast w he he t TF Cha ge Conve w a i l d aspa 4 oft Agr m e . F& D s gr e o t r he r yor s nc ude 1 he ee nt sy iwa n t a4o isc nrcu l b iain a t a rt e ij s p o ie t ec n e o fr a s t s o p 1 f t o ta t a o lg to , nd h t ah r t u t r vd d h o v y r o fee K i m a nt i t ti w a pa toft s l s a r e e be w e n F&D a A . .Sm ih. r . ng i a ns ha t s r he a e g e m nt t e nd O t The r evance oft s i t o- ol Fis ,i t TF Char Conveyorw asnotpartoft A gr ent el hi s w f d. r t f he ge he eem , t n i i notco e by a ex e sw a r nte c a ne t r i Sec he t s ver d ny pr s r a i s ont i d he e n. ond,t Uni o m he f r Com m er alCode,f om w hi Ki si pled w ar ant cl m sarse,i onl applcabl t t ci r ch ng' m i r y ai i s y i e o he s l ofgoods A s l ofgoods i t n, e r C hepa sng oftteofgoodsfom t s lrt ae . ae , n ur r quies ' t si il r he ele o t buye f aprc ' M oo ev.Ali Chemi lCom.480F. he r or ie. ' r led ca , supp.364,375( D.Va.1 9) E. 97 . Thus i F& D ca s ,f n how t r i no ge ne i s o m a e i lf tast w he he t TF Char he e s nui s ue f t r a ac o t r he ge Co yorw a a çgo 't w a i ol ' t n Ki s wa r t c a m sm us be di m i s d. nve s ç od' hat s s d,' he ng' r an y l i s t s se The S c fc t o f t Te pe i Funz e ' m a pa toft Agr m e ,s a est t s ii a i ns or he m rng spe ac s' de r he ee nt t t ha d ec r etbewihr lswil es p le b t P rhae ( O. t l'S eS e s atc e ' hag a l t ol lb u pid y he u c sr A. Smih . e p c . ta h d Th ' t Equi tPurhas Agreme ($ mt' , opos 8925- a 3.Addii ly,J e o pmen c e e nt t Ag .) Pr al ' 82, t tonal osph Ba a who ne i t d t A g ee e f F& D,de a e t w hie t TF Cha ge Conve w a l z, gota e he r m nt or cl r d hat l he r yor s l t rpr vi d by F& D ,i w asnotw ihi t s pe oft Agr m e ,a F& D w a no a e o de t t n he co he ee nt nd s t com pe aedfrpr vi ngi.BalzDe . 0. ns t o o di t a cl!9-1 8 Ki r pondsby poi i t t f l ng lngua fom t Agr me ,whi h saes ng es ntng o he olowi a ge r he ee nt c tt t tt de e ntwoul s y a i t la St m pe f nac e r t bl ' Pl' Opp. ha he f nda d uppl nd nsal ie r ur e nt y a e. .s ' 40. But Ki squoai i fom t s opeofs yfom t Que h.Se Spe s. tac dt Agmt, ng' tton s r he c uppl r he nc e c at he o . Pr a 8 C2,j1 ( ) Butt slnguag i irlva t t q si ofwhehe t TF opos l 92501 1 . hi a e s ree nt o he ueton t r he Cha ge Conve w a pa toft A g e m e . r yor s r he r e nt K i ti t s t w a ng res o ave he nunt cl i a gui i t a t na i t tt c r c i y a m r ng n he ler tve ha he ont a t s n iu u , n tu s udb s b t dt aj r .Bu smpyb c u es meh n i mbg o s a d h s ho l e u mit o u y t i l e a s o ti g s e c iaeda c omplc t nd umbes (ndi t sc e, lca a r et t Ag e me i)d snot rome a n hi as al n g e hathe r e nt s oe m a i a bi ke t m guous H e e, he des g s cii a i f rt t m pe i f a e una bi uous y . r t i n pe fc tons o he e rng unl c m g l sa e t tt cha ge t bl wilbe pr de by t Pur ha e . K i ha s it no e de of t t ha he r a e l ovi d he c s r ng s ubm ted vi nce hi own t c r di tt s Ra he ,he of e s a r s i a l t a gum e - s nc F&D pr de s o onta c hi . t r f r e ps oquior r nt i e ovi d t TF conveyor,Ki r ons i m us have vi he ng eas , t t ewed isel as cont ualy oblgat t do s t f ract l i ed o o. 8 F& D does adm i t t t he cicum sances under whih t TF Char Conve was pr ded ar t ha t t r t c he ge yor ovi e uncl r' Def' M e .i Supp.43. ea .' .s m n 1 9 Thi i pur s c a i n. Unde Vi gi a l w ,acour m us c tue t c e r a unn bi uous s s e pe ul to r r ni a t t onsr he l a nd m g t m sofa cont actpurs er r uantt t rpl n m eani Bri t Fi es one,l v.Pri W ilam o hei ai ng. dges one/ r t nc. nce li Sq Aso .4 3 S. 2 6 , 4( . 9 5 .Ac o dn l, &D i e tte t s mmayj dg n . s c, 6 E.d 61 66 Va 1 9 ) c r igy F s n ild o u r u me t on t w a r nt c a m s a wel. he r a y l i s l b. Expr s W ar ant es r y Eve i t TF Cha ge Conve rw c c i l d i t s ope oft A gr e e t howeve , n f he r yo r nc ude n he c he e m n, r Ki s w a r nt cl i s w o d s ilf i. W hie i i note i il e es ed i t SA C, he ng' r a y a m ul tl a l l ts xplc ty xpr s n he t pa tesa ri ppea t ag e t tt e e s wa r y c ai f us s on t f l i l ngua i t r o r e ha he xpr s r ant l m oc e he olow ng a ge n he c t a tbe w e n F& D a A . Sm ih: on r c t e nd O. t I i unde soo bySele E t s rt d lr F&D)t tBuye ( O.Smihqitndst us t Equi n ha r A. t ne o e he pme t f t pur esgene a l des rbedi t doc nt atac d asExhi tA.The or he pos r ly c i n he ume s t he bi Equ pm e m a be r n o a 24 hou pe da b i w ih s o i nt y u n r r y as s t t ppage onl f t r ui e y or he eq r d pr ve a i m ai e nce r a ona y s c fe by t Se l r e nt tve nt na e s bl pe ii d he le . gl Equi ntwilbeftf t us i ntfe i Pa a r phB ofSe ton5. ' he pme l i or he e de iid n r g a T ci Eq ime tP rh s Ag .54 8 Ex. t Baa De l (Ag .)9 S eas sAC ! 1 4 ' up n u c a e mt! , , B o lz c. û mt' e lo t ' !1 , 8 , D e .sM em .i Su 46. F& D a g st tt s l ngua ,by is f c no f m t ba i f a f' n pp. r ue ha hi a ge t el, an t or he s s or n e e sw a r nt unde t e f t . Tha i ,ispr m i e t A . .Sm ih t tt Equi e S ay xpr s r a y r hes ac s ts t o s o O t ha he pm nt t m benm on a 24 hourpe da bas s' by is l,doe no c e t a dut o ispa t Ki r s r y i ,' t e f s t r a e ny y n t r . ng e ponds t t a t ve y l t t s l nguage i a bi uous a i a que ton off tt be de de by a ha , t he r eas, hi a s m g nd s si ac o ci d j r Bu e na s mig, sKigc n e d ,h th a o eq oe ln u g ce td a e p e s u y. t ve su n a n o tn s t a te b v - u td a g a e rae n x r s wa nunt an s h w a r nt l s e onl 1 m ont f om t da e ofA . .Sm ih' a e a of y, y uc ra y atd y 2 hs r he t O t s cc pt nce t equi nt Ag .!3. (û arnt Pei Shalme t pei whihbe nsont he pme . mt K d ra y rod: l an he rod c gi W he Acc ptnc Daea e 1 monhslt ' Ki sa ci ntocc rdi Sepe r2006, e a e t nd nds 2 t aer). ng' c de ure n tmbe . 9AsF&D poi sout <secton B ofPa agr 5' s d betsecton B ofPa agr 4.' De .sM em.i r aph ' houl t i r aph 5 f' nt ,: i n Supp. n. 3. 46 1 e de e i caest tt Ac ptnceDaewa M a c 1 7.The e or Ki c l cli t t vi nc ndi t ha he ce a t s r h 99 r f e, ng amot am ha F& D vi a ed is e es w a r nt , a F&D i e iedt s ol t t xpr s r a y nd s ntt o ummayj me ont sgrund.0 l r udg nt hi o 1 c. I pled W arrant m i y The l m o h lm ia i a s a i d t K i ' i pled w a r t c a m s ' V igi a' z- nt i t ton l o pple o ng s m i r an y l i .1 r ni s a dopton oft U nior Co m e c a Code pr s e t ta com m e c alc r c f t s e of i he f m m r i l e um s ha ny r i ont a t or he al goodsca resw ih i a i ple w a r nt o m e c nt biiy,a s i t s le i a m e c nt ri t t n m i d r a y f r ha a lt s um ng he e l r s r ha wihr pe tt goodsoft tki Va. t es c o ha nd. CodeAnn.j8. 