Hummel v. Hall, No. 6:2011cv00012 - Document 18 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on July 18, 2012. (sfc)
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. :k *:e. :# 4* u . :i uebe ' #t e . v>YFle i.v . wJT . cdL q k kN l k , kE; I THE U NI N TED STATESD I STRI C OURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN D I STRI OF V I NI CT RGI A LYNCHBURG D l sl vl oN J 18 2 1 UL 22 BJU c. tt E uEjx )l x q DEP u Eax CAS N o.6: 1 c 0001 E 1 - v2 MI CHAEL J.H UMM EL, Plit f an f M EM OM NDUM OPI ON NI DAVI W . D HALL,TA COUNTRY M OTOR SALES / , Dee d n. fn a t J UDGE N ORM AN K .M OON Thi m a t r i be or t Cour on Pl ntf M i hae Hum m el s m oton f cos s a s te s f e he t ai i f c l ' i or t nd at ne sfespurua t Rul 5 d)oft Fedea Rul ofCi lPr edur a Rul 5 oft tor y' e s nt o e 4( he rl es vi oc e nd e 4 he Loca Ruls f t Unied Stt DititCour f t W e t n Ditit ofVigi a. Fo t l e or he t aes src t or he ser src r ni r he r as t tf l ,1w ilgr ntPl n if sm oton. e ons ha olow l a ai t f i I.PROCEDII L H I JU STORY On M a 2, 2011 Pl ntf fl hi c y , ai if ied s ompl i , a s ri a va i t of cai s a i t ant s e tng rey l m ga ns De e ntDa d Hal a1 ofwhi h r a e t De e antss l ofa ve c et Pl i if On J y f nda vi l, l c elt d o f nd ' a e hil o antf. ul 6,2011 De e ntwas pe s nal s r d wih t s m o a hi busne s Co r M ot r , f nda r o ly e ve t he um ns t s i s , unty o Sae ,whi h i a us ca deae s p i Lync ls c s ed r lr hi n hbur Vigi a. The s m onswa ned Def nda t g, r ni um r e n t ti he di notr pond t t compl nts al to wihi t nt one da , j g n b ha f d es o he ai ' legai ns t n we yys ud me t y def twoul bee e ed a ns hi f t r le de a d by Pli ifi t c aul d ntr gai t m or he ei f m nde antf n he ompl nt ai . A fe f ii t a t r a lng o ppea ,pl ad,orot r s de e a i tt ac i , D ef r e he wi e f nd ga ns he ton endant s def t ' aul w a e e e by t C l r oft Co ton Aug t31 2011. A c rii d c s nt r d he e k he ur us , e tfe opy oft Cl r se r he e k' nty ofde a tw a m a l d t Def nda . Subs que l on M ar h 1 201 Pl i if f l d a m oton f ul s ie o e nt e nty, c 3, 2, a ntf ie i f rd fulj d me ta dmald ac p t Dee d n .Dee d n dd n trs o dt t emoin, o ea t u g n n ie o y o fn a t fn a t i o e p n o h to a he di not a nd d ppea a t hea i I c r t he rng onduc ed on Pl ntf s m oton on M a 24,201 I a t ai i f i y 2. n m e or ndum opi on a or r da e J m a ni nd de t d une 19,201 l gr nt d Pl ntf s m oton f de a t 2, a e ai if i or f ul j d me t a d ao g wi ij n tv r l f a r e Plitf da g s i te a u t o u g n n , l n t n u cie ei , wad d an if ma e n h mo n f h e i or t t ne s ee y $ 1 44. Pl i if fl d t i t nt m oton f cos s and ator y' f s on Jul 2, 201 2,06. 