STAS, Inc. v. Anthony, No. 6:2011cv00051 - Document 27 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on May 31, 2012. (sfc)
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I THE U NI N TED STATESD I STRI COURT CT FoR THE W ESTERN D I STRI OF V I NI CT RGI A cuEM ' OFFI u. . sT. s CE s nI cour ..'ATk d k* w YNcinuqq VA . . 1 ,, . LYNCHBURG D I SI VI ON . ; ,: .s.,. FI LED :. . ' MA 31 2 1 t 22 J ULI ' 'tD ' NJ N L ERK BY; DEPU L E N o. 11 -00051 6: -cv STA S, NC. 1 , Pli tf a nf M EMORANDUM OPI ON NI ET HAN ANTHONY d/ / CRAM & FERGUS ba ON ARCHI TECTS, J UDGEN ORM AN K .M OON Dee d n . fn a t Thi mat ri bef r t Cour upon Pl i if STAS,l ' M oton f rPa ta Summa y s te s o e he t antf, nc.s i o ril r J d me t ( o ke n .1 ) OnTh rd y M a 2 , 2,h Co r h l ah ai o Plitf' u g n. d c t o 9 . u s a , y 4 201 te u t ed e rng n an ifs M o i n,a t c us o ofwhih 1ad s t pa te t t i my vi t Conta tal ws to t he oncl i n c vied he ri s ha , n ew, he r c lo STAS t us t diput d De i Doc e s 1 a es Pli if s M oton m or t oughl o e he s e sgn um nt. ddr s antf i e hor y he ei a f r t r s ns ldicus beow,Iwilg an t M oton, i pa t and t i unde r n, nd o he ea o s s l l r t he i n r, ake t r a s me ,i pa t dvie nt n r. 1 BACKGROUND . The r e nt f c s a e aleg a f l s l l 2009, St Thomas Aqui Se na y el va a t r l ed s olow . n . nas mi r Aso it n C% . o s'be a p e ai gt b idan w s mi r b idn (h S o e f)i s cai St Th ma ' g n rp rn o u l e e nay ul ig te f j c ' n o ) pr ' d a tealg dfcsprmai fo Plitf' Co an ( c e n 1 a fo Dee d n' An we l rw h le e at i rl rm an ifs mplit do k t o ) nd rm fn a ts s r y a d Co necam ( o k tn 8. F rp r oe o t isa tMoin,ma y rlva tfcsaeu dsue ( s n u trli d c e o. ) o u p ss f he n tn t o n ee n a t r n ip td mo t . i pora am o t e undiput r e nt fc s ae t w or conai d s f rh i t Conr c bewe n t m tnt ng hes s ed elva a t r he ds t ne et o t n he ta t t e he p ris. WheeDee da td e ds uecran fcu lalg to s lve t m i t l h mo tfv rbet te ate) r fn n o s ip t eti ata l ain , iw he n he i t s a o a l o h e g ( t econi onne pa q Foonot tnued xt ge Bu kn h m Co ny,VA. Co l ! 6 To ta e d S .Th ma Aq n s Se n z f n d c ig a ut mp . . h t n , t o s uia mi ay o ne STAS,l .(û nc tSTAS',a rgitrdt eniywiht Vigi aStt Cor ai Commison. ' nd e see he tt t he r ni ae porton ) si Co l! 7 l o ao n J neo 2 0 ,S .Th ma sg e a d sg p o os l(h C r p a', mp. . n r r u d u f 0 9 t o s in d e in r p a te t o osl) p ' whi h i ha s i t fom HDB/ n a Fe gus n,l a Boson- ed a c t ct a fr c t d olcied r Cr m nd r o nc, t bas r hie ur l im. Co .! 8,s e Ex.A. Et Ant mpl ' e han hony sg d t Prpos lasPr i ntofHDB/ am a ine he o a esde Cr nd F rus n l c Co l !1 . e g o , n . mp . 1 Pur uan t t Pr s t o he opos l H D B/ a a Fe gus a ee t pr de a Sc m a i D e i a, Cr m nd r on gr d o ovi he tc s gn frt e P o e t icudn b tn tlmie t st a d to rplns ee to d sg s a tre o h rj c, n l ig, u o i td o: ie n l o a , lvai n e in , h e - dme in lc mpue mo e o t eP oe ta daf u d to pln. Co . 1 . Th P o sl i nso a o tr d l f h r jc, n o n ain a mpl! 0 e r po a c n e ltd a $1 00 0 c t f r te Prj c' Sc e tc De in ph s . Co .! 1 o tmpae 5 ,0 os o h oe ts h mai sg ae mpl 2. Ac or ngt STA S,t tamountwa pad i f l butHDB/ nm a Fe gus di notc c di o ha s i n ul, Cr nd r on d ompl t ee t s r i es i a ee t pr de he e v c t gr d o ovi . Ant hony c ams t t contar t t HDB/ a and l i , o he r y, ha Cr m Fe gus n noto y compl t t Sc ma i Desgn i orar r o nl eed he he tc i n ound Se e be of2009,but as pt m r lo pr e a t aly r desgne Sche tc De i ba e on a dif r buidi s pe, a no oduc d ot l e i d ma i sgn, s d fe ent l ng ha t a tona chaget Pli if Countr . 11. ddii l r o antf. ecl! Fo o e ra o o a t e ,t P oe twa p to h d u tlM a c o 201 ,a whc r n e s n r noh r he rj c s u n ol n i rh f 1 t ih poi Li Fori t Pr sde of STA S,and Ant nt nda tn, he e i nt hony r ngage i dic sons t c i ee d n s us i o ontnue d sg wo k o t P oe t P1' M e 3 ei n r n he r jc . . m. .The ,i J n o 2 1 S .Tho se trd it a s n n u e f 01 , t ma n ee no n a e me (heç r c )wih i ha Ant y,aSol Pr it s p doi busnes a Crm gre nt t t a f' t û n hon cont Et e opreorhi ng i s s a & F r us nArhtcs' d t n crm'o d fn a f) o t d sg o t eP o e Co l e g o c ie t'(t ho y/ a ' r ç e d n 'f r he e in f h rj d. mp . An De n n- vigp ry( fn a t, srq rdb lw.S e eg, e e v Sa d ro Plmbn Pr d ., l . 5 U . o mo n at Dee d n) a e uie y a e, ..Re v s . n es n u ig o s nc, 30 S. 1 3 1 0(0 0 . 3.5 20) ! 1 s Ex. So tme s ty atrt patese ut t Contac,St Thomasa sg d 3; ee B. mei horl fe he ri xec ed he r t . sine 2 a1ofisrght a oblgatonsunde t Conta tt STAS. Com pl ! 1 1 t i s nd i i r he r c o 4. . The Conta i a modii d veri oft L I 81 r ct s fe son he W A 01 2007 St nda d Fo m ofAgr e e a r r e m nt bewe n owne and Ar hie tB;t pa tesne it d a at r ce t n t nus fo t AI t e r c t c ' he ri gota e nd le ed rai e r m he A Sa d r F nn. co 1 ! 1 .Th Co ta tc le f rc n tu to t b gn o De e e 1 tn a d o 4 mp . 6 e nr c ald o o sr cin o e i n c mb r , 201 ,a d f rte Prj c t b s b tn il c mpee o De e e 1 ,2 4 Co l ! 1 . 1 n o h oe t o e u sa tal o ltd n c mb r 5 01 . mp . 7 y Un e t eCo ta t S d r h nr c, TAS wa t p y Anh n / a af eo 6 oft ePrj c' t tlc s o s o a to y crm e f % h o e ts oa o t f co tuc i 35% of t t t t f was t be f s r c pr ded durng t De i nsr ton; ha o al ee o or e vi es ovi i he sgn De eo me t ha eo t Prj c.Co l !1 . v lp n P s f he oe t mp . 8 Up n e e uin o te Co ta t a d pu s a tj 1 .0. te e f S o x c to f h nr c, n ru n l1 1 h ro , TAS ma e a i ia d n nt l i pa ntof $ 000 t Ant ny/ a ,t b c e td t t Desgn Deveopm e Phas oft yme 20, o ho cr m o e r die o he i l nt e he P oe t Co .! 2 . On J n 1 ,20 1 Anh n / a s n S rjc . mpl 2 u e 0 1 , to y cr m e t TAS a iv ie r q e t g n n o c e u si n pa ntf c yme or omplton of1 285% oft De i Deveopm e Pha e;ac or i y,STAS pa d ei 4. he sgn l nt s c d ngl i Anho y crm $ 36 7 o J l 1 2 1 Co l ! 2 . On J l 28 2 1 S t n / a 5 ,6 n uy , 01 . mp . 3 uy , 01 , TAS p i $ 82 2 ad 5 ,2 moefra tona De i De l r o ddii l sgn veopmen Pha esr ie . Compl!24.ArundAugus of2011 t s e vc s . o t , 2I Def nts Bre i Opposton t Pl ntf sM o i , Deenda c ende wihouta s n enda ' if n ii o ai if ton f nt ont d, t ny uppori tng evi nc t St Thoma ne a sr e isrght a oblga i u rt Conta t STAS,a t tdico y i de e,hat . s ver s i d t i s nd i tons nde he r ct o nd ha s ver s r quiedt a c rant vai t ofSTAS' a sgnmen cl m .Def' Br i Opp' 3. Not t tndi t f tt t e r o s e ti he ldiy S si t ai s .n n wihsa ng he ac ha 4a non- ng pa t ma no r s o mee algai o d as oft pladi ' whe a moi f r s 1 movi ry y t e t n r le tons r enil he e ngs' n ton o ummay r jd me ta hee i p o el spp re b afd vt, retv Gimo e 9 6F. u p. 5 5 5( . Va 1 9 ) u g n, s r,s r p ry u otd y fia i Ga r t . l r, 2 S p 5 4, 5 W D. . 9 6 , s Pli ifatc d atuea core tco oft pur re a sg antf ta he r nd r c py he po td s imnen ofrght t isRe y bref lt as u t t t i s o t pl i . hus s me ha De e ntno lngerdiput STAS' sa ng,andIde t is moo . f nda o s es S tndi em he sue t 3An e ry d af ve son oft Contac, whi i asihty modiid veri ofAl Bl al r 4 ri he r t ch s lg l fe son A 0l2007 Stndad a r For ofAgr e tbe we n Owne a Ar hie ti s i by Def ntasExhi t1t isBrefi Oppostont m e men t e r nd c tc s uppled enda bi o t i n ii o Pli ifsM oton f ParilSumma y J antf' i or ta r udgment Thi veson wa s ntby Ant . s ri se hony' e oyee Ke n Hoga t s mpl , vi n, o F ri.Anh n Af. 8 l d p rsfo t esa adAl B 1 t als e e tn t n t f l nr c d e , nd ot n t o y f ! . t e a t r m h tnd r A 01 o e s r x e t ha he ma Co ta t o s a it r o egi t Cour s i aast t pa tes sa tng plc f rt rcontacualne itons t he efr ves he t ome de o he ri ' tri a e o hei r t gotai . 4Pli ifa r t al tnnsw e ene itd, butAnt antf ve s hat I e r gotae hony cl m st the ha ave ypa sver e i t s ai ha d r s i ol n he e c a g s Se Anh n Af.( r 2 ,2 2 I 8 1 ,1 -4 Att Ma 2 2 2he rn ,c u slfrS h n e. e to y f Ma . 8 01 ) J -0 3 1 . he y 4, 01 aig o n e o TAS ! a k o e g dt t scin wa r so il frt maoi o temo i c t ns c n wld e ha hi le t s ep nsbe o he j rt fh dt ai . y i o Ant ny/ am s it a her$58, i c ,whi h toubl STAS,snc STAS cai t ho cr ubm ted not 222 nvoi e c r ed i e l ms o ha no,a t ttme,s ena docume spet ni t t Desg De o nt Co .!25. ve t t ha i e ny nt rai ng o he in velpme . mpl l s t STAS wori d t tAnt ny/ a wa c r ng f s r c t ti had notpe f r e n hor, re ha ho cr m s ha gi or e vies ha t r o m d. Addii l ar tonaly, ound t s tm e,Ant ny/ a cai d t t bec us c tucton c t ha hi i ho cr m l me ha a e onsr i oss d doubld,i ne de STAS' a ova f a i r a e budge a a comm e ur el hi r e t e d S ppr l or n nc e s d t nd ns at y ghe de i f e. 1 Ant sgn e d. hony/ am cli st tt r s n f t cos i r as wasbe us Fori cr am ha he ea o or he t nc e e ca e tn ma en meo sa de tn i c n e t t epa f rteP o e ttr ug J ya d Au u t2 1 d u r u n xe sve ha g s o h ln o h rj c h o h ul n g s, 01 . Countr . 28. Ac r ng t Dee nt t plnne a e oft smi y ha i r asd fom ecl! co di o fnda ,he a d r a he e nar d nc e e r a p o i t l 8 ,0 s uae fe t 1 ,5 s u r f e. Co mtr l ! 3 Dee d n u d td p r xmaey 50 0 q r e t o 914 4 q ae e t t ec . 8. f n a t p ae t D e i a Cons r ton doc e s i or a i t e r ques e c nges a a pr s ng he s gn nd tuc i um nt , nc por tng hes e t d ha , nd p i i Fo tn oft i r as c te tm a e fom t e ne r ;t c tha rs n fom $1 000,00 t ri he nc e ed os si t s r he ngi e s he os d ie r 5, 0 o $32, 905.Countr l!!30-2,38. 433, e c. 3 Unde t s c e i cr ums a s t pa te hed as ausco e e e o Se e r r he e ont ntous ic t nce , he ri s l t t nf r nc n pt mbe 1 2011 Compl ! 27. Ac or ng t STAS,a t sme tng,Deenda dei r d c ept l 2, . . c di o t hi ei f nt lve e onc ua pln ta weep s d e( l g dy h vn b e d d rn t eSc e tcPh s o t eP o e t. a s h t r a t u al e l a ig e n ue u ig h h mai a e f h rj c) e 1 Att smeei Ant d. hi tng, hony/ a c am e t tt Desgn De l e doc e swe e 5 cr m l i d ha he i veopm nt um nt r 0% c omplt but STAS al ges t t Ant ee, le ha hony/ a br cr m ought no doc e a i n t s um nt t o o uppor t s t he e aseto .Compl!28. s rins . The on Se e r 1 2011 a e l dis tsi wih t r uls of t saus n, pt mbe 4, , ppar nty s a ited t he es t he t t c e e ,STAS and St Thomass nta notc oft r nai t Def nda . Compl ! 