Cashion v. Lee et al, No. 5:2017cv00004 - Document 48 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Chief Judge Michael F. Urbanski on 11/8/17. (kld)
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cv RK' OFFI U.S.DI T COURT s CE S, AT ROANOKE, VA FIED L N2V 23 2 I THE UN I N TED STATE S D I RI CO U RT ST CT FO R TH E W E STE RN D I RI O F W RGI I ST CT N A H A RRI N BU RG D I SION SO W JU BY . : t . M M ON CASH ION , Pl ntf, ai if Cas N o.5: CVe 17- 00004 J ACK LEE,e a . t 1, By: M i ha lF. ba l c e Ur nsd ChifUnie St t Diti tJ e t d a es src udge D ee f ndant . s M EM O R AN D U M O PI ION N Tli matrc me beor t ec r o dee da Mi l lie Re i na l i ls te o s f e h ou t n f n nt dd e tv t go l al Aut rt' I< GJ 'M o n t Dir isf rFalr B S aeaCli ECF No. , c ho iys T MI A7 éo o sn s o i e t t nm, I u 30 whih s e sc s nsa ofCou IIofpli ifAl o Ca honsrca hin' Fis Ame e e k l n is l i nt I antf vin s i ' ç s o ) tt nd d Co antf rMon tr Da g sa Eq ia eReif(h T mpli o e ay ma e nd u tbl le t e f FAC), No 26 MRRJ ECF . . A a pz st Cl i 1 1 t onl c nm pld a i ti,i tm eba r or i t at r éve r e hat nm 1 , he y l i e gans t s i r ed , n he le na , MRR A i e ie t s ve eg i J s ntt d o o r in mmuni . MRRJ Ssa ueofl ttonsdee e l t As y A' tt t i ai mi f ns r q ie a j l a n ofCo tI oft eFAC,n wh c Ca l o a kst c r t de lr e uz s ducc do i un V h i ih sl n s he ou t o ca e i t tVign aCo j8012 . viltst Eq l otci Clus oft Fo re n h ha r ii de . - 432 o ae he ua Pr e t on a e he u te t Am e ndm e oft U . Cons i ton,t c ztw11as de i Count1 . t r s nt he S. tm i he otr 1 lo c de V For he ea ons d srb dbeo t ec ut GRANTSMRRJ Smo t dil s, S I ES Co t 11 e ci e l w, h o t A' éon o snis DI M SS un s 1 Cashion v. Lee et al Doc. 48 a d I oft eF W I PM J I a D EN I ASM OOT M RRJ SM oto t n V h AC TH UD CE, nd ES A' in o SubnltSuppl m e a Aut iy ECF N o.47. i e nt l hort , Dockets.Justia.com , ct q alx RK 1. Backgr ound ) Cahi ' i ta Comp an f rM o tr Da g sth T mpli ' ECF No. , s ons ni l i li t o nea y ma e t e f co ant), 1 s g tda g sa ans d fnd nt MRRJ J c Le (T e',n li i ii a c pa iya ou h ma e g i t e e a s A, a k e f ' i zs ndvdu l a ct s Le ) s pei e nto MRR A, ndDr MossQuho srolio s),nhiidiiua u rntnde f J a . ie i ne f l ne' i s n vd l i c pa iya ad c o a MRRJ ICa lon alg dt tLe unlwf l i tt t dapoiyof a ct s o t z t A. sa l e ha e a ul nsiu e i e y l c de ynga ps c otcpr s rpto me ia n t i mae . ! 1 Quho salg dl n i né y h i e ci in dc éo o n t s FAC 3. i ne l e y e kne t tCas on ha a s ve em e a i ne sand be n pr c i d c r an a i yc i w ha hi d e r ntl l s l e es rbe e t i ntps hotc m e iain. c us ofLe ' poiy ho ve, s on cam st tQthone ne r dc to Be a e es l , we r Cahi li ha z s ve c i pt s rbed t m e c ton ore ur t tCaslon woul be e l e by a he quaii d e ci hat dia i ns ed ha li d vauat d not r lfe me ia p of si na. ! 3 , . dc l r e so lFAC ! 