1 antf ie he ns a 2. dat , D e e nt has s il not ent r a a e f nda tl e ed n ppea a e i t s m ate and has not r s r nc n hi tr e ponde t d o Pl ntf sm oton. ai i f i I L EGAL STANDARD L Und t s c l A m erca r l ,t pa test c vi ltga i or narl be rt r ow n er he o- aled i n u e he r i o i l ii ton di iy a hei a t ne s f s a c t , unl s t r i e i i s a ut y a hort t t c r r Se tor y' ee nd os s es he e s xplc t t t or ut iy o he onta y. e Bu k a n nBd a dCa eHo , n . .I P De 'o a t a d Hu nRe .5 2U. 5 8 c h n o . n r me I c v E W. p t fHe lh n ma s, 3 S. 9 , 6 2 ( 0 ) S c a e e to i p o d d fri t Trt i Le ig Ac (; LA',whc 0 2 01. u h n xc p in s r vie o n he uh n ndn t t T1 ' ih ) sa e t tdi t c s ofany s e sula ton t e or t f r goi la lt ' t c ediori tt s ha tn he a e ucc s f ci o nf ce he o e ng ibiiy, he r t s ' la e f éhe c t oft ac i t t wih a r as ibl or ç oss he ton, ogeher t e onabl a t ney' f e asde e ne by t t e tor s e t nni d he c t' 1 U. C.j1 a)3) Si l l Vigi aus y lw pemisa s esf pli ift our. 5 S. ' 640( ( . miary, r ni ur a r t ucc sul antf o rc rco tc t a r a ona eat me sf e .Se Va. e ove ur oss nd e s bl to y' e s e Codej6. 305. 2- 1 1 D l crs l 1 . s s oN W ih r pec t coss t r i no doub t tPl ntf i e il d t be r i bured by t es t o t , he e s t ha ai if s ntte o em s Dee ntf t m . SeeFed.R.Ci P.5 d)1 (t e sa fdea saut t e r e ,ora fnda or he v. 4( ( ) t s e rl tt e, hes uls unl c tor r pr des o he wie,coss ot r t n at our de ovi t r s t-- he ha tonwy' f es s d be al wed t t s e - houl lo o he lThi t a dama fgur r pr s nt t combi s ofPlitf sr over unde t e Tr h i Le ng Act s otl ges i e e e e ed he ned um an if ec y r h ut n ndi (' LA' 1 U.. j1 01e s q, n Vigni u uylw. ' TI ' 5 SC. 6 t e .a d r i a s r a ) 2 prvalng pa4 ' . Ac di l Plitf s l beawar d t $50. he s ksi c t. And e ii 1y.' cor ngy, anif hal ) de he 00 ee n oss be us Pl ntf s ce s uly r cove ed da a s o bot hi TI and Vigi a us y 1w ca e ai if uc s f l e r m ge n h s LA r ni ur a cli s he i e il d t r as bl a t ne s f es a wel Howe ,bef r en e i a or r am , s ntte o e ona e tor y' e s l. ver o e t rng n de g a i Pl i if at m e s f es Im us brety e m i t r a onablne s of t a r ntng antf to y' e , t i l xa ne he e s e s he mountof f sPl i ifs ks $9, 05 a hi a oun i f s h a a r ee antf ee - 786. - nd s cc tng or uc n wa d. W he as he e s a ut s e e s y a hor z a ds of a t ney' f s t U nied St t n, r , t t e xpr s l ut i e war tor s ee , he t a es Cour ofAppeas f t Fourh Cic thas a ed t l t r m ehod of de e m i ng t t l or he t r ui dopt he odesa t t r ni he ra o a ln s ofs h fe .S eBr d ikv Ru yo ,1 F.d 1 4,1 6 (t Ci.1 9 ) l te e s n be e s uc e s e o za . n n 45 3 9 9 4 h r 9 8 . n h Fourh Cicui,t l t rfg e i ca c a e b m uli yi t num be ofr as bl ho ls t r t he odesa i ur s l ult d y tpl ng he r e ona e tr e nde by ar s bl r t usng t f l ng f c or t de e m i t r as bl r t xpe d ea ona e a e, i he olowi a t s o t r ne he e ona e a e: ()tet a d lb re pe d d;()ten v lya df c t o teq eto s 1 h i n a o x n e 2 h o et nd it ul f h u sin me i y ried;( t s l rquied t pr l pe fnn t lgals r lesr nde e ( as 3) he kil e