Potter v. Big Lots Stores, Inc., No. 6:2012cv00003 - Document 38 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on November 2, 2012. (sfc)
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CLEM ' OFFI Q. . ST, S CE S DI COURT ATL YNCHBURG VA FIED L I THE UNI STATESDI TRI COURT N TED S CT FoR THE W ESTERN D I TRI OF V I NI S CT RGI A LYNCHBURG D I SI VI ON Nû# 22 2 1 22 J UL . DUD B Y; Y/ v DEP ! ' ERK ; CI LACTI NO. 1 cvVI ON 6: 2- 00003 Dol M .POTTER, us Pl n? ait M EM ORANDUM OPW I ON BI LOTS STORES, NC. G I , Dee d nt JUDGE N ORMAN K .M OON fn a . Thi ca e i vi t 9 yea - d Pl ntf ' ti a f l s s , nvol ng he 4- rol ai ifs rp- nd-a lwhie e tng a Bi Lo s l xii g t S o e (h ttr ' i M a io Heg t,wa r mo e h r fo te Amhes Co n y Cic i t r te ' o e' n d s n ih s s e v d e e r m h s ) rt u t r ut Co r. Dee d n lh s tld a moi n f rs mmayj g n . Ase pli d f rh rh ri a u t fn a t a ie to o u r ud me t x ane u te een, busne sowe a d y t e r ie d di r 'ca e f c t r whe t y a e on t busnes ' i s s ut o xe c s d na y' r or usome s or n he r he i ss pr mies a s h E di r ' r mea t tabusne sha a oblgaton t r me orwa of e s , nd uc l na y'ca e or ns ha i s s n i i o e dy m de e t o is pr m i e of w hi h i has kno l dg or s ul ha knowl dge,e e f t e fcs n t e s s c t we e ho d ve e xc pt or hos de e t t t a e ope a o o t a r as na e pe s e r i i or na y c r f he o n f c s ha r n nd bvi us o e o bl r on xe c s ng di r a e or r w s ft .Hee t s mmayj g n r c r s o a a s n eo e d n et s p r Plitf' a ey r ,he u r ud me t e o d h ws n b e c f vie c o u po t anifs cl i t t t r w a a def c a al. Acc di y, 1 wil p ant t m oton f r s m a y a m ha he e s ny et t l or ngl l he i o um r j g n. ud me t 1 amsa an ta tc Dee d n (heso ema a e)h v be nv lntrl ds se . Cli g is noh r fn a t t tr n g r a e e ou aiy imis d 1. Fe r l Rul of Ci lPr ed e 56() pr de t t a c ts d grnt s de a e vi oc ur c ovi s ha our houl a ummay r j d me t<ft e p e dng ,t d so e y a dico u e mae il o fl,a a y afd v t u g n < h la i s he ic v r nd s ls r tras n ie nd n fia is i s how t t t r i no ge ne i s a t a m a e i f c a t t t m ova i e il t ha he e s nui s ue s o ny t ral a t nd ha he nt s ntted o j d me ta amatro lw. Fe R. v. 5 () ( t mae il y.. gl y ds ue o e u g n s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 c. < o trai . o nl ip ts v r ' As t f cst tm i afe tt out m e oft s tunde t gove ni lw wilpr pe l pr l t a t ha ght f c he co he ui r he r ng a l o ry ecude he e ty o s nr f ummay j d me t' An e s n v fi e t Lo b 4 7 U..2 2,2 8 ( 9 6 .To r u g n. ' d ro . b ry b y, 7 S 4 4 1 8 ) p e ld s mmay j d me t a fct lds ue mus n to y b mae il b as t g n n , r cu e u r u g n , a t a ip t z t o nl e tra, ut lo t e uie' t t a i,i t ee d nc i s c t tar a o bl j r c ud r t m aved c frte n n vn h t s f h vie e s u h ha e s na e u