The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America v. Bowes et al, No. 6:2011cv00040 - Document 37 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on April 20, 2012. (sfc)
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CL S OFFI U. Dl COtr ERK' CE 8. :X J w< ATL YNCHBUR V Q A .. ' I THE UNI N TED STATESDI STRI COIRT CT J FOR TH E W ESTERN D I STRI OF V I NI CT RGI A LYNCHBURG DI SI VI ON THE GUARDI LI I UM NCE COMPANY OF AN FE NS AMERI CA, . ', x. u FIED . L APR 22 2 1 22 ,( . J Sy. . . k.$ ,J ERK .u .-. ( ' ); ; . . DiPt C ' i l RK N o. 11 6; -cv-00040 Pl nt ai z M EMORANDUM OPI ON NI J UDGE NORMAN K .M OON DARLENEBOW ES, ORA W .ROACH,and DEVm N A. ROsE, De nd s fe ant. Pl ntf fl a Com pl nt f I er eader underRul 22 of t Feder Rul ofCi l ai if ied ai or nt pl e he al es vi Pr e ur,se ng t rs ve a dipue ov r $1 0 i i ua e polc prc d (d oc d e e ki o eol s t e 5,00 n nsrnc iy o ee s çhe t S oc e s',whih be a pa bl t s me atrte d t o Da e Sc t Bo s(he t ed' pr ) c c me ya e o o one fe h eah f nil ot we t G c de f'. n e i tntdiput t ns o t vai t ofa Be t ay Desgn to cha re e n ) nsa s e ur n he ldiy nekir i ain/ nge Fom (t n For ' alge y sg d b De e e on Nove e 3 201 j telv n da r i ge m' le dl ine y c d nt cha ) mb r , 0, us e e ys be o e hi d a h. O n M a ch 1 201 ,t Co the d a b nc ti l a whi h a li t r t d pa t s fr s e t r 4, 2 he ur l e h ra , t c l n e ese ri e ofe e t si on Att c cl i oft b nc ti l Iga e t e p r i st n d ys t s m i a f r d e tm y. he on uson he e h ra , v h a te e a o ub t ny a dii alr l va t e d nc As e a ne be ow,lfnd t a t Cha e Fo m i va i ,a d i d ton e e n vi e e. xpl i d l i h t he ng r s ld n t l uly cha awf l nged t benefci i oft Pr he i ares he oceeds . Thi c s i popel wihi t s be tmatrj idcin oft Cour unde 2:U. C. s ae s r ry t n he u jc te urs ito he t r S. j 1 31 b c us t e c s i iaesa fde a qu si u erTil Ioft Empl eRe ie nt 3 , e a e h a e mplc t e r l e ton nd te he oye tr me I o Se u iy Ac of1 (t SA' , U. C. 1 01 1 4. nc me c rt t 974 t ERl ' 29 S. jj 0 -1 4 ) 1 Fi ngsofFact . ndi Asrquie b Rul 5 a o te Fe rlRulsofCi lPrc dur,a ba e o my e rd y e 2() f h dea e vi o e e nd s d n opporuniy t r vi exhi t heart i ony,and ass s t cr biiy oft w ines esatt t t o e ew bis, estm es he edi lt he t s he bench ti ,lm aket f l i fndi off t ral he olow ng i ngs ac : 1 . De e n wa e pl d b D o on Br . t r i tng Co. l a i ur d u rThe c de t s m oye y ds os Ex e m na i , nc. nd ns e nde Gu r a Lie I ua eCompa (r u r a ' gou lf i urnc polc numbe G429 adin f ns rnc ny E adin' r p ie ns a e iy ) r 286 (he6 iy',whihpr d fragou lf i ua ebe fti t a ntof$1 0 00. t To1c ' c ovies o r p ie nsrnc nei n he mou ) 5,00. 2. Decedent el ed t enr li t Polcy on Augus 1 2008 and lsed hi w ie,D a l ect o ol n he i t , it s f rene Bo ($ s'a t prmar be efci y. wes $ Bowe' s he i y n i ar ) 3. De e n a Bowe h dad ghe, vi Ros (E e',whoi no a a t c de t nd s a au tr De n e : ' Ros ) s w n dul. De e nt a Bo e s pa a e i o a o Augus of2008,a lve a r snc t t c de nd w s e r t d n r r und t nd i d pa t i e ha tm e,alhough t neverfnalzed a di ce. i t hey i i vor W hie sepa t f om Bow es,D ecede ca ed on a r atons p wih N ora W .Roac l ra ed r nt ni el i hi t h ($ c ' ;he plnne t o da mar $ h' t y a d o ne y ry. Roa ) 6 . On o a ut Oc obe 28 2 r bo t r , 009,De e n w a di g e w ih a s rous f r of l g c de t s a nos d t ei om un cancerand began r vi t ea m ent ecei ng r t . On o a utSep e be 1 2 1 De e n t a l d w i Roa h t t Phia l hi , PA r bo t m r , 0 0, c de t r ve e t h c o he l de p a l i oft CancerTr m entCent sofAm erca. ocaton he eat er i 8. A fer neary t m ont of teat ent on or about Oct t l wo hs r m , ober 29, 2010, Decedent was r eas fom t Phiadel a Cancer Tr t el ed r he l phi ea ment Cent , and he r ur er et ned hom e by tai t rn o Lyn hbu g, , r hew a lvi w ih Roa h. c r VA whe e s i ng t c Accor ng t physi an' r t i t days bef e D ecedent w as r eas fom t di o ci s epors, n he or el ed r he Phiadel a Ca l phi ncer Trea mentCe er he w asalrtand orent t per , pl and tm e,and t nt , e i ed o son ace, i alhough hi m edi condii had br t s cal ton oughton perods of depr si and s el l ener i es on ever y ow gy ear ir t week,hi physi an deem ed hi m emor t be w ihi nor allm is ànd hi i ght le hat s ci s y o tn m i t s nsi a j me tt be f r Ad to ly,a t s tme De e n wa a e t a di wal nd udg n o ai. diinal t hi i , c de t s bl o, nd d, k i ndepe ndenty,us t r toom w ihoutas sance,and bat hi s f l e he esr t sit he m el 1 0. Afe De e n r t r d hom e he w a t ki - h d a l as be n pr s r b d a wi t r c de t e u ne , s a ng -or a t e t e e c i e de varet of s em ent and m edi i , i udi l g t et of Oxycodone, a nar i iy uppl s catons ncl ng om abl s cotc pai ler. nkil Viky Was ($ ton',De e e ' sse,c me t vii De d ta Roa h o or c ton $ s ' c d nts itr a o st ce en nd c n Wa ) a utOc obe 30, 0,a s a d un i N o m b r5, 0. bo t r 201 nd t ye tl ve e 201 12. W at on t tfed t t Decedentw as ver excied t s her and ver s p durng her s es ii ha y t o ee , y har i vii. A l gh s rou l il De d ntwa a e t c r on c st t hou e i s y l, ce e s bl o ary onve s tons i e lgi y a c ok r a i nt li bl nd o f her. or Durng W a son' s a on N ovember3,2010,t diput Change For w ascom pl ed. i t s t y, he s ed m et 1 4. W at waspr enta t tfed t s s Decedentsi t Change For ,alhough son es nd esii hat he aw gn he m t s di notsi t Change For asa w ines he d gn he m t s. 15. The Change For nam esRos and Roach ast new pri ar benefci i oft Polc , m e he m y i ares he i y dipl c n Bowes I pur t t e il Ros a d Roa h t 7 a 30 oft Polc Pr e ds s a ig . t pors o ntte e n c o 0% nd % he i y oc e , r pe i y. es ctvel Ros cam et vi tD ecedenton ora e o si boutN ovem ber8,2010, atwhih tm e Decedentw as c i abl t wal and speak,al tw ih som e difculy. eo k bei t fi t A sm e to d,b t tm e Ros a rve t Cha e Fo m h ale y be n fled ou a n i ne y he i e r i d, he ng r ad r ad e il t nd De e nts n me h d be n sgne Ros j tha t tl i he pes li or ton i t c de ' a a e i d; e us d o 5l n r rona nf mai n he Benet ir I or aton s i whi s di on oraboutN ove ber9, 2010. k a y nf m i ecton, ch he d m 18. Ros di not see who sgned Decedents nam e t t Change For , a s di not e d i ' o he m nd he d dicus t Change For w ih D ecede . l s har ed any s pi ons aboutwho sgned t s s he m t nt f he bor us ci i he docum ent s di notr s t e conce nst D ecedentoranyone el durng hers ay. , he d aie hos r o se i t Decedent s condii r dl wor ened durng Ros s wee l s ay, and Decedent ' ton api y s i e' k-ong t s c umbe t hi il es on N o m be 1 201 uc d o s ln s ve r 4, 0. 20. Folow i Decedents deat Guar an r ved a Gr Lie Cl m For f om each l ng ' h, di ecei oup f ai m r Def endant The fr tCl m For was da ed N ovem ber 15,2010,and com pl ed by Bowes;t . i s ai m t et he se cond was dat N ovem ber 29, 201 and c plt by Roach; and t t r was dat ed 0, om e ed he hid ed Novem be 30,2010,and com pl ed by Rose. r et 21. l t days a weeksf l ng Decedentsdea h,t pari w aged varousl ba tes n he nd olowi ' t he tes i egal tl a ai to a t r Bo sc t se t v iiy ofDe e e ' wil( c i no die ty a g ns ne nohe . we on e td he aldt c d nts l whih s t r c l t is e i t sp oc e ng ,a t p risdiputd who s d r ev De e n ' a h sa rhe s u n hi r e di ) nd he a te s e houl ec ie c de ts s e ûe wascr emat ed. 22. Becaus of t e a ot ongoi diput i vi t D ef e hes nd her ng s es nvol ng he endant t s a e s, wo epar t me ra sr ie weeh l f rDe e e t Bo sh l o e a dRo c a d Ro ej it h l moil evc s r ed o c d n . we ed n , n a h n s onl ed y t ot . he her 23. Appar l belevi t s w oul be r vi 70% of t Polcy Pr enty i ng hat he d ecei ng he i oceeds Ros e , bor owed m oney fom Roach t pay f cos of Decedent' cr aton, mem orals vi and r r o or t s em i i er ce, r a e e pe e . Ro e t l Ro c t t s e woul be r pa d o e Ro e r c i d he po to o elt d x ns s s o d a h ha h d e i nc s e e ve r r i n f t i ur he ns ance Pr oceeds . 2 4. Pu s a t t s a e me t Ro c pad s me $3400. i a t ne ' f e , whi r u nt o hi gr e n , a h i o , 00 n tor ys e s ch i lde $19 00 t s tl a d b t t De e n ' at n ys came t tDe e e ' et t ncu d ,00. o e te e t ha c de ts tor e li d ha c d nts sae owed t hem f prorunr at r es a i , $15 0 f ar t i rf e i a tcpai oft or i el ed epr ent ton ,00.0 or e ane e n n ii ton he 4 di e over Decedent s r ai ,and cerai ot f t t Lynchbur Cicui Court Thar sput ' em ns t n her ees o he g r t , p Fu r lHo ,a d t Ly hbu gNe & Adv nc .Al t d,he es t a $4,88. ne a me n he nc r ws a e l ol t s ums otl 0 00. 25. On Januar 29, 2011 Guar an r ved cor es y , di ecei r pondence f om Bow es s tng f t her r eti orh poston t D ec ii hat edentwas l l unabl t execut t ChangeFor . egaly eo e he m 26. Fe rng t p sbiiy of m u tpl la lte ,G u r a fl d t s i e pl a r a ton t a i he os i lt li e i biii s a di n ie hi nt r e de c i o r vet contover y overt Polcy Pr esol he r s he i oceeds. 27. On De e r 1 20l1 Gua di de ostd $1 , . , whih i l d t e Polc c mbe 6, , r an p i e 539862 c ncude h iy Pr oceedspl t applcabl i er t w ih t Cour' r sr us hen- i e nt es, t he ts egit y. 28. Havi m et t r r ent f a Rul 22 i er eader acton, G uar an has been ng he equiem s or e nt pl i di dimis da dic age fom t c ea adiitrse sa h de .( edoc tn 3 . s se nd s h r d r he as s sneetd tke ol r Se ke o. 0) 29. Gua da ha r q tdt ber i ure f ra t n ys f e a c t,t al $169 0 r in s e uese o emb s d o tor e ' e s nd oss ot i , 2.0, ng whi i as t be pai outoft Polcy Pr ch t ks o d he i oceeds. 30. Page 12 oft If i ur he ie ns ance pl Guar an adm i ser pr dest : an di nit s ovi hat Yo (he polc de)de i who g t t i ua e i you di. You s d ut iyhol r cde es he nsrnc f e houl have nam ed your benef i y on your enr l ent f m . Y ou can cha your k ar olm or nge be e i a y a a y tm e by gi ng yo e o r wrte n i e unl s you' e n fcir t n i vi ur mplye it n otc , e s v assgned t i ur i he ns ance. But t c he hange won' t ke ef ect untl your emplyer ta f i o gi you writ confr aton oft change.1 ves ten im i he 31 . l i unc e rf o t e de c now be o e t Cou t h n Gua di n r c i d t e Cha ge t s l a r m he vi n e f r he r w e r a e e ve h n For and whet D ecedent s empl senthi writ confrmaton oft c m her ' oyer m ten i he hange bef he ore di d. Ho e e ,gi e t tt e e r i tt Cha e Fo m woul ha be n maie i Nove r8, e w v r v n ha h a les he ng r d ve e ld s mbe 2010,aferRos sgned i,i i unlkel t D ecedents em pl t e i t t s i y hat ' oyer w oul have had t tm e t d he i o s hi wrten confr aton oft change bef e November 1 , 201 end m it im i he or 4 0. 1Th f ld umen h no b ens bmitd t t Co qme ey on paa a fom pa 1 i quoe i a e ul oc t as t e u te o he ur r l e rgr ph r ge 2 s td n prorm o i fl b Gua d a i ton i y r i n. ed Il DI . SCUSSI ON E SA i s l as t any pr sons r di t change i benef i i . However C ERI s ient o ovii egar ng he n k ares , wheeERI i slntfdealc mmonlw a ple.'Su u tBankv AenaL# I s Co.251 r SA s ie , e r o a p is' nTr s . t n. , F.Sup 2 1 1 2 ( D.Va.200 ( ii Pho x M u .LfeI s Co.v Adams 30 F.3d p. d 282, 29 E. 3) ctng eni t / n . ' . , 55 56 (t Ci.1 ). Fe ealc mmo Iw a plesi plc ofsae lw be a eERI A 4, 2 4h r 994) d r o n a p i n a e tt a c us S c ti o oft brad te espe mpinprviinsi t lw.Se 29U. C.j 1 4 a onans ne he o es xprs re to o so n he a e S. 1 4() ($Tj prviinsoft ss c pe a sbc ptrlIoft sc pe s l s re a a ( he o so ( hi ub ha tr nd u ha e l hi ha tr hal upesde ny nd alStt lwsi ofrast y ma no orhee he rlt t a y e o ebe ftpln ....) 1 ae a ns a he y w ra r eae o n mplye nei a '. ' Th , ç he Supr m e Cou t a t Fourh Cic t ha e a horze f d r c urs t de l p us E t e r nd he t r ui v ut i d e e al o t o ve o f alcomm on lw ofri sand oblgatonsunderEm sA -egul ed pl ' Adams,30 F. at eder a ght i i r at ans.' 3d 5 ( t Ci.1 4) ( tton o te . Alh h t Fo t Cic tha i c t d t twh n 62 4 h r 99 ciai mitd) t oug he urh r ui s ndia e ha e pos bl f al comm on l s d be çconsit acr t cicuis' Si si e, eder aw houl ç sent oss he r t s' nger v. Bl t ack t Dek rCor ,9 F.d 1 1 3 ( h Ci.1 2) t Cou tma l t sae1w Eo g de c e p. 64 2 449, 45 4t r 99 , he r y ook o tt a t ui t gt)fd r -ommo lw a l i, Davsv Ad phi Co 'sCop.475F.Su 2d.60 is e ealc n-a nayss' i . el a mmcn r , ' pp. 0, 60 ( D. 200 ( ttonomitd) 4 W. Va. 7) ciai te . l a di e ove t valdiy ofa f aly vald Change For ,t bur ofper uasi n sput r he i t aci l i m he den s on m us r t on t part hopi t s asi t t docum ent W er i ot t es he y ng o et de ha . e t herwie, ERI s SA a m i sr tons woul b una e t s el r l o t pa e wor t y r e ve on a d l ba i d nita i d e bl o af y e y n he p r k he ec i ai s s y w ihout underaki t t ng t ough and i ac i e i tgaton. hor mpr tcabl nves i i Rie v O hc o c . f e f S vc me r Gr pLfcIs,26 F.d 1 1 47( 0hCi. ). erie mbes' ou / n . 0 3 240, 2 1 t r2001) ' The i er t pari ' pl ngs ar not det l , a t e pa te d d not sr t r t e nt estd tes eadi e aied nd h ri s i tuc u e h bench t i pr ral oceedi ar ngs ound ditnct l t i . For cl iy,l have gr s i egal heores art ouped t va ous he ri 6 alegatons and t i t tm ony i o what i my vi ar t mosts bl cat i of l l i ral es i nt ,n ew, e he ensi e egores egal cl m s. ai A. Bowes' A legaton ofFraud s l i l Bo e ' Re pons t t l e pl a e Co pl i ,s sa e t t d he De e n wa n w s s s e o he nt r e d r m a nt he t t d ha s t c de t s no c pa e ofma ng a de i i ns on t da e t Be fc a y Desgna i Cha For wa t a bl ki ny c so he t he ne i i r i ton nge m s s osdl sgne ,t tfa ma b ivol d a d ( c a d Ros)s d ha t pov upp e y i d ha rud y e n ve n Roa h n e houl ve o r e ( c de t sg dtefr a k w wha h wa doi ' Bowe ' Res !3. De e nj ine h om nd ne t e s ng. ' ss p. I accor n dancew ih t pr t he eceptt Ilber l consr pr se pl ngs e. ,Eri n v. hat i aly tue o eadi , g. ckw Par s 551U. 8 9 ( 07)Ira Bo ssRepo et a sr a l s t v reisoffa d. du , S. 9, 4 20 , e d we ' s ns o set teat wo aite ru Fis,by sai t tt a ves pate çhoul h ve t pr e ( c e )sg d t fr ' rt ttng ha he d re ris ç d a o ov De ed nt ine he oms s ' Bowes s ugges s Decedentact l di not sgn t Cha For ,and t i t s eonet ualy d i he nge m hat ns ead, om pr um abl Roac f ged Decedents sgna ur Second,by cl m i t t adver e pari es y h- or ' i t e. ai ng hat he s tes s dha t prveta tDe e n)k w wh th wa d ngr Bowess get ta Roa ho houl ve o o h t t c de t ne a e s oi ' l ' ug ss h t c r Ro ee re u s xetd nduei l nc ove De e en. ( dic s mor t oug y i Pat1lA. , nfue e r c d t As sused e hor hl n r l. 2. ija,t s sae ntc as b r d t alge t tDe e n wa notc tn,a wa nb hi ttme an lo e ea o le ha c de t s ompee t nd s t rf euna et c ng t be t aisoft Polc hi et. heeor bl o ha e he nekire he iy msl) 1. For y ger ç ti e e e t r t t i t a e e ofa Gd i r r a i hi fa i n pr s e bu ç s l m n a y ha , n he bs nc l uc a y eltons p r ud s ot e um d t mus be es abls .. ..' Bat v. Unied St es, 1 F. 953, 954 ( t Ci.1 49) l t t ihed ' han t at 73 2d 4h r 9 . n V igi a,f ger i bot 6a crme and a fagr s esof faud, (nd)t bu de gs upo t r ni or y s h d i l ant peci r a he r n il n he ( ry ma ng t c r lt pov t tc age by cla a c n e de e. Ve r v pat ki he hage o r e ha h r er nd oge t vi nc ' nto . ' ClncfedCo Cop. 1 S. 2d25 2 1( 1 8)(iainomitd) i h l al r , 03 E. 4, 6 Va. 95 ctto te . The flngs and t tm ony demonsr e a l t t non-rvi i catons t t ii es i tat t eas wo t i al ndi i hat he sgna ur on t Change For was nott Decede ' I t end,how ever t i t e he m he nts. n he , hese i catons ndi i ar i uf i entt car y Bowes' bur e ns fci o r s den. Fis,Ros ( sa t gan fna ily i t Cha eFom i uph d)a rse t rt e who tnds o i i ncal f he ng r s el dde sd he Ch ng Fo m sgn t e i a pro d posto r m a ki t a s di n b i ve t sgna u e t a e r i a ur n i r e ii n, e r ng h t he d ot ele he i t r o be her f her s Ros D ep. 16:-6, Aug. 25, 2011. Rose s a es t her f her' genui at ' . e 1 2 t t hat at s ne si t e i çnot ng buta bi D and a bunch ofs i es,buti com es outper ectever tme he gna ur s E hi g crbbl t f yi does i.'Rose D ep.16: 2-18. Evi l t si t e on t Change For does notcom por t' 1 denty, he gna ur he m t wih Ros s r l ton ofher f t ' sgnat e. Tr 38: 1 2;Dep.16: t e' ecolec i a hers i ur . 1 -1 4-6. Ros sood by e t her deposton durng her bench ti t tm ony bef e t s Cour. Addii l atti ,Bowes ii i ral esi or hi t tonaly, r al of e ed varous paper fr i work cont ni D ecedents si ur , and s cont ai ng ' gnat es he ends t t e hat hos sgnat esdo notm a ch t ton t Change Fonn. i ur t ha he Des t Rose' and Bow es' belef ,l obs ve t t si ur on t Change For pie s s is er hat he gnat e he m do s a a (tIatt te unri d e )t b smia t kno e mplr ofDec d n ' e ppe r a e s o h tane ye o e i lr o wn xe a s e e ts s g t r Fu t r e c i na u e. rhe mor , omm on s ns s pors t e c l i t t a pe s lke De e e t e e up t h onc uson ha r on i c d n, weakened by t sr ns ofa year l t m i il s,m i fnd hi hand unabl t r oduce he tai -ong er nal lnes ght i s e o epr an exac l t cal si ur Ros s belef t ef e, does not pr a f ger Absent t ty ypi gnat e. e' i , her or ove or y. he s ppo tof s m e hi lke t t s i o y of a h nd ii g e r,1 c nno c cl de t t t u r o t ng i he e tm n a wrtn xpe t a t on u ha he sgnat e on t ChangeFor i notDecedents. i ur he m s ' Second, durng her deposton,Ros t tfed t varous m aleas i ii e esii o i f ance s w undi t ul ng he e xecuton ofDecedentsw il Ros cl med t t fr tand onl tm e s sa Decedent swil i ' l. e ai hat he is y i he w ' l wa whe Roa h i ule i t p i of ( ch'lc s n c ç ld t o rnt f Roa s omputr'a trDe e n h p s d a y p e ' fe c de t ad ase wa . 2Ros wa de os di c eci wiht pates dip eove De de tsw il e s p e n onn ton t he ri ' s ut r ce n ' l. De l 21 p. 7: -22;s e alo Tr 36 e s . -37. Ros c a m st a t he knowl dge Dec d ntç d n i e e li h t o r e , ee é ha o d a a utt wil ' De 1 11 2. I he t tm o b or t sCou t Ros r t r t d t tt wil bo he l' p. 8: -1 n r esi ny ef e hi r, e eie a e ha he l w asdone t day ahe herf herdi Tr 36: 0-11. M or he r at ed. . 1 eover Ros cl m st when Roach , e ai hat prne t wil Ro esw Roa h f geonewinessna ( itn Bur )a Roa h' s itd he l, s a c or t s' me Krsia ns nd c s on Da d fr t ohe winessna ( rsJ so . Tr 3 1 -1 Dep.1 21 vi oge he t r t s' me Chi ohntn) . 6:0 9; 9: -22. Ros e f her cl m s t t Roach dcaled Krs i on t phone and t d her thi i whatl' goi t urt ai ha d l itna he ol t ss m ng o do, and t n Davi alo caled Chrs and s d,( put yournam e s i anyone as ,you si ' he d s l i ai 1 o f ks gned i.' Dep.20: t'' 4-8. l t sat f he t ement Ros m ade i herdeposii and atti ar accept astue, s e n ton ral e ed r t t cas Roach i a ver bad lghtby demonsr i t tRoach partci t i and i hen hey t n y i tatng ha i pa ed n, ndeed per hapsor t a ed,varousf audul actvii i an efor t acquie whats d coul fom ches r t i r ent i tes n f to r houl d r Decedents s al es a e. Att i ,Roach vehem enty deni any s ' m l tt ral l ed uggesi t s soughtt ton hat he o f ge eiherDecede ' w ilort Change For . or t nts l he m Bae onl o co lci t tmo pet nig t t sgnaueson De e ntswil( sd y n ntitng esi ny rai n o he i tr c de ' l a doc n ta i n die ty a is i t i tn pr e digs,lc nn c l et tRo c ume t h t s ot rcl t sue n he nsa t oc e n ) a ot oncud ha a h al o s r el endeavor t f ge Decedent' si ur on t Change For . Ros t tted s epa at y ed o or s gnat e he m e esii t s wasnotpre on November 3,201 when t Change For was si , a s di hat he sent 0, he m gned nd he d not s a clrik a i f om her f her a eek ny a t ton r at bout whtr or t whom he woul lke t Polc e o d i he iy pr eds t go i he wer t di Even i l wer t as um e t Roach cons r t f siy oce o f e o e. f e o s hat pied o al f De e n ' w il3t tf c d s no s y a hi s g fc nty pr a i ab tt e lgii a y of c de t s l, ha a t oe t a nyt ng i nii a l ob tve ou h e tm c t Cha ge For . Bo hast r or notm e he b d n t p ovet a a f ge y oc u r d. he n m wes he ef e t r ur e o r h t or r c r e 3Iobs ve wi er , t de i ng, h tp i i e ofr s diaa mi tma s c a a s mpin i sbl hout cdi ta rncpls e ju c t gh ke u h n s u to mposi e , gi n t a t va i t oft wils e st ha ar a y b n ltga e a t cic tc tl ve . ve h t he ldiy he l e m o ve le d ee ii t d t he r ui our e l Un Ijue e due nl nc U ndue i l nfuence,t i a s esoffaud,and i mus be pr oo, s peci r t t oved by cl and convi ng ear nci e d nc . Davs 47 F.Su 2d.a 604 (ii Fre y 1e Cram Cop.v Bec n n 597 vie e i, 5 pp. t ctng indl c e r . ke S. 2d 34,38 ( .200 l a 20 efr t rs v a smia dipue i a t rde t e E. Va 4:. n 07 fot o eole i lr s t n nohe ahb d c n - f be t i r c s I a pt d t Si t Cic t s a r c t u ha ge o - ne k a y a e, do e he x h r ui' pp oa h o ndue i fue ce nl n , a nou e i Tise v Ge r Motr Cop. 227F. 7 ,7 4 ( h Ci.2000. Th Sit n nc d n n ly . neal os r , 3d 00 0 6t r ) e xh Cicui' Ti e undue i l r ts nsly nfuence des i i pr crpton oceedsasf l s: olow Undue i l nfuence i gener l defned as i l s aly i nfuence t i sufk intt over hat s t e o power volton,desr f ee agenc a i pelt gr or t ac agai t t gr ors ii toy r y, nd m he ant o t ns he ant ' i i i and fee w il A n i vi ' i luence i undue w hen i r tai a nclnaton r l. ndi duals nt s t esr ns t t or fom di ng ofpr t i accor esat r sposi opery n dance w ih t t t or' own w ihes t he esat s s a dj n udgme sa s ttt tewihe o j dgme sofa he. The u e nt nd ubsiues h s s r u nt not r ndu i l nc mus s o rowe a s bug t temi ofatsaorast d toyt ntue e t o vep r nd u j ae h nd ett o esr he t t ors f ee agency and m ake t t a orexpr anot r' w ilr hert hi esat ' r he estt ess he s l at han s orherow n. A s howi ofm er m otve oropporuniy t exer exces ve contol ng e i t t o t si r ove anot i not enough t m ake outa cl m of undue i l e;r her t r her s o ai nfuenc