r o opery ro he e e vc e r d; 4) t at y' opporuniy c t i prs i t i tnt ltgai () t he tome s t t oss n e sng he nsa ii ton; 5 he c tmay fe f lke wor ( t at ney' e ttonsa t ous toft uso r e or i k; 6) he tor s xpecai t he te he ltgain'( t tmelmiai i e byt cintorcic tnc s'( t ii to , 7) he i i ttons mpos d he le rumsa e , 8) he n u ti c nrv rya dters t o tie '9 tee p re e rj tto a d mo n n o to es n h eul ban d () h x einc, e uain n s , a it o te at r e ( 0 t e u deia ii o t e c s wihn t e lg l bl y f h to n y; 1 ) h n srblt f h a e t l h e a i y c mmu i i whihtesi ao e ( 1 t nauea dln t o t p oeso a o nt n c h ut rs; 1 )he tr n e gh f he r fsin l j r ai hl bewee at ne a cle ; a ( 2) at ne ' fes a r i eltons p t n tor y nd int nd 1 tor ys e wads n sm iarcas i l es. E. 0. v Sc v Ne Co. 898F. 958,965 ( h Ci.1 )( i Bar rv.Ki el', E. C. . r . ws , 2d 4t r 990 quotng be mbr l s I1. 5 F. 21 ,226 1. ( h Ci. 1 )2 The e fcor ae ofe rfre t a t 1c, 77 2d 6 128 4t r 978). s a t s r tn ee rd o s he Q i s f dor ' bec us t Fo t Cic ta ed t lohn on a s' a e he urh r ui dopt hem fom Johns v Ge gi Hi r on . or a ghwa y Ex e s I c.488 F. 71 ( t Ci.1 . Se Bar r,577 F. a 226. l Pe duev Kenn prs, n , 2d 4 5h r 974) e be 2d t n r . y 2Theras bl hou l r t f l trpur esi at aketr t .' A m a ke rt i onet ti tn lnewiht e e ona e ry ae or odesa pos s t r ae ' m r t ae s ha s û i i t hos pr vaii i t c muniy f sm ia s r ce by lwyes of ras bl c pa abl s l, e ince a e lng n he om t or i lr e vi s a r e ona y om r e kil xpere , nd r pu a i ' Bl v St nson,465 U .S.8 6 8 5 n1 (9 4 . Fo p r o e o d tr nngtemak trt,i i e t ton.' um . e 8 , 9 .1 1 8 ) r u p s s f eemii h r e ae t s ir e t whehe ,a i t c e her , t ator y wor f a lgals vies com or ton. Se /f a 8 relvan t r s s he as e he t ne ks or e er c ai e t t 94-95, . Vil obosv.Vas z campbelN o. EP- 9CA-7 1 91WL 3 1 0 , t* ( D. x No l ,l91 (ttngta lal que l, 8- 2,9 1 9 2 a 8 W. Te . v. 5 9 ) sai h t a at ne sç l r t s d be deer i d i lghtoft cusom a y f e f sm ia wor i t c muniyy'' n tor y' t y ae houl hour t m ne n i he t r e or i lr k n he om t a t t< ) o r s o dn td ce s teatre s ferc v r , o atrtemeh do c luaigt ea u to nd ha :a c u t h ul o e rae h ton y ' e e o ey n r l h to f ac ltn h mo n f ( e r ove ywhent pli if a erpr entdbya.. . lg l i ot ' (iain o te ) ec r he antfs r e es e e a ad fke' ctto s mitd . ) 3 W. 1 S.Ct 1 1 ( 0 ,t SuprmeCour oft Unie Stt notd t tt l sa , 30 . 662, 673 201 ) he e t he td aes e ha he odetr fgur i pr s ptvel r as bl . 