Hailey v. Donahoe, No. 6:2011cv00022 - Document 27 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on April 19, 2012. (sfc)
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Gk ' o'fl tu, , :m tour eM : vcf : DI . . ks l . 'w Ylqkpuqq V X AT A v4 FI u x$ L:D ç I THE U NI N TED STATES D I STRI C OURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN D I STRI OF V I NI CT RGI A LYNCHBIRG D I SI J VI ON AFi 1! 2 1 22 J By.Ul .' D Y CLLhK tU l -7 . . DEP ' * E CASE NO.6: l- 00022 1 cv- STACEY HAI LEY, Pl nt ai f M EM O RAN DUM O PW I ON PATRI R. ONAHOE, CK D POS TMASTER GENEM L & CHI EXECUTI EF VE OFFCER,UNI STATESPOSTAL SERVI I TED CE, JUDGENORMAN K . OON M De nt #nda . Thi matri beor t Coutu Defnd ntsmotonf s mmar j gme t Afe s te s f e he r pon e a ' i or u y ud n. tr conductng a hearng on Apr l13,201 lent ed an or i w hi i er ala,I deni i par i i i 2, er der n ch, nt i ed n t t moton as m oot wih r pect t Pl ntf s diabiiy dicrm i i cl m s upon whi l hat i t es o ai if' s lt s i naton ai ch deci t per i lm ied di cover A s i concer Pl ntf ' r alaton cl m s, however ded o m t i t s y. t ns ai if s et i i ai , Dee da tsmoi frs fn n ' ton o ummayj gme tc n bede i d a t spoi i lg ofPl ntf' r ud n a cde t hi nt n iht ai ifs concesson a t hearng t dicove y on t i t he i hat s r hose cl m s coul not unearh addii m at i ai d t tonal eral fcs Fort ra o t tf l lwilga ti p r Defnda ' moi f s at. he e s ns ha olow, l rn n a t e nts ton or ummayj me r udg nt w ih r pectt Pl ntf sr ala i cl m s. t es o ai if' et iton ai 1. BACKGROIND J Plitf Stc y Haly (d ie ' woke f te Unie Stt Posa Sevi (he anif a e ie 6 ly' r d or h Ha ) td aes tl r ce t ç t sr c ' a alte care a t c rira ne i Ly hbug,Vigi afra oxi tl d al evie' s etr rir t he are n x n nc r r ni o ppr maey pos ) f t year untlt s i of200s. Haly alge t t s f r fom c o cba k p n( s oureen s i he prng ie le s ha he ufe s r hr ni c ai a ars tofsi ddic)a dane kc to ( r s cfc ly,oi co e son ta rsrc eul lppe ss n c ondiin mo e pe iial j nt mprsi ) h t etit hi p i a c pa lte . A ddii aly Ha l y c a m s t t h s f r f o a d i m e c l s hysc l a biii s ton l , ie l i ha e ufe s r m n s dialy t e ed f depr si A ccor ngl Haiey m ai ai t he i a di ed per on f pur es r at or es on. di y, l nt ns hat s sabl s or pos oft Re biiainAc of1 (heS ha lai Ac', U. C.j701 e s q. he ha l to t 973 t s bii ton t' 29 S. t Re t ) , te Acc r ngt Haie hes frd t ij i t tlmi hi p i lfc te d ig t odi o ly, ufee he nures ha i t s hysca a ulis urn he c r e ofhi e pl ym e wih t posals r i e. Ho e e ,he doe nots c f h orwhe ou s s m o nt t he t e v c w vr s pe iy ow n t ij re wee s ti d. Ats me unie tfe poiti tme Haie i or d t potl he nuis r usane o d niid n n i , ly nf me he sa s r c ofhi ij is a ,fr uns cfe peids oftme d i hi c re,Haly wa evie s nure, nd o pe iid ro i urng s ae r ie s pr ded w ih lghtdut wor assgnm ent Furt ,Haiey m ai ai t he w as per it t ovi t i y k i s. her l nt ns hat m ted o t lave fom wor perodi l i or t s teat entf hi condii ake e r k i caly n der o eek r m or s tons. How e , at s e undicl ed poi i tm e, H aiey aleges t t t posal s vi ver om s os nt n i l l ha he t er ce s opped m aki acc m odatonsf hi and i ead sared di plni hi f notbei abl t ng om i or m nst t t sci i ng m or ng e t per or hi e pl entr ponsi ltes. A ccor ng t H aiey,when he com pl ned aboutno o f m s m oym es biii di o l ai l onger bei gi r ng ven easonabl accom m odatons t pos al se vi r t it agai t hi f e i , he t r ce e ala ed ns m or m i i wor by w ihhol ng pay and t m i tng hi em pl ent However,D ef ssng k t di er na i s om . endantdeni es te eale ains Ex bisatc dt hi motonf s h s lg to . hi t ta he o s i or ummayj dgmen d monsrt t tdui r u t e tae ha rng 2 007 a 20 Ha ly wa a e fo wo k f l ngt uns he e pe i s of tm e nd 08, ie s bs nt r m r or e hy, c dul d rod i . De e n di c plne Haie f t es a s n esi t f low i wa : f nda t s i i d l y or h e b e c n he o l ng ys @ On Augus 3,2007,Haiey w as is a lterofwar ng as a r ul ofhi abs t l s ued e t ni es t s ence f om r wor bet k ween J 8,2007 and Jul 17,2007; une y On Nove b r20, m e 2007 Haie wasi s e a s ve d y no tme of s p nson a ar s t , ly s u d e n- a -i f us e i s e ul ofhi a s bsence fom w or bet r k ween Sept ber4, 2007 a Oct em nd ober6,2007;and On Ja y 24, 2008, aRer havi f l t atend a pr dici i r i er ew on nuar ng aied o t e- s plna y nt vi Decem ber28,2007,H aiey w as is a f een- no-i e of sus i as a r ul l s ued ourt day tm f penson es t o hi ab e e fo wor be we n N ov m be 20, 20 a d J nu r l 2008. Thi f s s nc r m k t e e r 07 n a a y 6, s s pensc w ass t begi on Februar 9,2008. us im et o n y On Febr y 2, 2008, H aiey' s uar l s upervior conduct a pr dici i y i e ew pror t s ed e- s plnar nt rvi i o i tatng hi r oval D ef nii i s em . endant m ai ai t t at t i e ew , Haiey di not ofer any nt ns ha he nt rvi l d f e pln in f rhi un t ie ab e e . x a ato o s auhorz d s nc s On or about Febr y 5,2008,Haiey' physi an att Uni st ofV igi a f uar l s ci he ver iy r ni axed a m edi cerii i t t posal s vi The m e calcerii i sat t Haie coul cal tfcaton o he t er ce. di tfcaton t ed hat ly d r t n t wor f lghtdut as i e ur o k or i y s gnment t ough Febr y 1 2008,w ih no lûi ofm