30; onf r nce . e i e e mi ton o e nt . Ex. C.Th n tc dr ce Dee d n t n t ro m a yf rhe wo k o t eP oe t a dt s bmi e o ie ie td f n a t o o pef r n u t r r n h r jc , n o u t bil f any unpai ser ces. Compl ls or d vi . Pl n if r quese doc e ai n pr ng t aitf e t d um nt to ovi he co pl t s r i e , i udi t Sc m a i D e i doc e s a t D es g De l e m e ed e v c s ncl ng he he tc s gn um nt nd he i n ve opm nt doc umen s I Ant t. d hony/ a ac cr m knowldge r ceptoft l te a a e t sop a1wor e d e i he et r nd gr ed o t 1 k. Compl!32. . On Se e pt mber27,2011 Ant y/ a s ntSTAS an i c cai ng t t STAS sil , hon cr m e nvoi e l mi ha tl owe t $58, fom t Augus i ce,pl a a tonal$82, f Desg De l pm e d he 222 r he t nvoi us n ddii 666 or i n ve o nt w or t tDef nda had com pl e be w ee A ugus 25 a Se e ber 1 r pr s ntng 75% of k ha e nt et d t n t nd pt m 4, e e e i t eDe in De eo me tPh s .Co l! 3 - 4 Ac o dngt S h sg v lp n a e mp . ! 3 3 . c r i o TAS, h f rg i id c ts t e o e ong n iae t tDefnda wa cl mi t havec eed25% oft DesgnDeveo ntPhas ( vi ha e nt s ai ng o omplt he i lpme e ha ng g n fo 5 % c mplto t 7 % c mpein i t t re d y b t e te Se tmbe 1 o e r m 0 o ein o 5 o lto ) n he h e a s ewe n h p e r 1 sausc ee a t Se embe 1 tr nain. Compl! 34. Ant tt onfrnce nd he pt r 4 emi to . hony/ a as came cr m lo li d $ 60 0i f e f rteCo sr cin Do u n Ph s o t eP oe t Co . 3 Ac o dn t 3 ,0 n e s o h n tu to c me t a e f h rj c. mpl! 5. c r ig o STAS' r a ng of t Co r c , t ug An hony/ a wa not a horze t beg n is S e di he nta t ho h, t cr m s ut i d o i t Consr to Pha e wor untlDe e ntco eed t De i De l pm e Phas a s h tuci n s k i f nda mplt he sgn ve o nt e, nd uc w o k m e w ih STA S' a ova . 1 A lho h STA S r que t doc e a i de ons r tng r t t S ppr l d. t ug e s ed um nt ton m t a i t t t s vies f whih pa nt ha be n r quese ha i e bee pe f me , t e ha he er c or c yme d e e t d d nde d n ror d hos rq e t h v ,h f r yed dn s c d c me tto Co . !3 - 8 e u ss a e tus a , ile o u h o u n ain. mpl! 7 3 . A fe t r i tng Ant t r e m na i hony/ a , STA S w e on t r t i a ne ar hie t a fr , cr m nt o e an w c t c ur l im Co mmonwe lh Arhiecs I (t at c t t, nc. t commo lh', t c ee t a c t t al a nweat ' o omplt he r hiecur nd ) e gn e ig d c me t o te de in a d c n tudin o t e Prj c. Co . 3 . S n ie rn o u nsf r h sg n o sr o f h o e t mpl ! 9 TAS no ii d Ant ny/ a of is i en t us w o k pr uc Ant tfe ho cr m t nt t o e r od t hony/ a ha pr vi l pr pa e cr m d e ous y e r d by pr vi ng c es of t e docum e s t Com m onwea t . o di opi hos nt o lh Co . 40 Co n ec. 4 . On mpl ! . u tr l! 2 , Se e be 27,2011,howeve ,Ant ptm r r hony/ a s ntal te t Comm onwe t a sng t m t t cr m e e tr o a1h dvii he ha Ant ny/ am ' desgn dr w i w oul no be r e ed ora horze f us untla a ee e ho cr s i a ngs d t el as ut i d or e i n gr m nt f rs h r e s hasbee ne it d. Compl!41 o uc ela e n gota e . . l is Co lit S n t mp an , TAS se s a o d r d cai ta ( ) S e k n r e e lrng h t 1 TAS h ls a e p e s od n x r s none l i lc e t us t Desg Doc nt wiho r tito a ( a c ng, xcusve iens o e he in ume s t ut esrcin, nd 2) ny opyi m odiyi a publs ng oft De i n Doc e sby STAS a / a a c t thie by STAS f ng, nd ihi he s g um nt nd or n r hiec r d d e n tc n t ue c p rg tifi e n . Co .! 4 5 Ad iin l S o s o o si t o y ih n rng me t mpl ! 2-4. d t a l TAS s e rle t o y, e ks eif it a n he mountofa las $1 , 9 ( usat ys fe ,coss a i ees)frAnhony/ a s t e t 3188 pl tome ' e s t, nd ntr t o t crm' alg d be c o c nr c. Co . !5 - 8 n i Co n ecam,De e a ta s rscamsf r le e r a h f o ta t mpl! 5 6 .I t u tr li s fnd n se t li o b e c o c nr c, u tr l! 5 - 9 q a t m me i u j s e c me t Co ne c. !6 - 9 r a h f o ta t Co ne c. ! 0 5 , u nu nz/ nu t mi h n , u tr l! 0 6 , t c p rg t nrn e n u de 1 U. C. 1 , ts q, t e c. !7 - 6, n ij n tv r l f o y ih i fig me t n r 7 S. j 01 e e .Comtrl! 0 7 a d nu cie ei , e Co n ec. ! 7 - 2. No a1o t e fr g ig camsa d c u trli ae te s be to te u trl ! 7 8 t 1 f h o e on li n o n ecams r h u jc f h i t nt M oto f Pa ta Summ a y J nsa i n or ri l r udgme , ho ve . STAS r quess pa tal s nt we r e t ri umma y r j d me to y wi r s c t ( )isd caao y j g n cam;( )De e d n ' b e c o u g n nl t epe t o 1 t e lr tr ud me t li 2 fn a ts r a h f h c rc Co ecam (ot exe t tCounti ba e on STAS' us ordis mi ton oft onta t untrli t he tnt ha s sd S e s e nai he Desgn Docume s,( Defnda ' co i Counecli ( DefndantsCounecli f i nt) 3) e nts pyrght tr am, 4) e ' tr am or ij n t erl f a d( )S nu ci ei , n 5 TAS' r q e t o at r e s fe . v e S e u s f r to n y ' e s lI. APPLI CABLE LAw A c u tç halg a ts o r t l r n ummay j d me ti t e mo n h wst a t ee i n g n ie s r u g n f h va ts o h t h r s o e un d s uea t a y mae ilfd a dt mo a ti e t ldt j d me ta amatro lw. Fe . ip t s o n tra a n he v n s n ie o u g n s t te f a ' d ' R.Ci P.56( .A mova ma ciei postons doc nt,el tonialy sord i or ton, v. a) nt y t d ii , ume s ecr c l t e nf mai de a fda t or de lz tons ...a s i , . . . or o he ma e i l' i s f vis caai , dmisons t r t ra s' n uppor o t movan ' t f he ts as rin .Fe R. v P. 6 c( )A) Alen tv l amo a tma t h wg ta t emaeil se t s d. Ci . 5 ()1( . tr aiey, v n y t o q h t h tras o s c t d do no e t i h t a e e or pr s nc of a ge ne diput , o t t a a r e pa t ie t s abls he bs nc ee e nui s e r ha n dve s r y c n o p o u e a misbee ie c t s p r te fc. d R.Ci.P.5 () 1( , e as a n t r d c d si l vd n e o u po t h a t' . 'Fe v 6 c ()B) s e lo ' Ceotx Cor v Catet,477U. 31 322( 986) l e p. . r t S. 7, 1 . t il a 4 i ey or bl s I t e de f he vi nce of a ge ne is of maera f d d s mer l col a e or i not nui s ue sg iia ty p o aie s mmayj d me tma b g a td. An r o v fie t Lo b ,l c, in fc n l r b tv , u r u g n y e r ne ' des n . b ry b y n . ' 477 U. 242,249-5 ( 986)( iai omitd) &Ast mae ilt ...g nl diput ove S. 0 1 ettons te . : o traiy oq y s es r f c st tm i a f ctt out a t ha ght fe he come oft s i unde t gover ng 1w wilpr pe l pr cudet he u t r he ni a l o ry e l he e ty o s mma yj dg n . I a 2 8 Ad iin l , c u tmu tviw terc r a awh l nr f u r u me t' d t 4 . dto al a o r s e h e o d s oe ' y and dr w a1 r s bl i er nce i t lgh mos f vor bl t t nonmovi pa t Se a 1 ea ona e nf e s n he i t t a a e o he ng ry. e Re v sv S n ro Pl mbig Pr d .l c, 3 U. 1 3 1 0 ( 0 ) e e . a des n u n o s, n .5 0 S. 3 , 5 20 0 . l t ec n rc itpr tto sti g s mma yj d me ti a pr p it whe t c nr c n h o ta t n e eain e t , u r u g n s p o rae n he o ta t n i una bi s m guous on t dipos tve i s . W as n on M et o.Ar a Tr i Aut v.Pot he s ii s ue hi gt r e ans t h. omac I e t Prps,I . 476 F. 231 235 ( h Ci.2007)(uoi Goodman v.Re ol i Tr t nv s. o . nc, 3d , 4t r q tng s uton us Co p., 7F.d 1 2 ,1 2 ( t Ci.1 9 ). And t que to ofwhehe t lng ge us i a r he si n t r he a ua ed n 3 1 3 1 6 4h r 9 3 )5 c r c i unam bi ont a t s guous i a que to of l w f t cour t c i . W as ngt M e r ,476 s si n a or he t o onsder hi on t a F. a 235. M o eove , 3d t r r (q n wher ac t...dçe mi a amatrofl t t contac i a g us i eve e our tr nes s te aw hat he r t s mbiuo , t ma ye exa ne e dence exti i t t c nta t t t i i l d i t s y t mi vi rnsc o he o r c ha s ncude n he umma y r j d me t maeil,a d i te e d n e i,a a malr o lw,d s o ii o te u g n tras n , f h vie c s s te f a ip st f h ve itr eaie is e g a t s mmay j g n o t t b ss l,h we e ,rs r t neprttv su , rn u r ud me t n ha a i. f o v r e o t o e tisc e ie c i t e s mma y j d me t maeil la e g nun is e o fc xrn i vd n e n h u r u g n tras e v s e ie su s f a t rs e tn te c nr c' p o e itr rtto s mmay j dg n mu t o c u s b e p cig h o ta t r p r n ep eain, u r u me t s f o re e s r f s d a i em r t to l f t t t i roff t e u e nd nt e a i n e t o he re ac . 1 d 5Alhough Was ngt M eto ianAr Tr i Aut iy i vedt i ep r tton ofac r c u r t hi on rpolt ea anst hort nvol he nt eai onta t nde M a yl lw ,hecou tsa l i i notge a c l lm ie r and a t r' nayss s ogr phialy i td. 1 D I J ON 11. SCISSI A . The C ontract Language ual The c nta is i whe he t Contac unn g e r l s ue s t r he r t mbi uousy g ant STAS a lc ns t al l r s i e e o low a he a c t c t us and buid upon t Desg Doc e s pr vi usy c not r r hie t o e l he in um nt e o l ompl t by eed Dee t Se ton 7. ofAri e7( oa y e il t fndan. ci 2 tcl br dl ntted s copyrg sa Li ns ' oft Co rc iht nd ce es' he nta t ) fane t i t tdiput I f l j7. sae t tçll Owner (. ,St Thoma a t n r ls he nsan s e. n ul, 2 tts ha çthe ie. . s nd he STAS)ma us drwi ,plns a s iiai wihoutr t ci . Thi i noti ende t y e a ngs a , nd pecfc tons t esritons s s nt d o c e t a r ght by a ot rpa t i t d a i , a ,a s ii a i . Pl' M e . 1 r a e ny i s ny he ry n he r w ngs pl ns nd pec f c tons' .s m Ex. ' (mpha i a d) e ss dde . STA S a gues t t t f egoi l ngua una bi uo l gi s STA S an e es ,nonr ha he or ng a ge m g us y ve xpr s e l i lc ns t a horze a t r a c t c t c xc usve i e e o ut i no he r hie t o opy,m odi y,and ale t D es g D o m e s f t r he i n cu nt wih u rsrcin a dwih u Anh n / a sc niue iv l e n i t ePrjc . S t o t etito - n t o t to y crm' o t d n o v me t n h oe t TAS n post t t a c r r i e pr t ton, ie. one r titng STAS' us a no a l ng is ha onta y nt r e ai ., esrc i S e nd t lowi d se n to t a ohe a c ie t wo l rn e t e frt s ne e o j7. amos e trl is miain o n t r r htc, ud e d r h is e tnc f 2 l t n iey m e ni e s Tha i,STA S a guest t snc STAS is l hasno ca biiy ore riet a t a ngl s . ts r ha, i e te f pa lt xpe ts o c on pa ta pl ns a de i o co t uc a s m i r buidi f o t e pl ns i c n m a no ri l a nd s gn r nsr t e na y l ng r m hos a , t a ke m e ni u tus ' oft plnsi ha pad f i i c nno gi t m t a he a c t t a ngf l t e'out he a t s i or f t a t ve he o not r r hiec . STASalopoi st j 5. oft Conta t sai t tSTAS Srs r st rgh t rti s nt o 6 he rc, ttng ha te eve he i t o ean oh ra c i cs e gn e sa d c ns la t i c nn ci n wi t Prj c . S t e rht t, n ie r n o utns n o e to t he o e t' TAS a g sta e h ' r ue h t lmii j 7. i t wa Def nt wihes woul i r si y nuliy j 5. ma ng i i tng 2 n he y enda s d mpemisbl lf 6, ki t s pe tuous To t s poi , STAS alrs t Cour t t Ant u rl . hi nt e t he t ha hony/ a wa a r of cr m s wa e di s m i ton of c r a n D e i Docum e s t Bagb , Cadwel a Asocits P. ( a ' s e na i e ti s gn nt o y l l nd s ae , C. t gby', % ) a e nee i fr r t i by STA S t pr de c vi engi rng s vi s C ih t i e of n ngi rng i m e a ned o ovi i l nee i er ce ç t he nt nt w c mpei t e Prj c' b sd o t e De in Do u ns S e Co n ec .! 47 5 S o lt h oe t a e n h sg c me t. e u tr l ! , 4. TAS ng ' cl i st tA nt a m ha hony w asnotonl a e oft pr son oft D es g D oc e st Ba y war he ovi i he in um nt o gby,but had alo,on occ s on,pr ded s h doc e st B a y is l . Se Li For i A f . M a .5, s ai ovi uc um nt o gb t e f e nda tn f , r 201 ! k,/ I s t STAS cl mst t ift lc eprvii i j 7. we ei er ee as 2) ! . n hor, ai ha,d he iens o son n 2 r nt prtd i A nt hony a gue i s ul be t n t des gn s r i e of t a c t ct w oul be w o t es ,as r s t ho d , he he i e vc s he r hie d r hl s STAS .woul not be a e t t s e i t or alow a ot r pa t t us t Desg d bl o di s m na e' l ny he ry o e he in D oc e s a t e or w o d notbe a e t c t u t is c c a s m i r .. .. Pl' um nt , nd her f e ul bl o ons r c t hur h nd e na y ' .s ' M em .12. Te ual STAS ar s t t t s c s ntnc i j 7. merl sa fr t xt ly, gue ha he e ond e e e n 2 ey tnds o he pr opos ton t t t Contac doe no ta f r t o ne s p of a copyrght i t Desgn ii ha he r t s t r ns e he w r hi ny i n he i Doc nt t any ot rpa tes6 I o he wor , STAS cli st ta he a chiec ma i e' ume s o he ri . n t r ds am ha not r r t t y ç ' us De e nts Desgns s cii ly f r t pr son of s r c t STAS, but not ng i t f nda ' i pe fcal o he ovii e vies o hi n he Co ta tp nni t n w ac tc (ra y oh rpat)t cam a y o es i Sih s'i t e nr c e t he e rhi t o n t e ry o li n wn rhp t g t' n h s e r Desg ,ora c i tpos i y cont ne t r i i ns ny opyrgh sbl ai d he en. Fi l knowi t tt Contac has be t r i t d,STAS a gues t tt lc ns naly, ng ha he r t en e m na e r ha he i e e g a e t i by j 7. doe notc s t ope ae upon tr nai oft Contac be us t r ntd o t 2 s ea e o rt emi ton he r t ca e he Cont a tdoes noti c t as m uch. And STA S cl i s t tD e enda ' a l tons t t STA S rc ndi a e a m ha f nt s lega i ha has no pai i f lf t Desgn Docume s (n alegain whi STAS de es ha no t d n ul or he i nt a l to ch ni ) ve bea i o STA S' a lt t us t doc e s, a i be us t Conta t ha no s h rng n S biiy o e he um nt ga n, ca e he rc s uc pr si ovi on. Dee da tag e t a p rils mmayj d me ti i r pe b c u enl r u mae il fn n r u s h t a t u r u g n s mp o r e a s l o s tra a me f c sa ei diput SeeBr i Opp' 2- . M os i po t nta ong t e a l gato , w ih r s c a t r n s e. .n n 6 t m ra m hes le i ns t e pe t 6STAS doe notco s ncedet tt De i Docl nt cr t vald c i s butSTAS a s ha he sgn z s eae i opyrght me sumesa muc s h , f rpur esoft i t diput . Se PI' M e .8n. o pos he nsant s e e .s m 6. t whehe t Contac al STA S t c i usng Ant o t r he r t lows o ontnue i hony/ am ' desgns i De e cr s i , s f ndan ' ts c eni t tt s c sntnce i j 7. c n be l c l itpr t t smpl deci t ont ton ha he e ond e e n 2 a ogialy ne eed o i y lne o e tndt tidpa t st s pemiso g a td t S xe o hr ri ho e r sins rn e o TAS i efb t efrts ne c . l ohe e t l y h is e tn e n t r s w o ds Def nt pos t t t e n i t tow ne m a us dr w i . . .w ihout r s rc i ' r , enda is ha ve f he t r y e a ngs t e t i tons' s e e does gi STA S c t n r ght t A nt ent nc ves erai i s o hony/ a ' w or pr cr m s k oduc , t e r g s a e t hos i ht r r src e t STAS onl be us t s c e tit d o y, ca e he e ond s nt e modii t fr tby sa i t ti ls not e enc fes he is t tng ha t i i i e d t c eae a rg sby an ot rpary i t dr ngs....' nt nde o r t ny i ht y he t n he awi ' l t atr tve,Deenda arue t te n i j7. i i epr t i t wa STAS n he lenai f nt g s ha ve f 2 s ntr eed n he y camsi s dbe STAS bra dt Contac bynotpa ng i f la t r f ej7. ce s d li t houl , e che he r t yi n ul, nd he eor 2 a e t opeae. Se Count c.! 73. Addii ly,Dee ntase t t tiheConta ti isfna o rt e erl tonal fnda s rs ha ç t rc n t i l f m wasdr tdal te ieyby STAS, Def' Br i Opp' 3(ii Ant nyAf.( a . or afe mos ntr l ' .s .n ' n ctng ho f M r 28, 2 2 ! 