King v. Flinn & Dreffein Engineering Co., et al, No. 7:2009cv00410 - Document 128 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge James C. Turk on 5/16/12. (sas)
Download PDF
I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF W RG I A CT M RO AN OK E D I I ON V SI CLERX' OFFI U S CE , S ST ATROANOGI DI . COURT F ,VA I ED L MAY 15 2 , 22 B: C H A RLES K I G , N C. - ,' , C a e N o. 7: c 0041 s 09- v0 jJ , .. . .. , ' .'.. Ji Pl i if a ntf , M EM O M N D UM O PI I N N O By:Jam esC .Turk Seni Unied St es D i ri Judge or t at st ct FLI & DR EFFEI EN G I EERI G NN N N N CO . , Deenda . f nt ) ) ) Thi m a t ri be or t Co ton Def ntFll & D r f ei Engi e i Co. s te s f e he ur enda im ef n ne rng (t '' Pa ta Motont Dimis( No.11 .Pli ifChal Ki (k ng' flda 1 F&D' s ril i o s s ECF ) 9) antf res ng çKi ' ie ) bre i o if n pposton,a gum e washe don Aprl24, 2,a t m at ri no rpe f ii r nt ar i 201 nd he te s w i or diposton.Fo t r s nssatdbel F&D' Pa ta M oi t Dimis( No.11 i s ii r he ea o t e ow, s ril ton o s s ECF 9) s G M N TED i par and D EN I i pa t n t ED n r . L FacualandPr edur Ba ound t oc al cker The f c sar s tf r h i t lg m os f vo a e t t Pl i t f .G i ano v.J hns a t e e o t n he i ht t a r bl o he a n i f anut o on, 521F. 298,302(t Ci. ) l 1 A. Smih Compan (% O.Smih' odeeda 3d 4h r 2008 . n 995, O. t yû A. t' r r n ) i tilhe tpr es i s t fom F&D t i t l a isf iiy i Roa ndusra a oc sng ysem r o nsa l t t aclt n noke, r ni. The Vigi a he tpr es i s t m c itd ofs ve aldif r ntcompone s i udi a a t nii ng a oc sng yse onsse e r fe e nt, ncl ng n use tzi f nac ,a que hi s t m ,a dr g c n c ur e nc ng ys e a hai onve r a c gi c ye , har ng onve r a t m pe i f na e, ye , e r ng ur c a a di c r ng co ye . The pur e oft he tpr e sng s t m w a t hea tea s e l nd s ha gi nve r pos he a oc s i ys e s o tr t te r is whi h woul t n be us t a s bl cha s sf l r t c .A . .Sm ih' pl nti al c d he ed o s em e s i or a ge nl ks O t s a n Roa nokewa e nt lytkenove byM eas- noke,I (ç eala'.Ki wor df s ve ual a r tla Roa nc. : t s ' ng ke or M ) M e a s a a o r t r On Se e be 29,2006,Ki w a w o ki a ound F& D ' i t i l t l a s n pe a o . pt m r ng s r ng r s ndusr a l he pr es i s t a t M e a s plnt s m epoi o t tday,o oft r ison t at oc sng ysem t he t la a .At o nt n ha ne he al he pr es i s t m be m e bow e A st sbow e r i r c t c gi co ye ,i di no oc s ng ys e ca d. hi d a l ea hed he har ng nve r t d t a om a i a l go i o t t m pe i f na e asdes g d. Thi w asa r nty a c m on ut tc ly nt he e r ng ur c i ne s ppa e l om pr e ,a M e al a had com e up w ih a s uton: tt a ned isope a or t us a s ci lyobl m nd t s t ol i i r i t r t s o e pe a l de i t dt t ma pult bowe r iss h t tt y c d c i t oug t s t m .On sgna e ool o ni a e d a l uc ha he oul ontnue hr h he yse Se e be 29,Ki a oa d t c r ngco yer a usngt t pr de by M e as , ptm r ng ppr che he ha gi nve , nd i he ool ovi d t la a tmpt d t movet bowe r lf wa d s ht tt he tte tpr es c d c i . W hie te e o he d ai or r uc ha he a r a oc s oul ontnue l Kigwa atmp i t mo et eb we ri,h rij le b c Th sc usdt to t srk n s te tng o v h o d alt e alotd a k. i a e he o l o tie Ki i t f e. K i l thi f i on t we f oo a si pe A she l s hi f i ng n he ac ng os s ootng he t l r nd lp d. o t s ootng, Ki sha go c ng' nds t aughti t nmni c i a s r cke oft c r ng c n he ng han nd p o t he ha gi onve r Asar s t ye . e ul, Ki s fee sv r a d d f r ngijlist h sh n s ng u frd e e e n eo mi nt e o i a d . r O n Sep e be 1 2008,K i fl s ta i tF& D i t Cic tCour f t Ciy of t m r 7, ng ied ui ga ns n he r ui t or he t R oa noke M or t n a ye r l t ,on Oc obe 7,2009, D r m ove t ac i t t s Cour . . e ha a a er t r F& e d he ton o hi t On J y 5,2011 wih l ve ofCour , i fl d a A m e d Com pl i . O n M ar h 8,201 ul , t ea t K ng ie n nde a nt c 2, a i wih la ofCo tKi fldaSe ondAme dCompli (: ',owhihF&D gan t e ve ur, ng ie c nde ant û SAC' t c ) r s o d dwi t ei tn p ril oint Dimis a kn teCo r t ds s t eS ( )t ep n e t h nsa t a t M to o s s , s ig h u to imis h AC 1 o h a t e e ti alge bra ofapos-aed yt rtoft a ( t t e e i ale bra of he xtn t le s e ch ts l ut o er i; nd 2) o he xtnt t lges e ch a postsal dut t w nrn. - e yo 1 St andar ofRe e d viw A motont dimisund Rul 1 b)6)oft Fedea RulsofCi lPr e letsst i o s s er e 2( ( he rl e vi oc dtr et he lgals tce yoft c ant Ra l v.Unie Stt ,30F. 51 522(t Ci.1 .A e ufi inc he ompli . ndal td aes 3d 8, 4h r 994) c antmus i l as tandpli sae ntoft cai s unde whiht pla ri ompli t ncude hor an ttme he l mt) r c he e de s e ildt r i .Fed. Ci P.8()2) Unde t noiepla ngsa r e oye byt ntte o elef R. v. a( . r he tc e di tnda d mpl d he f e a c t,t c ed r l ours he ompl n ne onl û vet de e ntno i ofwha t cai i ... nd ait ed y t gi he f nda tce t he l m s a t goundsuponwhihi rss' Erc onv. r ,551U. 89,93( )(ii BelAt. he r c t e t.' iks Padus S. 2007 ctng l l Co p v Two l,5 0U. 5 4, 5 (0 7 I o d rt s r i amoint ds s, r . . mbv 5 S. 4 5 5 2 0 :. n r e o u vve t o imis o h we e, c mpan ' tfa ta alg to smus b e o g t r iearg t orle a o ete o v r a o li ts l l cu l le ain l t e n u h o as ih t eif b v h s c a i l ve .' Tw om bl 550 U . a 55 I pa tcul r kl galc us ons e e e s ofa pe ul tve e l' y, S. t 5. n ri a , ùe oncl i , l m nt c us ofa ton,a ba e as e tonsde d off t rf c ua e nc m e f lt c tt e w e l a e c i nd r s r i voi ur he a t l nha e nt ai o ons iut l- pe f csf r e1 ( )6 p r o e . Ne tChe r ltLt . . n u r far .o I c, 91 ld a t o Rul 2 b ( ) u p s s' me v oes d v Co s meaf isc msn .5 ' F.d2 0 2 5( t Ci. 0 9 .W hl teCo r i o lg tdt a c p a tu al fte 3 5 , 5 4h r 2 0 ) ie h u ts biae o c e t s r e l o h c pl nts w e lpl d f t a l ga i and t ke t f c si t lg m os f vo a e t t om ai ' l- e ac ual le tons a he a t n he i ht t a r bl o he pli if Adoc v.Fr chti r LLC,550F.d369,374(t Ci. ) i wilno gi t sme antf, k ei lne , 3 4h r 2008 ,t l t ve he n r ve e t t a r t d i e e s un e s nabl c us o ,ora g z e s' N e e e r nce o t unw r an e nf r nce , r a o e oncl i ns r tm nt . ' m t Che olt 591F. a 255( tngW ahiv.Chal t Ar aM e Ct.I .562F.d 59 61 vr e, 3d t quoi reson e d. r.nc, 3 9, 5 1. ( h Ci.2009 ) Fi ly,snc t cai brug i t sa tona eba e onVigi a 126 4t r ). nal i e he l ms o ht n hi ci r s d r ni c mmo lw a db o h p ru n t t eCo r' dv ri j rs ito t e a eg v r e b te o n a n r ug t u s a t o h u ts iest u idcin,h y r o en d y h y s tntvelw ofVigi a.Seege r l EreR.Co. Tompki ,304U. 64,78( 938 . ubsa i a r ni ne aly i v. ns S. 1 ) 11 1. Di c s on s us i A . Prelm i i nary M at ers t 1. Ti elness m i A def nda m us or na iy s r a a wero ot rr s e nt t di r l e ve n ns r he e pons ve pl a ng w ihi 21 da i e di t n ys ofbengs r e wiht s i e v d t he ummonsa c ai .Fed. Ci P.1 a)1( () Howe r t nd ompl nt R. v. 2( ( )A)i. ve ,he r es ar dif entw hen r pondi t an am ended pl ng. U nl ot w i pennit by ul e fer es ng o eadi ess her se ted c tor r r s our de , e pons t a a e d pl a ng m us be m a w ihi t tm e r m a ni t es o n m nde e di t de t n he i e i ng o rs epondt t orgi lpla ng( .wihi 21da ofsr ieoft orgi lCo ai ) or o he i na e di Le, t n ys e vc he i na mpl nt, wi i 1 d y o s r ieo tea n e pla i .Fe R. v. 1 ()3 .S eTrnEnes. t n 4 a s f e vc f h me d d e dng d. Ci P. 5 a( ) e a tr. h LLC. DHL Exprs ( v. e s USA) I .Ci A. H- 2748,2009W L 4604660,a *7n. ( D. .nc, v. No. 08t 3 S. Te De 3, x. c. 2009) Ura t v.Sc r nega r No. CV- 558W ( MC) 201 W L 279 0, ; ire hwaze e , 06- 1 W , 0 200 a *1( D.Ca. ul 1 2009) TheCou tha no e ee a or rmodiyi t sg nea r l t S. lJ . 4, . r s t ntrd n de f ng hi e rl ue. Ki fld and s r d t SAC on M a c 8,201 ng ie e ve he rh 2.F&D di notr pond untlM a ch 28, 2, d es i r 201 frouti t tmealowe byRul 1 1 Se alo Fed R. v.P. ( ci ngr lsfr a sde he i l d e 5. e s Ci 6 des rbi ue o . c omputngtme) Acc di l bot F&D' Ans ra isM oi t Dimisar untmey. i i . or ngy, h s we nd t ton o s s e i l Ki howe r ha notobece t t st i l tlng.Hi brefi opposton,a wel ng, ve , s j td o hi mtmey ii s i n ii s l a hi or la gum e ,de ts e y w ih t m e isoft m oto The Cour t r by fndst t s s a r nt al ol l t he rt he i n. t he e i ha Ki h swav d a yo j ci na t temoin' tmeie s a dpr c e st c nsd ri o t e ng a ie n be to s o h to s i l s, n o e d o o ie t n h n m ert is. 2. M at e O ut i t Pl adi t rs s de he e ngs K i sr s ng' e pons t F& D ' m o i i ude no l s t n 1 exhi t t alng ove 1 eo s ton ncl s e s ha 6 bis ot i r 00 page ,a i l st equi en pur has ag ee e be wee F& D a K i s e pl er s nd nc ude he pm t c e r m nt t n nd ng' m oy , ot rdic r doc e s a va i s ppesofde ii t tmony. I r lng on amoton he s ove y um nt , nd rous ni t poston esi n ui i t di m i s a cour c o s s, t annotc i m a t r ou s de t pl di unl s i c onsder te s t i he ea ngs es t onve t t m oto r s he i n it o ef rs mmayj g n a dgv stepat sara o a eo p ru t t p ee t n o n o u r ud me t n ie h ri e s n bl p o tni o r s n e y i or tont ti mae ilt as nf mai ha s tra o ummayj me moi Fe R.Ci P.1 d) C/ Ge cev. r udg nt ton. d. v. 2( ; or Ka , 3 F.d 1 0 ,1 0 ( t Ci.1 8 )(I i i n c s ayf rtec u t olo b y n te y 6 2 2 1 3 1 6 4h r 9 0 d f t s e e s r o h o r t o k e o d h û pe dn s t 1 ( )6 mo inmus b c n etdit amo infrsl z j dg n a da1 la ig ,he 2 b ( ) to t e o v re n o to o l mma' u me t n 1 y pate mus begi nt opporuniyt pr e mae il petne t s h amoton.). Buts e ris t ve he t t o esnt tras ri nto uc i ' e 'F&D alo l eram e s at nded isAns wihi 21da ofs vi , asi i entted t do underFed.R.Ci P. t wer t n ys er ce t s il o v. 1 ( )1( . 5 a ( )A) Ne Be kl Mi Co .v.n 'Uni UniedM i W o kesofAm.18F. 11 ,11 (t w c ey n. p ltl on. t ne r r , 3d 61 64 4h Ci.1 4)(our ma r yonmaeil outi pla ngswheet ya erf e edi r 99 c t y el tras sde e di r he r eernc n c ant.Thei tntca ewa frtfl i saec tonSe e ompli ) nsa s s is ied n tt our ptmber1 2008,a ha be n 7, nd s e pe ngf rm o e t n t e ye r . Se Compl,Ex.A t Notc ofRe ova ,Oc .1 2009, ndi o r ha hr e a s e . o ie m l t 7, ECF N o.1 M or ove ,Ki saddii le de e i notpa tc a l r l va t t m a t r a ha . e r ng' tona vi nc s r i ul ry e e nt o he te t nd, a i a c s ,F& D hasnotha a a qua e op r uniy t s i e r - e di m a e i l of nd n ny a e d n de t po t t o ubm t xt a pl a ng t r a s iso .Toc n e th smoint o efrs mmayj d me t udc u eu n c s ayd ly t wn o v r ti to o n o u r u g n wo l a s n e e s r ea a db c nr r t t eitr sso j tc .Th Co r d cie t d s a mu tt rf r n e o tay o h n ee t f usie e u t e l s o o o nd s heeo e n e ude Ki ss it m a e i s fom c i r ton i t r ol i oft i t n m oto xcl ng' ubm ted t ral r ons de a i n he es uton he ns a t i n. B . Pos - e Dut t R et t t sal y o rofi Ha ngdipens wih pr i i r ma tr , heCour now pr e t t me isoft vi s ed t elm na y te s t t oc eds o he rt he m oton. F& D fr ta guest tt SAC s d be di m i s t t e en i a l ge a br ac ofa i is r ha he houl s s ed o he xt t t le s e h pos - a e du y t r t oftbe a e Vi g ni doesnotr c ni e a s h dut unde t e ts l t o e r i c us r i a e og z ny uc y r hes cic s mw e . K i c r um t s ng once t tVi gi a l w d notr ogni e a pos- a e dut t r t oft des ha r ni a oes ec z ts l y o e r i. See P1' M e .i Opp. o D e .sM ot t Di m i s Apr 1 201 ECF N o.123,a 1 The .s m n t f' . o s s , . 9, 2, t 3. under i ned haspr ous y hel a m uc See W a ke v.Ca e il r l sg evi l d s h. l r t m la ndus , nc. Ci A . o.91 . l , v. N - 01 5 R, l o a 8( . Va Oc.1 ,1 9 )( r J) afd, s 9 - 3 8 9 -48 ,1 9 2 - si p. t W D. . t 9 9 3 Tuk, . f ' No . 3 2 8 , 3 2 2 9 4 p , W L40 5 , t* (t Ci. g. ,1 9 )( e c rn .Be a s t pa t sa r eta Vigna 6 63 a 3 4h r Au 4 9 4 p r u im) c u e he ri ge h t r ii e l w doe notr cogni e a pos - al dut t r t oft e e d a ys s i unne es a y he e,a a s e z ts e y o e r i , xt nde nal i s c s r r nd F& D ' m oton i G R AN TED a t t d y t r toftz s i s s o he ut o e r i. C. Post sal D ut t W arn - e y o 2T i h ligd e n tafc Kigsrto icamsotee tn h al! sta F h dk o e g o hs odn o s o fet n ' erf li t h xe t e l e h t &D a n wld e f t e t ealge d f csb f r i s dt ee uime .S eds usi o G on l i wr ng , jy apa t h l d e e t e o e t ol h q p nt e ic son f 6 tnung o s, n e c , r IIC. I . Z. 1. W het K i hasA de t y A le d a Pos - e D ut t W ar her ng qua el l ge t sal y o n One oft pr em s t Cour f c i de di t m o i bef r i i t g r l he obl he t a es n ci ng he ton o e t s he ene a c onvol i i K i s Sec A m e uton n ng' ond nded Co pl i . The Fede a Rul s ofCi lPr e e m a nt rl e vi oc dur rquiet tt t extntposi e lg pat mus saeiscai ordee esi n e r ha,o he e sbl,iaj ry t tt t l ms fns n umbee rd pa ag aphs e h lmie asf ra pr tc bl t asngl s tofcic sa es' Fed. Ci P. r r , ac i t d a s aci a e o i e e r um t nc . ' R. v. 1 b) Ki hasf l t c ywiht snze,e nt h,a F&D poit outhehasha 0( . ng aied o ompl t hi l ve houg s ns , d t e opporunii t do s Ra he , e t r d by s hr e t tes o o. t r unf te e ubhe di orc t gor z ton ofa ki t a ngs a e i a i ny nd, he SA C pr e asa sm pl s6- r gr ph c o og ofe nt , asonaly i t r pt d by a l al oc eds i e pa a a hr nol y ve s occ i l n e nz e eg t or ort o. Des t t defc enc esi t SAC,t Cour w ilnotdim i s a a ton f m e e he y w pie he i i i n he he t l s s n c i or r wan ofsyl Seege r l Amr v. o g St nly l Advior sl ,46 F. 338,343 t t e. ne aly on M r an a e nv. s s nc. 4 3d ( Ci.2006 ( s s a i i ope ont bassoftc c lpladi ir ulrtes; d. 2d r ) dimis l s mpr r he i e hnia e ng reg aii l Fe R. Ci. 1( e lrngt a r lsaet b c n tu da da miitr dt s c r tej s v P. d ca i h t ue r o e o sr e n d n se e o e u e h u t deemi tonofe r aci . tr nai vey ton) l ta l F& D m ove t dim i st SA C t t ext nti ta l ge a pos- a e du y t nii ly, d o s s he o he e t ' le s ts l t o w a n' bec us V igi a doesnotr c ze a s h dut H ow e r i isr pl bre an ator l r ' a e r ni e ogni ny uc y. ve , n t e y i f d a a g e , D a e d isposton and now ur st tK i ha f ie t eve a l ge t tF& D r um nt F& m nde t ii ge ha ng s a l d o n le ha ha apos-a edu y t wmm. F&D ar ue t ta ale ton ofpos- ae dut t be f und i d ts l t o 3 g s ha ny lga i ts l y o o n t SAC f ist m e tt he g e d sanda dsouti d i Be lAt . he a l o e he i ht ne t r lne n l l Com . Tw om bl 550 U . v. v, S. 5 ( 44 2007)a As r tv.qbal556U. 662( 9) l Two vandl lt Su e nd hc of