or t s hr uar 8, t i ng e han t pounds and w ih ot r rc i on bendi s a ng, and s ti en t her estitons ng, t ndi qua tng. A ccor ng t di o Def endant t e r ti i wer s t tH aiey coul notcary any oft m ai r es a t , hes esrctons e uch ha l d r he l out t he Lynchbur car i annex. M or g rer eover t c rerannex onl had one f ltm e lghtdut poston, , he ar i y ul-i i y ii whi was aleady fled. I poranty,Def ch r il m t l endantm ai ai t pror t recei oft m edi nt ns hat i o pt he cal cerii ton on Febr y 5, 2008, i had aleady deci tfca i uar t r ded, i lght of t pr dici i y n i he e- s plnar i er ew t twasconduct on Febr y 2,2008,t tH aiey s d bet na ed. nt vi ha ed uar ha l houl enni t On Fe ua y 9,2008 Ha l y' s pe v s s n a r q s t t po t l s r i e' l bor br r , ie s u r ior e t e ue t o he s a e v c s a r atons ofk e t dr a notce of r oval f Haiey. The m a el i t o aq i em or l nager of t ca rer annex he r i concur ed w ih t sr r t hi eques . H aiey was is a f m alnotceofr ovalon Febr y 19,2008, t l s ued or i em uar whi h cie hi uns ts a t y a tnda ce r c d. The no i e ofr m ov i e ii d is e f c i c t d s a if c or te n e or tc e al d ntfe t fe tve da e as M ar 28,2008. On Febr y 20 and 25,2008, Haiey se w rten r t ch uar l nt it eques s t t t o he Lynchbur posm as er i whi H aiey sought lght dut w or as gnm ent . The Lync g t t n ch l i y k si s hburg pos m aserdeni t e r t t ed hes equess bas on t f t tHaiey' s vi or had aleady deci t ed he act ha l s uper s s r ded t r ove hi . o em m Purua tt t posalsr c sc lci b r i nga e me (i ' wihHaly' s n o he t evie' oletve agani gre nt t CBA' t ie s ) u on Halywa e ttedt rmanet ront j oront co k a t opinoft p tl ni , ie s nil o e i ihe he ob he lc t he to he osa se vi f 30 days prort t efectve da e ofhi r r ce or i o he f i t s emoval Bec . ause of an er orby t pos al r he t s vi Haiey was noti m edi el puton t cl er ce, l m at y he ock. As a r t on M ar 13,2008,H aiey' esul, ch l s ma ge a ho ie as ay a nc of$1 1 00, c Ha ly a e dt r pa na r ut rz d alr dva e ,96. whih ie gr e o e y. I t m e ntm e pur ua t t t CBA,H a l y pu s d a g i va e w ih r s c t hi n he a i , s n o he ie r ue re nc t e pe t o s r emoval On Aprll7,2008,t pos als vi c uded t t ew as no vi aton oft CBA . i he t er ce oncl hat her ol i he a t tHaly ha be n rmov d frj tc us. On Ma 6 2008 Haly c tce aposal nd ha ie d e e e o us a e y , , ie ona td t sr c e le o n o tniy ($ ' c nslrfrt frttme. On Ma 8,20 evie qua mplyme t pporu t $EEO' ou eo o he is i ) y 08, Haly rc i d a pa ch k icldi t pa aj t t fr whih he ha rc i d te ie e eve y ec n u ng he y dusmen o c d e eve h $l 1 00 s lr a va e. Att ttme Haly r pad $70 00 oft s l r a va e. On M a ,96. aa y d nc ha i , ie e i 0. he a ay d nc y 29,2008,t Lynchbur posm as er is a l t ofdem and t Haiey,s ng r he g t t s ued eter o l eeki epaymentof t er mani $ 00ofhi s a ya a e. h e i ng 496. s alr dv nc On June 1 2008,H aiey subm it t t posalser ce hi t s f m alEEO com pl nt 3, l ted o he t vi s ir t or ai ofdic i i ton. I t EEO c m pl i ,Ha l y s e fca l ale d t the wa di c i i a e s rm na i n he o a nt ie p cii ly l ge ha s s rm n t d a i tb c us of hi p i ala me aldia lte . Ha l y s e n l a e d hi EEO ga ns e a e s hys c nd nt s biii s ie ubs que ty m nde s com pl nt t i ude a r alaton cl m f t pos alse ce' i uance of t M ay 29, 200: ai o ncl et i i ai or he t rvi s ss he l t of dem a whi h H aiey cont eter nd, c l ends was is i r pons t hi ear i EEO pr ec ed s ued n es e o s ler ot t ac i t Uli at y,t e cl m sw er acc ed f EEO i tgaton. tviy. tm el hes ai e ept or nves i i Se at y, on Augus 7,2008,Haiey' CBA uni grevance r di t l t of par el t l s on i egar ng he eter de a was s tl d s h t the w oul r c i a pa hec f o whi h t r pa t r m a ni g m nd e te uc ha d e e ve yc k r m c o e y he e i n $ 00 fom hi e rirs lr a a e. Ho ve , when H aiey t ed t pi k up t payc , 496. r s a le aa y dv nc we r l ri o c hat heck h r f e t r pa t $49 00, nd s t pa he kwa notr la e t hi . e eus d o e y he 6. a o he yc c s ee s d o m O n Se e be l 20 Ha l y i ta e a s ond f m a EEO c pl i ,a l i t t pt m r 9, 09, ie nii t d ec or l om a nt leg ng ha ar ound June 1 or 1 2009, t pos al s ce r ala ed agai t hi by not gi ng hi a 2 5, he t ervi et it ns m vi m $15 2. c c be a eheha r c n l fl a EEO c ,3 00 he k c us d e e ty ied n omplit an . OnJ y 1 ,201 t a nitai lw j edimisd Haly' rqu tfrahe ng ul 9 0,he dmi srtve a udg s se ie s e es o mi on hi orgi June 13,2008 EEO com pl ntbecaus he di notcom pl wih t posalse vi s s i nal ai e d y t he t r ce' pr ousy isued dicover r evi l s s y equest On Sept ber 1 2010,t pos als ce i ued is fnal s. em , he t ervi ss t i a e y de iin (TAD'. Haly a ae t a re d cii t t Ofie ofFe ea g nc cso ç ' ) ie ppe ld he dves e son o he fc d rl Op rtons(r FO' wihi t Eq lEmpl me Opp t t Co sin (6 eai i ' t n he ua ) oy nt oruniy mmiso < EEOC'. I a ' n n ) opi on dat M ar 30,2011,t OFO uphel t posals vi sFAD ,and on Jul 15,2011, ni ed ch he d he t er ce' y t OFO deni Haiey' r he ed l s eques f r t or econsi aton. der i Ad to ly,i a d iin dae Se e r 29 201 a a mi srtve lw j e diinal n ecso td ptmbe , 0, n d nitai a udg dimis d Haly' sco ( pe r 1 200 EEO c antalgi rt iton,hol ng s se ie s e nd Se