8 1 ,1 - 4 .Ib gnmy a ay i b o s r ig ta t f r g ig a s ri ni rnd rd 01 ) ! - 0 3 1 ) e i n lss y b e vn h t he o e on s e t s e ee o rt rs ci b t fc t tAnt hi ef( es ciial hi e oye s STASt ahe pe ous y he a t ha hony ms l mor pe fc ly, s mpl e) ent he orgi l dr t c r c , a Ant i na af onta t nd hony ltr c r s ae ore ponde wih STAS by e l s si d t mai, ugge tng numer usc nge i t c r t l ngua a r nty a trc uli wih hi a t r y. See o ha s n he ontacual a ge, ppa e l fe ons tng t s to ne Compl Exs A a B;Pl' Re y Ex.7.W hie a gum e ta t hea i d d i cae t tSTAS . . nd .s pl l r n t he rng i ndi t ha a isc e we e s cikaly r ponsbl f t c nge i j 7. Ia notpes de t t nd t ouns l r pe t l es i e or he ha s n 2, m rua d ha s hafc ma j7. anyl se oce bl aswrten. uc a t kes 2 es nf r a e, it Tur ng t t t tofj 7. t o rtve lnguage una guousy weghsi STAS' ni o he ex 2, he peai a mbi l i n S fvor To rieae,j 7. saest tt Owne ç y us dr wi ,plns a s ctcai a . etrt 2 tt ha he rt ma e a ngs a , nd pe ii tons wihoutr srci v'(mphassadde ,a t f e ng dsnoti e t e titons' e i d) nd he orgoi ç i ntnded t craea rghs o e t ny i t by a y ot rpa t i t dr w i ,pl ns a s c fcai ns' l t c e ofAril 7, whih n he ry n he a ngs a , nd pe ii to . n he ont xt ' tc e c gove ns Copyrght a Li ns s i i r adiy a r nt t m e t tt t e' des rbed t r n r i s nd ce e , t s e l ppa e o ha he t ' c i us he ei - 10 - c tt e a e e s none usve lce e f t Owne t us t matra s t Ar hie t onsiut s n xpr s xcl i i ns or he r o e he e il he c t c de l ps i whi he r w a t Ow ne s s ft ie ,d iho r t i tons ' eve i t A r hie ti ve o n c ve y he r ee i, . . t t ut esr c i ,' n f he c t c s w n ln e a s cae wi t e Prj c. Th p r si e C e' t n icu e h n ig o ft o o g r so itd t h oe t e emisbl t , he , n ld s a dn f he h us ' doc e s t a t r a c t c , a STA S has done i t s ca e. By c r s ,t S i s' as um nt o no he r hie t s n hi s ont a t he l ght ,' r de ci i j 7. ss co s e e r e t t erght crae ora quie unde t fde a s rbed n 2' e nd entnc , efr o hos i s e td c rd r he e r l CopyrghtAc orohe a tna saei ele t pr ry lws I s t j7. alowsSTAS i t t r ppure nt tt nt lcual ope t a . n hor, 2 l t do w ha i i e t do:t e 't doc e s de l pe by Ant o t t nt nds o t ' he us um nt ve o d hony/ n . STA S ca t cr m nno , howeve,a quie ta f ,ora sgn a t i t'fom t tus ( add t tSTAS ha e bie r c r , rnser s i ny s ghs' r ha e 1 r ha s xhi td n itn t d s ) o ne t o o o . De e f ndantct s Nes sal s l .v M o nigsi D e elpme ,LLC,28 F. 505 ie lon- abe , nc . r n de v o nt 4 3d ( h Ci.2002) i whih t Unied Sae Cour ofAppe l f t Fourh Cic tc i r d 4t r , n c he t tts t as or he t rui onsde e t e f c or t de e m i w he he a a ee e be w e an ar hie t a an owne e t bls hr e a t s o t r ne t r n gr m nt t en c t c nd r s a i hed a i i d none usve lc ns Def nda a guest tunde t Nes sal s a yss n o n mple xcl i i e e. e nt r ha r he lon- abe nal i , i id lc e wa c eaed be wee Ant mple iens s r t t n hony/ a a St Thomas o STAS. De e nts cr m nd . r f nda ' ct to i mipl c howe ,bec us as I e ane a iai n s s a ed, ver a e xpl i d bove, t i t nt Contac gr n s a he ns a r t at n e pr s none l i lce e no a i i d one, tAn i pled nonexc us ve lc ns , as is x es xcusve i ns , t n mple d m i l i ie e t . de i to s sgnai n uggess i not a wrte lc e a c n be gi et r or ly or i i fo t, s itn iens nd a ven ihe a l mpled r m c n u t I a 5 3 (iig LA. ,I c v S a e ,7 F.d 7 8 7 5 ( t Ci.1 9 )( mp ss o d c. d t 1 ctn E. n . . h v r 4 3 6 , 7 7h r 9 6 e ha i a d d ) At su p e e t i awrte lc ns ' fco a ayssi r q ie . d e l. is e r s nl s i n ie e no a tr n l i s e ur d y t , To be s e asAnt y sr s s t modii a i i t fnalConta ttsrppe a y ur , hon tes e , he fc tons n he i r c tti d wa ma prtci gr e t a Ar hie tunde t sa dAl conr t'7A nt ny A f ! 11 ny oe tons antd o n c tc r he tndar A tac, ' ho f , . 1Ari e 7, asi exit i t dr AI Conkac,i much mor c tcl t ss n he ah A ts e ompr nsve when i come t dealng ehe i t s o tii t us a lce i rght a r s he e nd i nsng i s nd e ponsi lte oft pa te . Seci 7. i t dr tAI Conta gr nt a biiis he ris ton 3 n he af A r ct a s n Owne çanone usve lce et us t Ar hie tsI tume sofSe vi s el a e l rt xcl i i ns o e he c tc ' nsr nt r ce ol y nd xc Foonoeco t t n iu do ne t g q tn e n x pa e uieyfrp roe o svl o up ss f bu t ti t Co r c he sg d.An hony, sc t ha s he nta t i ne t hi ouns l orboh al d m a oft pr eci e, t lowe ny he ot tons f a c t c sco ane i t dr f AI Con r c t be r m ove and lwilis a deca a o y or r hie t nt i d n he a t A ta t o e d, l s ue lr t r j d me ti S u g n n TAS' fvo whe i c me t t eme nng o j 7. o t Co ta t Reae l, S a r n t o s o h a i f 2 f he n rc . ltdy Panifi e t ld t s mma yj d me to t o t Co n si De e d n ' Co n ecam: litf s ni e o u r u g n n wo f he u t n fn a ts u trli t trt Iwi ga ts mmay j g n t S is, l rn u r ud me t o TAS wi rs e tt Dee d n ' b e c o c n rc l t e p c o fn a ts ra h f o ta t h aleg ton (o t e e s h algai i ba e on STAS' us ordismi ton oft De i l ai t he xtnt uc le ton s s d S e se nai he sgn Do u ns;a d s c nd Iwi g a ts mmayj d me tt STAS wi r s e tt Dee d n ' c me t) n e o , l rn u r u g n o l t e p c o fn a ts h c i i rnge nt Count c am , snce t e se opyrght nfi me er l i i he xitnce of a va i lc ns s ve as a ld i e e er s n a fr i def ns t a cli of c py i i rnge nt Se , eg. D o d .. Gar r fimatve e e o am o rght nfi me . e . , nal d dne Ar htcs I .v Ca rd Bul es I c,8 3 F.Su p 2 3 3 3 0 ( D. C.201 )(i c ie t, nc . mb ige id r, n . 0 p . d 7 , 8 E. N. 1 t 0f co s t s e d on a copyrght cli ,t pl i if mus alo pr t c ng was not ur e, o ucc e i am he antf t s ove he opyi aut ied.). W hiet r r i s que tonsa how pr so oft Contac i eac horz ' l hee eman ome si bout oviins he r t ntr t wih one a he ,e. ,whehe t e usvelc et r nat i a whe STAS f ie t pa t not r g. t r he xcl i iens e mi ed f nd n al d o y Ant hony/ am f r s r c r nde e t s q si do not t na e STA S' lc ns as I cr o e vies e r d, he e ue tons enni t S ie e, e ai beow. xpl n l B. Ef e tofSTA S' A le d Br h fc S l ge eac De e nt al ges t t STAS c r nty owe Def nda $1 66167 f s r i s f nda le ha ur e l s e nt 94, . or e vce r n ee , u n tp i f r p ru n t t eCo ta t Co n ec. !515 De e d n as alg s e d rd b t o ad o , u s a t o h nr c. u trl! - 2. fn a t lo l e e c n tu t g, sn ,man ann atrnga da igt t P oe tpr vd dta teOwn rs b tnil pef r o sr ci u ig itiig, l i n ddn o he rjc, o ie h t h n e c u sa tal ro ms y i o l t n ,icu n pr mpt y n o ls mswh nd e u d rt sAg e me . Br i Op ' Ex.la 1 t bi i s n ldig o pa me t fal u s ga o e u , n e hi r e nt' .n pn ' t2 (mp ai a d d . Ad iin l ,j73. se iial c ne ae te ç e h ss d e ) dto al . 1 p cfc l o tmplts h rwne usig t lsrme t o S r ie y y r l ) he n tu ns f evc n wi o tr tiig te a to o te Isr me t o Se vc b a d g e o t deci c ran rlae a t u eann h uh r f h ntu ns f r ie' n o s n o srbe eti ees s nd h ' i e tc t np oe to sfrteArhi c u e s c c u tn e I (mp ai a d d .Ag i,hsln u g nd mni ai rtcin o h c t t nd r u h kc msa c s d e h ss d e ) an ti a g a e i o e doe no e s i t fna Contac. I,a t pa tess e t a e STAS wasr s i ef mos oft r vii , s t xit n he i l r t f s he ri e m o gr e, e ponsbl or t he e sons t n i s msunlkey t tSTAS woul modiy t Contac i a wa t twoul i e t Defnda ' benei. he t ee i l ha d f he r tn y ha d nur o e nts ft l tad,t mor l ca a r tona e a ton i t tSTA S modii t Co r cti a w a t tga STAS nse he e ogi l nd ai l xplnai s ha fed he nta n y ha ve a tona a ls r titveus gerght. ddii l nd e s esrci a i s t ti i entte t C e ea ned e ha t s ild o t es r f qualt 6% oft Cos ofW or a i pr ton t t pe ce o he t k nd n opori o he r nt c ein oft DesgnDe opmen phas a Consr tonDoc nt pha e' Counecl! omplto he i vel t e nd tuci ume s s .' tr . 5 Defnda t ar st te n i j 7. o t Co rc mea wha STAS camsi does 6. e nt hus gue ha ve f 2 f he nta t ns t li t , t Co r c ca he nt a t nnot be enf c aga ns D e e or ed i t f ndant be aus STA S has m a eraly br ac d i. c e t i l e he t STAS,t t c r r a lgest tDe e nt notSTAS,br c d a owe s m e $1 000 i o he onta y, le ha f nda , ea he nd s o 30, n r fn s S eP1' Re y 1 .Net rp ry s e ss mmayj dg n o termo tr cams e u d . e . pl 0 i s he a t e k u r u me t n h i neay li r a e t t br ac ofc r c diput lf uso t br ac is he e onl asi r lt st t elt d o he e h onta t s e; oc n he e h s ue r y t ea e o he e oce biiyofj7. nfr a lt 2. Genealy,ûll pary who co t t frtbrac of a c r c i note ild t r l ithe t mmis he is e h onta t s ntte o e f r ei .... Fe .I s Co .Str Elc Co,2 2 Va 4 9 46 ( 9 )( u tn Hu ly v noc t ' d n . .v a r e . . 4 . 5 , 8 1 91 q o ig re . ' Bennet 1 Va.241 253 ( 934).Ho v r thsr l d e no a pl gt t b e c d dno g t, 63 , 1 ) we e ,t i u e o s t p y i he r a h i t o t l t t r oft c r c ....' I (iai a i er lquotton ma ksomi e .Acc di o he oot he ont a t ' d ctton nd nt na ai r t d) l or ng t De e nt be a e STAS m ae ily br c d t Con r c prort t r i tng Ant o f nda , e us tra l ea he he t a t i o e m na i hony by f ii t pa outt ng i c ,STA S c nno now enf r et lc i pr so . D ef' Br alng o y sandi nvoies a t o c he iensng ovii n .s . i Opp' 1 n n 3. A bre dic son of t r l tons p bet e co r t oblga i a c i i f s us i he e ai hi we n ntacual i tons nd opyrght ifig me t i rq ie ,be a s çwl te a l e s r h s a cam f rb e c o c n rc, n rn e n s e ur d c u e ç heh r i n o a l c li o r a h f o ta t co i ht i rngeme , or bot de nds upon t naur of t vi a i of t lc ns pyrg nfi nt h pe he t e he olton he ie e ag ee e .' M adi o Ri e M gmt Co.v. Bu i s Mg . f wa eCop. 3 7F.S p . d 5 1 r m nt' sn vr . snes mtSot r r , 8 up2 2 , 5 3 ( . N. 2 05 ( ing 3 M ev l B. mme & Da i Ni r Ni ro Co y i t 3 M D. C. 0 ) ct i lil Ni r e v d mme , mme n p rgh j 1 .5AJ) M o e s e iial Eift e l e s es alg d c n uc c nsi ts ab e c o a 01 g ). r p cfc l d l h i n e ' le e o d t o tt e r a h f y, g c u c na a t cove ove nt nd he nanti a e or a e co r c ua oblga i n, t lc orss er me i s n nf ce bl nt a t l i to he iens ' ol e dy s f br c ofc r c 'butç ft lc ns s i o raci consiut a f iur t s tsy a or ea h onta t' t he ie ee' mpr pe ton i tt es a l e o a if c ton oft lce e,...t tus i u ut ied a m a consiut copyrg i rnge nt' ondii he i ns ha e s na horz nd y tt e i ht nf i me .' 1 (iainsomitd) Whe i c st t i eacin ofa ale d br c a e or a lt d. ctto te . n t ome o he ntr to n lge ea h nd nf ce biiy o al e igp o so ,ta b e c wi j tf r siso o alc nsn a re n o l wh n i f i nsn r viin ç l ra h l usiy e csin f ie i g g e me t ny e t c l l i ofs maei a s tnta a naur t t(t afc llt vey e s e oft c r ta s o tral nd ubsa il t e ha il fe ts he r senc he ontac nd s r es t d fa t eo jc o t p ris .. ( eb e c mu tc n t ue attlfiu ei te ev l) o ee t h be t f he a t . . Th ra h s o si t) o a alr n h e t pe f ronuanc of t c rc.' Rano v pa Pr s,I . 