y o l eu r it o h o mo ig par ' 1 ;s al JKC Hol ng Co.v.Was n on S t Ve ur s I 264 F. 45 465 y ' d. ee so di higt pors nt e , nc, 3d 9, ( h Ci.2001 . Howe r i t e de of a ge ne is of maei fc Es me ey 4t r ) ve , f he vi nce nui sue tral a t t r l i c o a l o i n tsg i c n l p o aie s mmayj d me tma beg a td. An ro ,4 7 olr be r s o in t a ty r b tv , u r u g n y rn e ' des n 7 i ' U . a 250. S. t I c nsd rng a moi n fr s mmayj g n u d rRul 5 a c ur mus v e t e n o i ei to o u r ud me t n e e 6, o t t iw h r c d a a whol a d a a1 r s na e i e e e i t lght m os f vor bl t t e or s e nd r w l ea o bl nf r nc s n he i t a a e o he nonm ovi pa t See e g. Ce otx Com .v.Cat e t 477 U .S.31 ,3 2 2 ( 9 6 ) n r Ape ng r y. . , l e r t, 7 2 -4 1 8 ) I e x Ex es Cop. 1 0 F.d 6 4 63 ( t Ci.1 9 ) S a v Sr u 1 F.d 7 ,7 8 (t Ci. pr s r , 9 3 2 , 3 4h r 9 9 ' h w . to d, 3 3 91 9 4 h r , 1 . l t nonmo ngpat be r t bur nofpr ,thebur on t movi pa t ma 994) f he vi ry as he de oof t t den he ng ry y bedic s hrgedby thowi ...a a e ofe de e t s s ng' n bs nce vi nc o uppor t nonm ovi pa t sca e'' t he ng ry' s . Ce ot x,477 U . a 325. l t m ovi pa t s s s h a a e e of e de e, t bur n l e S. t f he ng r y how uc n bs nc vi nc he de s fst t nonmovi pa t t s tf t s c fc f c sil tai ge ui is sf rtil See hit o he ng ry o e orh pe ii a t lusr tng n ne s ue o ra . Fe R.Ci P.5 e ;Ceotx,477U. a 324. Theno vi pa t ca defa apr ry d. v. 6() l e S. t nmo ng ry nnot e t opel s p re moin f rs mmayj dg n wi mee c ne mr a s e uain.S e Glv rv u po td to o u r u me t t r o j c e nd p c lto e o e h . - 2- Op e n,1 8 F.S p 2 6 2,6 ( . Va 2 01 (d ee s c lto b t en n- va t plma 7 u p. d 2 31 W D. . 0 ) i r pe u ain y h o mo n M c r ce e a ge ne is ofmaeilf t'( tng Cox v.Count o Prnc Wilam,249 amot rat nui sue tra ac.' cii y f i e li F.d2 5 2 9 ( t Ci. 0 ). ld e ,atilu eh sa ç f r t eo iain' o ç rv n 3 9 , 9 4h r 2 01) n e d ra j dg a n t t mai bl to 't t e e t ai v g p ta maly uns fc l uppore cli s a de e e fo pr e ng t ti l' Fet v Gr e td am nd f ns s' r m oc edi o ra . ' l . av s y Hu ry Co.8 8F.d 1 2 1 2 ( t Ci. 9 7 (uoi Ceo e 47 U. a 31 ) mph e s , 1 2 1 6, 1 8 4h r 1 8 ) q tng ltx, 7 S. t 7 . l I. The c pl i s at t t a a om a nt t es ha , t bout2: p. .on M a c 1 201 Pl ntf ,t n i t e a 00 m r h 7, 0, ai i f t nvie t a t St e' ts i he or , tlpped' upon e tng t s or f a rz t t w as c l d up. Pl i if ç e l ' ' xii he t e û on t ha g ur e ' ' a ntf ç l f s sann bo l ij re . u tiig di nu is' y ' Alegi t tçlj a o eai e se e oft c ld up r g on t fooroft St e l ng ha tthe f r s d xitnc he ure u he l he or c tt e a u af c ton,'Pli ifcli st tDe e onsiutd n ns e ondii ' antf am ha f ndantowe he a dut ofr a ona e d r y e s bl ca e i udi t f l ng: a d y t mant i t sor s pr m ies i a r as bl s f r , ncl ng he olowi ut o i an he t e' e s n e ona y a e c n iin;a d t t ds o e a t ae c n iin < n t fr s e ij y t rfo ' a d t t o dto uy o ic v r n ms f o dto t d o o e e nur heer m' u y o a ; c r c uns f c tons a a dut t w a ' i t s of a uns f c ton. Com pl i ng t t or e t a e ondii ; nd y o l nviee n n a e ondii a ni ha D e e ntt w,or i t e r i e of or na y ca e s d ha known,t tt a o e ad f nda t kne n he xe c s di r r houl ve ha he f r s i uns f co ton e se 'a t tPli ifç a e ndii xit d' nd ha antf t d notdico rt uns f condii ' Pli if woul s ve he a e ton,' antf a t t t drz w as s ve e y w om ,'t t t s or m a ge tkne t c dds ha he ttg e rl ' ha he t e na r t w he ondii of s i r g, ton ad u had no e ist nd nc t c lup,a had a a tr a i dut t r pl c s i ll 'buttc e t d t e e y o ur nd n fim tve y o e a e ad ap' ihos nott r pl ce t nz ort r m ove i,de pie is w om a ha ar o e a he g, o e t s t t l nd z dous c ondii ' ton. ' Pl ntf alege t t Eg sadie ta pr maers toft neglge ea brac of ai if l s ha, taj r c nd oxi t eul he i nc nd e h d t so dt h r's eE ufee p ro a ij re ; a s frd a dwilc ni u t s frp i ui we o e y h t frd e s n l nu is h s ufee n l o tn e o ufe an e ' s ofbody a m i a ha i r d a wilc i t i urhos t ,doct a r lt d he t nd nd; nd s ncure nd l ontnue o nc pial or nd ea e alh c r blsi a e fr t bec r do h rij re . S emanan ta s eK i n tfi t miiae ae il n n fo to u e f e nu is' h i tis h t h û d o al o tg t ' d he da a s'a t ts S sno c rbu orl ne i nt' Shes ks tllr Hundr d Fit r m ge ' nd ha he t wa t onti t iy glge . ' ee t- ee -l e fy Th usndDolr ( 3 00 00 )i c mpe s tr d ma e ,p e a dpo t ud me titr s,a d o a l s $ 5 ,0 .0 n o n ao y a g s r- n s- g n n ee t n a j t c t on he be l e pe he os s r ha f x nded.' ' B. D e e nt ha t ke t de ii of Pl ntf a Es ele Ele ,a f i of Pl i if s f nda s a n he pos tons ai if nd t l l r rend a ntf ' who wa a c s c ompa ng he a t tme ofhe f l. Pl ntf ha de ed t e o s oft nyi r t he i r al ai if s pos wo mplyee he so e The de ii t si oni sa eprma iy f us d on t f t r lt d t Pl ntf ' f l a tr . poston e tm e r i rl oc e he acs ea e o ai ifs al nd he alg to t a ar g (n e ta c wa d o ma s p id b Ci ts lc td o t e itro r l ain h t u a nr n e y o r t u pl y na ) o ae n h n eir e e s de of t s o e' f on do s c tt e a uns f c ton, a t t D e e nt f l d t i he t r s r t or ons im d n a e ondii nd ha f nda aie o tm e y c r c t uns f c ton. i l or e t he a e ondii Pl ntf wasdrve t t so eby Ese l S.Ele ,he fi ofa o m ael 50 ye r . ai if i n o he t r t le l r r rend ppr xi t y as Ele a c lr c ompa e M r .Po t whie t y s ni d s ter l he hopped t tda a bus Sa u day. As t y we e ha y, y tr he r l a ng t s o e Pl ntf hel ont Ele f s e vi he t r , ai i f d o l r or uppor,as i w as fc m onpl c 'f he t do. t t t om a e' or r o Ele ,who was i he ea l e g i a t tm e sa e t tPl i if t wa hel t me,s lr n r ry i htes t he i , t t d ha antf t ys d o al he di n' tln l e. d t t oos ' r ' Re r i t l di s de rur f o t s or Pl ntf w a a ke > < s you w e e ga d ng he a e ' pa t e r m he t e, ai i f s s d W r wa ki up t t fontoft e t di you s e t matbe or you c m e t i? Ther t twa l ng o he r he xi, d e he f e a o t ug ha s a t f o of t door di you s i? ' Pl ntf r le t o,I di not' She r ple E ' t he r nt he , d ee t ' ai i f e i d, ç N d .' e id, $ ' No, whe s wa as d,t he t n f elng yourf tc th o t ma ,do y ha a r as t n he s ke ç r ha e i ot oo ac n he t ou ve ny e on o be i ve t ti w a notl ng fa o t gr m d? ' le ha t s yi l t n he ol ' Elert tfed as f l s: l es ii olow Q: Now,you' tsiid t tt r wa s tpeofc r t r orma 1s y ve etfe ha hee s ome y ape, ug, y a ma? t A ; A m at l ' lke a 1t s or s us ,yo know ,t e t ofm at . . ts i l he t e e u hos ype s Q: No a y a oac d t door yo t tfe t tyo beivet toneof w, s ou ppr he he , u esiid ha u le ha t cor s oft sm athe ner hi A:W h nIlo e wh ns wa fln , t s u t ode u lk t s e o k d e he s al g i wa j s f l d p ie hi. i Q. Oka Tha ' wha 1m goi t ha you de ci i altl bi mor deal ' y. ts t ' ng o ve s rbe n ite t e ti, s l tm e tni h t s q s i n. o e i s hi ue to A s you wer appr chi t dool a , yo have t s i i d t t t r w as a m a e oa ng he w y u e tfe ha he e t t r a t tt r was o of t c ne s t twas mr up orunde ,i t t he e nd ha he e ne he or r ha ned r s ha cor ect r ? A : Idon' know. She s i s h he f i t r g,a s I- whe Il ke t ad he ung r oot n he u nd o - n oo d wh ns ewa flig i wa j s ac me tr e u y uk o -. e h s al ,t s u t o r un d p, o n w n * * * Q: Al rght Now,whe yo a M r.Pote a ehe de twa d t e tdoor li . n u nd s tr r a d o r he xi , you' t sii d t tt r wa ac ne t twa tzne up. ve e tte ha he e s or r ha s t d r A ; Not- Q:Ort ne down. ur d A : ld d ts e i bef r s f l. i n' e t o e he e l Q:Iundesa W asi tr du ort r ddownwhenyo frtsw i? rtnd. t une p une u is a t A : I w a t r up. t s u ned Q:l wa t ne up? t s ur d A : Buts w a f li t he s a lng hen. Afe Ele sae ta,çwl e (h jlo e u ( an it wa flig (n te c n ofte tr lr ttd h t é h n s e o k d p Plitfl s aln , a d h o wr h g majwastr upy' rtsi t ' ned 'he etmonyconi da f l : u tnue s olows Q:Now, ttlne up'youme n i yo t t come oft sma a t t by tt d ' r a f u ook he r hi t nd ook he botom pa ta ki ofr ld i up t r t t ort t pori oft mat t r nd nd ole t owa d he op he op ton he , t tt t sw ha y m e n? ha ha ' t ou a A : Y es,t t he op. Q:A1 rght Oka l wasnotmc unde ,i ot rwor ? 