tmbe 9, 9) ompli le ng ealai di t t i was a colat alatack on a gre ha t l er t ivance s tem e and t tt pl ntf had notpr etl nt ha he ai if oduced pri a f eevi m aci dence ofr alaton. The i t ntacton e et i i ns a i nsued. Ha l y c e t th w a ,a r m a ns a qu ii d p r on w ih a dia lt aqua ii d ie ont nds ha e s nd e i , alfe e s t s biiy, lfe peron per ved t have a di lt and/ a qualfed per w ih a hit y ofdi lt wihi s cei o sabiiy, or ii son t sor sabiiy t n t m eani of t Rehabiia i A c . H aiey aleges t Def he ng he lt ton t l l hat endants actons cons i t ' i tm e dicrm i i and r alaton agai thi wih r pectt t t r s,condii and prviegesof s i naton et i i ns m t es o he e m tons, il hi e o n i vi ai oft Re a l ain Ac . Am o ot r f r sof r it Ha l s mplyme t n olton he h bii to t t ng he o m elel iey se eks r nsat ent bac pay, r m bur em ent f l t beneft , f ont pay, a addii ei t em , k ei s or os is r nd tonal compens or dam ages at y . Dee n fld t moton f s fnda t ie he i or ummay j me t t i prsnty beoe me o r udg nt ha s ee l fr n Febr r 28,201 On M ar h l3,2012,Haiey fld hi r ponse i opposii t D ef ua y 2. c l ie s es n ton o endants ' mo i I h s r s e H a l y a t c e a d cl r to p e r d by hi a t n a t s i g t t ton. n i e pons , ie ta h d e a a i n r pa e s tor ey te tn ha Halywa , tlatasoft flngoft rs e u bl t prsnte sntalfcst j tf hi ie s a e s he ii he epons, na e o ee se i at o usiy s ' i be a e e s nta l no di c e y ha t ke pl c . c us s e i ly s ov r d a n a el opposton t Def ii o endant s m oton Ac or ngl,Haly rquetd t tIde Dee da ' smmayj me tmoi a a nd c di y ie e se ha ny fn nts u r udg n ton nd me t e prtilor rt r fe ta to ltme t c mplt dic r 2 Ho ve ,a t e h a i 1 h era de o e lc ddii na i o o ee s ove y. we r t h e rng c nd td o Ap i 1 201 co e f Haly c c de t t he c d no pr f r wha o uc e n rl 3, 2, uns l or ie on e d ha oul t ofe t es ental f s di cover m i hel t devel w ih r ct t Haiey' r alaton cl m s. s i act s y ght p o op t espe o l s et i i ai A cc di y,whie Iha ent ed an or per itng lm ied di or ngl l ve er der m ti i t scover w ih r d t Haiey' y t egar o l s diabii dic i haton cams i lg tofhi opp iin t Defnda tss mmayj dg nt s lt srml i li n ih y s osto o e n ' u r u me m oton,lhave concl i uded t such di cover on Haie s r alaton cl m s woul be fuil . hat s y l y' et i i ai d r tess Th rf e a t sj t e i i a prpraet rs v Defnda tssmmayj dg ntmoton eeor, t hi uncur, t s p o it o e ole e n ' u r u me i wih r s t t re alaton cl m s. t e pect o hose t i i ai I LEGAL STANDARD I. A c r s ul grn s ou t ho d a t ummayj r udgme i te pla ngs t dic r a dicosr nt f h e di , he sovey nd sl ue m at i son t e,a any afi t s t ût e i no genui diput ast a m at i f eral il nd fdavis how hat ther s ne s e o ny eral act a t mova ti e ild t j gme tasa matroflw. Fe R.Ci P.5 a;se alo nd he n s ntte o ud n te a ' d. ' v. 6() e s 1 Ge r l , ' d src c u t mu t r f s s mmay j d me t û e e te n n v n p ry h s n t h d t e ne aly ç itit o r s eu e u r u g n wh r h o mo i g a t a o a h a o p ru i t d so e if r to ta i e s nil o( s o p i o .'Na e v Bli, 4 F.d9 3 9 1( t Ci. p o tn t o ic v r n o mai n h t s s e t t i ) p ost n' d r . ar 5 9 3 5 , 6 4 h r y a t i ' 2 0 )( u t g An es n v Lie t Lo b ,I c,4 7 U. 2 2 2 0 n 5 ( 9 6 Ho v r ûh p r o p sn 0 8 q o i d ro . b r b y n . 7 S. 4 , 5 . 1 8 :. we e , û e a t p o ig n y t y s mmayjd me tça n tc mpanta s mmayj d metwa gatdwi o tdso eyu ls ta p ryhd u r u g n cn o o li h t u r u g n s rne t u ic v r nes h t at a h ma a a tm p t opp e t e moton on t e gr dst tm o e tme wasne de f dico r '' Ha r ds f/f v de n te t o os h i h oun ha r i e d or s ve y.' r o ( . S y l tr e Do nNa s 3 2F.d2 4 2 4 (t Ci. 0 2 ( u t gEv n v T c s A pl a in ( S nzCo, àt ne n t mai me , 0 3 1 , 4 4h r 2 0 ) q o i a s . e h . p i to s Q e n c . 8 F. 95 961 ( h Ci. 1 0 3d 4, 4t r 996:. I ode t r s t s is ,t nonmovi pat mus tl a afi vi or n r r o aie hi sue he ng ry t le n fda t d caainepann wh ,ço se ie rao s icn o pee tfcsesnilojsi i o p st n' to t e lrt x liig y ç r p ct d es n,t a n t rsn at se ta t u ty t p o io 'wi u o f i f s i h mo e dso e F d R. v P 5 ( ) I te n n vn p r c n ma e t ss o n te c u t y ç1 d fr r i v c. e . Ci. . 6 d . f h o mo ig a t a k hi h wig,h o r ma : 6 ) e e c y ( co i rngt moinorde y i;( al tmet obai a lda t ord lr tonsort tkedic vey;o ( is nsdei he to n t 2) low i o t n fs vis eca ai o a s o r r 3) sue a ot ra r i t or n' 1l ny he pp opra e de ' 6 2Alho t r ha b en es e i l n f maldic r i t e i t ntc s , dico r wasc t ugh he e s e s ntaly o or s ove y n h nsa a e s ve y onduc e pur u ntt td s a o Ha ly' EEO c ie s ompl i t , a t ma e i l a i or ton unc e e i t c s of t e a i sr tve a n s nd he t ra s nd nf ma i ov r d n he our e hos dm nitai pr e s ha be n r a l av lbl t Ha ly. oc s es ve e e diy aia e o ie Ceotx Cop.v Cart,477 U. 31 ,3 (98 . l te e d nc ofa g nui is e of l e r . tet S. 7 22 1 6) f h vie e e ne su maeilfc ti meey c oa eori notsg t nl pr tve s tra a t ds rl olrbl s ini ty obai , ummayj dgme ma b ka r u nt y e ga e ' An ronv. ieryLobb I .477U. 2 2 -5 (986 (iainso te ) ç s rntd. des f b t ' y, nc, S. 42, 49 0 1 ) ctto mitd . W t mae ilt ...g l y dipueso rfc st a m i tafe tt ou c me oft s tu rt o tra iy o nl s t ve a t h t gh fc he t o he ui nde he g v r n 1w wil rp ryp e ld tee tyo s mmayj d me t'f . t 48 o enig a lp o el rcu e h nr f u r u g n . # a 2 . ' l c i rng amoton f s n onsdei i or ummayj dg ntun rRul 5 a c tmus ve t r u me de e 6, our t iw he r d as a w hol and dr a1 r ecor e aw l easonabl i er e nf ences i t lght m os f abl t t n he i t avor e o he n onmovigpat Se Rev sv Sa ro PlmbigPr ds,Ic,53 U. 1 3,1 0( 00 .I n ry. e e e . ndes n u n o . n 0 S. 3 5 20 ) f t nonm ovi pary bear t bur of pr , çt bur on t m ovi pary m ay be he ng t s he den oof çhe den he ng t di char by û how i - t t i,poi i outt t di rc cour - t t è i a abs s ged s ng' ha s ntng o he stit t hat her s n ence of evi dence t supportt nonm ovi part scase.' Cel e 477 U . at325. I t m ovi pary o he ng y' ' otx, S. f he ng t s hows s h an absence ofevi uc dence,t bur s fst t nonm ovi pary t s f t specii he den hit o he ng t o et orh fc fcsil tai ge n is sf til S Fe R.Ci P.56c;Ceotx,477 U. a 32 at lusrtng nuie sue or ra. ee d. v. () l e S. t 4. U li a e y t ti c t ha a S fr a i o i ton' t t r ve ta m aly uns ppored tm t l , he ral our s n s im tve blga i ' o t e nt f c l af p u t camsr )d fnss fom poc e ngt til' Fel v Gr e - mphrysCo.81 F. 1 2 li or ee e ' r r e di o ra. t . av sHu e ' y , 8 2d 1 6, 1l ( hCi.1 )(uoi Ceotx, U. a 3 -24 . 28 4t r 987 q tng l e 477 S. t 23 ) 1 .D l 11 scussl oN A.TheRehabiiaton Act lt i Haiey bri t s acton unde t Reha lt ton Act 29 U. C.j701 e s q.whih l ngs hi i r he biia i , S. ,/ e , c gover diabiiy di i i ton i f al empl ns s lt scrm na i n eder oyment . I i w el- t ihed t t t s les abls ha , not t t ng t abs wihsandi he ence of an expr prvat rght of acton i t Rehabiiaton Act ess i e i i n he lt i , idi d l ma s t e f c isprviins Se Pa zde v P Bd o n viuas y ue o nore t o so . e nda i s . W. fEduc,1 F. 8 . 3 3d 23, 8 ( hCi.1 ) Ast dititco tf t DititofMaylndrc ntys mmaie 28 4t r 994 . he src ur orhe src r a e e l u rz d, (l sa da d us d t dee mi whehe a fde a e oye ha dic i nae the t n r s e o tr ne t r e r l mpl r s s rmi td under t Reha lt i A c ar t e se f t under t A m e cans wih he biiaton t e hos t orh he ri t Dia lisAc (t ',4 U. C.j 1 l ,e s q. The Re biiain Ac sbiie t t t ADA' 2 S. ) 21 1 t e ha ltto t icop ae t ADA' a t-eaito povii Se 42 U. C.j 1 203() n rorts he S nirtlain r son. e S. 2 a. Th ,i a to t pr t ci f d r le oy s a ai tdic i nai on t us n ddiin o o e tng e e a mpl ee g ns s rmi ton he bass ofdi abiiy,t Rehabiiaton Actbar r t i i agai tem pl i s lt he lt i s e alaton ns oyees who ha e ç pposd a a t or prcie ma e unlwf by (he ADA or t v ç e ny c o a tc d a ul t he Re biiain Aclorbe a es h i viua ma eac r ,t tfe a sse ha ltto t c us uc ndi d l d hage esiid, sitd, or pari pa ed i any m anner i an i tga i pr di or hea i ' 42 tci t n n nvesi ton, ocee ng, r ng.' U. C.j1 203() S. 2 a. Ma kv Mc gh, 1 0 6, 1W L 3 4460 a *1 ( Md. doc . Hu No. 0-270 201 65 , t 3 D. Aug.1 ,2 1. 8 01 ) B.M et hods ofProof As a gener mater t e ar t m eans by whi a pl ntf m ay pr i entonal al t , her e wo ch ai if ove nt i e oy n dici nai orrtlain. Pee sv Je ne 3 F.d 307 3 n.5( h Ci. mpl me t srmi ton eaito tr . n y, 27 3 , 20 1 4t r 2003. Thefrtoft s meho i t ofe S rc o idie te d nc ' o rtlai und r ) is he e t ds s o fr ç et r n rc vie e' f eaiton e di dodiayprncplsofpoof' Bu n v AAFdr n r i i e r ' rs . MCQUF,I 96F.d 728 731(t Ci.1 96 nc, 3 , 4h r 9 ) (ntralq ai maksa ctton o ted. Whe a plitf pr e ngunde odi r i en uottons r nd iai mit ) n anif ocedi r r nay prn pl ofpoofse t a r s ici es r e ks o vet ummayj me t i te mo ng pat sfvo,he mus r udg n n h vi ry' a r t ( od edie te de eofasae p p et gealae a d/ (ndiet e de eo s fce t C uc rc vi nc pr ttd uros o rt itj n or i rcl vi nc f ufiin pr tve f ce t r l a genui i ue of mat i f .' Rhoads v.F. . C. 257 F. 373, oba i or o etect ne ss eral act' Df , 3d 391( hCi. )(nen quoai smaksa ctto omitd) 4t r2001 itral tton r nd iain te . I t e n t t t pl n it lke Haie he e ofe s no s h die t e de c of n he ve t ha he aitfl i ly r , fr uc r c vi n e r t la i ,t s c m e h i t bu de - hitng a o ch e t bls d i M c o l Dou as e a i ton he e ond t od s he r n s fi ppr a s a ihe n D nne l gl Cop.v Gr e ,411U. 79 ( 9 )3 Und rt ss tm ofpr lt pl ntf mus frtst r . en S. 2 1 73 . e hi yse oot he ai if t is e 3 Alhou M c nel Dou a i ve a c a m of r c aldic i i ton i hii g, t c e' bu de - hi n t gh Don l gl s nvol d l i a i s rm na i n rn he as s r n s oi g fa wor has b n hel a plc bl i t c t xt of dia lt d s i i a in a r tlaton. Se Pc r v. r me k ee d p i a e n he on e s biiy icrm n to nd e i i e r.p - 8- f t a prm af e case ofr alaton. Once t pl ntf hasesabls hi pri f e case by a orh i aci et i i he ai if t ihed s ma aci prpo rnc ofte e de e $ pesmptonofilga geaito aie,a tebude of e ndea e h vi nc ,$ r u i a le l rtlainj rs s nd h r n prducins Rst t e o r d mus atc aea(on-ealaor ra o frt (d re o to hi o he mplye,who t riult n rt it yj e s n o he a ves e o n a to .' Ho ev Fr ghti r LLC,65 F. 3 ,336(t Ci. 1 ( tn mplyme t cinl'' yl . ei lne, 0 3d 21 4h r 201 ) quoig Co v CS T a p.Cor ,98 F.d 507 511(t Ci.1 3:. l t d e n f l t me t ok . X r ns p. 8 2 , 4h r 99 f he efnda t ais o e t bur ofpr he den oduci tevi