at , he i l nce mustac ualy be exert eiher prort or att tm e oft executon nfue t l ed, t i o he i he i oft r e he elvantdocum ent Courshave l . t ooked ata num beroff orst det m i act o er ne whe he und i fue e ha be n e re i a gi n c s i l ng t ph i a t r ue n l nc s e xe td n ve a e, nc udi he ys c l and m ent condii of t benef t whe her t benef or was gi any al ton he ac or; t he act ven dii er t advi wih r pectt t diput tans i t Eunnat al ' s nt es ed ce t es o he s ed r acton; he E ur ness' of t gi t benefci y' r e i pr i t beneft and t benefci y' he û; he i ar s ol n ocurng he i he i ar s poss i oft docum entconf rng t be i;coer ve ort eat ng ac son esson he er i he neft ci hr eni t t part of t benet i y, i udi efbrt t r t ct cont t bet n t he he k ar ncl ng l s o esri ac wee he b ne a t r a hi r l tve ;c tol o t b ne a t ' fna i a f is b t e e f c o nd s e a i s on r f he e f c or s i nc al f a r y h benefci y;and t nat e and l h oft r atons p bet i ar he ur engt he el i hi ween t benetci y he i ar and t benef t he ac or. f a 70 -05(nenalciai sa q ttonsomitd) i pli ye de t t e mi to #. t 4 itr tton nd uoai te .As s anl vi n,he xa nain i û hi y f c -n e i one ' a gi e t e ( ub l a oAen c ve tw a i whi h un e s & ghl a t i t nsve , nd v n h d te nd a ' s o r ys n c du il nfuence m ay be e cied,i m us oûen bepr xer s t t oven by m eansofcicum s antalevi r t i dence.' 1 a 'd t 705. A sIi cat i my fndi off ,whie Decedentwas no doubtw eakened i hi fnal ndi ed n i ngs act l n si wee oflf he was r ona y l d and abl t conduc hi ow n afaisup untlver neart ks ie, eas bl uci eo t s fr i y he 10 e d. D e e e ' r pi se p,a fn de lne i he lh,whi h afe t d hi l i t a m e a n c d nts a d, t e nd i al c i n a t c f c e s uc diy nd nt l capaciy,di notoccur untls etm e aûerN ovem ber 3,201 t dat t tt Change For t d i om i 0, he e ha he m wassgned.Furt m or gi t D ecedentand Roach' r atonshi l t atl tt yea s, i her e, ven hat s el i p ased eas wo r and Decedents r a i hi wih Bow esdurng t tm e s st have been quie acrm oni , ' eltons p t i hat i eem o t i ous i s e r as na y S t r ' f De e n t ha e m a Roa h a Ros hi be efci i ,i t e ms e o bl i u al or c de t o v na ' de c nd e s n i ares n le of hi es r iu s tanged wie. A lhough i r ai uncl w he her and t w ha ext Roach f t t em ns ear t o t ent exered contolover Decedent sfnanci afais and wha r e Roach act l had i pr i t r ' i al f r , t ol ualy n ocurng t benet ,t ot f or t t f a fndi ofno undue i l he it he her act s end o avor i ng ntuence. B. Decedents Com pet ' ency Asm entoned above,Bow es' cl m t t adver e pari s d have t pr t t i s ai hat he s tes houl o ove hat he Decedent Eknew whathe w as doi 'can al o be r t alege t D ecedentw as notl l t ng' s ead o l hat egaly compet t efecta change i t benefci y undert Polc ent o f n he i ar he iy. To be capabl of efectng a vald change of benet i y a per on shoul have e f i i k ar s d cl ness of m i and m em or s fci t know t nat e oft propery f ear nd y ufi ent o he ur he t or w hi he i aboutt nam e a benet i y,t nat e oft actwhi he i a ch s o k ar he ur he ch s boutt o pef m,t na a i niis o t e who aet naur obecs ofhi ror he mes nd de tte f hos r he t al j t s bount hi r atons p t y; s el i hi owar t m , and t cons ds he he equences of hi act s , uni l ntuenced by a m a eraldel i ny t i usons. MerpoltnL@ Is Co.v Hal,9F. p. 5 5 4 ( Md.1 )( tngTa or to ia n . . l Sup 24 60, 6 D. 998 quoi yl v Unie Stts 11 F.Su 1 1 ( . Ar 1 :.Heea i Bowe ha tebude , . td ae, 3 pp. 43, 48 W D. k. 953 r gan, s sh r n snc c rs ha e t e a f de a pr s p i n o me alc pa iy i t i s r nc c nt x .' i e ou t v t d e r l e um to f nt a c t n he n u a e o e t' not Rie v Of e o Se ie mb s'Gr p L# Is,260 F. 1 , 1 48 (0t Ci.2 ) c . hc f rvc me er ou n. 3d 240 2 1 h r 001 ( ole tn c s s . c lcig a e ) The sat m ent Ros m ade i her deposii do supportt concl i t Decedent te s e n ton he uson hat e bied a gr w eaknes of t m i i t days bef e hi deat , and Ros s ood by t e xhi t eat s he nd n he or s h e t hos 11 s a e nt a t i l Fo i t nc ,Ros sa e t t durng t we k s s ntw ih hi b or t t me s t ra . r nsa e e t t d ha i he e he pe t m ef e Dee ntdid,De d ntd l ta td lk afveyerol 'De 7:1 -1 t ttll wa vey cde e ce e t mos ce ie i - a- ds p. 3 4,ha sit s r a ' difc tt c fiul o ommu c t a hi ,' p.7:1 -1 t téllsmi stwasno t r,' p.7:8, niae nyt ng'De 4 5,ha sh i nd e thee'De 1 a dtatç us di tkno whehe hewa c ngorg ng. De 1 11 2.Thede osto n h ç t dn' w t r hej s omi oi ' p. 5: -1 ' p iin i r pl t w ih s h d c i tons of De e n ' s ve e p iala m e t lde e i a i The s e e e t uc es rp i c de ts e r hysc nd n a t ror ton. f egoi il tat w ha was no doubt a hearbr ng fnalf days f D ecedents f iy or ng lusr es t t eaki i ew or ' am l m ember t be wih hi . so t m l poranty, how ever Ros w as onl abl t t tf t her f her' st e of m i m t l , e y e o es iy o at s at nd begi ng w ih her ar i on N ovember 8,2010,s e fve daysaferDecedenti pur ed t nni t rval om i t s port o have si gned t Change For . Decedents physci , hi sit , Roach,and Roa s s a1 he m ' i ans s s er ch' on 1 i cat t tD ecedentwas quie compet i medi el aûerhi r eas f om t Phiadel a ndi e ha t ent m at y s el e r he l phi Cance Tr m entCent . A l pa i agr t D ecede det i at i t tm e bet r eat er l rtes ee hat nt eror ed n he i ween hi s r ease and hi deat t weeks l er butBowes hasnotm ether bur t show t Decedent el s h wo at , den o hat l acked t capaciy t execut t Change For on N ovem ber3,2010. he t o e he m C. Com plancew ih t Pl s Term s i t he an' As il t a ed i m y fndi of f , t t m s of t Pl i ca e t a cha i lusr t n i ngs act he er he an ndi t hat nge n benefci y doesnott ef ectuntlt polcyhol sem pl gi wrten notce confr i i ar ake f i he i der' oyer ves it i im ng t c nge bu lfnd t te n i De e n ' e pl ye di no gi t r q r d w rte no i e he ha , t i ha ve f c de ts m o r d t ve he e uie it n tc , t docti ofs t i com plance gi l efec t t Change For . he rne ubsantal i ves egal f t o he m The conceptofs t i complance i anot t toff alcom m on l applcabl ubsantal i s her ene eder aw i e t t i t cas A pary seeki t pr com plance w ih t t m s of a pl ca s o he nsant e. t ng o ove i t he er an n how s sa ta c inc by de nsrtng t tçhe i ue $1 e de e hi orhe i e tt ubtnil ompla e mo tai ha i ns rd: ( ) vi nc s s t r ntn o ma t c ng a d ( atmpst efcuaet c ngeb u ra ngpostveaci whih ke he ha e n 2) te t o fe t t he ha y ndetki ii ton c 12 i f ra I a tc lpur s s m ia t t a ton r quie b t c nge ofbe t i r p ovii s o l pr c i a po es i l r o he c i e r d y he ha ne k a y r sons oftep iy.' Ada ,3 F.3da 5 Alhou Sll sa ta c mpla ei ls t na t l h olc '' ms 0 t 64. t gh tsubtnil o inc s e s ha cua c mpla c ,...ghe r e... ves efc t teis rd' i e whe ta itn i ce r' I o in e t ) ul gi l) fe t o h n ue s ntnt n h t ne t s la. d ' at565. I Ada , t Fo t Cic t d e e t de ed nt e pl e t ha s t ntal n ms he urh r ui e m d he c e m oye o ve ubs a i l y com pled wih hi pln' r r ent i changi hi desi ed benefci y wher t f m he i t s a s equiem s n ng s gnat i ar e he or s it d was t cor ect f m ,al t i ubm te he r or bei ncom pl e, and t f l et hen olowed- wih hi i ur up t s ns ance p ovie ,whih f ld t gi e f c t t c nge I a 5 -6 I St ams Tr deAs ' r d r c aie o ve fe t o he ha . d t 64 5. n e hè a sn 1 1Lo gs r me 'As ' ,( - O)Be e sTr s Fun ( - O)v Bowman,247F.d nt n ho e ns sn AFL CI nht u t 4 AFL CI . 3 1 ,1 4n. ( hCi.20 )t c tdeemi dt tt de e n e oye ' c mplto ofa 81 8 * 4t r 01,he our tr ne ha he c de t mpl es o ein f m f de h b e s whih na d hi wiea b ntkir wa no sbsa ta c mpla e or or at enht, o me s f s e f ay, s t u tnil o inc be a eun rtepetne tpln,hee o eha t c mplt ac ngeo nfcal or I c us de h ri n a t mplye d o o ee ha fbe e i yf m. n s r ,t pu pos s of t t f m s w e e dif r n ,a t wie c d no s ow s t nta ho t he r e he wo or r fe e t nd he f oul t h ubsa i l c inc .1 Andi Su u tBan v AenaLfeIs Co.251F.Sup 2d 1 1 3( D. ompla e d n nTr s k . t n. , p. 282, 29 E. Va 20 ) tec ur i a lgi ngt de e n' efrst t eoft de e n i Stams è . 