1 i . y. t ked r n he ds A: No,no,1di t- a ls y,Idi ts e a hi m ys l . Iwass eng t l dy dn' - s a dn' e nyt ng ef e i he a t twa watng f us a t n a 1ofas ha s ii or , nd he 1 udde my fi nd,s bega t f l. n re he n o al *** Q:No a s poi i tmedoyo s t ma wih t c ne c l up? w, t ome nt n i u ee he t t he or r ured A : N o,1di t notbe or s w asf lng no,no. dn', f e he ali Q: And you don' know how l t mr up c ne oft ma ha be n t ong he ned- or r he t d e t r d up? u ne A : N o,Idon',huht uh. Pl i i f a El r do nott tf t tt c ne of t m a w as t r d up bef e Pl i if a ntf nd e es iy ha he or r he t ' ne u or a ntf f l. A s um i t t cor roft m a was t r d up,t r i no e de e ofhow l ng i m ay e l s ng hat he ne he t t ne z he e s vi nc o t ha be n t r d up. ve e u ne Ot r t n Ele , t onl o he wine s t ha o e ve Pli ifs f l i Donna he ha lr he y t r t s o ve bs r d a ntf ' al s Gutui a e pl e oft s or w ho w a r e e i t s or a t r ha ng bee out i on her l e, n m oye he t e s e- nt rng he t e fe vi n s de l h br a G ut i i t i vi ua Ele i n i i s a < he l dy t tw asw aii f us ' tt unc e k. hr e s he ndi d l l r de t fe s < a ha t tng or ' a he doort e tt s o e Gut i t sii d t ts wa i tl l hol ng t doorope f t m t o xi he t r . hre e tte ha he s s t y di he ac al n or he o c e o a whie Iw as s a ng t r hol ng t doo i t s m e tm e s f l.' She s a e om ut nd l t ndi he e di he r s he a i he e l' t td t tt ma wa fole up unde t bot of( antf')f 'it si he s hadr ld ha he t s t ld r r he tom Pli ifs oot' tal f r hoe ole overt ofi and r l t rug up.' op t oled he ' The ot s ore em pl her t oyee w ho has bee deposed, ass s ant m anager Jodi Cudney, n it t sii d t t whe s a rved att s e a trt i i nt t m a wa t l t't ti wa not e tte ha , n he ri he c ne fe he nc de , he t s ç a , ha t s f ' dee ir e or fa ng,a t t i di not ha t a r nc of bei o1 or welwor tro atd r yi nd ha t d ve he ppea a e ng d l- n. Cud y t sii t tt door a e dou edoor t tope o wa d,t tt toorbe t t ma ne e tfed ha he s r bl s ha n ut r ha he l neah he t i of- t,a t tt mat a e d maly bl k o g e ' She sa ed t tt ma i r pl e s fwhie nd ha he s r t nor l ac r T y.' z tt ha he t s e ac d by Ci as e r t we ks t t i wa f ur f t by sx f t a t t i i i pece a nt ve y wo e , ha t s o ee i ee, nd ha t s ns td nd va uum e be or t sor i o ned f busne s i t mom i c d f e he t e s pe or i s n he ng. Cudne des rbe t y c i d he e l a of t sor as ltwih Puor s e lghtng a s i t ough t ot of wi nt y yw' he t e i t e c nt i i nd unlght hr t s l ndows' . ' Theot rwine s sc d nott siyaboutt co ton oft r a ge r lyha no ma he t s e oul e tf he ndii he ug, nd ne al ve t de a sae e s t c r di Cudne s sae e s. Pl i ifhe s l t sii d t tt a e wa ny t tm nt o onta ct y' t tm nt antf r ef e tfe ha he r a s iwe l1t' t l i ' 1 11. Pl ntf s e ie c s i ba e on t s ul tve a s r i t t whe s f l,t e r ai i f ntr a e s s d he pec a i s e ton ha , n he e l he nty a e nz w a a r a ç r a g s l e dy ç ped up.' The r c d dicl e no e denc t s bum ' e or s os s vi e o uppo tt tc e i r ha ont nton. Pl i ifdi nott s iy i he de ii n t ts s w t nz i a E a ntf d e tf n r pos to ha he a he g n t ped up' c ton be o e bum ' ondii fr s f l,and Ele ,herco pa on,di nott tf t t r was t um ped up' be or Pl i if he e l lr m ni d es iy hat he ug d b ' f e a ntf f l. I d,whe a ke tot t n f elng yo f ca c o t m at do you ha a r as e l ndee n s d, t her ha e i ur oot t h n he , ve ny e on t beivet t(hema)wasnotl ng fa on t grund?'Pl ntf r ple ç ' Ele sae o le ha t t yi lt he o ' ai if e id, ç ' lr ttd, No. t he 1l ke up s w as f li i w a t r d upj' w he as d whe he s ha s n < he t n oo d W he a lng, t s u ne ' but n ke t r he d ee t t m a wih t co ne c l d up,'s r ple t t t he r r ure ' he e id, : l di t notbef e s wa f li .... No, dn', or he s a lng ' ' A lhough Pl i i f s c a e t t t m a w a not i pe t d f e t a ntf pe ul t s ha he t s ns c e r quenty or t oughl e ug , l hor y no h 2Pl ntf des rbed t m ata havi varousc or , i udi yel a or ai if c i he s ng i ol s ncl ng low nd ange. s a Ele saed t t whe t y e e e t so e t di no o er t ma i a d he nd lr t t ha , n he nt r d he t r , hey d t bs ve he t n t bumpe d up'co to a no one es who we t ough t e r ' ndii n, nd le nt hr he ntyway o e ve t m a E bs r d he t s bumpedup' o 'r w ih a upt ne c ner t n ur d or . Unde Vigi a lw, a pli if a s ri a ne i nc cli mus i r r r ni a 3 antf s e tng glge e am t ntoduce de de tvi nce whih consiu e pr t tt def nda br c d s e dut whih i owed t pli if a c tt t s oof ha he e nt ea he om y c t he antf, nd c u e ,b s c b e c ( jij l 'Co o a S o e I c v Puly,20 Va 5 5 5 7 ( 9 2 a s d y u h ra h, t n uy' lnil tr s n . . le 3 . 3 , 3 1 6 ) he (iigM uph v JL. u d r , nc, 0 Va 91 , 7 ( 9 ). A b i s o sisc so r ctn r y . Sa n e s I 2 2 . 3 91 1 61) usne s we t u tme s a dut t e r i e or na y ca e f t e c t e s w he t y a e on t bus nes s pr m i e . y o xe c s di r r or hos usom r n he r he i s' e s s Se Wi Di eSt e ,I .v Par r 240Va.1 1 2 ( 990)( ii Col alSt e ,203Va. e nn- xi ors nc . ke , 80, 8 1 ctng oni or s a 5 7 .Th e ecs o o dn r c r icu e aso eso lg to t rme yo wano d fcs t 3 ) e x r ie f r ia y ae n ld s t r ' bi ain o e d r r f ee t on is pr m i es of w hi h i has kno l dge or s d ha know l , e e f t e de e t t e s c t w e houl ve edge xc pt or hos f c s t t a e ope and obvi t a r as bl pe s e r i i or na y ca e f he ow n s f t ha r n ous o e ona e r on xe c sng di r r or r a e y. Fo b v We b Blg. t.P 'hp,23 Va 2 7 2 9 (98 ) Th p an ifbe r t b r e o b s . b d L d s i 2 . 2 , 2 1 6 . e litf a s he u d n f p o ign gi e c .S f wa Str s I c v T lo , 0 Va 1 ,1 ( 9 ) S g i c nl, r vn e lg n e a e y o e, n . . os n 2 3 . 3 5 1 61 . i nt a t i y ne i nc c nnot be pr um e f om t m e e ha ni of t a ci nt The glge e a es d r he r ppe ng he c de . bur n i upon t pl ntf t pr t tt a ci ntw a d t t ne i nc of de s he ai if o ove ha he c de s ue o he glge e t def nda a a pr m a e ca e. W ha i pr d m us es a i h m or t n a he e nt s oxi t us t s ove t t bls e ha pr ba lt of ne i nc o biiy glge e. I e e es m us be ba e o f t , not o nf r nc t s d n ac s n pr s ptons. I i i um be u e um i t s nc nt pon t pl i i f t s he a ntf o how w hy a how t nd he a cde tha p n d I t ti lf t c n e mr ,gu s o rnd m j dg n ,te c i n p e e . f ha s e t o o j c e e s r a o u me t h pl i ifi note il t r cove . a ntf s ntted o e r M uph , 0 Va. t 1 (iai n o te ) r y 2 2 a 9 7 ctto s mitd . 3D ef endantr oved t s cas f om t A m her tC ount Cicui Cour t t s cour pur ua t t s cour ' em hi e r he s y r t t o hi t s nt o hi ts orgia j rs cin u r28U. C.j 1 2() a te ei c mplt dve st bewe n t pa tc a te i n l u idito nde S. 33 a , s h r s o ee i riy t e he ris nd h amounti c r r y exc n ontove s eeds$75, 000. Fe alcourssitng i di r iy a y t subsa i 1 oft der t ti n ve st ppl he tntve aw he f um s a e. Sal Re na Colege v. Ru s l,4 U. 2 2 ( 991. Thee o e te ee nt o or tt ve gi l s el 99 S. 25, 26 1 ) r f r , h lme s f Pl ntf ' ne i ai ifs glgence cli a e dr w n fom V igi a s t i l am r a r r ni ubsantve aw. Hee a i M uph tth d fn a twa n t a i u e o plitf s s ft . Th r , s n r y, s j e ee d n s o n ns r r f an if aey l e m e ur ofdef nda ' dut t pl i i fw a t of o di z ca e. 1 The çE sbiiy't ta as e e nts y o a ntf s hat r na y r ' d. 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Grm v Ra ,I c, 46 Va 2 9 2 2 ( 9 3 se s r t tc f t e e tv o d to ' i . he n . 2 h ' . 3 , 4 19) (iain o te ) Theei n e i e c h r i tefrtisa c t tt e ta ema wa i ctto s mitd . r s o v d n e e e n h is n tn e ha he n rnc t s n a y c ton t tc tt t d a s f t ha a d,a i nea l goeswiho s yi t ti wo d be n ondii ha ons iu e a e y z r nd t ry t ut a ng ha t ul d fkul f De e ntt ha ha a notc c tu veorot m i e ofaco to ofwhih it t or f nda o ve d ny ie, onsr di he s , ndii n c t r i note n t m e es t cntlaofe de e. Ande s 477 U. a 25 he e s ve he r t t i il s vi nc ' ' r on, S. t 2. IV . The e s nc of Pl i if s c a m i t t be us s f l t e mu tha bee an uns f se e a ntf l i s ha , ca e he el, her s ve n ae c ton,not t t ndi t a e ofa e d nc s ondii wihsa ng he bs nce ny vi e e howi neglg nc on De e ntspa t ng ie e f nda ' r . Ho v r i t e a s n e o e d n e s p ri aprmaf ce c s o n gi e c ,s mmay we e, n h b e c f vie c u po t ng i a i a e f e lg n e u r j dg n mus b ga td i fv ro ted fn a t To r l o h r s i t c mp eea e c u me t t e rn e n a o f h ee d n . ue t e wie n he o lt bsn e ofevi nc wo d la t que tonofne i nc t s c ain a c j c e.Se M ur y, de e ul e ve he si glge e o pe ulto nd on e mr e ph 202 V a.at917. The C l r of t Cour w il be di e t t s nd a c tfe c ek he t l r c ed o e eri i d opy of t s m e or nd hi m a um opi on a t ac ompa ng or rt a lc ni nd he c nyi de o l ouns lofr or e ec d. Etets*1dyf vme,02 nedh r i aoNoebr21. > NO K .M OO UNIIED STATES DI ' ' STRI J DOE CT U - 10-