ng t dence w hi t ch, aken as t w oul permi t concl on t t e rue, d t he usi hat her wa a(on-eaitr raonf t a rea tonr a t pli ifhasprve ap i fce s n rtlaoyl e s or he dves ci ' nd he antf ' o d rma a i c s,çhec r mus a r j gme tt t plitf a amatro lw. &.Mar 'Hono Ct. ae l ou t t wad ud n o he anif s te f a ' t ' ys r r ff/ ,5 U. 5 5 (993. Ho ve,tll t dee n c ris t s b de of fcc 09 S. 02, 09 1 ) w we r sif he fnda t are hi ur n pr c i t pr s p i n r ie by t prm a f c e c e i r bu t d,'Bu di e 45 U . a odu ton, he e um to a s d he i a i as s e te ' r n , 0 S. t 255,and çt M cDonnel Dougl fam ewor w ih ispr um ptonsand bur - i no l çhe l as r k- t t es i dens s onger r eva ,'and Esi pl dr outoft pit e,'H i ,509 U. at510-11. el nt' i m y ops he c ur ' cks S. The Unied St t CourtofA ppeal f t D iti ofCol bi Cicui hasdes i t t a es s or he srct um a r t crbed he i r som ewhatdif r l t nquiy f e enty, hough cogenty,ass l uch: l a (ealai ) s twhee a e o eha s frd a a re e oy nt n rt iton ui r n mplye s ufee n dves mpl me ato a a e oye ha as re algii t,non leait y)r s f t cin nd n mpl r s setd e tmae -rtlaor eaon or he deci i t dit i cour need not and shoul no/son, he s rct t d --deci whet t de her he ?anifa tal ma eo t p i fcec s u d r Do n lDou ls Rah r litf cu ly d u a rma a i a e n e Mc n el ga . te, l c nsd rng a e oy rs moton f s n o ie i n mpl e ' i or ummay j gme . .. i t e r ud nt n hos cicum sances t di tit cour m us r ol one cent al ques i Has t r t , he src t t es ve r ton: he e oy e prduc d s fcinte d nc f a raona ej r t fnd ta t mpl e o e ufi e vie e or e s bl uy o i h t he e oy rsase tdno geait y raonwa no teatalras a dt tt mpl e ' sre n-rtlaorl e s s t h cu e on n ha he e oy ri e i ly (eaitd)a i tt e o eont ba i of( otce mpl e ntntonal rtlae gans he mplye he ss pr e td c uc) ond t? Br k v Oy c o heSege a Ar 520F.d49 4 ( C. r 2008. a . e ft r ant t ms, 3 0, 94 D. Ci. ) Compue Sci Cor ,429 F.App' 21 ,21 ( t Ci.2011 CDia lt dici nai a rtlato cl ms tr . p. x 8 9-20 4h r ) s biiy s rmi ton nd eai in ai un rt ADA a Re iiai Ac a ee l tdu rt L Donnel u as Gr t t fa wok.) de he nd habltton t r vauae nde he Mc lDo gl ? p eex ' rme r M. C.H aie sRet i i Cl m s ly' alaton ai To etbls aprma fci c s o rt ito t pli ifmus s w:( 1 ta h ha sa ih i a e ae f ealain, he antf t ho $ ) h t e s 4 e ga e i prtce c ndu t ()t th s fee a a rea to s e ue tt e ga ngi n g d n oetd o c; 2 ha e ufrd n dves cin ubs q n o n gi n pr e td c nd t a ( t ttheewa a cus ln b t e t pr e td aci t a t otce o uc; nd 3) ha t r s a al ik ewen he otce tviy nd he a es a ton.' Lyon v Shi e ,No.111 61 201 WL 558 6,a * ( h Ci.No 1 , dv re ci '' s . nski -3 , 1 883 t 3 4t r v. 7 2011 ( otngfabe v Ha e 438F.d404, ( hCi.200 ) Addiinal beoefl ) qu i r . rvy, 3 432 4t r 6). to ly, fr ii ng l ui under t Rehabiiaton Act a f al empl aws t he lt i , eder oyee m ust exha t al avaiabl us l l e a nitai rme es e42 U. C.j20 -6() Me lc v Ru # l 336F.Sup 2 dmi srtve e di .Se S. 00e l c ; do k . ms d, p. d 452, 2 ( M d. ) 46 D. 2002 . I t case at hand, H aiey aleges t t posal s ce r alat agai t hi by n he l l hat he t ervi et i ed ns m di posng di plne agai thi f m isi wor whi abs sm i sci i ns m or s ng k, ch encesw er due t hi di abiii ' e o s s ltes,' (eu i t pa ( mla t rg f l owe t hi 'a çe ui t p y hi smsduei s fsng o y hi mouns ihtuly d o m, nd ç f sng o a m u r ' r n r t ito f hi pr tc e a tviy. Co .! 1 1 By cli ng t th wa r tla e ealain or s o e t d c i t ' mpl ! 2, 4. ' ami ha e s eait d agai tf m i i w or Haie t as t t t hi perodi abs ns or ssng k, l y hus sers ha s i c ences qualf as one f m of iy or pr ec e conduct H ow ever even i I wer t as um e t hi abs ot t d . , f e o s hat s ences c d qualf as oul iy pr eced conduct H aiey neve hel s f l t i ude t s pari arf m ofpr ect actviy ot t , l rt es aied o ncl hi tcul or ot ed i t i hi EEO com pl nt I t e com pl nt ,t r alat y conduct aleged by Haiey was t n s ai s. n hos ai s he et i or l l he pos al se vi s isuance of t l t of dem and, t colecton of a pori of t m oney t r ce' s he eter he l i ton he a va e t hi a t r f a t gi hi ac c i t a un of$153 00.l o he wor , d nc d o m, nd he e us l o ve m he k n he mo t , 2. n t r ds t dicpln r acinstke byteposalsr c (nt fr ofs pe i a uli t y, he s i iay to a n h t evie i he om us nsons nd, tmael tr nai ofHaly' e oy nt i rs ons t Haly' a e esfom wor we en tapat emi ton ie s mpl me ) n e p e o ie s bs nc r k r o r ofhi EEO com pl nt M or s ai s. eover t e di plnar actons ar not r onabl r at t t , hes sci i y i e eas y el ed o he char of r ala i f ges et iton ound i hi EEO com pl nt Ther or , Haiey' cl m t t posal n s ai s. ef e l s ai hat he t - 1 0 s r c r t la e a i t hi f di a lt r l t d a e e by i po i f m s of di c pln e vi e e a i t d ga ns m or s biip e a e bs nc s m s ng or s i ie mus be ba r d a n ha ng b n a i s r tv y e a t d. A c o di y,t o y i t nc s t re s ot vi ee dm nit a i el xh us e c r ngl he nl nsa e of r alaton wih whi Haie i l t concer t posal ser ce' i uance of t l tr of et i i t ch l y s ef n he t vi s ss he ete de nd a ise f rst c l c t a a e t tHa l y h pl ge t r pa ma nd t f o t o ole t he dv nc ha ie as ed d o e y. I hi c n s ompl nt Haly do sn s l tp e ieywhihaci tesh i a lgi s ul ai , ie e ot pelou r cs l c tvii e s le ng ho d be deem e pr ect conduct and, cor es d ot ed r pondi y,t actvii f w hi t posal se vi ngl he i tes or ch he t r ce alegedl r t i ed agai t hi . Li aly consr ng hi com pl nt4 how ever l i er t t l y e alat ns m ber l tui s ai , , nf ha Haiey i cl m i t f l i ashi pr ect conduct hi s i i oft Febr y 5,2008 l s ai ng he olow ng s ot ed ; s ubm sson he uar m e c l c rii a i n f lgh du y wor a sgn e t ; hi Fe u r 20 a 25, 2 di a e tfc to or i t t k s i m n s s br a y nd 008 lte s etr r eques i lght dut w or assgnm ent hi M ay 6,2008 cont t wih a posalser ce EEO tng i y k i s; s ac t t vi couns or;hi June 13,2008 EEO com pl nt and hi Se em ber 1 2009 EEO com pl nt el s ai ; s pt 9, ai . dl b e g i apr etdaci t un rt Re biiai Ac,plitfl1mus ha e t- e nga ed n otce tviy de he ha ltton t anif 'o t v be n pr etn wh t (ejpec i a dici naor acs b ( se oy r. Webt v e otsig a h reved s srmi t y t y hi mpl el' ' ser . He des 32F.App' 36,44(t Ci.200 . Iob ev t ti i frfo ce rt ttefrt n ron, x 4h r 2) s re ha t s a rm la ha h is t exam pl ofalegedl pr ect actviy t tIhave c tued- nam el Haiey' s i i wo es l y ot ed i t ha onsr y, l s ubm sson of t m edi cerik aton and hi r he cal tt i s eques s f lght dut wor assgnm ent--can even f l t or i y k i s al wihi t s d fnii ofprtce a tviy. Se 42 U. C. j 1 t n hi ei ton oe td ci t e S. 2203() (t pes s l a t No ron hal dicrm i e agai t any i vi s i nat ns ndi dual bec ause s i vi uch ndi dualhas oppos any act or pr i ed actce m ade unl ulby t s chapt or bec e s h i vi m ade a char t tfed,as sed, or awf hi er aus uc ndi dual ge, es ii sit pa tcpa e i a m a ne i a i e tga i , pr c e ng o he rng und r t s c a e .' ri i t d n n n r n ny nv s i ton o e di , r a i e hi h pt r ); Baa s v fib t , 32 F. 3 1 , 1 8 (t Ci. 1 ) ( di t t e rsins of lz . e enhal d 51 5 4h r 994 hol ng ha xpeso dic i nai e n whe e no tue c nsiue p o e t d a tviy) Ar ton v I x Jou nal s rmi ton, ve r t r , o tt t r t ce ci t ; ms r g . nde r Co,6 F.d 441 4 ( t Ci.1 )(sBlha orne d notrs t t lv off r c a ge . 47 2 , 48 4 h r 981 s e vi e l ie o he e el o mal h r s 4Alho heha snc r t i ed c s ,Haie wa pr e di grr s whe he tld hi c t ugh s i e e a n oun el l y s oc e n o e n ie s ompl i t an . ofdici nai ). Howe e,be a e tes t i tnc s tng tal rlt t Haly' srmi ton' v r c us h e wo nsa e a enily eae o ie s i biiy t obt n wor ace accom m odatonst hedesied,and becaus he r er el wher i na lt o ai kpl i hat r e ef s se en hi com pl nt t t f t t t f l e t pr de t e accom m odatons am ount t s ai o he ac hat he aiur o ovi hes i ed o dicrm i ton on t par oft pos alser ce,lw ilass e,f t pur s i na i he t he t vi l um or he poses ofar ent t t gum , ha a lfveoft a o e e i d e m pl sf l wihi t e de i ton ofp ot c e a tviy. l i he f r m ntone xa e a l t n h fnii r e td ci t Even concedi t t e i t ng hat hes nsances r es t pr ect actvii cl m ed by Haiey, epr ent he ot ed i tes ai l Dee da t no t ls ag s t t he i enild t s fn n nehee s rue ha s tte o ummay j me b ca e t r ae r udg nt e us hee r i ufi ent causallnks bet een t ' actvii and t alegedl adver e em pl ent acton ns fci i w hes e i tes he l y s oym i t n by t pos als vi ake he t er ce.U li at y,even afert ng al i er tm el t aki l nf ences i H aiey' f ,Iagr n l s avor ee. ç( c us c ne tonfrpur e ofde nsrtngaprmafci c s e sswheete tA) a al on ci o poss mo tai i a e a e xit r h empl oyer t kes adver e em pl ent acton agai t an em pl a s oym i ns oyee s l afer l ni of t horty t ear ng he prt td a tviy. Prc v Thomps ,38 F. 20 21 ( h Ci.2 ) Howe r a a oece ci t ' ie . ' on 0 3d 9, 3 4t r 004 . ve, s ge e a m a tr d he pa s ge oftm e a one c n tp o de p oofofca a i unl s t t m p a n r l te , t t sa i l a no r vi r us ton e s he e or l pr m iy bet oxi t ween an em pl oyer' know l s edge ofpr ec ed ac i t and an adver em pl ent ot t tviy se oym a to wa veycos ' Lyon ,201 WL 55 36,a * (ntr lq ainsmaksa ctton cin s r l ea ' s 1 ::8 t 4 i ena uotto r nd iai omie ) Th ,ç lnghytmelps bewe n aprtce a tviy a a a ves e o n t d. us ç e t i a e t e t a oe td ci t nd n d re mplyme t ac i can negat a i er ton e n nf ence ofcausalconnecton.' f ( tngDowev Tot Act Agai t i ' #. ci i . al i on ns Pov ryi Roano eVale 1 F. 653 657(t Ci.1 98). et n k ly, 45 3d , 4h r 9 ) W he Haie r c i d hi $11 6.0 s lr a a e whih ha b n a ho ie o n ly e eve s , 9 0 aa y dv nc , c d ee ut rz d n M ar h l 2008,he agr t r c 3, eed o epay t am ountw hen he r ved a l t r paychec . I he ecei ae k ndeed,t he f m h s g d i l est f l i l ng e dlht t y c riy t t1ha r ei d t a ve or e i ne nc ud he olow ng a uag : d r b t tf ha ve ec ve he bo am ounta w ilr nd l epay t am ountupon r ptofm y s a y check.' On M ay 8,2008,Haiey hat ecei al r ' l rc ve a pa h k a a t a tme rpad $70 of hi a a e. O n M ay 29, 2008,t e ei d yc ec nd t h t i e i 0 s dv nc he Ly h gposma t ris d t lte o de nd t Haly,s e ng t r mani $ 00 t t nc bur t se s ue he e tr f ma o ie e ki he e i ng 496. ha Ha l y ha bee a a d. D e e n c t n t t t s l te o de a d wa a c ie d n dv nce f nda t on e ds ha hi e t r f m n s ompl t y e el s p r t a d ditn t e n f o H a l y' pr e t d a tvii s a l a e t e posa s r c s e a a e n s i c ve t r m ie s ot c e c i te , nd