3 A lhough Pe due i ve f es s i e s e um i y e ona e t r nvol d e oughtpur ua t t Ci l s nt o he vi Rih sAtone sFe sAwad Ac o 1 7 ,4 U. C.j 1 8 ,heS prmeCo r h d idc td g t tr y' e r t f 9 6 2 S. 98t u e u t a n iae t tt l sa m eho i t ne a l a i bl i a 1c e i whih Congr shasa horze a ha he ode t r t d s t r ly pplca e n 1 as s n c ge es ut i d n a r offest a% e ii pa t ''He ly v Ec e har, U. 424,433n. ( 98 . wad e o prvalng ry.' nse . k r t461 S. 7 1 3) Pl i if s c a ntf ' ouns l ha s m it d afi vis and tm e r or docu e i t t t e s ub te fda t i ec ds m ntng ha he r quesed f esa e r as bl unde t cic sanc oft sc e. M or r i a e r ie of e t e r e ona e r he r um t es hi as 4 eove , n n xe c s b li di c eton, Pl i if s c ilng s r i a ntf ' ouns l ha di c ed t l s a a o t of a t ne s f es e s s ount he ode t r m un tor y' e , whih he c l ult st be $1151 00,by 15 t a co f a exc sve o nonc ac ae o , 3. % o c unt or ny es i r compe a e ns bl a tvii s t t may ha i c i te ha ve nadve tnty be buit i o t num be of hour expe d o t s re l en l nt he r s nde n hi pa tc a r pr e a i ri ulr e es nt ton. Thus Pl ntf has s it d s tc e e de e t esa ih t t , ai if ubm te ufi i nt vi nc o t bls ha , u ert a nd he bove ciedJohns f c or ,hei e il t an a r ofator y' f si t a - t on a t s s ntted o wa d t ne s ee n he mount of t l s a w ih a 15 di c he ode t r t % s ount a pr vi l m e i d. 1 pa e t a know l dge t f t s e ous y ntone us o c e he ac t tt at ne sf sr sed by Pl ntf a e ne ry fvetm esgr trt n t t a a ha he tor y' ee eque t ai if r a l i i eae ha he ot l mount ofda a st tla r m ge ha wa ded. Howe ,gi n De enda ' def ul a t complxiy oft is ver ve f nts a t nd he e t he s ue o f s i e so p e e tdb ti c s a ted fulj dg n sa e a c n iei ta t e f i t mprsin r s ne y h s a e t h ea t u me t tg , nd o sd rng h t h r at ne s f esar pr ded f by t a ia e f de ala Vigi a saut s a a i e i tor y' e e ovi or he pplc bl e r nd r ni t t e s n nc ntve 3l Pe n rduev. Ke n A. 1 0S Ct 1 6 ,1 7 ( 01 )teS p e Co r o teUni dSae d srb dteld sa n y , 3 . . 6 2 6 2 2 0 ,h u rme u t f h t tts e cie h o etr e meho a a atr aiet teJo s nmeh d.û- we e,h J h s nf co s a o p s dt t J h s nmeh d t d s n len t o h hn o to çl v r te o n o a tr, s p o e o he o n o to , v lo a esilr eva i i or ngt cour' deer nato ofar s bl f ea ar as na ehoury r t ' Ji v Pac. r tl el nt n nf mi he ts t mi in ea ona e e nd e o bl l ae. n . ' sl/fHo s,nc, . 6CV-7 2 0WL26 33 4, t* n2( D. Y.u e25 2 0 (iaino te ) Thu, zè u e I .No 0 - 5 9, 01 f 5 3 a 2 . E. N. Jn , 01 ) ctto mitd. s t Supr me Cour' opi on i Pe due t utonsa ns usng a src Johnso a oac a t prma y bass fr he e ts ni n r t i gai t i ca tit n ppr h s he i r i o detr ni r s bl atr ys fes butnowhe ecal i oquesi t i a ofusng r eva Jo so f t si emi ng ea ona e to ne ' e , r ls nt ton he de i el nt hn n acor n hel ngt c et ar s pi o om o ea onabl f a'I e ee' d 4Pl ntf ' c elcl m st havee nded 39.7 hour a a houry ma ke r t of$290. whih,on t ba sof ai ifs ouns ai o xpe stn l r t ae 00, c he si t afi vishehass te lfnd t be ar onabl a pr vaii ma ke r t f t sato ne i Lynch g, he fda t ubmitd, i o eas e nd e lng r t ae or hi l r y n bur Vigi a Furhe ,i lghtoft complxiy oft nov TI is pr e e by t s c e l conc ude t 39. r ni. tr n i he e t he el LA s ue es ntd hi as , l hat 7 hour wasar s bl a