l , S. 200 . n mbl gba,he pr me Cour a pt d a s rc e i e r t ton oft notc pl di s a r t tha l gove ne t do e ti t r nt m e a i he i e ea ng t nda d ha s ongr d 3Thi begst ques i , ast Cour not ator ar e ,ast w hy F& D f tt need t movet s he ton he t ed al gum nt o el he o o dimiscai t a i d sn tb le ea ebeor t eCo t F&D cli dt tij twa tdt E la up s s l ms h t t oe o eiv r f e h ur. ame ha t us ne o G e n c t com pl nt'and be s e i knew t cont soft cas i wasdef ng. The pr he ai ' ur t he our he e t endi operpr ocedur al vehi et r cl o emedit F&D ' conf on,a l ta t pl ng sage,m i havebeen a M oton f M or ae s usi t eas t he eadi t ght i or e De i t S ae n .Se Fe R. v. 1 ( ) Se ge r l Ho s v. Ba ts Hos , 2F. 8 fnie ttme t e d. Ci P. 2 e . e ne al dg on Va. pit p.48 2d 2l y ( hCi.1 3 . 4t r 97 ) cvi a tonsi t f r c t.Thi src e c ie i i c i l c i n he ede al ours s tit r rt ron s omm onl t r y e med t S a i lt he t usbiiy pl sa r ' Unde t pl us biiy sanda d,i or rt s vi a m o i n t di m i s t he t nda d.' r he a i lt t r n de o ur ve to o s s , ç t com pl n m us c t i f c spl us bl s w i ' ha t de e nt vi a e t l w . l l 5 ai t t on a n a t a i y ho ng' t t he f nda s ol t d he a qba , 56 U . a 682.Fo hi pa t Ki poi t t Cour t t f lowi lng gei t SAC: S. t r s r, ng n s he t o he o l ng a ua n he The de e ntsi ti he tpr e sngs t m wa unr as f nda ' ndusral a oc s i yse s e onabl da r usbe a ei y nge o c us t wa una c pa ed by a uaewa i c e ni isha ar s c om ni deq t m ngs onc r ng t z douspr ri e ope tes ven t ugh t de e n kne , by t us ofor na y c e ha r s n t know , ha is ho he f nda t w or he e di r ar d ea o o t tt pr oduc w aspot nta l da r , hi da rwasnotobvi orr a l di c r bl , t e i ly nge ous t s nge ous e diy s ove a e a dij r c udr a o a l b a tcp td. . n nu y o l e s n by e niiae . . Def nda i en i l f l t t e co r tve a ton whe t e def c s a da r e nt nt tonaly aied o ak r ec i c i n hes e t nd nge s be a e know n. The de e ntc e no t vol arl i pl m e a s f t cm f nda hos t o unt iy m e nt ny a e y i pr m ovem e safe i be m e awa e oft s de e t a da r . nt t r t cn r he e f c s nd nge s SAC ! 46,53.l pa tc a,Ki ur s hi ale tont tF&D di no i e ntan Es ey ! n riulr ng ge , s lgai ha d t mplme y saft i ove e s' ri l r d oft de e t s d ber a t i l wa ni .Ac r ngl mpr m nt'ahe t ea ne he f c s houl e d o nc ude r ngs co di y, he c ude , ha a oncl s he s dequa el a l ed bot a pos - a e d y t w a n a F& D ' br ac oft t t y leg h t s l ut o r nd s e h ha dut Thi i e pr t ton i ,wihouta dou ,a s r t h. The q s i f t Cour unde l l y. s nt r e a i s t bt t e c ue ton or he t r gba , howe r i whet rt i e pr t to i plusbl dlheplusbiiy sa r i nota n t a ve , s he he nt r e ai n s a i e. t- a i lt t nda d s ki o t oba lt r qui e ent'but... ksf m or t a s e pos i lt t ta de enda has pr biiy e r m , as or e hmz he r s biiy ha f nt a tdunlwf l ' l l 556U. a 678( tngTwombl 5 U. a 556 .M orover ce a uly. qba, ' S. t cii y, 50 S. t ) e , tl s ngf plusbl gounds... snoti eapr biiyr quieme a t pl di talki or a i e r doe mpos oba lt e r nt t he ea ng s a ;i s m pl ca l f e t ge t i y ls or nough f c t r i e a r a o e e a t o a s e s nabl xpec a i t tdi cove y w ilr vea t ton ha s r l e l e de e'oft vi a i Two bl 550 U. a 5 vi nc ' he olton. m y, S. t 56.Fi ly,d e ac am ha be n sa e na l s onc l i s e tt d a qua el i m a be s de t y, t y uppor e by s i a s to f c s c i t ntw ih t a l ga i i t td how ng ny e f a t ons s e t he le tons n he co pl nt' I a 563. m ai . d t ' U li at y,i rulng on a m oton t di m i ,t Courtsi r i notlm ied t an tm el n i i o s ss he ' nqui y s i t o exam i ton ofpartcul par na i i ar agraphs oft com pl nt Rat ,undert he ai . her hese ci cum sances,is r t t oblg ton i t l k a t C ourco ne soft c i a i s o oo t he d f r r he ompl i ' a e l t t pl a ng a awhol ant' nd vauae he e di s e. Ad msv. c , 0F.d7 , 5( t Ci.1 9 ) W iht eb n ft fisSu ca e p re c a d a Rie 4 3 2 7 4h r 9 4 . t h e ei o t j diil x e in e n c m o s ns ' l ba ,556 U . a 679, a co i e i t SA C asa w hol ,t Co t om n e en q l ' S. t nd ns d r ng he e he ur r l t nty c l st tK i ha pl us bl s a e a c a m f br ac ofa pos - al w a ni e uc a l onc ude ha ng s a i y t t d l i or e h t s e r ng de e t fc. 2. W he he V i gi a Law Rec t r r ni ogni e a D ut t W ar W her t D e endantD i zs y o n e he f d N otK now or H ad N o Reason t Know of t D ef Pri t D elvery o he ect or o i Ki hasa qua ey alege t tF&D br a he apos- ae d yt wn n butt ti not ng de t l l d ha ec d ts l ut o r , ha s t e oft i r fVigi a d snotr c zes h a d y, hecl m mus no t l sbe he nd he nquiy.I r ni oe e ogni uc ut t ai t ne hees di m i s d. Att out e ,t Cour not w ha i noti di put I i c e rt tt t e e K i s se he s t he t es ts n s e. t s l a ha o he xt nt ng alege t tF&D kne oforha r s t kno ofade e ti ispr uc i t dei r he l s ha w d ea on o w f c n t od tpr/r o lve y, saesac z bl c am unde Vigi a lw. Se La gev. tt ogni a e l i r r ni a e r Bucvr - i Co. 707 F. 94,99 usEre , 2d - 1 ( hCi.1 ( i e,C..c uni i pa ta disntngi pat (e 00 4t r 983) W ntr J, onc ng n r nd se i n r) rcogni ng zi Vigi a' l tndi r c tonofE tnui wr 'i f llet wanco e ) The r ni s ongsa ng e ognii s i ng ongs'n aitr o r ntxt. con i s be or t Cour i whe he F&D ha adut t wa n ofa potntalde ecsi la ne o s ue f e he ts t r d yo r ny e i f t t e r d f a trteh a te t n s se lf i h n s M o e v r teCo r' a ay i heei lmi dt fe h e tr ame t y tm e tt a d . ro e ,h u ts n l ss r s i t o s e wh t rVigni r c g ie ap s-aed t t wani t en g ie c c n e t C Ab o v. ehe r i a e o nz s o ts l u y o r n h e lg n e o tx . / b t Am. na dCo.844F. 11 111 ( hCi.1 )(d rVigi alw,rco re fr Cva mi , 2d 08, 4 4t r 988 t unde r ni a e ve is o p ro a ij re c u e b d f ci ep o u t c nb ma ea b e c o a i le warnyo e s n l nu is a s d y ee tv r d cs a e d s ra h f n mp id ra t f mec ntbiiyorunde at 4t or ofne ie de i ' . rha a lt r ol he y glg nt sgn.) ' t igi a 1 w c i r ni a once i a m a a t e ' pos - a e d y t w a n i conf i a be t' v m ng nuf c ur r s ts l ut o r s us ng t s . ' DouglsR. chmond, pandi Pr sLi lt . f ur r ' tsal Dute t War , a Ri Ex ng oduct abii Manuact es Pos- e is o n y. RerftandRe l 36l L. v. 39( 999) Andde piet r urenc oft is ove to cal, daho Re 7, 1 . s t he ec r e he sue r t year ,t Supr e C our ofV igi a hasr he s he em t r ni epeat y r used t addr i. See,e. ,Roval edl ef o ess t g. 8 I d m. v Ty oFr Pr d .LP, 0 SE.d91 9 n. ( . 01 )(x r sl d ci n t n e Co. . c ie o s. 7 4 . 2 , 7 3 Va 2 1 e p e sy e l g o ni ad es a la ' a gum e t tt i c ti pr r y d s i s pos - al dut t w n n dr s ppe l nt s r nt ha ral our m ope l i m s ed t s e y o r cli ) Harsv. 1. nc,41 S. 2d605,61 ( .1 )( s ngwihoutde i ngt ta ams; ri T..I . 3 E. 0 Va 992 asumi t cdi ha p s-aed t t wn ne it) S ealoP trNah S s e , o u t Liblt T r Reo m. o ts l uy o r x ss. e s ee s wih r Pr d cs a ii o t f r . y Wh Vigni Sh udAd pth He d r o --e s i o s dRe iino e to 4 24 y r i a o l o te n e s n l r k Prpo e vso fs cin 0 ., w Re t e nt( con )o t 27U. c L.Re 85 (993) nt a e ofc toli satme Se d fTors, Rih. v. 7 1 .l he bs nce onr lng pr c n f om V igi a' hi hes c t i i t s Co tsr e t pr di thow t Supr m e Cou t e ede t r r ni s g t our, t s hi ur ' ol o e c he e r ofVi gi a w oul r l on t m a t r a i s isde s on i a cor nc w ih t tpr di ton. r ni d u e he te , nd s ue t cii n c da e t ha e c i Se Horc M a l .Co. Ge StrNa' l . ,51 F. 327,329( h Ci.2008) e a e nn ns v. n. a tl ns Co. 4 3d 4t r . Ac r ngl a de by S nons ofc t uc i n, es a e e t oft l , r ats ,r ce t co di y, i d t ca ons r to r t t m n s he aw t e i es e n pr n u c me t o g n rl ue o p lce b te( p e Co r o Vigna , lc nsd r d o o n e n s f e ea r ls r oiis y h Su r me u t f r ii) wel o iee dca a dg r ii) ra c u t e iins'W el v Lid ,1 6F.d 5 5 5 8(t Ci. 9 9 ,h it, n vigna til o r d cso , ls . d v 8 3 0 , 2 4h r 1 9 ) te ' Co tm us ga e i o is c ys a ba la f e as w he e t V i gi a Supr e Cour woul f lon ur t z nt t r t l l nd or c t r he r ni em t d al t i s .4 he s ue a. D eci ons A ppl ng V i ni Law si yi rgi a To be n, he Cour l gi t t ooks t ot r d i i t tha t he o a pos - a e d y t wa n o he ec s ons ha ve ouc d n t s l ut o r i Vigni l B1 v.OtsElvaorCo.71 F. 1 (t Ci.1 3) t Unie SttsCour n r i a. n v i e t , 3 2d 040 4h r 98 ,he td ae t 4TheCourti m i uloft prviegeafor i by t Supr Cour ofV igi at ceriy ques i of s ndf he i l f ded t he eme t r ni o tf tons saelw t t a c ur un rc rancrumsa e .Se Va. p. . 5: *Va Co ta tVlj l tt a o h t o t de e ti ic tnc s e Su CtR. 40 . ns. r. , . Cerii ton,however i wihi t Cour' di r i and i neverc ttca i , s t n he ts sc eton s ompulor See Lehman Br v. s y. os. S hen 41 U. 38 ,3 -91( 9 4)(ç ed no s g s t twheet e ei d b a t lc llw a d c i, 6 S. 6 90 1 7 E o t ug e t ha r h r s ou t s o o a a n W wh r t ec riiainpr e ur i a aia e rs r t i i ob i t y.) Thi i a i ora tq sin e e h e tfc to oc d e s v lbl,e o t o t s lgaor ' . s s n mp tn ueto ' up nwhihteVigi aSu e Co t sno rlda dup whc udg si t sDitith v c me o c h r ni prme urha t ue n on ihj e n hi src a e o t opposie concl ons However i t pr ntcas neihersde hasr o t usi . , n he ese e, t i equesed cerii i M or r t tfcaton. eove , t sc e ha be pendi on t Cour ' docke f neary 30 mont ,dicover i neary complt and hi as s en ng he ts t or l hs s ys l e e, at i dat I ral e oomsnea Ceri caton t t s ae s em ecour woul caus unneces arl dely a r. tfi i o he t t upr t d e s iy a nd f t expens t t pari Des t t i urher e o he tes. pie he mporance oft ques i and t di genc off der t he ton he ver e e al aut iy on t mater t Cour concl hort he t , he t udesce ii ton woul be i rtfca i d nappr it undert cicum sances opra e he r t . Ac or Le a dv. Pr d. ,7 F.up z 60 6 9-1 ( . Va. 1 . c d g r EOT o Co. 7l s p.d 7, 0 0 W D. 201 ) ofAppea sf t Fourh Cic tha t o l or he t r ui d he pporuniy t a e s a s m ia i s I Bl t t t o ddr s i l r s ue. n y, he panifsd c d n wa ftlyij r da h swok lc whe h b c e u h stu kwih u lit ' e e e t s aal nu e t i r p a e n e a k d p i r c to t f l ki a r n i o a c nit rl ca ed o ano he t u k. A sa r s toft c lson, he gua d o oo ng nd a nt a s e o t n t r r c e ul he oli i t r n Bl st c f lt t eg o n , n hef l we , ufe igt eftlij r wh nh wa c u h d y' nlk elo h r u d a d ol d s f rn h aa nu y e e s r s e o be we t c se and t contol ofhi tu k. Bl se t t br ug neglge a wa r nt t en he anit r he r s s rc y' sae o ht i nce nd ra yof m e c n a lt c ai sag ns t m a a t eroft t c he wasdr vi Bl sa i nt - r ha t biiy l m ai t he nuf c ur he nz k i ng. y' cc de ha ppene i Se e be 1 d n pt m r 979. A spa tofisca e, he pl i tf i r r t s t a n if nt oduc d e de t tprort e vi nce ha i o t B1 a ci nt Otshad be n notfed o a t rde t i 1 i vi t s m et o he y c de , i e ii f no he a h n 977 nvol ng he a ype f t ruck att s e l i he am ocaton. The ti lc tgr nt d a di e t ve di to t ne i nc coun a t c ew as r a our a e r c ed r c n he glge e t nd he as s b te t tej r s ll o t ewarnycam.Th til o r as i tuce t ej r ta u mi d o h u y oey n h ra t li t e ra c u t lo nsr td h u y h t whie Ots' or gi ld y t w a n ende i 1 l i s i na ut o r d n 948,whe i r fte t t u k, n t e it d he r c unde t a o i t r he ppr pr a e cru tn e ,h j r c u dfn aEe e l o ted t t wana trOtslan do te 1 7 ic msa c s te u y o l i d i n wa' f h u y o r fe i e r e f h 9 7 r ' d ah.Th j r rtr dag nea vedc a an th d fn a ta t ed fn a ta p ae . e t e u y eu ne e rl r it g is te e e d n , nd h e e d n p e ld The Fourh Cic t a yi V igi a l w , d t tt t i lcour ered w he i t r ui, ppl ng r ni a hel ha he r a t r nt i tucedt j yt ti c dtndarne dut t wanafe Otslanedoft 1 de t nsr t he ur ha t oul i e wed y o r tr i e r he 977 ah. l s doi howeve ,i di tnguihe be w e n neglge e- s t or e ofla lt a s rc n o ng, r t si s d t e i nc ba ed he i s i biiy nd t i t la lt t i .Si src la lt f us sont da roft pr ibiiy heores nce tit i biiy oc e he nge he oduc r t rt n t t a he ha he c onduc oft m a a t e , he Fourh Cic tc l t he nuf c ur r t t r ui onc uded, tw oul be no e i a t tnd t ta i d ns ns c l o i ha pr oduc whi i no E ea ona y da r us' tt tm e i l ve t m a a tr r sha t ch s t t unr s bl nge o ' a he i t ea s he nuf ctle ' nds s udde y be m e s a s e l t rda e. I a 1 nl co s o t om a e t d. t 045. The c tc t ased t sw ih a ne i e e our on r t hi t glg nc t r whih f us on t c heo y, c oc es he onduc oft m a a t er an whe et dut t wa n i not t he nuf cur , d r he y o r s i e r t d by t s e of a pr nt r up e he al oduc . 1 a 1 -46. The c e i plc ton fom t sr as ng i t d. t 045 l ar m i a i r hi e oni s 1 0 t twhiet dut t war cea l ce e a t tm eofs l i a src la lt aci i doe not ha l he y o n l ry as s t he i a e n tit ibiiy ton,t s nec s a iy do s i a neglg e a ton. e s rl on i enc c i l Feahe alv.Fiet Tie& Rubbe Co.252S. 2d358( 1 ) a e o of n t rl rsone r r , E. Va. 979 , n mplyee ab tln c mp n wa ij rdwhe as d s nl tn e po e a dt etn sl te ofa d ot g o a y s nue i n o a y p n k x ld d n h a k' i l w f n d hi hi i t he He br t m n he ad. ough s tag ns Fie t ,t m a a t e oft s r p t nk,a t ui ai t r s one he nuf c ur r he y u a nd Co n lu ,h ma u a tr ro tel l h ligta Con l wa n ts be t ol b l y te r eis t e n f cu e f h i n odn h t rei s o u j c t i ii ,h d. us a t Su e e Cour ofV igni ado e a sanda d f rt dut t w a n,fndi t ta pr pr m t r a pt d t r o he y o r i ng ha oduc t ma u a t rri s be t ol blt f rfi r t wanwh r i()k wso h sra o t k o n f cu e s u jc t i ii o al e o r ee t a no r a e s n o n w a y u t tt pr ti o i lkel t beda r f t us f whih ii s id;b)hasno ha he oduc s r s i y o ngeous or he e or c t s upple ( r a on t be i ve t tt per on t whom t pr uc i s d wilr lz is da r c to e s o le ha he s o he od t s ol l ea i e t nge ous ondii n; a d()fist e e cs r a o bec r t ifnn tepzc a e oft d n e o c n iino te n c al o x r ie e s na l ae o n o h l h sr is a g r us o d t r h r o cr tnc unde whihi wilbec meda erus I a 366( i Re ttme t( c icumsa es r c t l o ng o . d t quotng sae n Se ond) ofTorsj388( 965 l a i t ssa r t co t sl tast whehe t d y t 1 :. n doptng hi tndad,he ur was ien o t r he ut a i d t de ec s di c r a t rt pr pple o f t s ove ed f e he oduc had be n s d. Buti hol ng t tt pl i if t e ol n di ha he a ntf h dfie t me thes a ald o e t ummayj d me tsa d r o hsf i r t wnncam a an t r u g n tn ad n i al e o r li g i s u Co ne i ,t co tc m e e t tt he e wasno e d nc t tCor i ha a t o r lus he ur om nt d ha i r t vi e e ha nelus d c ual r c t c i know l onsnz tve edge t tis ldswer be ng us d w ih Fie t t rks ort ti t w e e s ha t i e i e t r s one a l , ha f hey r o us d t c e he ombi to f l d t f ton pr ry. I a 367. Thi,ofc s wa dit . nai n aie o unc i ope l ' d. t ' s our e, s c a H ow e r i i r s bl t pr um e t tCo e i c d notha l a ne t tis lds we e ve , t s ea ona e o es ha m lus oul ve e r d ha t i r ben u e wihF rso etn s o t a t ec mb n to fie t fmcinpr p ry, n iatr ig s d t iet n a k , r h t h o i ain ald o t to o el u tl je t ldsl tisha . Fr Fe t r l,t n, ca c l t tt V igi a Supr m e Cour he i ef t nds om a he a l he one n onc ude ha he r ni e t hasatl cont pl ed a post al dut t w ar , i notexplcil adopt one. east em at -s e y o n f 5 i ty ed 5Atl toneVigi ati cour hasalo consder t is ofwhet t r eas r ni ral t s i ed he s ue her o ecogni a pos- al dut t ze ts e y o wa n l Ha4v. v e No. 04- 6 ,2 06W L 3 l 0 ( . r Ct Oc.1 ,2 6) teCic i r . n l Sa ag , L- 1 63 0 021 1 Va Ci. . t 9 00 ,h r ut ll A n e o j d e i ti Ditit a eh dt o po tnt t pa t es meg e sn umb r f u g s n h s src h v a he p ru i o ly h a u sig y g e a t unde s gne m us pe f m t nm s he ri d t r or oday,a t i opi onsha ge a l lned up a ong nd he r ni ve ner ly i l t a l i s hool oft wo na ytc c s houg . l Es a e ofKi m e v. ar Egui Co. 773 F. ht n t t m l Cl k p. , supp.828 ( . Va.1 )( i e,M a J) a1 ye rol e oye wa kildwhe t f klf hewas W D. 991 Crglr g. ., 5 a- d mpl e s le n he or it o a i overur d. I a 8 per tng t ne d t 29.The de e nt sesa e br c de ' t t ough s ta i tt m a a t ero t ui ga ns he nuf c ur f t f klf f r i e ala,neglge l f ii t w am f r s a e us r oft da r i r nti he or i t o , nt r i i nty a lng o l o e ee bl e s he nge s nhe e n t eo eaino tef r it Th d fn a t ve i l n t e cu ee i e c a dj l h p rto f h okl . e e e d n mo d n i e o x l d v d n e n u' f mi y i srcinsi yn ta i h dad t t wa naiigo to c n iin o wh c i lan da tr n tu to mplig h tt a u y o r rsn u f o dto s f ih t e r e je t pr uc wa s d. TheKi e c ta he od t s ol mm l our ppea st ha i er e edt Vigi aSupr me r o ve nt pr t he r ni e Cour ' a i ofSe i n 388 oft Resa e e ofTors i Fea he a lt r l c t lm isof ts dopton cto he t t m nt t n t r l o ete t he i t V igi a 1 w r ni a t ti ,a a ce lng,r t rt n a f oo . Se i a 831. The c tc uded t t ha s s ii a he ha l r e d. t our onl ha w hie t d y t w a n ars s s m pl be us a m a a t e di c r new i o m a i a l t ut o r i e i y ca e no nuf c ur r s ove s nf r ton bouta pr ta trt pr tha ar dy lf isha .... vi nc i ad isbl t s t tt oduc fe he oduc s lea e t t nds e de e s m s i e o how ha he i or a i s d orcoul ha be n know n t a m a a t e e r i i r s bl c r a t nf m ton houl d ve e o nuf c ur r xe c s ng ea ona e a e t he tm e ofpr i oduc i a s l ' 1 Acc d A m br e v. hw orh Pr ton nd a e. d. ' or os Sout t oduc s Cor ,953 F. t p. supp. 728( . Va.1 7)( iha l J)(do i Ki W D. 99 M c e, . a ptng mmelra oni . e s ng) Byc r ti M c pi v. ds& Norhr pCo.91 F. ontas,n Al n Lee t u , 2 supp. ( . Va 1 ) 207 W D. . 996 ( a Mag. ) ane oye wa kildwh a a e lngove expl da t f y Conrd, J., mpl e s le en n mzai n ode t he oundr whe e he w o ke The e pl e' e t t br hts ta i tt c pa est tdes g d a r r d. m oye s s a e oug ui ga ns he om ni ha i ne nd m a a t e va i c pone s oft ove Re yi on Bl and a herFourh Cic tc s , nuf c ur d r ous om nt he n. l ng v not t r ui a e Cour f t Ciy ofN orol uli el declned t r ogni a pos- edut t war becaus i di not t or he t f k tmat y i o ec ze tsal y o n et d f t i wasatIbery t r ogni a pos- al dut t war wher t Ge alAss eel hat t i t o ec ze ts e y o n e he ner embl and t y he Vigi a Supr m eCour had note i ty done s I a *3. Beca et sCour i notbound by t r ni e t xplcil o. d t us hi ts he s r ti i Ha i oflm ied peruasve val and doesnotmerte ended anal s ame esrctons, rt s i t s i ue i xt ysi. 1 2 l l nd Cr e CoalCo. v. keShor l ,8 F. 27 ( h Ci.1 )6t M c l n c ur sa ek La e nc. 32 2d 4 4t r 987 , he A pi o t s a t d wih t pr poston t tt Fourh Ci c tha r ogni d t tVi gi a l w pr de a t r e t he o ii ha he t r ui d ec ze ha r ni a ovi d dut t w a n asa g ne alm a t r Rea oni t tt e wasno V igi a ca e a s y o r e r te . s ng ha her r ni s l w uppori t tng he i a t ha a m an a t e s d be r le d ofla lt f f iur t w a n ...i i l n nsofa de f t t uf c ur r houl e i ve i biiy or a l e o r fter pot nta da rt a buye onl afe t pr uc ha l f t m a a tz e ' ha ' a e i l nge o r y t r he od t s e t he nuf c tr r s nds' nd c i r