31 ( 2) l or rf goodst be 2- 4 201 . n de or o m e cha a e t m us be ( i f t or na y pur esf whi h s h goo a e us d. I r nt bl , hey t t t or he di r f pos or c uc ds r e ' d ' j 2- 1 2 ( .He e t pa te dono dipuet tF&D quaii asad rha wihr s c 8. 3 4()c) r ,he ris t s t ha lfes s c nt t epe t me t goodsoft tki ' t r pe t t e pm e i f ni hed A . .Sm ih. Ra he , he c ux o ha nd' wih es d o he qui nt t ur s O t t rt r oft i diagr m e tr vol a ound whehe t Ag e m e pr ry e l her s ee n e ves r t r he r e nt ope l xcuded orm odii d te F& D' i id wa r nt ofme c nt biiy. l or t e l e ormodiyt i id wa r nt s mple ra y r ha a lt n der o xcud f he mple ra y ofm e c t biiy, he e l i o m odii a i ç us m e i m er ha a lt a i c e ofa r han a lt t xc uson r fc ton t t nton m c nt biiy nd n as wrtngmus bec piuous' Va. ii t ons c . ' CodeAnn.j8. 31 ( 2) 2- 6 201 .F&D r i o t f lwi etes n he olo ng 1 Ki ar 0 ng guest tt e l m ont lm iaton s d notbe r cogni becaus i i uncons onabl as ha h zh i t i houl e zed e ts ci e appled t hi ,an uns si t d lyper i o m ophitca e a son. Butt sar enti wihoutm ert as i m a acr al hi gum s t i, t kes uci l ia j mp.I i tu t tVigi aha a ls dtep i t r q rme tf rb e cho war nycams ogc l u t s r e ha r ni s bo ihe h rvi e uie n o r a f ra t li . y And i i alo tuet tt Cour w ilnotenf ce acontactw hi i fndst be uncons onabl Buti t s s r ha he t l or r ch t i o ci e. n per or ng t uncons onablt a ysi,t Cour' dut i t com par t r atveposii oft f mi he ci iy nal s he ts y s o e he el i tons he pari t e er d i o t orgi contact Se Rei d v.Si AeralaI ,859 F. tes hat nt e nt he i nal r . e bol mon i s nc. supp.1 1 93, 99 ( D. 1 4) He e t epa t we eA. S t a F&D.ByaIa c uns A. S t wa a E. Va. 99 . r ,hos ri r O. mih nd es l c o t, O. mih s s si t pur erofi t i equi e t had negotat se als escontac sr r ng ophitcaed chas ndusral pm nt hat i ed ver al r t ega di equi pmentatva i l tonst oughoutt c r The e i no evi rous oca i hr he ounty. r s dence i t r d i catng any n he ecor ndi i sgniiantdipa iy i powerbe we t t c r tng pa tesast r ndert contac beween t m i fc s rt n t en he ' ontac i wo ri o e he r t t he uncons onabl ci e. 1 Ki alo appear t pl a cl m f vi aton of t i pled warant of ft s f a pa tcul 1 ng s s o ead ai or ol i he m i r y ines or ri ar p r s . Se SAC ! 47 Bu i ha prs n e no e d n e fo whc a r a on bl fctn rc l u po e e . t t s e etd vie c r m ih e s a e a ti de oud c cud ta A. Smihwa r l ngo F&D' s ilo j dg ntt s lc o f nih s tbl g ds C on l e h t O. t s eyi n s kl r u me o ee t r ur s uia e oo . / Va Co An j 82- 1 ( 01 ( r u tn e u de whih i idwa rnt o ft e sa ie ) I f c, . de n. . 3 5 2 2) cic msa c s n r c mple ra y f in s rss . n a t t r dr he ecor eveal t opposie:A . .Sm ih ha devel s he t O t d oped t heattea pr es ,and F&D er t d ahea he r t oc s ea e t tea s t i conf m iy wih A. .Sm ih' specii i r t ysem n or t t O t s fcatons. lngua i s a ge n uppor ofiscli t tt i id wa r nt ofm e c nt biiy waspr ry t t am ha he mple ra y r ha a lt ope l e l d: tse lrwa r nt t t... heEqui e wilbem e c nt bl ,ofgood ma e i a xcude t le ra s ha t pm nt l r ha a e t ral nd wor ns pandfe fo dee st oug tt W arant Pei ' Agmt!8. Thi kma hi re r m fct hr hou he r y rod. ' . A. s l ng a uage a a s i t s m e f ,s ze a t f ce a t t xts r ppe r n he a ont i , nd ype a s he e ur oundi i. W hie i ng t l t me i mec ntbiiy,ii cet nl no c piuous ,eg.Va. ntons rha a lt t s rai y t ons c .See . , CodeAnn.j8.