gr e; h t l e vi e' e f t t r c up t m o y a nc d t H a l y,whi h i l e t is n e of t Ite of fors o e o he ne dva e o ie c nc ud d he s ua c he e t r de nd,we eo ousy ge r d t r c lci ade tt tHaie ha p omie t pa ba k. ma r bvi l a e owa d ole tng b ha ly d r s d o y c 5 Th , r a ona e t iroff c c d notfn t s e f t on t e pa toft p t ls r c t be a us a e s bl re a t oul i d he e fors h r he os a e vi e o r t it r r s ns t H a l y' s i son oft m e ca c rii a i a r q s f r lg du y eala o y e po e o ie s ubm s i he di l e tfc ton nd e ue t o i ht t wok asg ns boh o whih,la t k plc J rt c rira x' ma ag me th r sinme t, t f c dd, oo a e /e he are nne s n e n ad aleady deci t t m i e Haiey' e pi entont bassofhi unexpl ned abs r ded o er nat l s m oym he i s ai ences. Thi concl i i onl butr s by t t s uson s y tes ed he empor gap bet al ween m os oft i t t he nsancesof pur t y pr ect actviy and t alegedl r alat y em pl e acton. For exa pl poredl ot ed i t he l y et i or oym nt i m e, Hai y pr s nt d t m e c l c r ii a i o Feb ua y 5 2008 a he s bm it d r que t f r l e e e e he di a e tfc ton n r r , , nd u te e ss o lgh du y w o k a s g e t on Fe ua y 2 a d 25 2008 Howe r t lte of d m a wa i t t r s i nm n s br r 0 n , . ve , he e t r e nd s no is d un i ove t e mon hs l t ron M a 29,2008 W hie t s s n oftm e b t e t e t s ue tl r hr e t ae y . l hi pa i e we n h pr ect actviy and t adver em pl e acton sandi al i pr ot ed i t he se oym nt i t ng one s obabl i ufi e l y ns fcinty l hy t negat t caus lnk as a m a t ofl see Hooven- ewi v.Cal a,249 F. 259, engt o e he al i ter aw, L s der 3d 278 (t Ci.20 )($ sx monh lgi s t e tt n gaea i ern e ofca ain. is 4h r 01 ç i A t a s ufkin o e t ny nf e c usto ' t ), 5M or ov r lno e t ti i u e wh t rt l te ofde a d e n qua iis asan ad r e e o e e, t ha t s nclar e he he et r m n ve lfe ve s mpl ymen a ton. t ci Asag n r l te,n tec ne t fds rmiai ncams ta na v ree ly n a t ni ad srmi ao ya t e e a matr i h o tx o ici n to li , ç l d es mpo me t ci s ic i n tr c l o t a çd es l a fcgltetr a dc n i o so b n f so t epanifse ly n .' Ma o k v Mc g , h t a v rey fe ts h e ms n o dt n r e e i f h lit ' mpo me th d c . Hu h i t f ' No 1-2 0 , 0 1WL3 5 4 0 a * 5( Md. g 1, 01)(nen l u tt nmak a dcut n o te) . 00 7 6 2 1 6 4 6 , t 1 D. Au . 8 2 1 itra j oai rs n i i s mi d. o o t Howev r t e Sup e Cou tof t Unied St e ha he d t t a l s m c rai co e t , f r c uc t be e, h r me r he t ats s l ha t ea t e t n nt x s o ond t o co i r d a ç dve s aci 'i a r t la i cl m, i n d no ma e i ly at r t t r a c tons o nsde e n ç r e ton' n e a iton ai t ee t t ra l le he e ms nd ondii a f e ly n i o d rt saeava l cam. Bu l g o A2& S na FeR. Co v Wh t, 4 U.. 3 6 ( 0 6 . mpo me t n r e o tt ib e li ri tn n at R. . . i 5 8 S 5 , 7 2 0 ) e Rah ri tertl t nstig teCo l s e ,h plitfmut leeta: 1 h wa s betdt a at nta te,n h eai i et ,h u' ltd te anif s alg ht () e s ujce o n ci ht ao n t o a rao al e ly e wo l h v fu d maeil a v re a d ()te at n c ud dsu d a rao a l e sn be mpo e ud ae o n tral d es, n 2 h ci o l isa e es n be y o emplye fom ma n or s o e r kl g uppori a ch g of dic i i ton. Il a 6 tng ar e s rm na i 6 t 7-68. A s t Un t d Stt Cour of he ie aes t Appe l f t Fourh Cic tha obs r d,t e e i a dia e n ,whi h i ha d lned t r s ve i a r pore a s or he t r ui s e ve h r s s gr eme t c t s ec i o e ol n e t d ca e,o rwhehe Buri gt a plest t c a msoff e a empl e . See Zike v M i t 5 F. d 22 229 s ve t r ln on p i o he l i ed r l oye s s i . ne a, 47 3 0, ( h Ci.200 . Si lry,ldo notr c t s is e,f lfnd ta Hal srtlai camsf li a y e n 4t r 8) mia l ea h hi s u or i h t iey' eaiton li ai n n ve t be a e he c nno de c us a t monsr t t a t a r e e oy e t aci he ale s we e c s ly co c e t hi ta e h t he dve s mpl m n tons l ge r au a l nne t d o s pu pore y pr e ed c duc . r tdl otct on t l h i cerai y pr i oft l ofcaus iy and s ves t s engt s t nl obatve he ack alt er o upportm y concl i t a uson hat r easonabl ti roff coul notfnd t t f sher s e re act d i hat he act e uppor even an i er t nf enceofr t i i e alaton. A nd of c ur e t lte of d m a w a i s d t we ks be or Haie fl d hi frt o s , he e t r e nd s s ue wo e f e l y ie s is EEO compl nt s i coul not qualf as an adver e em pl ent acton w ih r ai , o t d iy s oym i t espectt t t o ha a s re e m pl of p ot c e c uc . Si ia l De e n ' r f a t g ve Haie t e s e t d xa e r e t d ond t m l ry, f nda t s e us l o i ly h $15 00 c c onJ 1 or1 ,20 whih Haie r ie i hi s c EEO c ,32. he k une 2 5 09, c ly as d n s e ond omplit t ok an , o pl c a f l ye ra t rH a l y tl d hi frtEEO c m pl i . As s h, tsm pl c nn be c us ly a e u l a fe ie ie s is o a nt uc i i y a ot a a l c ne t d t a oft pr e t d c nduc i whi h H a l y c a m st ha en ge Se i 6 on c e o ny he ot c e o tn c ie l i o ve ga d. e d. The onl i ance of alegedl pr e ed conduc t i t por l pr m a e t a y nst l y ot ct t hat s, em aly, oxi t o pur e y adver e em pl ent acton i H a ly' i tal cont ct w ih a posalser ce EEO portdl s oym i s ie s nii a t t vi c uns l r on M a 6,2008 whi h t pl c a f w we ks b or t i s a e of t l te of o eo y , c ook a e e e ef e he s u nc he e t r d m a W hie t s e nt a e u ubt dl c os t e h ri tm e t m po a