ng t polc i plc tons ofapos - a e du y t war t M c l n c t d t t ons de i he i y m i a i ts l t o n, he A pi our hel ha Vigi ar c z apos-a edut t wa n.91 F. p.a 21 2. r ni e ognied ts l y o r 2 sup t 0-1 Fi l i Rahv.Stvke Cor .589F. pp. 733( . Va. naly,n s r r p, su zd W D. 2008)(one ,C. ) ye J s J., t a oh r u g i ti Ditit dteo p ru t t c n ie ti v r q e to .I Rah t n te j d e n h s src ha h p o tni o o sd r h s e y u si n n s ,he y plitf s fe e ij re r s ligfo t eu eo at anp mp' n f cu e byte an if u frd n u is e utn r m h s f t i u 'ma u a tr d h p de e nt , nd br ug ,i e ala, c a m f br c ofa pos - a e d y t w a n. The f nda s a o ht nt r i a l i or ea h t s l ut o r m a a t e m ove t di m i s Sur e ng t l w sofot rs a e ,l ng a t Re t t m e nuf c ur r d o s s . v yi he a he t t s ooki t he s a e nt o Tors a c i rng dit i t Fourh Cic tsopi on i Bl a we la t M c pi f t, nd onsde i c a n he t r ui' ni n y, s l s he Al n de i i n, he Ra h c tf c so t s our ound i lke y t t Supr m e Co tofV i gi a woul r c ze a t i l hat he e ur r ni d e ogni pos - al dut t w a n aspa tofa ac i n f neg i nc 1 a 735 ts e y o r r n to or lge e. d. t -36. b. The R est em entand t Trend A m ong St es at he at The c our oft m ode n pos - a e dut t w a n a e a l s m arz by t ont s he r ts l y o r r pty um i ed he Res a em e ofTo t : t t nt rs ()Onee g g di t b sn s o s ln o oh r s dsrb tn p o u t i s be tt a n a e n he u ie s f el g r t e wie itiu ig r d cs s u jc o i la lt f ha m t pe s orpr r y c us d by t s le ' f itr t pr de a w a i i biiy or r o r ons ope t a e he e l rs a lle o ovi m ng 6I l Cr ek a sand e ppear t ha as umed t exit ofa pos- e dut t wa n:Erhe e s s o ve s he sence tsal y o r t r eemsno ques i t ,i t def ton hat f he endantdicover d t t machi i had s d t t pl ntf swasnots e,i had s e hat he ne t ol o he ai if af t a dut t notf t pl ntf sa a f l et do s woul be actonabl neglgenc ' 832 F. at280. y o iy he ai if nd aiur o o d i e i e.' 2d However i cont xt t swascl l di a,sncet cour wasonl consderng t pr i y oft ,n e , hi eary ct i he t y i i he opret he dit itcour' de alofam oton t amend. M or src ts ni i o eover t l l Cr cour a , he sand eek t ppear t have been so appl ng t s t i 1 ofM i gan. See i a 276 n. . Acc di y,I l Cr i oflmied yi he ubsantve aw chi d. t l or ngl sand eek s i t val he e. ue r 13 afe t tm eofs l o diti i ofapr uc i ar s bl pe s n i t s lrs tr he i a e r srbuton od t f ea ona e r o n he ele ' poston wo d pr des awa ni ii ul ovi uch r ng. ( A ras bl pe s i t s le'postonwoul pr deawani atrt tmeof b) e ona e ron n he elrs ii d ovi r ng fe he i s l i: ae f ( )t s lrknowsorras bl s ul kno t tt pr tpos a 1 he ele e ona y ho d w ha he oduc es s t ta r s ofha m t pe s orpr ry;a ubs mz i l ik r o r ons ope t nd ( t et whom awani mihtbepr vi dc n bei ntfe a ca 2) hos o r ng g o de a de iid nd n r as bl be as um ed t be una a e oft r s ofha a e ona y s o w r he i k nn; nd ( awmmi c nbeefe tveyco 3) ng a fci l mmuniae t anda tdonbyt et whom c td o ce hos o awa nng mi htbepr de a ri g ovi d; nd ( )ters o h r i s fiinl g e tt j tf t eb r e o p o dn a 4 h ik f am s u tce t ra o usiy h u d n f r viig y w ar ng. ni Resae n ( r ofTorsj1 ( 998) Tobes r ,hi s ci oft Resaeme wasno ttme t Thid) t 01 . u e t s e ton he tt nt t ad e w ihoutc ns e na i opt d t o t r ton. Se J esA . e r on, r & A a on D .Tw e s ,The Poltc e am H nde s J . r r ki ii s o h Pr d csLiblt Re t e n , 6Ho sr L. v. 6 , 2 ( 9 8 .No eh ls,ti fte o u t a ii satme t2 fta Re 6 7 69 1 9 ) n t ee s i s y r fe tveoft m ode n te Someve son ofapos- aedut t wa n ha be a t d i elci he r r nd. ri ts l y o r s en dop e n ove 30 sa e .Kem eh Ros , oi n Fut ePr e TheI r as d Dz/ t Tak Po tsal r tts l t s Av dig ur oblms: nc e e fy o e s- e . Reme al i i Am.Ba As ' ,POS SAL DUT T W ARN 38,39( mehRos,e , di Acton, n r sn. T- E Y O Ker t s d. 20) 0 4. Cons de i t V igi a Su em e Cour ' di t i Fe t r l,t Fourh Cic t sdi t i rng he r ni pr ts c a n a he a l he t r ui' c a i Bl t publcpolc i i to ofapos- aedut t wa n, d t m ode n te a n y, he i i y mplca ins ts l y o r an he r r nd mong s a e , he Cour fndst tt Supr m e Cour ofV igi a, fpr e e t oppor uniy, o d tts t t i ha he e t r ni i es nt d he t t w ul lkel r cog ze a pos - al dut t w a n. Acc r ngl i dec i t di m i st tpa t K i s i y e ni ts e y o r o di y, t lnes o s s ha r of ng' a ton whi h al gesabr a h ofa pos-a edu y t wa n. ci c le ec ts l t o r 1 4 l V. Conc us on l i Fort f e ngr a ons F&D' M oto t Dimis( No.11 i GRANTED i he orgoi e s , s in o s s ECF 9) s n partand D ENIED i part An appr at Or s li ue t s day. n . opri e der hal ss hi ENTER:Thi 1 s L a o Ma , 01 . y f y2 2 Tv e e J -x 4. e orUnied St t D 1 i tJ ni t a es c udge 1 5