- ( 0) 1201 1 ( )( i ngS ns c 'a lsi e mpls. 2012 defni i piuous' nd itng xa e ) co F& D r s e pondst tt r ti tonson c pi uous s do nota y,be us t e es ha he esr c i ons c nes ppl ca e he xpr s war nt ofmec ntbiiydipl e r t rt ne l dormodsedt i idwarnt of ra y rha a lt s ac d ahe ha xcude he mple ra y mec ntbiiy.Se Va CodeAnn.j8. 31 c)( 2)(s e swar tesdiplc rha a lt e . 2- 74 201 d Expr s rani s a e i ons s e i ple w a r ntesot rt n a i ple w a r nt offt s f r a pa tc a nc it nt m i d r a i he ha n m i d r a y ines o r i ul r pur e.) Theq si frt Cour,he i whehe t l ua i t Agr me pos ' . ' ueton o he tt n,s t r he ang ge n he ee nt pe ti ngt me c nt lt e l d ormodii d t i pled wa r y ofm e c nt biiy,on rani o r ha abiiy xcude fe he m i rant r ha a lt t one ha ordi pl e t i ple w a r n y ofm e c nt lt on t ot rha One co t he nd, s ac d he m i d r a t r ha abiiy, he he nd. ur ha des rbed t ditnc i asf l s t di cl i i a w a r nt a pa t m a s e t lm i s ci he s i ton olow : t By s a m ng r a y, ry y e k o i t t i c r c ualla lt by r duc ng t n be ofst tonsi whi h t s l rc n be i he r ont a t i biiy e i he um r iua i n c he ele a n br c oft wa r nt By lm ii ore l ngr m e es apa t onl r tit r di ea h he ra y. i tng xcudi e di , ry y esrc s eme es a l l onc a b e h ha be n e t bls d. Rebol v.Si o Ae i l,l ,8 F. vaiab e e r ac s e sa ihe ' i d ' m n ras nc. 59 supp.1 93, 1 ( D. 1 4) ege al Four e Fur t eanç, W at Ho1tBlw Pi Co.980 97 E. Va. 99 .Se ner l y nir niur I v. lz- s o pe , F. supp.1 1 ( . Va.1 )(xprs warnte pr cudei idwarnteswheet 87, 90 W D. 997 e e s ra is e l mple ra i r hey c ai smes jc matr,Hee t 1 mo hwar nypei wa almiai i tmert r ont n a ube t te) r,he 2 nt ra t rod s i tton n i ahe t n i s ope. A c or ngl F& D w a notbou b t cons c ha n c c di y, s nd y he pi uous s lm ia i . Fora l ne s i t tons l t s ras ,s he e e ons ummayj me i as GI NTED a t Ki swarnt oams r udg nt s lo U s o ng' ra y li . 22 l . V C onc us on l i One c r a nl ha a 1 ofs pa hy f t pl i ifi t s c e. The Cour ha m e M r e t i y s ot ym t or he a ntf n hi as t s t . Kig h i a ho o a e prud had wo kngma wh s fe e atn b eij t Hewo l lk n ; e s n n rbl, o , r - r i n o u fr d e i l n uy. ud ie not ngm o et n t opporuniy t r t nt wo k.Butt Co two d notbedoi hi a hi r ha he t t o e ur o r he ur ul ng m ny f vor i i pe m it d hi t e a s f t r te m o ndur a m uli we k t i lt tc d no ,a a m a t rofl e t- e r a ha oul t s te aw, uli a e y pr tm t l oduce a f vo a e r s t Fo be l r o f w o s V igi a hasr t i d t m i iy a r bl e ul. r te r or r e, r ni e a ne he nort r l o c n rb tr n gie c .Ad iin ly ii o eo j taf w sae i t eUno ta d e ue f o tiuo y e lg n e dto al,t s n f us e tt s n h in h t o s notr cog z t c e ni e he once ofs rc la lt i t ti m os ca e . U nde t cic sanc s oft s pt ti t i biiy n or n t ss r he r um t e hi c e, ndunderbi ng pr e n ,t Co t sno c cebutt dimisKi scli . as a ndi ec de t he ur ha hoi o s s ng' a ms Fort fr goi r s , he o e ng ea ons F&D' M oto t Sti ( Nos 169,1 )aeDENI s ins o rke ECF . 71 r ED a isM oinf SummayJ me ( No.1 )i GRANTED.An a opraeOr r nd t to or r udg nt ECF 41 s ppr it de s l i s t sda ha l s ue hi y. v ' W EN TER : Thi N J da ofJ y, 2. s y ul 201 ; / . . ni U nied St t s Di ' tJ or t ae s udge 23