ountoftm et haves ntwor ngon t sm atr Fi l lnot t ,bec e Pl ntf s ea ona e m i o pe ki hi te . naly, e hat aus ai if pr val onal ofhi cai s lne no paret bilng r or s itd by Pl n ifscouns t dee m i how e ied l s l m , ed t s he li ec ds ubm te aitf ' el o tr ne man hour we er as bl e y s r e ona y xpende on e choft ecl m s d a hos ai . ( c us ,i atr y' f swee no a r d,ca e s h ast i t tmatrwoul t e ly be a e f to ne s ee r t wade s s uc he nsan te d ypial notbebr ht, Ifndt tt fesaer s bl s oug ) i ha he e r ea ona e. IV .C ONCLISI J ON For t f e ng r as ,Pl i ifs moton f at ne s f es a c t s l be he or goi e ons antf i or tor y' e nd oss hal gr nt An or rwili s a r ng Pli tf cossi t a ountof$50. a a t e sf s a ed. de l s ue wa di a n if t n he m 00 nd tom y' ee i t a oun of$9, 05. n he m t 786. The Clr oft Cour i he e die t d t s nd a ce tfed c ek he t s r by r c e o e rii opy oft s me o and hi m r um opi on andt ac om pa ng or rt a 1c ni he c nyi de o 1 ouns ofr c d. Addii l t t e e t ti i el e or tonaly, o he xt nt ha t s posi e, he Cl k oft Cour i her by die t t s nd c rii d copi soft e doc e t t sbl t er he ts e r ced o e e tfe e hes um n s o Dee n . f nda t Etrdhs 1 nee ti dyoJl,02 a fuy21. N O AN K . O O M UNI TED STATES DI STRI J CT UDGE 5Fort pur eofdr wi an a og , lobs r t tt Supr Cour hashed,i t c ex ofac tt i l he pos a ng nal y eve ha he eme t l n he ont t onsiutona tr a t n b o g t u s a t o 4 U. . j 1 8 ,h t o t c i r u h p ru n t 2 SC. 9 3 ta o Elea u to d ma e apanifrc v r i c ranyrlv n t tea un o atr e ' fe th mo n f a g s litf e o es s etil ee a t o h mo t f to n ys e s t b a r du d rj1 8 l i, o v r o l o eo ma yfcosta ac u tho l c n ie o e wade n e 98 . ts h we e, ny n f n a tr h t o r s ud o sd r i c luaiga a r ofatr e sfe .Werjc tepo o iinta fea rsu d rj 1 8 n ac ltn n wad t n y' e s o eet h rp st h t e wad n e 9 8 o s d ne es a iy be pr pori t t t a ount ofdam a a ci lrght pli if a t aly houl c s rl o tonae o he m ges vi i s antf c u l recovers. Ci o Riesd v Rfe l 47 U. 5 1 5 4 (98 ) Th sme lgca pl si te c ne to c nu rce i t f v rie . v r , 7 S. 6 , 7 1 6 . e a o i p i n h o tx f o sme rdt y e pr e i ca eswhe e asi t c e ofj 1 ca e ,ç r l ofpr tonalt woul ma i dit ul,i not otcton s r , n he ontxt 983 s s t ue a opori iy d ke t fic t f i mpos i e,f i vi l w ih m e iorous...cl m sbutr ltvey s alpot talda a st obt n r es fom sbl or ndi duas t rt i ai eai l m l en i m ge o ai edr s r t c rs' l1 a 578,se alo Cr y v E.Hal ( As oc . P. . . ,N o.5: c 001 2007 W L 676698,a * he ou t. t t . e s o . ' l : s s, L L C. t 06-v- 07, t3 ( . Va Ma.2 20 7 Ct c n u rpoe to c sss c a t s wh r t mo eay v le o t c s i W D. . r , 0 ) l o s me rtcin ae u h s hi, ee he n tr au f he a e s n tpialy l r uii diec pr to iy f at ney' fes woul dic a vi r enf c m e of y c l ow, eq rng r t oporinalt or tor s e d s our ge go ous or e nt c n u rp o e t n sauts' o s me r tc i t t e .) o '