3 38 No a l, s i wa i a c rt da MRRJ fo a oxmaeyOc o r1 , 01 tby Ca hon s nc z eae t A r m ppr i tl t be 7 2 5 t ou h De e r1 , 1 . !28 Ca h o fldli Compli onl nuay3 , 01 hr g c mbe 1 20 5 FAC . s i n l ts e ant a r 1 2 7. M RR A ie aM ot t Dir is ECF No. 9 c t ndn t tCa lon' cqmsa ans J id l i o sns , on 1 , on e ig ha sl s li g i t i MRRJ we etmeba z dbyVignaCod j80 - 4 2 whc pr s rbe ao -e tsa e A r i re ti i e .1 2 3., ih e ci s ne y a tmt ofl tto f rcnmsf eai t t ec i o ofg p io rs c nfne n . Va Cod i ai ns o li r lt o h ondt ns a rs ne 7j o i me t' . e mi r ng i ' j801 2 32Be a eCa hin fld szto a uay31 20 7 mo et n on y a atr . - 4 . c us s o l t nl n r , 1 , r ha e e r fe e i Ca h o wa ls alg dyde id a tps c i me iai n, J a g e t tl scnms s i n s a t l e l n e n i y hotc dc to MRR A r u d ha ' li e l i a i ti we euntm ey. gans t r i l Ra hert n a rt ta dif r sa tt oflmiai a i t li cai s Ca hi t ha ve ha f e ent t tze i t tons pples o ns l m , s on c t n t tVigni Co j 80124 . ofe st Eq l o e éo Clus o t e on e ds ha t i a de . - 32 fnd he ua Pr t c n a e f h Fouree h A m e t nt ndm e .Ca hi fl d t FAC,whih a nt s on le he c dded Count1 a cnm s ki V, li ee ng 1M fc sheenaetke fom t FAC.On amoton t ds s,hec ttfe a tuealalga . eCoo e v. a t ri r a n r he i o imis t our a s s r l le dons Se r Pae 3 8U.. 4 , 4 (9 4 (e c z m) t, 7 S 5 6 5 6 1 6 ) p r ui , a d caaor jd me t a Vigni Cod j801 2 32i u o ttz a a a op it e lr t y u g nt h t t i a e . - 4 . s nc nsit l nd ppr rae éon i j c ver l f nun d ei . e Ca li as fld anotc unde Fede a Rul ofCi lPr edur 5. whih notfed snon lo le ie r zl e vi oc e 1, c ii t Com m onweat ofVig ni ofhi c lnge t t consiutona iy ofVigi i Code he 1h zi a s hale o he tt i lt r la n j80 - 4 .. .1 2 32 MRRJ r ne dismo t cin is a Vigri i tr e d t d fnd t A e we t don o ls as , nd t il n e v ne o e e he a c si inaiyo Vig naCod j80 - 4 .. on tmto l f r i i t e .1 2 32 I I. St andar ofR e ew d vi MRRJ mo st dsns Co IIu e Fe ea RueofCiiPr e u e1 $() A ve o inis unt 1 nd r d rl l vl oc d r 29 6 f fizet saeacnm.Rul 1 $()pemisadsnsa whe apli iffi To saea or alr o tt 1i 2 e 2( 6 t t irisl n antf al f tt t st cnm u nwhc rl fc nbega td. Fe . Ci P.1 $()Tos ri aRue1 $() li po ih ei a e rne ' d R. v. 29 6. u vve l 29 6 ' mot t dimis ac mpli mus c nti s fce f a t t sa eacam t r l fi a i i o s s, o ant t o an uf int f cs o tt li o ei h t s on f e p a il onisf c . Bel lCo . Two lusb e t a e' lAt. r v. mbl 5 0U.. 4 5 0 (0 7 . c mpli ' ; 5 S 5 4, 7 2 0 ) The o ants fg a t a alg do mus bee u h t tiearg tt r l fa vet es e ua velve. 1 . ff c- l l a ns t no g o as i h o ei bo h p c lé e l' d l u e e ' at555. A c u tmus c nsr fc l le ainsi t n mo i pat fvora dwil o r t o tue a ma alg to n he on vng zfs a n l te tt e a tue bu i r ts bo ndwih r s c t ( c lits lg lc cuso . ra h m s r , ts ç o u no t epe t o a ompan 'j e a on l i ns' : D it 28 Unied M i W oz r ofAm . l v. el or Coa Co . 609 F. 1083,1085 s. t ne ke s nc. W l e m l , 2d (t Ci.1 79. nd e ac u t l a c ptn ihe fe a c cu insd a fo t fcs' 4. t 9 ) I e d, o t wi c e et r f j l on lso z wn r m he a t' h l l norfunwa r nt d i e e es unr as bl c l i ,ora gu e s7 E.Shor M kt .l . f r a e nf r nc , e ona e oncusons r m nt .' e s, nc v. . