Hailey v. Donahoe, No. 6:2011cv00022 - Document 42 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on July 30, 2012. (sfc)
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GLERK' OFFI U.S. R Cour S CE DI AT L YNGHBURQ V A yjo , u I THE UNI N TED STATESD I TRI C OURT S CT FOR THE W ESTERN D I STRI OF V I NI CT RGI A LvxcHBuRG Dl sl vl ox J 32 2 1 UL 22 J w BY ' î . o SL ' CLERK E', ; DEP W C RK CAS NO. 11 c 000 E 6: - v- 22 STACEY H AI LEY, Pl it an ? M EM OM NDUM OPI ON NI PATRI R.D ONAHOE, CK POS AS ER G E TM T NERAL & CHI EXECUTI EF VE OF I F CER, TED STATESPOS SERVI UNI TAL CE, JUDGEN ORM AN K .M OON Dee d n. fn a t Thi matri b f r t e Co r u o a s c n mo in f rs mma yj dg n fld b s te s e o e h u t p n e o d to o u r u me t ie y Parc Dona e(d e tik ho tDefndanf'. Beor a esi t meisoft moton,abre r sae nt ) f e ddr sng he rt he i if ettme of t s c s s pr dur hit y i i or r A f e conduc i a he r ng on A pr l 1 201 I hi a e' oce al s or s n de . t r tng ai i 3, 2, e e ed a or r i whi h,i e ala,I de ed i pa tDe e nts tr t moton f s ntr n de n c ntr i ni n r f nda ' i s i or umm a y r j me a moo wih rs t camsofdsbiiy dic i nai ase td by Stc y Haie udg nt s t t e ped o li ia lt srmi ton sre ae ly (ç antf ' upon whih lde de t pe mi f t rdic r Howe r on Aprl1 201 1 s i if) pl e zi d o r t urhe s ovey. ve , i 9, 2, grnt i pa tt torgi moton f s a ed n r ha i nal i or ummayj me a i c ene Pli ifsr iton r udg nt s t onc r d antf dalai cli s Shorl t r a tr on Aprl27,201 Pl n iffld a ame d c am . ty he e fe , i 2, aitf ie n nde ompli t On J an . une 1 8, 2 2 Dee d n tld t e isa tmoin f r s mmay j dg n u o wh c Ic n u td a 01 , fn a t ie h n tn to o u r u me t p n ih o d ce hea i o J y 1 201 Fo t r a onst tf l , 1wilg a tDef nda ' moton. r ng n ul 8, 2. r he e s ha olow l rn e nts i L BACKGROUND Uni t s i of2008,Pl nifwor df t UniedSttsPosa Ser c (hed tl tlhe prng aitf ke or he t ae tl vie t t a pos re he re n r ni l antf l ha , n s r c ')asal tercari ratt cari rannex i Lynchburg,Vigi a. Pl i ifalegest t i evie' et 1 999,he be n e re ng pan i hi knee a lgsf whih he s ga xpe i nci i n s s nd e or c oughtteam e . l 2003, r t nt n Pli ifhad s ge y on hi l tkne t r para t n m e s us l 2004,Pl ntf ha s ge y o antf ur r s ef e o e i or nic . n ai if d ur r n hi ba k t r medy pan t the contndsr ule fom c r yi m alba dtrng t c s of s c o e i ha e es t d r a r ng i gs li he oure h s e l y n . Plitf f rh r a s rs ta,i 2 0 ,Dr Ro e t S d o (ç .Sy no ' i mp o me t an if ' te s et h t n 0 6 . b r y n r 1 u Dr d r' ) dee m i d hi t be per ne l dia e howe r Pli ifnet rpr des doc nt to tr ne m o ma nty s bl d; ve , antf ihe ovi ume ai n t s t ntae t sc uson no al ge t the i or e t posals r i e a o ubsa i t hi oncl i r le s ha nf m d he t e v c bouti.Ac r i t co dng t hi a e d c o s m nde ompli t Pli if s f r fo iChond oma a a Paela posa i c s a n , antf ufe s r m ' r l ci t l e, t m ne t yndl ba dege r tve di c di ea e s a i a, he ni t di c, c r ca deg r tve di c- s s , um r ne a i s s s , ci tc r a ed s e vi l ene a i s diea e me s ust ri t lf knee a r c o t ' Am.Compl ! 11. Addii l Pli if nic ea n he e t , nd adiulpahy. ' . tonaly, antf cli t the s f r fom c oni ba k pa n a ne k condii t tû esrc hi t wal ng a ms ha ufe s r hr c c i nd c tons ha s tit m o ki r n mo et a f u h u spe d y r q r l hm t atr aestiga dsa dngf r3 miu e a o r h n o r o r r a , e uie) i o l n t i n n tn i o 0 n ts t e t atme lmig hi t lfi ie note ee ng 40 l .a lmig hi a lt t be soo or i , i tl m o itng tms xc di bs, nd i tj s biiy o nd, t p s t' Am.Compl! 1 Fi l Pli ifmanti t theas s f sfom a i medial qua. ' . 2. naly, antf i ans ha lo ufer r nd s c ly tea e f de es i r t d or pr son. Ac o dn t Plitf, es fr dteij e t a 1dt tea o e ni n dr srcin c r ig o an if h ufee h n mis h t e o h fr me to e etito s durng t c s ofhi e pl e w ih t pos a s r c . How eve , doe nots c f how i he our e s m oym nt t he t l e vi e r he s pe iy o e a ty wh n he s san d te ij re . Ale e l an if i f r d ma a e n i r x cl e u ti e h nu is lg dy,Plitf n o me n g me t n L n h u go hsij re , n , o a u s e iid p ro o tme Plitf camst a t ep tl y c b r f i nu is a d f r n n p cfe ei d f i , anif li h t h osa 1The pa te diput pr iel whe Plitf be n hi e pl e w ih t posa s r ce. l hi a e ris s e ecs y n an if ga s m oym nt t he tl e vi n s m nded c ompli ,Pl ntf algest the sare wor ng f t posals r c on De mbe 1 , 1 ant ai if le ha t td ki or he t e vie ce r 2 992,bu i hi a wer t n s ns , Defndan c e t tPl ntf s e pl e bega o De m be 11 1 e t ontnds ha ai if m oym nt n n ce r , 993. I a eve ,t exa tdat i n ny nt he c e s i tralt t r oltonoft motonpr s nty b or me. mmae i o he es ui he i e e l ef e s r ie pr de hi wih a sgnme s t t a c moda e hi r srci on waki a e vc ovi d m t si nt ha c om t d s e ti tons l ng nd lfi Furhe ,Pl i ifm a nt i t tt po t ls r i e pe i c ly gave hi l a f om w or itng. t r a ntf i a ns ha he s a e v c rodi a l m e ve r k i o de t s e team e f hi condii . Howev ,a s n r r o e k r t nt or s tons er t ome uni ntted poi i tme, de ii nt n i Pl ntf aleg t t t posa s r ce soppe m a ng a om moda i f r hi a i t d ai if l es ha he t l e vi t d ki cc tons o m nd nsea sa td dici i ng hi f not bei a e t pe f m hi e oym e r ponsbiii s tre s plni m or ng bl o ror s mpl nt es i lte . Ac or ngt Pl ntf,he c i d t r ques r as bl ac om modatonsf hi lm ia i u c di o ai if ontnue o e t e ona e c i or s i ttons p t a t ough t tm et pos a s r c fr d hi . o nd hr he i he t l e vi e i e m De e nts a cot ,whih i s ppo td by muli e exhi t a a deca ai dif r f nda ' c mt c s u re tpl bis nd lr ton, fe s m a ke y. Fis,De enda c r dl rt f nt once t t n De e r 2003 a Oc obe 2004,t posal des ha ,i c mbe nd t r he t s r c plc Pli if o lg dut purua t t posal s nr e' c l c i b gani e vie a ed antf n i ht y s nt o he t e i s ole tve ar i ng c a e me (t ' wih Pli ifs lbor uni t Nai Asocai ofLetr Cares gre nt ç CBA' t antf a ) on, he tonal s iton te rir (ç 6 NALC' . Ho ve,Dee ntnots t tt posals r ie di no ma a fndng t t ' ) we r fnda e ha he t e vc d t ke i i ha Pl i if wa dia ed, a a or ng y, i di not pr de Pl ntf wih a i ea ona e antf s s bl nd cc di l t d ovi ai if t é s bl r a co moda i 'ast tt r i dei c m ton' ha e m s tned. Se r t l De enda saest t d i 2007 a 2008,Pl ntf w a a e fo wor pa a ey, f nt t t ha , urng nd ai if s bs nt r m k f r lnghy,uns he e pe i of tm e. The posa s r ce dicplne Pli tf f t s o e t c dul d rods i t l e vi s i i d a n if or he e a e e i t f lowi wa bs nc s n he o l ng ys: @ On Augus 3,2007,t posals r i e i s d Pli ifa l te ofwa ni a a r s tof t he t e v c s ue antf et r r ng s e ul s ve a uns hed e a e esfom wor be wee J 8, 2007 a J y 17,2007) e r l c uld bs nc r k t n une nd ul On Nove be 20,2007,t posal s r i is m r he t e vce s ued Pli if a s ve da , no-i e of a ntf e n- y tm - f s pe i n a a r ul ofa e sfom wor bewe n Se e us nso s es t bs nce r k t e pt mber4, 2007 and Ocobe 6, t r 2007;a nd * On J nua y 24,2008, t pos a s r i is d Pli if a f te da no-i e of a r he t l e vce s ue a ntf oure n- y, tm - f s pe i as a r s t of a e es fom wor bet e n N ovem ber 20,2007 a J nua y us ns on e ul bs nc r k w e nd a r 1 2008. 6 2 The CBA be wee t posa s r i a t NALC pr des f a di cplna y a gre nc t n he t l e vce nd he ovi or s i i r nd i va e ar ta i pr s , a c bir ton oce s omponent of whi h i a e oye s opporuniy t r s nd t c s n mpl e' t t o e po o dic plna y c r s Acc di y,on Feb u r 2,2008 Pli ifss r s conduced a pr s i i r ha ge . or ngl ray , a ntf ' upe vior t edici i r i er e prort i ta i Pl ntf sr m ova f uns hedul a e sfom wor s plna y nt viw i o niitng ai if e l or c ed bs nce r k. At t i e v e de pie bei afo de a opporuniy t do s Pl ntf di not ofe a he ntr i w, s t ng f r d n t t o o, ai if d f r ny e a ton f hi unau horze a e s xpl na i or s t i d bs nce . On Fe ua y 5,2008,Pl n ifsphysc a a t Uni r iy ofVigi a f xed a me ca br r aitf ii n t he ve st r ni a di l c rii to t t posals r i The media c rii ton sa e t tPl i ifc d r tln t e tfcai n o he t e vce. c l e tfcai t t d ha antf oul etr o wor f rlg d y t ough Febr r 1 2008wih no lfi ofmor t n t n poundsa wih k o i ht ut hr ua y 8, t itng e ha e nd t ot rr src i o be ng,sa ng,a s ti The m e c lce tfc ton a s saed t t he e titons n ndi t ndi nd qua tng. di a rii a i lo t t ha t er src i woul e r on Fe ua y 1 2008.On Fe uar 25, hes e titons d xpie br r 8, br y 2008,t s mephysca he a i in e e Pl i ifs r s r c i t < clm bi no kne i 40 pound lf i r t i ton, a no e as d a ntf e ti tons o t i ng, no elng, i tng es rc i ' nd t d ' t tt s ne r titonswoul e r on J 5 2008. De .sM e .Supp.M ot Summ . ,Ex. ha he e w esrc i d xpie une , f' m . J. E- . Acc di t Def nda ,t s r src i woul ha pr cl 1 or ng o e nt he e e titons d ve e uded Pli if fom c ryi antf r a r ng a oft m ai r e orgi tng a t Lync ny he l out s i na i t he hbur c ni r a x. M or ve ,t c r i r a x g a e nne eo r he a re nne onl ha o f ltm elg dut poston, c w a ale y fle y d ne ul-i iht y ii whih s r ad il d. O n Fe u r 9,2008,Pl i t f s s r i or s nta r ques t dr ta notc ofr ova f br a y a n i f upe v s e e t o af i e em l or Pl n if The m a er of t ca rer a x c ur e w ih t s r ue t ai tf . nag he r i nne onc r d t hi eq s . A ccor ng t di o 2Thenoiesis d o Nov embe 20,2007 a J nua y24, 2008bot sae, i e ala ihatf t edeki i s h r nd a r h tt ntr i i uur t ences uc tc s ue n , t a oulne a s ti d bove wilr s t i mo e s r dici i r acin bei tken a ns you i udi a lnghir l e ul n r evee s plnay to ng a gai t ncl ng e t e s pe i r uc i n i gr de a or pa , or r m ova fom t U . Pos a Se vi e. Def' M em . Su M ot us nson, ed t o n a nd/ y e l r he S. t l r c ' ' .s pp. . Sum m . ,Ex.C, . J. D 4 De e nt Pli ifo y s f nda , antf nl oughtmedialate i f rhi de e son on Fe u r 11 2008,afe c tnton o s pr s i br a y , tr t decson t tr i e Pli if sempl e had ar dy be n made On Fe u r 1 2008, he ii o e m nat antf oym nt lea e . br a y 8, aps hitit Dr Ge geLue (t .Lue ' wr eoutanot,whih Pli ifpu po t t yc ars, . or dke û Dr dke), ot e c antf r rs o ha pr s nt t t posa s r c sa i t Pl n if wa unde hi c r The not as ve e e ed o he t l e vie, ttng hat aitf s r s a e. e lo ra :t e s e us hi r e a e ( 1 107- 2// duet de es i Hei veygld t e ds d a e xc e s ec nt bs nce 1 // pl 108) o pr son. s r a o ha b n abl t r ur t wor a of2/ / Hei r l s d t r unzt wor a ofFebr r 1 ve ee e o et n o k s 108. s eea e o et o k s ua y , 2008. P1' M e .O pp' M ot Sum m . J ,Ex.E. Pl i y, Dr ' .s m ' n . . a nl .Lue dke wr e t s no e ahe ot hi t r Pl i ifspr dici i r i e v e a a trt posa s r i ei ta e hi r m oval antf e- s plna y nt r i w nd fe he t l e v c nii t d s e . On Fe a y 1 2008, t pos al s r i i s d Pl i t f a f m a notc of r m ova , bnz r 9, he t e v ce s ue a n i f or l i e e l whih cie hi uns ts a t y at nda e r c d. On Fe u r 20 and 25,2008,Pl i ifs n c t d s a if c or te nc e or br a y antf e t wrte r que t f lg dut t t Lync g posm a t r Howe r t Lync it n e ss or i ht y o he hbur t se . ve , he hbur posm a t r g t se de ed t s r que t ba e ont f c t tPli ifss vior ha ar dy de i d t r move ni he e e ss s d he a t ha antf uper s s d lea c de o e hi a we la t f tt tt o lg dut poston a t c r iranne wasfle a t tme. m s l s he ac ha he ne i ht y ii t he a re x il d t he i Pur ua t t CBA ,Pl i ifpur ue a g i va w ih r pec t hi r m oval On A prl s nt o he a ntf s d r e nce t es t o s e . i 1 2008,t greva e wasr ol d upo t c uson t tt r ha be no vi a i oft 7, he i nc es ve n he oncl i ha he e d en olton he CBA b t p sa sr iea dt tPlitf h db e r mo e f r u tc u e OnM a 6 2 08 y he o tl e vc n ha an if a e n e v d o j s a s . y ,0 , Pli ifc a t a posalsl c EqualEmpl antf ontced t ewie oymen Opporuniy (d ' c elrf t t t t 1EEO' ouns o or he ) trttm e a on J 13, i s i , nd une 2008,Pli ifco plt d af m a EEO co ai i whih he al ge antf m e e or l mpl nt n e le d t tt posals r i ehad dic i nae a i thi o Fe ua y 1 a Aprl7, 2008 i of r a ha he t e v c s rmi td gans m n br r 9 nd i ns a s i ha bee a r ofhi dia lte butr us t ma ac omm oda i . Pl i if' cl i w as t d n wa e s s biiis ef ed o ke c tons a ntf s a m ac e e f EEO i tga i c pt d or nves i ton. On J y 1 201 t a nitai lw j dimis Pl ntf' rques f ahe rng ul 9, 0, he dmi srtve a udge s sed ai ifs e t or ai on hi J s une 1 2008 EEO compl nt bec us he di not c pl wih t posal s r c s 3, ai a e d om y t he t e vie' dic r r ue t . On Se embe 1 201 t posa s vie is d istna a nc de son. s ove y eq ss pt r , 0, he t l er c s ue t i l ge y cii Pl i ifa ald t a r e dec son t t Ofi o Fe r Ope ai wihi t EEOC. l antf ppe e he dve s ii o he fce f de al r tons t n he n an o ni da e M ar h 30,2011 t EEOC uphed t posals r i e' fna a nc de ii pi on t d c , he l he t e v c s i l ge y c son. The ea tr on J y 15,2011 Pli tf s r ques f r r c i a i was de e Thi a ton r fe , ul , a n if e t o e onsder ton nid. s ci e ue ns d. Ac or ng t hi deposton t si ony,Pl i ifr i d une oye f a oxi ael c di o s ii e tm antf ema ne mpl d or ppr m t y one ye r f l ng hi t r nai n fom e o e wih t posal s r c Howe r he a olowi s e mi to r mpl ym nt t he t e vie. ve , e nt ly obt ne e pl e wih a m o orvehi e de l rhi whe e he wor a a s l s a ve ual ai d m oym nt t t cl a e s p r ks s a e m n sx da a wee f r i ys k or oughl t ve hour pe da Ne rhel s Pl i ifc e t the was y wel s r y. ve t es , antf ont nds ha , a r ma ns a q lfe pe s wih a dia lt a qua ii d pe s pe c ved t ha a nd e i , uaiid r on t s biiy, lfe r on r ei o ve dia lt a or a qualfe pe s wih a hit y of dia lt wihi t mea ng of t s biiy, nd/ ii d r on t sor s biiy t n he ni he Re biiain Ac of1 (he( ha lttonAc' ,29U. C.j701 ets q. Furher Pli if ha ltto t 973 t ç biiai Re t' ) S. , e . t , antf a s rs t a, p ir t h s rmo a, h c ul ha pef r d hi j b wi a r a o be set h t ro o i e v l e o d ve ro me s o t h e s na l ac omm odai c ton. Thus Pl i if a lge t t t posa s r i e' a tons c tt e unl wf l , antf le s ha he t l e v c s c i onsiut a u dic i na i i vi a i oft Re ltton Act s rmi ton n olton he habiia i . l LEGAL STANDARD l. S mma y j d me ts ud b g a td i te pla i s t e d s o ey a d ds l s r u r u g n ho l e rn e f h e dng , h ic v r n ico u e m ae i so tl a a a fda t s w t tû he e i no ge nediput a t a m ae i lf t ral n ie, nd ny fi vis ho ha s r s t nui s e s o ny t ra ad a d te mo n i e tte t j d me ta a ma tro lw. Fe .R.Ci.P.5 () s e as n h va t s n ild o u g n s te f a ' d ' v 6 a; e lo Ce otx Cor v. Cat et, 477 U . 31 , 3 ( 986) l t e de e of a g nui is of l e p. r t S. 7 22 1 . f he vi nc e ne sue m a era f c ç s m e el c or bl or i not s g t a ty m o tve, s t il a t s i r y ol a e s i nik n l ba i ummayj me ma be r udg nt y g a e ' Ander on v Li ry Lobb I c. 477 U . 242, 249-5 ( 986 (iai omi e .& r nt d.' s . be t y, n , S. 0 1 ) cttons t d) $ t As t maeil y ...( j y d s u e o e fcst tmih af c teouc meo te s i u d rte o trai t onl ip ts v r a t ha g t fe t h to f h ut n e h g v r iglw wil r p ryp e ld t ee tyo s mmayj d me t' I a 2 . o enn a l p o e l rcu e h nr f u r u g n . d t 48 ' l c n i ei a moin f rs mmayj g n u d rRul 5 a c u tmu tve te n o sd rng to o u r ud me t n e e 6, o r s iw h r co d a a whol and dr w al r s e r s e a l ea onabl i e enc s i t lght m os f vor bl t t e nf r e n he i t a a e o he nonmovi pa t Se Re e v.Sande s Pl n Pr s.I . 530 U. 1 1 ( ng ry. e ev s r on umbig od , nc, S. 33, 50 2000) I .f t no no ng pa t be r t bur he m vi ry a s he den of pr , t he bur n on t n ovi pa n a be oof ' t de he a ng hy a y dic r d by dhowi - t ti,poi i o t t dititc t t tt r i an a e e of s ha ge s ng' ha s ntng ut o he src our- ha he e s bs nc e de e t s vi nc o uppor t no ovi pa t sca e ' Ce ot x,477 U . a 325. l t m ovi pa t t he nm ng ry' s .' l e S. t f he ng ry s ss h a a enc ofe de e, he bur s fs t t nonm ovi pa t t s tf r h s c fc how uc n bs e vi nc t den hit o he ng ry o e o t pe ii fcsilsrtng g n i is e f rtil S eFe R.Ci.P.5 () Ceoe ,47 U. a 3 4. a t lu tai e une su s o ra. e d. v 6 c ' l tx 7 S. t 2 , Th tilc u' h sa ç fi naie o iain't t rv n ta t al u u po td cams (r e ra o l a n l tn tv bl to ' o t e e t fcu l ns p re li o) t a g p y d fn e 'fo p o e d n t til'Fet v Gr v sHu ry Co,81 F.d 1 2 ,1 28(t ee s s r m r c e i g o ra . l . a e - mph e s . 8 2 1 6 1 4h ' y Ci.1 7)(uoi Ceotx, U. a 3 -24) r 98 q tng l e 477 S. t 23 . 11 D l 1. scussl oN A .The R ehabiiat on A ct lt i Pli if brngs t s a ton unde t Re biia i Ac, whih gove ns dia lt antf i hi c i r he ha lt ton t c r s biiy dic i na i i f de a e o e . l i wele t bls d t t no wihsa ng t a e eof s rmi ton n e r l mpl ym nt t s l- sa ihe ha, t t t ndi he bs nc an e e s prva e rghtofac i i t Re biia i Ac ,i vi l m a s t e or e is xpr s i t i ton n he ha lt ton t ndi duas y ue o nf c t p o iin . S ePa d zd sv P Bd o u . 1 F.d 8 3 8 8 ( t Ci.1 9 ) I o d rt r vso s e n a ie . W. fEd c, 3 3 2 , 2 4h r 9 4 . n r e o dee m i whehe a f r l e oye ha dic i naed unde t Re biia i Ac , cours tr ne t r ede a mpl r s s rmi t r he ha lt ton t t empl t s me sandads st o unde t Ame ia wih Dia ltesAc Ct ', 42 oy he a t r e ut r he rc ns t s biii t ADA' ) U. C.j 1 1 ,e s q. S e Myes v Ho e 5 F.d 2 8 28 ( t Ci.1 9 ) Ma o k v S. 21 1 t e e r . s , 0 3 7 , 1 4h r 9 5 ; d c . 7 Mc g No.1 - 2 0 2 1W L 3 5 4 0 a * 3( M d. g.1 ,2 1 . Th ,n o d rt Hu h, 0 0 7 6, 01 6 4 6 , t 1 D. Au 8 01 ) us i r e o e tb ih avilto o t Re a iiain Ac, fd rle ly emu t o e ç 1 ta h h sa sa ls oain f he h b l to t a e ea mpo e s pr v :1 ) h t e a t ( dia lt ( t thei ot r s q lfe f t e oyme ...i q sin;a ()t the sbiiy; 2) ha s he wie uaiid or he mpl nt n ueto nd 3 ha wa e l d fom t e oyme ...duet dic i nai n ...on t ba i oft dia lt ' s xcude r he mpl nt o s rmi to he ss he s biiy. ' 3 Do v Unv o . e k ,Cop.5 F.d 1 61 1 6 ( t Ci.1 9 ) e . i.fMd M d.v . r , 0 3 2 , 2 5 4h r 9 5 . ys B.M e hods o Pr t f oof As a ge a m at r t r a e t mea by whi h a pl ntf m a pr e i e i ner l te , he e r wo ns c ai if y ov nt ntonal e oy e dicrmi ton. Hilv foc hee M ari Lo s isM gmt,l . 354 F. 277 284 mpl m nt s i nai l . k d tn gitc nc , 3d , ( h Ci.2004) The frt of t e mehods i t ofer t r t or i r t e de e' of 4t r . is hes t s o f t ec di ndiec vi nc ' d srmiain u d rd r iay p i cp e o p o f' Bu n v AAF- Qu y,I c,9 F.d 7 , ic i n to n e i dn r rn ils f r o . r s . o ' Mc a n . 6 3 28 731 (t Ci. 1 4h r 996) (iai a i ena quottons maks omitd) W he a pli if ctton nd ntr l ai r te . n antf p o e dng u d ro dn r p icpe o p o fs e st a e ts mmayj d me i temo ig r c e i n e r ia y rn ils f r o e k o v r u r u g nt n h vn pa t s f vor he mus tpr e die t e de e of a sa e pur e t dic i nae and or ry' a , t t oduc r c vi nc ttd pos o s rmi t / (ndie t e de e of s fcen pr tve f c t rfec a ge ne is ofmaeilfc . i rcj vi nc ufii t obai ore o el t nui sue tra a t' ' 3I hi amende compl nt Pl ntf i n s d ai , ai if nvoke s ctons501a 50 oft Re ltton A c. Se in 501rquies se i nd 4 he habiia i t cto e r f de a a nci ,i l ng t posal s r c t i plm e pr a s t f iiat dhe hii plce e ,a e r l ge es ncudi he t evie, o m e nt ogr m o aclt e t t rng, a m nt nd a v n e n o idvd aswi dsbit s. .. 2 U.. j7 () I fa ev Pe a 5 8U. 1 7 1 3(9 6, d a c me t f n iiu l t ia l i . ' 9 SC. 91b . n n . n , 1 S. 8 , 9 1 9 ) h ie ' t Supr he eme Cou t of t Unied Stt s i epr td s ci 501 as pr bii dic i na i by t f r r he t a e ntr ee e ton ohi tng s rmi ton he edeal g v mme to tebai o dsbl y Seto 5 4ofteRe a lain Ac sae ta çno ohewieq ai e o e n n h ss f ia ii . cin 0 t h h bitt i o t tts h t t l t r s u lid l t i vi lwih adia lt ...s l,s ey byr s ofhi orhe dia lt beexcuded fom t pa ii to i ndi dua t s biiy hal oll ea on s r s biiy, l r he rtcpain n, o d ne b neiso ,o be sb etd t dsrmiain ...u d ra y p o rm o a tvt c nd ce b a y r e id e ft f r u jce o ici n t o n e n r ga r cii o u td y n y Ex c tv a e c o b teUntdSae P sa Sevc . 2 U. C.j7 4 a.Todae teUntdSae Co r o e uie g n y r y h i tts o tl rie' 9 S. 9 () e ' t,h ie tts u t f Appeal f t Fou t Cic tha note iil decde unde whih oft e s to a dia ed fde ale oye s or he rh r ui s xplcty i d r c hes ecins s bl e r mpl e algi dicrmi i a ns af r lage y s dbrng s t Se Madoc v. c gh,No.1 02706,20l1W L le ng s i naton gai t ede a nc houl i ui. e k M Hu 0- 3 5 4 0 a *1 n2 ( Md Au 1 ,2 1; ku r av Getn r 71 F.S p 2 5 2 5 9n7( Md. 01 ) 6 4 6 , t 3 .3 D. . g. 8 01 ) Fl eo . i e , l u p. d 6 , 6 . D. 2 0 . h Si ia l i i uncla i t Fourh Cic twhehe s ctons 5 a 504 e pl t s m e sa r ofc us ton. m lry, t s e r n he t r ui t re i 0l nd m oy he a t nda d a ai Se M adoc 2011W L 3654460,a *l31. . Se ton 50 pr c i sdicrm i i ts eyby r as of' s biiy, e k, t 123 ci 4 osrbe s i naton <oll e on dia lt 2 U. C. 7 4() wh r a s cin 5 i o p r tst ec u ai n sa dad o t eADA, c d e n ticu et e 9 S. j 9 a , e e s e t 01 nc r o ae h a s to tn r f h o whih o s o n ld h çoeyb 'ln uae29U.. j7 1g.Ho v rterslt no Plitf'dici nto cam d e n tm' t ll y'ag g, SC. 9 () wee,h eoui f anifs srmiain li os o t n s o o whlh custo sa d r a pis myr igo Dee da tsmoin frsmmayj d me two l b tesme n c a ain tn ad p le ' ul n fn n' t o u r u g n ud e h a , , n o r ga dl s of whi h s ton a horze Pl ntf ' cl m . Se Le ne v Shi ek , No.ELH- O- 1 20ll W L e r es c ec i ut i s ai if s ai e r r . ns i I I 09, 2 4 6 , t* 0n21( M d J ne1 , 1; g e o , 1 F. u p 2 a 5 9n7. 41 9 7 a 2 . D. .u 0 201 )Fiu r a 7 1 S p . d t 6 . 8 Rh a s v FD.. ,2 7 F.d 3 3 3 4 h Ci.2 01 ( i to a d i en lq tto smak o d . IC. 5 3 7 , 91( t r 0 ) ct in n ntr a uoai n z s a omitd) te . W hen,a he e,t pl i if ca s r he a ntf nnotpr e t s h e denc of di crm i ton,t s c es n uc vi e s i na i he e ond m ehod i t bu de s fi a oa h esa ihed i M c t s he r n-hitng ppr c t bls n DonnelDou as Cor v Gr en,411 l gl p. . e oof he ai if t is sa ih U. 792( 973)4 Unde t ss tm ofpr , t pl ntf mus frte tbls aprmafcec e s. 1 . r hi yse i a i as ofdi c i i ton by a pr ponde a e of t e de e,Ev v.Tec Applcato d:Se v Co. s rm na i e r nc he vi nc ans h. i i ns r. , 80 F. 954,959 ( h Ci.1 ,whih g rly mea s ngt t des t bei quaiid 3d 4t r 996) c eneal ns howi ha, pie ng lfe f re pl o m oyme ,t e pl rt an a r e ac i a i thi ç nt he m oye ook dve s ton gans m s rcic sa eswhih unde r um t nc c g v rs t a i frn eo u a u ds rmiain'T x De 'o y A f r v Bu dn , 0 i e ie o n n ee c f nlwf l ici n to , e . p t fcmt fais . r ie 45 ' U. 248,253 ( 981 . Onc t pli ifha e tbls dhi prmafcec e,$ pr umptonof S. 1 ) e he antf s sa ihe s i a i as t es i a ilga dic i i ton a ies a t bur n ofpr ton s fs t t e pl r d le l s rm na i rs , nd he de oduc i hit o he m oye , who mus t a t uae a n n d srmi tr ra o f r t (d es e o me t a o .' Ho e v ri lt c o - ici nao y e s n o he a v re mply n dinj' ' yl . Fr i lne ,LLC,650 F. 3 ,33 ( h Ci.2011 (uoi Cook v CS Tr s Cor ,98 eghti r 3d 21 6 4t r ) q tng . X anp. p. 8 F. 507,51l ( h Ci. 1 ) ûf t dee 2d 4t r 993). s he fndant c ri t s bur n of pr ton,t l ares hi de oduci he pr s pton r i e by t prm a f i c e i r buted,'Bu di , 450 U . a 255, a t he e um i a s d he i ac e as s e t ' r ne S. t nd t t M c nnel Dou as fa e k- t is pr umptons a bur ns i no l r r e nt'' Do l gl r m wor l h t es -wi i nd de - s onge elva , a E i y dr outoft pi t e,'Hik 5 U . a 51 1. Att spoit i f lson t nd ç mpl ops s he cur ' c s, 09 S. t 0-1 hi n , t al he pl i ift r s a g ne is a t wheherç he pr f r r as wa nott tue r a on f antf o aie enui s ue s o t û t ofe ed e on s he r e s or 4 Alhou M c onne l D ou a i ve a cl m of r ci dicrm i ton i hii t c e' bur n-hitng t gh D l gl s nvol d ai a al s i nai n rng, he as s de s fi fa wo khasbee hedapplc bl i t c e ofdia lt dic i nai . r me r n l ia e n he ontxt s biiy s rmi ton U S.44,49 0 & n. (003)(pplig te mehodolg t dia lt dici eRy n e nCo oymenundz 5 0 Sen tot n mpl. r a d e,te h o . He t n er 4 v n -5 32 a yn h t o y o sbi y srmial i e i h . ADAI Ho v nle s v Cad r ,2 9 F.d 25 ,2 6 6 (t Ci.20 )(p yn te fa wok t a fd rl ; o e -uwi . lea 4 3 9 6 - 8 4h r 01 a plig h rme r o e ea e lye ' cam of ia ii dsrmiaini e ly n u d rteRe a itto Ac) mpo es li dsblt ici n to n mpo me t n e h h bl ain t y i . nd ee or a ul t e o e de ii ' Bur ne,45 U . a 256, a was but a pr txt f unl wf he mpl ym nt c sonr' di 0 S. t dicrmi ton, s i na i Evans 80 F. a 95 5 , 3d t 9. I,howe r t def ndan f ist m e tt bur n ofpr f ve , he e t a l o e he de oduci S vi nce whih,t en ng t de e c ak as tue woul pe mi t c l i t tt r wasa no s rm i t y r s f t a ve s r , d r t he onc uson ha he e ndic i na or ea on or he d r e a to 'a t ep an ifh sp o e aprma fcec s ,t ec u tmus a r j g n t t e cin, nd h litf a r v d i a i a e th o r t wad ud me t o h ' t pan ifa amatro lw. &. r 'Ho o Ct. . c s 5 9U. 5 2, 0 ( 9 3 .tl si litf s te f a ' Ma y s n r r v Hik , 0 S. 0 5 9 1 9 ) s- s ' -hi be us a l ga pr um pton of i e i l dic i i ton has be e tbls d. fe ne v. ca e e l es i nt ntona s rm na i en sa ihe ' ' r r Shi e iNo. ns k, ELH- O- 1 2011W L 2 4967,a *1 ( M d. une1 2011 (ii i a 51 I I 09, 41 t 3 D. J 0, ) ctng d. t 0 Howe r i i i ve , t s mpora t no e t t unde t M c tnt o t ha , r he Donne lDougl m ehod of pr , l as t oof dll uli t bur of peruason . . .ne r çhit' fom t pli if' Wilams v ûthe tmae den s i ve s fs r he antf. ' li . Ce b r nc , n . 8 1F.d45 45 n. (t Ci. 9 9 (iigBu die 45 U. a 2 3 . r e o is I c, 7 2 2, 6 2 4 h r 1 8 ) ctn r n , 0 S. t 5 ) Pl nl a yi t M cDonnelDou asa oa h c n be a difc te avo . Fort t ai y, ppl ng he l gl ppr c a f iul nde r ha r a on,t Unie St esCour ofAppea sf rt Fourh Cicui hasi tuc e courst S ess e s he t d at t l o he t r t nsr t d t o t it r t t mpt to ofbe m i s e wi d i t i rc is oft pr s he e t tt y f ge he e ai n co ng o nt ne n he nti ace he oof c m ha he or t t t t s he ha he c me e ss s el t f ciia e dee m i ton of the uli a e que ton of xit ol y o a lt t tr na i t tm t si d srmiain v 1n n.t Pr u v S o e 9 5 F.d 7 6,7 8 (t Ci.1 91 ( u t g Un td ici n to e o ' o d . t n , 4 2 9 9 4 h r 9 ) q oi ' n ie St e Pos alSe v Bd o v . . k n , 6 U. 71 , 1 ( 9 3 6 at s t r . fGo s v Aie s 4 0 S. 1 7 4 1 8 :. 5uro e tbls pr txt apanifmu tp ee te ie c t alw arao a ej r t f ta ( )t lgimae t sa ih ee , litf s rsn vd n e o l ' o e s n bl uor o i h t l he e t t, nd i n n ici n tr rao sweeu wo tyo ce e c a d()t a ul ici n to wa tea ta moiefrte o dsrmiaoy e s n r n rh f rd n e n 2 mlwf dsrmiain s h cu l t o h v d cso . Fiueo , lF. u p. a 5 3(iainsa ditr a q oainmak o te ) e iin' g r a 71 S p 2d t 7 ctto n nen l u tto r s mitd . ' 6The U nie Stts Cou tofAppe sf t D ititof Col a Cic thasr m a ked t , i c i rng an td ae r al or he src umbi r ui e r hat n onsde i e ly rsmoinfrsmmayj d me tac u tstn ur it tep i fcec s i u u l miplc d' n ç mpo e ' to o u r u g n, o r' t q iy no h rma a i ae s s al s a e 'a d i i y a lrey u n c saysd so ' Br k v O hc o S r a ta Ar ,5 F.d49 ,49 ,4 4 ( C.Ci.2 0 ) ag l n e esr ieh w. a . f e f ege n t ms 20 3 0 3 9 D. r 0 8 . ' Ac odn y teD. Cic i h sditle terlv n iq r u o a e o e ' moinfrsmmayj d me ta c r igl,h C. rut a sild h ee a tn ui p n n mply rs to o u r u g n s y f l s olow ' . l a(ici n to )si wheea e ly eh ss fee a a v ree ly n ato a da n dsrmiain ut r n mpo e a ufrd n d es mpo me t cin n n empl rhasas et a l ii ae,non- s i i t y r a n f t decson,t dititc rt oye s red egtm t dicrm naor e so or he ii he src ou nee na- and s d nof ci whet t pli if a t aly m a outa prm a f ci c e d houl --de de her he antf c u l de i a e as unde M c r Donnel D ougl . Ra he ,i c i rng a e pl r' m o i f < c i d ...> l as t r n ons de i n m oye s ton or ontnue 10 C . ai i rsD i abiiy D i c m i i C l m Pl nt f s lt s ri naton ai To r ie a e i or t obt n r le f dia lt dic i na i Pli ifm us s et r t , n der o ai ei f or s biiy s rmi ton, a ntf t how t t ( )hei dia e ,( hewa ot r s qualfe f t e oymenti quesi a ( he ha: 1 s sbld'2) s he wie iid or he mpl n ton; nd 3) s f r d a a r e e oym e a ton o t bassoft dia lt SeeDoe,50 F. a 1 ufe e n dve s mpl nt c i n he i he s biiy. 3d t 265. De e nt c ends t t Pl ntf ca t as a m at of lw, esa ih any of t s t ee f nda ont ha ai if nno , ter a t bls he e hr e e nt .Fort r s s tf t i t dic so t tf l ,1agr e. l me s he ea ons e orh n he s us i n ha olows e l. antf hasf l t s Pli if aied o how t thei t s bl d'asdefne unde t ADA ha si a e ' di i d r he Asme i d,f pur esoft Re ltton Ac ,t ADA ' defnii oft s bl d' ntone or pos he habiia i t he S i ton d a e ' di a p is1 Un e t eADA, ia ii i d fn da ete :(A)ap y ia o me tli ime t p le . d r h d s bl y s eie s i r ç t h ( h sc l r n a mpar n t t s b tnil l t o e o mo e ...mao l e a tvte ... ( a r c r o s h a ha u sa tal i s n r r y mi j r i ciiis ; B) e o d f uc n f i ime t or( b ig rg r e a h vng s c a i ar n . 4 U. C.j 1 0 ( )8 I mpar n, C) en e a d d s a i u h n mp ime t' 2 S. ' 21 2 2 . n ' t i tntmater Pl i if has cla l al ge t he s f r fom a va i t ofphysc a he nsa t , antf e ry le d hat ufe s r re y ial nd ps hol c l i im e s Howeve , a i i nt sandi al yc ogi a mpa r nt . r n mpa nne , t ng one, i not s fcint t s ufi e o e t bls a di a lt unde t A D A . Ra he , sa ih s biiy r he t r <... o tnu d> s mmayj d me t. .i to ecru tn e,h dsrc c u t s rs le c nl e u r u g n . n h s ic msa c s te itit o r mu t e ov o ecnrl u sin: st e o e po u e sfiin eiec frarao a ej yt tn n eta q eto Ha he mplye rd cd ufce t vdn e o esnbl ur o id t tt e pl rs asered non- s rm i t y ras was nott acualr as and t tt ha he m oye ' s t dlc i naor e on he t e on ha he e ly r itnt n l dsrmiae a an t te e ly e o te bai o ( prtce mpo e ne i al ici n td g is h mpo e n h ss f a oetd o y ca st t n) lsi i ? ka o li a 494. Alhou Ic det tt r i c t t t gh once ha he e s ompelngl cbe nd t sditla i asIf t rdic si not 1l li ogi hi hi silton, urhe s us n e , i a lsaeteo vo s whc i ta,rg r ls o Br d smeis i i tep e e e o t F u t Ci utta n , tt h b iu , ih s h t e ade s f ay' rt, t s h rc d nt f he o rh r i h t h' c gui a bi m y de si a ng. des nd nds ci onm ki 7l s d benotd t tCongr se t sgniianta ndme st t ADA t tbec m eefeci on J nua y 1 t houl e ha es naced i fc me nt o he ha a f tve a r , 200 Howeve ,Congr s di note e sy i endf t c ngesi ma t a y r toaci y. Acc di y,t 9. r es d xpr s l nt or he ha t de o ppl er tvel or ngl he pr eamendmen ve son oft ADA i r eva f t pur e oft sc e i lghtoft fctt tt e nt gi ng t ri he s el nt or he pos s hi as n i he a ha he ve s vi rs t Plitf' s i o c re p irt 2 0 .Se La d rfv US Fi Pr d .51 U.. 4 27 (9 4 (< n e ie o an ifs ut cu rd ro o 0 9 e n g a . 1 l o s, 1 S 2 4, 0 1 9 ) s c m si t ea l da oft sCour,we have de i t gi r toa tveefec t sautsbur ng prvae rght unl s he ry ys hi t clned o ve er ci f t o t t e deni i t i s es Co g esh dma ece risitn.) n rs a d la t ne t'. ' B çr f tt a an e pl r i a e ofa e pl ç he ac h t m oye s war n m oyee' i im e ,wihou m or i ïns fcintt de o tat s mpar nt t t e, s i ufi e o m nsr e etert t t empl r r r d t empl ih ha he oye egade he oyee as dia e or t pe ce in ca ed t ad s e pl s bld hat r pto us he vere m oyment a ton.' H aul ook v M iheln N Am.I ., 25 F3 69 , 0 (t Ci. 0 1 ( u t Kel v Drxe Unv, 4 ci '' br . c i , nc 2 .d 6 7 3 4h r 2 0 ) q oi ng l . e l i 9 y F.d1 2 1 9(dCi.1 9 :. 3 0,0 3 r 96 11 t e e ly e as mu tp o e t i ime ts b tn ily lmisa mao lf h mpo e lo s r v he mpar n u sa tal i t j r ie a tvt . S to v Uni d Ai Li e,I . 5 7 U. 4 ,48 ( 9 9 . Th ciiy ut n . t r n s nc, 2 S. 71 9 1 9 ) e e dia lt a yssi t r f e l n i vi uai d i r pa tc a t t f c sof s biiy nal i s he e or s ndi d lze nquiy, ri ul r o he a t a e c c e. EEOC v Sar Le Cor ,237 F.d 349,352 ( h Ci.2001. The a h as ' ' . a e p. 3 4t r ) s t nta lm ia i r quie e ts t a t e hol t t e udes mi r ubsa i l i t ton e rm nt se s hr s d ha xcl no i im e s fo c r .' Heko v Col mpar nt r m ove age' i . ombo Sav.Bank 43 F. 249,257 4 3d ( h Ci.2006) 4t r . Lyons v Shi e ,No. 11 361 201l W L 5588836,a *2 ( h Ci.Nov.1 2011. Thus . ns ki -1 , t 4t r 7, ) , Pli ifmu ts t thi i r nt su t i l lmi ama lf a i t antf s how ha s mpaime s bsantal i t jor ie ctviy. y l hi de ii t tmony, Pl i if des rbe hi pr s nt physc l i par e s a n s poston esi antf ci d s ee i a m im nt s co itng of ( )aba lf kne whih c us hi t l nt onvsde,nott bea et rn,a nssi : 1 d e t e c a es m o ea o i o bl o u nd o l wak s o td sa c s s ePlitf De 1 2 - 1 6 ( )b gn d s si h slwe b c n y l h r itn e , e an if p. 6:4 7:; 2 ulig ic n i o r a k t a lmi hi a ii t b n o e a d lf h a y o j cs s e j a 1 1 - 1 :5 a ()a h t i t s blt o e d v r n it e v be t, e t t 7;6 8 1 ; nd 3 y f compr s ed ce vca s ne whih,a one poi ,r quie t i e ton ofm e a s ce s i hi es r i l pi c t nt e r d he ns ri t l pa r n s u pe n c t a td y c us hm p i a d p e e th m fo j g n ,s e i.a 1 2 - 1 :4 p r e k h t o a a e i an n r v n i r m og i g e d t 8:5 92 . Pli ifdes rbe hi me a i par e a t pr s i n be us lwory a antf c i d s nt l m im nt s t e so ca e de r boute r hi ' f ve yt ng.' J. a 20:0-11. Si nii anty,Pli ift sii d t thi pr s ntphysc a m e a i i nt t 1 g fc l antf e tte ha s e e ial nd nt l mpa nne s ae te s me a h si ime t wh n h ls hi p sa s r iej b. S e i a 2 2 - 2 : r h a s i mpar n s e e o t s o tl evc o e d t 4:4 52. W hen s c tcal as d ho he beleve t the i dia e Pl ntf r ple ç bei ve 1m pe ii ly ke w i s ha s s bl d, ai if e id: 1 le ' I di a e be aus of m y s ne,m y knee ,and m y m e a a phys c condii . lm e n,Ihur s bl d c e pi s nt l nd i al tons a t e e yd y lsr s o to e suf e r d y.lme n,ts us - Ih vet s fe e r d y o my v r a . te s u v r t f vey a a i' j t - a o u fr vey a f lf . 1 . t2 :- .W h na k d wh h b l v dh wa ds bldwh nhel s h s o wi t e ie' d a 82 . ' 6 e s e y e ei e e s ia e e e ot ij b t h h posa s r ce Pli tf t siid:ç a e my he lh wa no ge tng no be t r 1wa a wor t l e vi , a n if e tfe ç us Bec at s t ti te . s t k tyngt d t eb s Ie nwihr srcin a dsu fl eta, n l u t- Ik w i myhe r a r i o o h e t a t e tito s n t f i h t a d j s - ne n k at nd i m y w a t t m y body f l, t t I won' g t no be t r' f a 30: 7-20. Cot s l f n ys ha e t ha t e te . # t 1 ' m e or . Dee n t n a ke Pli ifhow hi mena a physc li r nt lmie a maorlf fnda t he s d antf s tl nd ia mpaime s i td j ie f nc i a t tm e t pos als r e t m i e hi e pl ent t whih Pl i ifr s u ton t he i he t e dc er nat d s m oym , o c antf e ponde d: 12 Them e alpa tbe us ofmy heat pr blm sa suf lke t ton my ba k a nt r, ca e lh o e nd t f i ha c nd my lg a d suf lk ta,a te me tlp o lms t yj s af ce my lf e s n t f ie h t nd h n a r b e , he u t fe td ie whe e Idi twa t do not ng,ldi twa t ge up,Idi tknow wha wa r dn' nt o hi dn' nt o t dn' t s g i o i lf,t ap i t Iwa j s d wn. Lie 1d d twa tt g o tie 1 ong n n ie o o n . sut o k in' n o o u sd , di tw a t be a ound peopl ldi tw a tt s e pe e. dn' nt o r e. dn' n o e opl I a 33: -8. d t 1 I de e mi ng whe he a i r n i s t n i ly lmii ç t m a consde t n t r ni t r n mpaime t s ubsa tal i tng, ç cours y i r he C u e a s ve iy oft i ime , t ç r to or e ctd dur ton oft i panne , natr nd e rt he mpa r nt' he du ai n xpe e ai he m i nt' a t S r ne o l tr i c'oft i i nt' Polar v Hi ' o t,I . nd he pema nt r ong em mpa t he mpanne . ' l d . ghs fBal. nc, 28 F.d4 2, 6 - (t Ci. 0 2 ( u tn 2 C. R. 1 3 2 ( ).Th S p e Co r o 1 3 6 4 7 68 4 h r 2 0 ) q oi g 9 F. j 6 0.U)2 ) e u rme u t f t e Untd Sae h s sae ta t e tnnst u tn il ' a d t j r'mus ç e itpr td h ie tts a tt d h t h e t bsa tal ' n t o ' t t n e ee s y ma b srcl t c e t ad ma dngsa d r frq aiyiga d s be .. . To t M oo Mf .Ky, tity o r ae e n i tn ad o u lf n s ia ld .' yoa tr g, . ' Ic n. Wi ims 5 4 U. 1 4 1 7 ( 0 2 (ver ld o oh r g o n s b te ADA la , 3 l S. 8 , 9 2 0 ) o rue n te r u d y h Ame d n s Ac o 2 0 ,Pu L.No 1 0 3 5 1 2 S a.3 3 ( 0 );ac o d Hape i v n me t t f 0 8 b. . 1 - 2 , 2 tt 5 20 8 ) c r l rn . Ab sTe h.Cor ,1 F.d 1 200 (t Ci.1 (t- ADA smpl wasnotde i d t acu c p. 28 3 91, 4h r 997) çl -he i y sgne o pr e tt publc fom a1a s efe t ofi1he lh a m if t otc he i r l dvere f c s l- at nd s orune. Raher t ADA wa t , he s desgne t a s e t t t u y di abl d, but ge nel c pabl i vi l w il not f e i d o s ur ha r l s e nui y a e, ndi dua s l ac dic i na i i e pl e bec us of se e y s rmi ton n m oym nt a e t r ot pes about t i ur ountbiiy of t r he ns m a lt hei ha c ps'. Ont bassoft bre sheha s teda t agument heprs nt a t ndia .) ' he i he if s ubmit nd he r s e e ed t he h aigIc n u td t eo ymao l ea tvte t t anifh sa g by alg dt b l td e rn o d ce , h nl j r i ciiis ha Plitf a r ua l le e o e i e f mi by hi i pa r e s a e w or ng as a l te c r i ra w a ki lw ila es e h i t n. s m im nt r ki e t r a r e nd l ng. l ddr s ac n ur i M 4orLieAci t ofW or ng . i f tviv ki TheFourh Cic tha a s d,wiho de i ng,t twor ng i amaorlf aci t t rui s s ume t ut cdi ha ki s j ie tviy. Ta or v Fe Ex e s Cor , 429 F. 461, 463 ( h Ci. 2005 (iai o te . yl . d. pr s p. 3d 4t r ) cttons mitd) Not t t ndi t s a sl pton,tt c nta i r mus be whehe t cl ma i una e t wihsa ng hi s t i the e r l nquiy m t t r he ai nt s bl o perf m t var et of t ks cental t m ost peopl s daiy lves, not w he he t cl i a i or he i y as r o e' l i t r he a m nt s 13 u a l t p ro m te ts s a s cae wi rijs e ii j b. T yoa,5 4 U. a 2 0 01 n be o ef r h a k s o itd t h s p cfc o ' o t 3 S. t 0 - . h ' S c a f c si fti ,f rûh ma a ts su i u t a y pa t u a j b ae no ne e s rl u h o u s it o t e nu l a k n q e o n ri lr o r t c saiy ng t c i o tn pat o mos p o esl e . 1 . t201 I e d ' e t mao l ea t t u d r mp ra t rs f t e pl' i s' d a . nd e , i n he j r i ci y n e v ' wh f vi c i r ton i t of wor ng, t sa ut y phr s dubsa i l lm is r r s a a onsde a i s hat ki he tt or a e s tntaly i t ' equie , t mii m,t a p an if alg t e ae u be t wo k i a b o d ca so j bs' Sutn v nmu h t litfs le e h y r na l o r n r a ls f o . t . ' o Unie rLi s I ,527U. 471 491( 999 . Cons nty,thei tof(helmiains tdAi ne, nc' S. , 1 ) eque l t mpac t i tto t o ap anifs a iiy t p ro m t ema u lts shsj b d te rq ie ,sa dng ao ,i n litf l b l o e fr h n a a k i o u is e u rd tn i lne s t is fi in t e tbih a s bsa ta l tto o a mao lf a tvi ' L o s 20 1 W L n u tce t o sa ls u tnil i ai n n mi j r ie ci t ' y n , 1 y. 5588836,at*2. I h sa n e c mpan , an ifd e n ts e iyar n eo ca so j b fo whc n i me d d o li t Plitf o s o p cf a g r ls f o s r m ih he i pr cude be aus ofhi physca orm e ali im e s Rahe ,he sa e t the co d s el d c e s i l nt mpar nt . t r tt s ha ul ha c tnued t be e pl d by t pos a s r i ,i pai nt not ihsandi ha he be n ve on i o m oye he t l e v ce m nne s w t t ng, d e of e e t s toflghtdut a com m oda i t the ha pr ous y be n afor d ea le i hi f r d he or i y c tons ha d evi l e f de ri r n s e o e t wih t posals r c And ye t i biiy t pe f mpl ym n t he t e vie. t he na lt o ronn one' d i a a l ter s utes s et c riri Ly c b r d e n t wih u mo e q aiy a a s b tn ill tto o amao lf are n n h u g o s o , t o t r, u l s u sa ta i ai n n f mi j r ie a tviy a c t m pl t d by t A D A . W ha i m o e,lobs r Pl i if sow n ad i s on t t a c i t s on e a e he ts r e ve a ntf ' m s i ha , s oft da e ofhi de ii he ha be n wor ng sx da a we a a s e ma a a a o he t s poston, d e ki i ys ek s als n t n ut d lr hi f a oxi a ey t e yea s Thi f t butr s s m y co l i t t Pl n ifs eae s p or ppr m t l hr e r . s ac tes e ncuson ha aitf i im e s di not s t nta l lm i hi a lt t wo k. Se Polar 281 F. a 471 mpa r nt d ubsa i ly i t s biiy o r e l d, 3d t (spanit i daey t o a j b wih a c r d aes i whe s lf ( ee d n ' t litf mme itl o k o g l t a e lrhp n he et d fn a ts e ly n l Th sri fr e o rc ncuso ta glitf wa n ts b tn il l tdi te mpo me t. i en o c s u o l in h t p an it s o u sa tal i e n h l y mi mao lf a tvt o wo kn l o d rt b s b tnily l td i t mao l e a tvt o j r ie ciiy f r ig. n r e o e u sa tal i e n he j r i ci i f mi f y wokn , tn mus b p e ld d fo mo e t n o tp o j b a s e il e j b o a r ig o e t e rcu e r m r ha ne y e f o , p cai d o , r z p riua j bo c ie')( oigS to , 2 U. a 4 -9 ) a t lr o f hoc .' qu t u tn 5 7 S. t 91 2 . c ' n i. a o LieAci t ofW aki i M i r f tviy l nz W akn ,a f n to itg a t mo tp o l' l e ,h sb e ie tfe a a mao lf lig u cin ne r l o s e pes i s a e n d n iid s v j r ie a tvt Se Wi o v Ph e xS ca t Mf .Co, 3F.d 3 8 38 (t Ci. 0 8 ; 9 C. R. cii y. e l n . o ni pe il g .51 3 7 , 5 4h r 2 0 ) 2 F. s y j 1 3 2 i( )i.Th tb i s i titi dfiul i e dpeh psno po sbe t da ab i h 6 0.()1() a eng ad,G l s ifc t nd e r a l , t si l,o r w rg t lne dei tng t poi a whih a c ton a f c i an empl e' a lt t wak c n be i lneai he nt t c ondii fe tng oye s biiy o l a r ade a a dia lt wihi t ADA.' Kel v Drxe Uni. 9 F. 1 108 ( Ci. eg r d s s biiy t n he ' ly . e l v, 4 3d 02, 3d r 1 9 ) s e as Ca b u v Pan o n Cop. No.J - 0 2 9 20 1 W L 1 7 9 a * ( 9 6 ; e lo r a gh . gb r r , FM 0 - 71 , 0 21 6 , t 3 D. M d.Feb.1 2001 (i'eprciepoi a whih a i ime ofa empl e' abiiyt wak 2, ) dfh e s nt t c n mpar nt n oye s lt o l i c i rdas tntallmiai i notea iydeemi d.). s onsdee ubsa i i tton s sl tr ne ' W ih r s c t hi a lt t wal Pli ifat e t r e nte bist hi r pons t e pe t o s biiy o k, antf ta hes wo elva xhi t o s es e bre i op ii t De e if n poston o f ndan ' moton.Onei ano efom D< Syd ,da e Aug t9, ts i s t r . nor t d us 2006, whi sae t tPli ifû a w ak 5 t 5 % hour a da whe nec s r ' P1' M e . ch tt s ha antf ç y l o m s y n es a y.' .s m Opp' n M o .Summ . . Ex. .Theot ri aNALC Fa iy a M e ca Lea Actf t J, A he s m l nd di l ve onu,sgne by Dr i d . Sydnora datd J 20,2007,whih pr s rbes a C r ne r src i of no m o e t n 4 nd e une c e ci t ma nt e ti ton pe r ha ho sofwaki pe da ' Pl' M e Opp' M ot Sum m .J,Ex. D. Thus i c d r as bl ur l ng r y.' .s m. n . . , t oul e ona y be i e r t tPli tf i nots nf red ha a n if s uppos d t wa k mor t n f r hour pe da . H ow e r i e o l e ha ou s r y ve , t s d be no e t ti neihe doc e doe Dr Sydnorpl e ar srci on t dit nc t t houl t d ha n t r um nt s . ac e ti ton he sa e ha Pl i if i pe te t wal Addii ly, i i sg fc t t t Pl ntf ha not e iil antf s nnit d o k. tonal t s i niian ha ai if s xplcty al ge t the pr de et r oft s f nns t hi s r ior o m a eme a t c rir le d ha ovi d ihe he e o o s upe v s s r nag nt t he a re Rnn ex . 15 M or ove ,t r ti i i e r he esrctons mpos d by Dr Sydnor whi pr da e Pl ntf' r mova , e . , ch e- t d ai ifs e l a e abs nt f om t m or r ent m e ca c r ii atons t t Pl i i fs Uni r iy of V igi a r e r he e ec di l e tfc i ha a ntf ve s t r ni physca f xed t t posa s r i i Fe u r 2008. l f c ,t e m e c lc rii tons f i in a o he t l e vce n br a y n a t hos di a e tfcai or lg dut wor whi we e una bi i ht y kch r m guousy of tmpor r dur ton t h t i l e ay a i - houg hey mpos d e c r a n ot r r s r c i ns d not i pos r s rc i on Pl i i f s wal ng. l ot r wor , e t i he e t i t o ,di m e e t i tons a ntf ' ki n he ds whe e s D r Sydnor e de l c i e r s rc i on Pl ntf ' w a ki t be i pe a i by ra . vi nty onsder d e ti tons ai i f s l ng o m r tve, 2008, Pl i if s phys c an a t Uni r iy o Vi g ni s no ne t pl ce lm ia i ns on a ntf i i t he ve s t f r i a aw ed o a i t to Pl i ifswal ng wha s r antf ki toeve . On t t bass al ha i one, o c d r s na y c ude t t Pli if ha pr s n e ne oul ea o bl oncl ha a ntf s e e t d i ufi e evi ncet s t taehi con e i t thes f r fom a s t i lmiai on ns fcint de o ubsan i t s t nton ha ufe s r ubsantal i t ton h sa it t e g g i t emao l ea tvt o wakn Ho ve, o u tto o rlva tc s i bl y o n a e n h j r i ciiy f lig. we r c ns lain f ee n a e i f l w onl s r e t co i m t s c l i See e g. W ood v Cr a y e v s o nfr hi onc us on. , . , . own RediM i I . 339 F. d - x, nc , 3 68 686(t Ci.2003)(i ngt t e de edi nots apli ifsa lt t wak wa 2, 8h r tndi hat he vi nc d how antf biiy o l s s t ntal lmie whe e,n ong o he t ngs he c d onl wak a oxi t l one- ua tr ubsa i ly i t d r m t r hi , oul y l ppr ma ey q re ofo miebeor ha ngt so t r t;Tal v.Det Ailne ,I . 1 F. 1 1 ( t ne l f e vi o tp o esl k la ri s nc, 65 3d 021, 025 5h Ci.1 ( di t tapli ifwho lmpe i pa tbe a e o ofhe lgswa s trt n r 999) hol ng ha antf i d n r c us ne re s hore ha te oh rwa n ts bsa tal l td i t emao l e a v t o wak n b c u e d d rt h t e s o u tnil i e n h j r i diiy f li g e a s t eae y mi f mo ditc t e renc d whiewaki doesno rs t t lvelofadia lt ';Pcnn v Unie fiuly xpei e l l ng t ie o he e s biiy' l y . td Par e Se v,1 F. 408,41 7(t Ci.1 ( tnni ngt tapl ntf wholmpe a c l r . 28 3d 4-1 6h r 997) dee ni ha ai if i d nd e p re c dp i wh nhewak d u h l o se swa n ts bsa tal lmi di t emao l e x ein e an e le p il r tp s o u tn il i t n h j r i s y e f a tviy ofwa ki bec us S ode a edifc t orpa n e inc d whie waki doesnotrs ci t l ng a e û m r t fi uly i xpere e l l ng ie t t lvelof adia lt ';Kel 94 F. a 1 -1 (i ng t ta pli ifwho lmped, o he e s biiy' ) l y, 3d t 05 08 tndi ha antf i wake so y whie clmbi sar,and c d notj o wak f mor t n amie wa no l d lwl l i ng tis oul og r l or e ha l s t 16 s b tnil lmie i t e mao lf a tvt o wak n b c u e S o aaiey mo eae u sa tal i td n h j r ie ciiy f li g e a s û mp r t l d rt y c v r tito on t a lt t wak ae no dia lte ' ;Hamm v.Run esrcins he biiy o l r t sbiiis' ) yon,51F. 721 7 26 3d , 24- (t Ci.1 7h r 995) ( di t t a plitf wih at ii who ha ditc t waki was not hol ng ha anif t rhrts d fi uly l ng r g r e a h vn ads b l yu d rteRe a iiainAc) Fikv Rih n , DKC 2 0 e ad d s a ig ia ii n e h h b l t t t o t; n . c mo d No. 07 071 2009 W L 321 1 a *7( M d.Se .29,2009 ( ci ngt tûplitf hasnots 4, 61 7, t D. pt ) de di ha s anif hown t ts i s t i l lmie i t maorlf a tviy ofwal ng. W hiePli ifswaki ha he s ubsantaly i td n he j ie ci t ki l antf l ng i ime i pe m a nt i i no s tce l s ve e. Pl i ifs i biiy t wak a a f tpa mpa r nt s r ne , t s t ufi inty e r antf na lt o l t as ce c tt e a m e e difr nce wih t a r gepe s no a co i r e dif r nc a r quied onsiut s r fe e t he ve a r on, t ns de abl fe e e s e r byt Re biiai Ac a ADA.) Gali r v Ne he ha ltton t nd '; lmo e . wmanMachi Co.301F.Sup 2d431 ' ne , p. , 449( . N. 200 (i ngt tapli ifwa nots tntaly lmie i hi a lt t wal M D. C. 4) fndi ha antf s ubsa i l i td n s biiy o k i lg of t f t t t he c d w a k hal a m ie w ihout pa n,w al f r r c ea i ha no n i ht he ac ha oul l f l t i k o e r ton, d m e ca lm ia i o t dit nc he co d wal a wa a e t clm b s e sar wiho di l i ttons n he sa e ul k, nd s bl o i om t is t ut pan) Stwar v.We t 228 F.Supp.2d 660,662 ( M d.2002)(ttng t tt l i biiy t i; e t as, D. sai ha é ' na lt o al wal l ditnc sorclmbsaisdoe no i isl s tntaly lmit pes (i)a lt t k ong sa e i t r s t n tef ubsa i l i t he rons sc biiy o wakwi nt eme nng o t ADA.) Pu c v Ci o ia o,81F. p 2 8 3 8 6 9 l t h a i f he hi ' ; o i . t fchc g ' y Su p. d 9 , 9 - 7 ( D.11 2000)(i ng t ta pl ntf who lmpe a who coul no wal mor t n amie N. 1. tndi ha ai if i d nd d t k e ha l a ahafwihoutpan wa nots tntal lmie i hi a lt t wal ;Vas v Rise d nd l t i s ubsa ily i td n s biiy o kl s . e tr r The mac Co. 79F.Supp.2d853,860 ( D. o2000)( tr ni t tapli ifwho s her , -61 N. Ohi deemi ng ha antf wa pr t l i hi balnce ha to e waki up sais a e re e pai afe s one o osng s a , d r ubl l ng t r , nd xpe inc d n tr sa dngf rlng rta t rymiue wa n ts bsa tal l tdi hi a ii t wak ; os tn i o o e h n hit n ts s o u tn il i e n s b ly o ll Ho t y mi t v Sar Lee Cor , N o. 1: . a p. 98CV 00025, 1 999 W L 1 939252, a * ( . N. M a .1 1 t 3 M D. C. r 2, 999) (i i a a matroflw,t taplitf wa no ds bl unde t ADA e n t fndng, s te a ha anif s t ia ed r he ve hough he r doc o opi d t t s was s g fca l lm ied i he a lt t s a or w al c i t r ne ha he i nii nty i t n r biiy o t nd k ontnuous y f l or p ro si e c s o o eh u ) b tc EEOC v Se r,Ro b c (' . 41 F.d 7 9 8 2 (t eid n x e s f n o r; u f . a s e u k f Co, 7 3 8 , 0 7h Ci.2005)(i ngt r wa age neis ofmaei fc wihr pe tt whehe aplitf r fndi hee s nui sue tral a t t es c o t r anif wa s bsa i ly i ied i hi a lt t wak i lghtoft f c t ts coul no wak mor s u t ntal mpar n s biiy o l n i he a t ha he d t l e t n o ciy bl k wihoutf lng num bne s i he f e a one of her lgs t t e f c i l ha ne t oc t eei s n r e t nd e ha fe tvey p e e tdh rfo waknga y frh r; r v ne e r m li n u te) EEOC v S a s Ro b c & Co, 33F.d43 , 3 -3 . e r, e u k .2 3 2 4 5 6 (t Ci.2000)(e ri t dititc tsgrntofs 7h r rve sng he src our' a ummar j y udgme t a e oy whee nt o n mpl er r t s ng pl i if s f r d f om ne opa hy t t i e f r d w ih he a lt t w al fom he he ui a ntf uf e e r ur t ha nt r e e t r biiy o k r r wor ttont t emplyeecaeei ort t f c t. ksai o he o ftra o he ood our) Eve as m i t va i t of t r s rc i i pos d by Dr Sydnor a i i t n ml ng he ldiy he e t i tons m e . nd gnorng he a e e of s h r t i tons f om t m e c l c r ik a i bs nc uc esr c i r he di a e tt tons of hi Uni r iy of V igi a s ve st r ni p y iin ln v rhee sfn t a r a o a l j r r c ul n tc n l d t a t eia iiyt wak h sca , e e t ls i d h t e s n be u o s o d o o cu e h t h n b l o l t frmo eta f u h u spe d y rp e e t as b t nillmi to o amao lf a tvt As o r h n o r o r r a e r sn s u sa t i t in n a a j r ie cii y. s h,e n whe vi we i t lg mos f vor bl t hi , Pl ntf ha f ie t a uc ve n e d n he i ht t a a e o m ai if s al d o dduc e Ss fcint e de e fom whih a f c fnde r as bl coul co l t t t naur a tufi e vi nc r c a ti r e ona y d ncude ha he t e nd sveiy ofhi (mpar ntj sg fc nty r srce hi a lt t wal a c e rt s i ime s iniia l etitd s biiy o k s ompae wih a rd t n ave a per on i t ge r lpo a i ' e l 94 F. d a 1 r ge s n he ne a pul ton. 'K l y, 3 t 05. Uli ael on t ba i ofhi al gai a t e de e he ha pr s n ed t t Cour tm t y, he ss s le tons nd he vi nc s e e t o he q 1 tnd t tPl ntf ha f l t s w t t he was dia ed a t tt nn i de i unde t i ha ai if s aied o ho ha s bl s ha e s fned r he ADA. Ass h,Pl i ifc r e t bls hi prma f i ca e. Alhough my i uiy c d e uc antf amot sa ih s i ace s t nq r oul nd he e, wilbre l a es t r m ani t ee e sofPli ifsprma f ci ca eofdia lt r 1 l ify ddr s he e i ng wo lm nt a ntf i a e s s biiy di c i i to s rm na i n. 18 2. ai ifhasf l t s Pl ntf aied o how t thei at ii d i vi 'asde i t rt ADA ha s t fe ndi dual' gual fned mde he Unde t A DA ,a qua ii d i vi ali de i d a one w ho,Swih orw ihoutr as r he lfe ndi du s fne s ç t t e onabl e a co m oda i ca pe f m t es e i l f nctons of t e pl e pos to t t s h c m ton n r or he s nta u i he m oym nt ii n ha uc i vi lhol ordesr s' 42 U. . .j 1 118 . Thus dicrmi ton unde t ADA ndi dua ds ie .' SC 21 ()9 , s i nai r he i l dest m a ng r s bl ac omm odai t t known physca orme a lm iai of nc u t not ki ea ona e c tons o he i l nt l i t tons a ot r s quaiid i vi l . . , unls (he e oye j c de n he wie lfe ndi dua e s t mpl r an monsrt t t t tae ha he a c mmo ain wo l i o e a u d ehad hi o t e o rto o ( s b sn s .. c o d to u d mp s n n u r s p n h peain f i l u ie s t 4 2 U. C. l 1 ( )5 ( (mp a i a d d ; e as Gi e tv Fr n , 4 F.d6 7, 4 ( dCi. S. j 21 2 b ( )A) e h ss d e ) s e lo l r . a k 9 9 2 3 6 2 2 r b l 91 (ttn t a a r a o a l a c mmo ain t a n tme n ei n to o a y o t ej b' 9 ) saig h t e s n be c o d to t n o a lmiain f n f h o s c e sntalfmdi ' . Of pa tc a rl nc t t ca e a ha i t Fourh Cic ts se i t ons' ) riulr eeva e o he s t nd s he t rui' o sr ain ta t eADA f o sn tr q iea e ly rt r al c t e sn il o f n to so b e v to h t h t e o e ur n mpo e o e lo ae se ta j b u cin r d a sgn a e pl ye pe m a nt lg d y.' Cr bl v Ch rot Me ke u g Bd o uc, 2 s i n m o e r ne i ht ut ' a il . a l t e c lnb r . fEd .4 3 F. x 31 323( h Ci. 1 ( tton a i ena quottonmaksomit . App' 4, 4t r 201 ) ciai nd ntr l ai r ted) dl a ton t pos e sng t s ls ne sar t pef m t j i queton, a çn ddii o s s i he kil ce s y o ror he ob n si n e pl e mus be wilng a a e t de o tae t s s ls by c i t wor on a r gulr m oye t li nd bl o m nsr t he e kil om ng o k e a bass' T i.' yndal v.Nat1Educ Cts, n .o l, F.d 2 9 21 (t Ci. 9 4 .l d e ,fa l ' . r .l c fca. 31 3 0 , 3 4h r 1 9 ) n e d i n e ly e i n tc mig t wo k,he l a n tp ro m J y o hi j b f o s e s nilo mp o e s o o n o r t n o ef r n f s o t n , se ta r c mdi ohewie' 1 ( tto a i ena quotton maks omitd) d r or a r ulr a t r s .' d. ciain nd ntr l ai r te . t ef e, eg a nd The r l b e lv l o atn n e i a n c sa y ee n o mo tj b , a a c r i l, tan ei l e e f te da c s e e s r lme t f s o s' nd c o dngy s l a ' l 9Unde t A DA, a' e o bl a om m odai 'm a i ude' r he t as na e cc r ton' y ncl . ( ma i e sigfclisu e b e ly e ra i a c sil t a u a l b idvd as A) kng xitn a ite s d y mpo e s e dl c e sbe o nd s be y n iiu l i y w ihdia ltes a t s biii ; nd ( j b rsr cu ig p r-i o mo iid wok she ue,r asg n t avaa tpo io , B) o etu trn , at me r dfe r c d ls e sinme t o c n st n t i a ston orm odii to ofe pmentordevi s a prp it aj sme to mo iiain o cquiii fcain qui ce , p o rae du t n r dfcto s f e na i ,tani mae il orpolci , t pr son ofquaiid r ade sori e rt s a xami tons r i ng tras i es he ovii lfe e r ntp eer, nd ohe sm iara om m odai f i vi sw ih dia lte . t r i l cc tons or ndi dual t s biiis 4 U. C. 1 1 () 2 S. j 21 19 . 19 e ly ewh c n o me t h atn a erq ie n so t j ba is ec n tb c n ie e mpo e o a n t e t e te d nc e urme t f he o t s u n no e o sd r d a l alfe i vi lpr e ed byt ADA . l qu ii d' ndi dua otct he ' d ' Pli if a lges a Def nda conc s t t pro t hi r m o l t posa s r i antf le , nd e nt ede , ha i r o s e va , he t l e vce p o d hm wi j b a c mmo to . Ho v r Dee d n pon s o t t t te e r vie i t o c o dains h we e , f n a t it u ha h s a c m oda i ns we e s c om to r upple on t ba i of t CBA be wee t pos a s ni a t id he s s he t n he t l e ce nd he NALC,noton t ba i of c he ss ompla wih t ADA. l ot z wor ,t ac m moda i ince t he n he ds he co tons pr vi d wee notçea ona e a commo tons'unde 42 U. C.j 1 11 Addiinal t o de r t s bl c r dai ' r S. 21 . to ly, he r src i r comm e d by Pli ifs physcin i Fe a y 2008 we e unknown t hi e titons e nde antf i a n bnz r r o s s r s r w he t y conduc e Pl ntf s pr di c plna y i e vi w , t fr t s e i t upe vi o s n he t d ai if e- s i i r nt r e he i s t p n he pr e s of hi r m ova .0 W he die ty co r t d a t i er e a oc s s e l1 n r c l nf on e t he nt vi w bout hi unexpl i d, s a ne uns he e a e e , Pl i t f c c dul d bs nc s a n if once t t he s i d no e a ton w ha s des ha upple xpl na i t oeve . A nd r a t h t medialce tfca i f lghtdut t tPli if sUni r iy ofVigi a physc a lhoug he c rii tons or i y ha antf ve st r ni ii n f xed t t pos a s r c c a ne t m por r w or r ti tons t y t f ie t e a n a o he t l e vi e ont i d e ay k esr c i , he oo a l d o xpl i r t oa tve y Pl i if s a e es or e n a t m pt t e us t m . l i t s i of a e e e r c i l a ntf bs nc ve te o xc e he t s he eres bs nc s upon w hi h t pos a s rv c co e i bas Pl i if s dim i s l Pl i y,Pl i i fc d no c he t l e i e nt nds t ed a ntf ' s s a . a nl a ntf oul t p ro m h s o wih u s o n u a tec rira n x. ef r i j b t o t h wig p t h are n e Se ael Def nda no e t t e par t y, e nt t s ha ven i t posal s r c had r ei d Pli ifs f he t e vie ec ve antf r que t f lg d y pror t t i ta i ofhi t r i ton,i woul ha bee una e t e ss or i ht ut i o he niiton s e m na i t d ve n bl o f fl hi wihe be a e t posa s r i e di notha a a l e lghtdut poston t t ulil s s s c us he tl e v c d ve n vaiabl i y ii ha c uda c mmo aePlitf sn w wo kr srci n .Se La v Qu lx I c, 3F. p' 4 , o l c o d t an if e r e tito s e mb . ae , n .3 Ap x 9 59( h Ci.2002)(t- ADA doe no ...r uiea e oye t ceaeane posto asa 4t r dl -he s t eq r n mpl r o r t w iin n 1 I i worh notng t t fr toft physca sm edi lce tt ainsr r ng lghtdut w o k was dae 0ts t i hat he is he iin' ca rik to egadi i y r td Fe ua y 5,2008,butwas s tt e r a o m ael t wee ltr on Febr a y 18, 2008. l or rt be a br r e o xpie ppr xi t y wo ks ae ur n de o qualfe i viua unde t ADA ,t i iid ndi d l r he he mpac ofPl ntf ' i im e sçm us as bepenna ntorl tr .'' t ai ifs mpar nt ç t lo ne ong e m T y t, 3 U. a 1 8(iig28C. R. jl 3 2j()i)(i ) Pli y s c s o tlv dwo krsrcinswo l o oa 5 4 S. t 9 ctn F. j 6 0.()2 (i- i). anl, u h h r-ie r etito i ud notqualf a l tr i iy s ong-e m mpacs t. 20 a c mmo aint ad sb e e ly e' (iain o te ) an ifc n e d ta t ep sa c o d to o ia ld mpo e .) ctto s mi d .Plitf o tn s h t h o tl ' t s r c di ha a ava lbl lghtdut poston,bu he bas t sconc uson on t me e f c e vie d ve n ia e i y ii t es hi l i he r a t t ti pr vi ye r he had tle s h a poston. Thus Pl i if ofe s no s ha n e ous a s il d uc ii , antf f r uppor f hi t or s a s r i t t r w a ,i f t a ope lghtdut pos to a t tm e he was fr I t e s e ton hat he e s n ac , n n i y ii n t he i ied. n he nd, Pl i ifha a s f ie t s a ntf s l o a l d o how t the i a qualted i vi lunde t A D A . ha s ii ndi dua r he 3.Thepos a s ni er t l e c emovedPl i iff anon- s rm i t vr as antf or dic i na or e on Fi aly,Pli ifm a n a nst thehasf fle t l te e e ofhi prma f c ec e by n l antf i t i ha ulil d he as l m nt s i a i as s howi t tt posa s vie t r na e hi e oyme . I ot rwor ,Pl ntf a guest t ng ha he t l er c e mi t d s mpl nt n he ds ai if r ha he ha s w n t pos a s l ce t a a r e e pl e a ton a i t hi . To be s e s ho he t l ewi ook n dve s m oym nt c i ga ns m ur , bei fr d qualfe a an a r e e oyme a i a one woul be ha d pr s ed t i ntf ng ie iis s dvc s mpl nt cton, nd d r e s o de iy a cea e e mpl ofs h. Howeve ,Pli ifm us s l r r xa e uc r a ntf t how notonl t the s f r d a a r e y ha ufe e n dve s e oyme a ton,but i mpl nt c i , mpora l hem us a s de tnty, t lo monsr e t tt bassoft a ton was tat ha he i hat c i dic i naor . 1 A nd ye Pl i ifhasf ie t do s by a pr ponde anc oft e de e. To s rmi t y 1 t antf a ld o o e r e he vi nc t c ta y,t e de e make i cea t t t r s f Pl i if s dimis l was hi he on r r he vi nc s t l r ha he ea on or antf s sa s e tn i erc r o u s he ue (n t x an d a s n e . I d e n ra o a ej r c ud x e sv e o d f n c d ld a d me plie ) b e c s n e d, o e s n bl u y o l 1 As dic s d i not 6, s pr t D. Cic thas c r ed t c uson t t t M c 1 s us e n e u a, he C. r ui onfont he onf i ha he DonnelDou a l gls fa wor oAe e nder and t miapplc ton oft tmehod by t f r lcourst ts i r uls l r me k n nge s he s iai ha t he ede a t ha ometmes es t. n Br hhtec u to ev dta,b tesmmayj d me tsa eo e ly n ds rmiainc s s tee o e a h o r bsre h t y h u r u g n tg f mpo me t ici n to ae ,h mply r hasamos i ra y asere algii t,no dici naor r s f isadve s emplymenta ton. 5 F. l t nvaibl s td e tmae n- s rmi t y ea on or t re o ci 20 3d at493. Ac di y,he c ts cor ngl t our uggesed,t dititcour s ul i ewhehe t pli ifhasm a ou aprm a t he src t ho d gnor t r he antf de t i fcec s o dici n to a ise df c so wh te arao a l j r c ud fn t ttee o e ' sae ai ae f srmiain nd n ta o u n eh r e sn be u y o l id ha h mply rs ttd r a on f t a s aci wasm e el pr txt l 1l a 494. Thecou tspr c i i i Br y hasa al f i e s or he dvere ton r y ee ua . 6 t r' es rpton n ad ppe , or f i weet b f l we i ac s s c a t o ep ee tybeoeme iwoudpemit dsrc c u toj mprg t t r o e ol d n a e u h s he n rsnl fr ,t l r the itit o r t u ih o t t he toft i r i o whet t e pl ri e i ly dicrm i td v no M or over i m i alow o he ar he nquiy nt her he m oye ntntonal s i nae el n. e , t ght l t dititcou tt a d apr e c nty de crbe by t c r i Fi roa. l t ca e,t cour obs r d he src r o voi oblm oge l s i d he ou t n gue n hat s he t e ve t t whiet Fourh Cicui hasdes i t t r pr oft prmafci ca e ofdiabiiy dic i nain under ha, l he t r t crbed he hid ong he i a e s s lt s rmi to t Re biiaton Act a a a r e empl e aci due t dicrm i ton on t ba i of dia lt s he ha lt i s n dve s oym nt ton o s i nai he ss s biiy, ee Br c ma v Sn w, 1 F. x 2 ,2 8 (t Ci.2 0 ) thi i no a a c rt d srpin o teMc n el o k n . o 2 7 App' 0l 0 4h r 0 7,t s s t n c u ae e cito f h Do n l t Do glsprmaf ce ts ' fr i a plitf etbih s ti ee n,çh n t plitf wo l h v ara y u a i a i et' o f anif sa ls e hs lme t t e he anif ud a e le d t esabls d unl uldic i i ton,andt s ond a t r se ofM c t ihe awf s rm na i he ec nd hid tps DonnelD ou a . . . woul beir e nt' l gls d relva .' 711F.Supp.2d a 572 n.2. A ta r t t sc usi whih r m ai uli ael i m aeralt t rs uto of t 1 ny ae, hi onf on, c e ns tm t y m t i o he e ol in Defndan ' m oi i notpr l clrfed by m e lam bound by t l oft Fourh Cic t a s Iha e ts ton, s opery a ii . he aw he t rui, nd o ve ac or ngl a yze t e denc i o de t dee m i w hehe Pl nifhas e tbls a prma f i ca e of c di y nal d he vi e n r r o tr ne t r aitf sa ihed i ace s dsblydsrmiainb tep sa sr ie If ta h h sn ttu e ttigDee d n t smmayj d me t ia ii ici n to y h o tl evc . i h t e a o,h s n i n fn a t o u r u g n. t nd l 21 fnd t tPl ntf' s i ofa e sfom wor wasnott a ua r s f t tr i ton of i ha ai ifs eres bs nce r k he ct l ea on or he e m na i hi em pl e . I lghtofPl ntf s f l e t es a i h a prm a f i c e ofdi c i i ton on s oym nt n i ai i f aiur o t bls i ac e as s rm na i t bass of hi alege dia lt and bec us of t posal s vi s no dic i i t y he i s l d s biiy, a e he t er ce' n- s rm na or rto aef risd cso t tr Plitf, fn ta Dee d n i e tte t s mmayj dg n i ain l o t e iin o ie anif l i d h t fn a t s n ild o u r u me tn hi f vor sa . I CONCLUSI V. ON F rte f r g ig ra o ,Dee d n ' s c nd moin f rs mmay j d me ts alb o h o e on e s ns fn a ts e o to o u r u g n h l e gr nt d,a Pl ntf s c e s l be snl k f om t Cour ' ac i doc t A n a opra e or r a e nd ai i f as ha l t c r he ts tve ke . ppr i t de a om pa e t s m em or ndum opi on. cc ni s hi a ni The Cl r oft Cour i he e die t d t s nd a e rii d co oft s me o a e k he t s r by r c e o e e tfe py hi m r ndum o ni a t a ompa ng o de t al couns ofr cor pi on nd he cc nyi r r o 1 el e d. E +. neeti $0.'dyoJl,02 trdhs A a fuy21. > N O AN K . OO M U NI TED STATES DI STRI J DGE CT U