pr xi iy al ne i e nd. l he e ve s r ndo e y l e og t e n i , e r l o m t o s n e ug t e t bls r t la i n. I e d,t l te o de a w a is d i or r t ob a n ot no h o s a ih e a i to nd e he e t r f m nd s s ue n de o t i m o y t tH a l y o e t t p t ls r i e a whi h he ha pr ie t r pa n a l t ne ha ie w d o he os a e v c nd c d om s d o e y e ry wo mo hsbeor hec a tdt EEO c nsl .Furhe,a peh pse nmoefnd ntly, nt f e ontce he ou eor t r nd ra ve r u ame al H a l y ha no a l e t tm a g m e ta t c r i ra ne o t posm a t ri Lync r ,who ie s t leg d ha na e n t he a re n x r he t s e n hbu g deci t is t l t of dem a w er even awar t t Haiey had spoken t t EEO ded o s ue he eter nd, e e ha l o he couns or A nd i t wer not awar t Haiey had cont ed t EEO couns or t el . f hey e e hat l act he el , he is s uance oft l tr ofdem and coul notbe a f m ofr ala i f doi so. See Shi ds v. he ete d or et iton or ng el Fe Ex e s Co p. 1 0 F.Ap x 95 9 ( h Ci.2005 (d pl n ifcai n r t ito d pr s r , 2 p' 6, 62 4t r ) ç aitf l mig ealain A 6Iobs r t tçll c s swhe etmpor poxi t bewe npr e tda i t a alge y rtlaor c c i eve ha tin a e r e al r miy t e otce ctviy nd le dl eait y ondu t s m isng, oursma l k t t i t r en ng pe i f o he e de e ofr u la o y a mus' Leti r v Equant nc, s i c t y oo o he n e v i rod or t r vi nc e i t r ni . ' te i . I . 4 8 F.d 6 0 6 0 ( t Ci.2 0 )(ne n lq oain ma k a d ctt n o te ) t p ctc l ,e ie c o 7 3 4 , 5 4 h r 0 7 itra u tt o r s n i i s mitd . t e i al vd n e f ao s l y r c r i r t i t y a m usdu i t i t r e n pe i c n be s fi e t s ts y t e e tofc us to ' 1 e u rng ealaor ni rng he n e v ni g rod a u tcint o a i f he l men a a i n.' d I t c s a ha ho ver Ha ly ha ofe e ab ol el no e d nc of s h t e r i r t la or ani . n he a e t nd, we , ie s f r d s ut y vi e e uc t cu rng e a it y mus' r ' The e or a r a on e tiroff c c d n ,i t a s nc oft mpor lpr m iy,fn a a t r tve e de eof r f e, e s abl re a t oul ot n he b e e e a oxi t i d ny le na i vi nc i ii r t la o y motva i on t pa t t posa s r i e i t i c s mplc t e ai t r i ton he r of he tl e v c n h s a e. m us esabls t t em pl t t ih hat he oyer had knowl edge of t pr ect actviy i or f is he ot ed i t n der or t s e ue ta ve s empl ntaci st b r tla o y.) fuc i v Ame ie h Cor ,3 F.d ubs q n d re oyme ton o e ea it r ' ; ke . rtc ' p. 89 3 708 71 (t Ci. )($A) e oye c no rtlaewhe i i una r ofa c mplit' , 5 7h r2004 (( n mpl r an t eait n t s wae ny o ans' ofilg le o ntprcie) W h ti moe e e i ma g me a t po t se wee le a mplyme a tc s. a s r, v n f na e nt nd he smatr r a r t t Haie ha co a t t EEO c e or t ei m e e knowl d of hi pr t c e wa e ha l y d nt c ed he ouns l , h r r e ge s oetd actviy i i ufk i Et de i t s ns t ent tevi nce of r ala i t count subsantal evi et iton o er t i dence of l tm at egii e 4t r raons f a ves pes ela to a ns ( mj' Care v Bal,3 F.d450,460( hCi. e s ' or d re ronn cin gai t hi . ' tr . l 3 3 l 4)( otng Wilamsv Ce b r nis I .871F. 452, ( hCi.1 :. 99 qu i li . r e o c, nc, 2d 457 4t r 989 U li at y,H aiey hasof e ed no pr i evi tm el l fr obatve dence t dem ons r e t t pos ofk e' o t at hat he t t s l tmat r on f isui t l t of dem and a w ihhol ng cerai m oni - t t i ,t egii e eas or s ng he eter nd t di tn es ha s o r coup t debtHaiey owed and t com pl wih t t m s oft s tem entent ed i o bet e he l o y t he er he etl er nt ween t pos of i and H aiey' uni w asm er y a pr extf r t i i l ot wor t r i he t fce l s onel et or e alaton. n her ds, he e s no evi dence t support t noton t t pur t y r t i or conduc com m it by o he i hat he poredl e alat y t ted Def ndant was car i out becaus t pr ec ed conduct i w hi H aiey cl m s t have e red e he ot t n ch l ai o 1 he engaged. h s t D .C.Cicui s ncty put i,dt di rct cour m us r ol one cental r t ucci l t éhe sti t t es ve r q sin:Ha tee oye pr e s fce te d c f a r s bl j yt fndt tte ueto s h mpl e oduc d ufiin vien e or eaona e ur o i ha h empl e' a sre no geaitrjra o wa no t a t lraon a t tt e oy r oy rs setd n-rtlaoy e s n s t he cua e s nd ha he mpl e itntonal (ealae a i tt e oy eo teba i o ( oe td c nducl' Brd 5 ne i ly rt itd) gans he mpl e n h ss f prtce o t?' a y, 20 F. at494. Her t ques i m ustbe a wer i t negatve. A ccor ngl Def 3d e, hat ton ns n he i di y, endant i s e ildt s mmayj ntte o u r udgme i hi fvo wihrg r t Haie srtlaincai . ntn s a r t e ad o ly' eaito l ms 7To t e en Hal y b i ve t tt l te ofde a d wa is d i e r ort tt a o bei s ghtby t e he xt t ie ele s ha he e tr m n s s ue n ror ha he m unt ng ou h po t s r c was i c ur t I not t t n t r g ou i s f i e , wiho mor t d sal e vie na c a e, e ha eihe r nd s u fcint t ut e, o emonsr t r prs lby ta e e i a Def da . en nt - 15 - lV.CONCLUSI ON Fort aoe ntone raons Defnd ntsmoin fr s he frme i d e s , e a ' to o ummayj gme ts l b r ud n hal e gr ed i par as i concer Haiey' r ala i cl m s. An appr i e or accom pani t s ant n t t ns l s et iton ai oprat der es hi m em or andum opi on. ni The Cl r oft Cour i he e die t d t s nd a c r ii d c e k he t s r by r c e o e e tfe opy oft s m e or ndu hi m a m opi on and t accompanyi or t al couns ofr d. ni he ng der o l el ecor Eteti l x yfpi21. nr h j oAr,02 ed s - l NO K.M O UNI TED STATES DI STRI JUDGE CT