03, h o q n nao zi he c de ts fo t o hos he c de t n e h Tr Ass aton,f ade oci i ound a l ofs t i com plance becaus neiheroft document t ack ubsantal i e t he s he de e ntsg d Endi tdta (h de e nt wa atmpi t c ng t b nekir oft c de ine d cae h t te c de ) s te tng o ha e he e t ay he i Polcy .... i ' ' Tur ng t t Cha Fo m a i s I fnd t ti s t nta l c ple wih t Pl n' ni o he nge r t s ue, i ha t ubs a i ly om i s t he a s r r equiement Aferal,as um i t tt Decedent ssi ur on t Change For i genui , s. t l s ng ha he ' gnat e he m s ne hei e d di j s a outalt twa rquie o hi t c ng tebe f a i oft Poiy nd e d ut b l ha s e rd f m o ha e h nekires ht lc . A l t wasl wast m ai t f m and f hi empl t send a confr a or notce t t l hat eh o l he or or s oyer o im t y i hat he 13 c hange t ef ect4 D ecedent di not and coul not m ai t f m hi sel afer sgni i, ook f . d , d , l he or m f t i ng t becaus he had t w ai f Ros t fl i her per e o t or e o il n sonal i or aton. By t tm e Ros di so, nf m i he i e d Decedents condii had wor ened, and f what ' ton s or ever r eason, a per nd haps a Decedent s t ' diecton,Roach m aied t f m her el r i l he or s f D . R oach' Cross cl m agai tRose s - ai ns l h rRepons,Ro c sae t tigjc us ( ee a Ros h n mon y t tke n e s e a h tts ha sbe a e Dlfnd nt e ad o e o a cr ofh r fte s gi) f r ,1 Nor Roa h lan d he a r maey $ ae e ah r sc uneal , a c , o e r ppoxi tl 4088 u i t ntl he i ancem oney was pr nsur ocess ' I appearng t M s.Roac s alega i a s outoft s e ed.' t i hat h' l ton ries he am gener case or cont over y t t gave rs t t orgi l er eader Com pl nt l deem her al r s ha ie o he i nal nt pl ai , ale ai acr scam ov rwhih lwile riet Co tss pplme tlj idito un r lg ton os-li e c l xecs he ur' u e na urs cin de 28U. C.j 1 67. S. 3 Ros a mitda tilt tsepr sd Roa ht tonc s ( e gothe s r oft e d te t ra ha h omie c ha e he Ros) r hae he i ur ns ance Pr oceeds,s woul pay Roach back f t f he d or he undsRoach advanced t defay t cos s o r he t as at w ih D ecedents dea h. Ros di not di e t accur of t am ount Roac soci ed t ' t e d sput he acy he h cl med. Even i 1 fnd t t Ros s pr ie t pay was condii ai f i ha e' om s o toned upon Ros re vi t e cei ng he is a e mo y,ta c diins wilb stsid ahe j dg nti e trd i t scae I nurnc ne h t on to l e aife r u me s nee n hi s. t r or c l et tRo emu trpa Roa ht s of$ 08800. heef e oncud ha s s e y c he um 4, . 4Th f e ng as ume t tt Pl do n c an ot rpr vii nst twoul a l t Ch ge For e or goi s s ha he an es ot ont i he o s o ha d low he an m t tk erc a e De e e ts d ah i h we e t de (s h id e d d p ir t h s e ly r s n i g te o a e fe t R r c d n ' e t , f e r o i a e n e d i) ro o i mp o e e dn h c fr t y no i e.Thepa te ha notpr vi d a y f t rs h pr s o , a Ir l o wha i now beor t on ima or tc ri s ve o de n urhe uc ovii ns nd ey n t s f e he Cour. t 14 E. Atorneys'Feesand C ost t s Aspr vi usy not d,Gua d a ha move f a a a d ofa t ne 'f esa c t . The e o l e r in s d or n w r tor ys e nd oss i eetd pate ha notobe td t Gu r a srqu t a Iwila r fesacodigl ntrse ris ve j ce o adin' e es, nd l wad e c r n y; s f wilbe pai outoft f uch ees l d he undsaleady on depostw ih t Court r i t he . 11 CONCLUSI OFLAW 1. ONS W he heranyone f ged D ecedents sgnat e i a quesi off t m us be pr t or ' i ur s ton act hat t oved by cl and cogentevi ear dence. lhave notf ound s evi uch dence t exit W het anyone exe ci ed o s. her r s undue i l ntuence overD ecedent i a f -nt i i r a lhave f s act i ensve nquiy, nd ound t t evi nce t hat he de o s uppor such a concl i hasnot been of er Fr t evi t uson f ed. om he dence lhave s D ecedentwas een, com pe entt l uly execut t Change Form . Fi l t docti ofsubs antalcom plance t o awf l e he naly, he rne t i i s ves t valda e t Change For des t i appearng t be tue t Decede di notr ve er o i t he m pie t i o r hat nt d ecei w rten confr aton fom hi empl it im i r s oyert i had r ved t Change For . 1t ef e fnd hat t ecei he m her or i t Change For t be vald. M or he m o i eover pur ntt t ragr ent Ros s lbe r r t , sua o hei eem , e hal equied o r mbu s Roa h $ 08 00 whih r p e e t t mone t tRoa h r mu r t f re ns s ei re c 4, 8. , c e r s ns he y ha c e ne aed o xpe e r atng t Decede ' m em oralse vi and t atendantl batl overhi r ai Fi l el i o nt s i r ce he t egal te s em ns. naly, Gua d a s l bed $169 00 i lga f e . r in hal ue , 2. n e l e s I t accom panyi J n he ng udgm entOr ,1det lt way i w hi t der ai he n ch hese varousf i unds a e t r o bew ihd a n f o t Pr e dsno on d postw i t Co tsr it y. t r w r m he oc e w e i t he ur ' eg sr h The Cl r o t Co ti die t d t s n a c rii d c y oft sM e o a m Opi o e k f he ur s r c e o e d e tfe op hi m r ndu ni n a accom panyi J nd ng udgm entOr t al pari ofr d, and t Pl ntf' couns . der o l tes ecor o ai if s el E trdti 0 ' yo Api 2 1. nee hs - f r, 02 i l 15 NO K. O M U NI TED STATES D I STRI J DGE CT U 1 6