987 F. 580,58 (t Ci.1 e he onta t' .Si es nc, 2d 6 9h r 993) ( trtonsi orgi l ( ttonsandi ena quottonmaksomit . aleai n i na) ciai ntr l ai r ted) Def nda ur st tSTAS' f e os o i ton unde t Conta twa t pa f t e nt ge ha S or m t blga i r he r c s o y or he s r i s r r d,a t t f iur t pa f r s h s r c c tt e a m a e i br ac t t e vce ende e nd ha al e o y o uc e vi es onsiut d t ral e h ha a l sbot t Contac t be r ci d a Def nda ' c low h he r to es nde nd e nt s opyr ghtcl m st go f w a d. i ai o or r 1obs r t tj7. is l e bisnoçc tonoft lc ns 'a t STAS obti d eve ha 2 tef xhi t tondii he ie e, nd hus ' ane t a lt t us t D e i n D oc e s w iho r ti ton, a i por a l , wihoutme tng he biiy o e he s g um nt t ut esr c i nd m t nty t ei a s c fc c tons pr c nt W hie i i ,of c s tue t ta pa t c nno r p t f l ny pe ii ondii e ede . l ts our e, r ha ry a t ea he ul be tt of a Conta t when i f l t hol up is e of t ba gan, l fnd t t STAS' neis rc t ais o d t nd he r i i ha S e t lme tt s mmayj g n o teme n n o j72 i n tvi ae b isalg d b e c , ni e n o u r ud me t n h a i g f . s o t td y t le e r a h t i bec us t tal ge br c eve i i wer t be pr n, ca a e ha le d ea h, n f t e o ove nnotbe de emed a t o a f l e' of d t l aiur ' t STA S' pe f m a of t Cont a . Rano, 98 F. a 58 I i undiput d t tSTAS pa d S r or nce he rd 7 2d t 6. t s s e ha i Ant y/ a s ve a hundr d t a dola s i f s At mos,t n, STAS' br c i a hon cr m e r l e hous nd lr n ee . t he S ea h s pa ta one, nd STA S r m ansabl t e or et lc nsng pr son. ri l a e i e o nf c he ie i ovii D.I unci Reif nj tve le As I me i ntoned,Def ndantha r quese a or r r quii t t STAS so usng or e s e t d n de e rng ha tp i di s m i tng D e e nt s a c t t aldr w i . S s e na i f nda ' r hiec ur a ngs TAS s e ss mma yj d me ti i fv r ek u r u g n n t ao s on t s cli . The e e ss no pr ctca dif r nc be wee STA S' r que t f s hi am r xit a i l fe e e t n S e s or ummal y j d me td n i g ij n tv rle t Dee d n a d STAS' r q e tfrs mmayj d me to u g n e y n nu ci e eif o fn a t n Seus o u r ug n n isd caao yj d me tcam,wh c lh v ara y s i Iwilg a t Ih v e pan d my t e lrtr u g n li ih a e le d ad l rn . a e x lie rto aef rg a tn s mmayj d me tt S ain l o rn ig u r u g n o TASwi rs e tt teme n n o j72, n 1d t ep c o h a ig f . a d o h not r pe t t t di c s on he e. l s m pl r t r t m y pos ton t t t pr cie l ngua e a ha s us i r i y eie a e ii ha he e s a ge una guousy f vor Pl i ifs r a ng of t Co r c ,and STAS i en il t s ma y mbi l a s antf e di he nta t s tted o um r j udgme o t spoi . nt n hi nt E. A t orneys'Fees t Se ton 1 3 oft Cont a tr a asf l w s c i 3. he r c e ds olo . l t e of(i)a a tonorpr e ng i s e sulypr e ut b Owne n he vent sc ny ci oce di s ucc s f l os c ed y r aga ns A r hie t under t s A gr em e or a a r ul of t s r ce pr de i t c tc hi e nt s es t he e vi s ovi d pur ua t i,Ow ner s l be e il d t r c r a1 c t and e ns i l ng s nt o t ha l ntte o e ove 1 os s xpe es nc udi is a t ne f s i s h ac i orpr edi i s h am ount a t c tm a t tor ys' ee n uc ton oce ng n uc s he our y a j d era o a e du g e s n bl. S TAS rq e td s mmayj d me to ise t lme t of e , ndt p risag e t eis ei e u se u r u g n n t ni e n t e s a he a te r u d h su n t t i r pe tve bre s howe r att M a 24t hea i couns lf Pl ntf a ee wih my her es c i if ' , ve , he y h rng, e or ai if gr d t s g eto t a tefe is en e n tb rs le a ti j n t r , i nt a t i ds u ei si u g sin h t h e s s u e d o e e ov d t h s u cu e gve h t hs ip t s tl l s he ed f til Iwilt e or tkePl ntf sM oto unde a s mentwih r pec t t s c dul or ra . l her f e a ai if in r dvie t es t o hi is s ue. l . CONCLUSI V ON The l angua i j 7. of t Conta t una guousy fvor STAS' poston wih ge n 2 he rc mbi l a s S ii t r pe tt is abiiy t us t D e i D oc e s and 1 w il i s a Or de a i STA S' es c o t lt o e he sgn um nt , l s ue n der cl r ng S rght t us t e D e i . i o e hos s gns 1 wil as g a t S l lo rn TAS s mmay j d me t wi rs e t t u r u g n t ep c o h Dee ntsCountr l msale ng c i i rnge ntandbr c ofcontac (ot e e fnda ' e cai lgi opyrght nfi me ea h r t t he xtnt t br a of c r t Co t r ai i bas d on STA S' us or dis m i ton of t De i he e ch ontac un e cl m s e S e s e na i he sgn Doc nt) Reltdl 1 wil gants ume s. ae y, l r ummay j dgme i STAS' fver wih r pe t r u nt n s a t es ct o Dee d n ' rq e tf rij cierle .Atti t , wil a e S fn a ts e u s o nun tv eif h s i l l tk TAS' r q e tf ra tr e s me S e u s o ton y' f sa c t unde a s me . Fi l asli c t d a t he rng,lwilr e t sca e t ee nd oss r dvi e nt naly, ndia e t he a i l ef r hi s o Unied St tsM a sr eJ t ae gitat udge Robe tS. l f mediton. r Balou or ai The Clr oft Cour i dieced t s nd ace tfe c oft sM e or ndum Opi on e k he ts r t o e riid opy hi m a ni a t a co pa ng Or rt a1 pari ofr or nd he c m nyi de o 1 tes ec d. Ete ti ' dyoMa,02 ne dhs/ a f y21. r f NO K.M OO UNIIED STATES DI ' ' STRI J CT UDGE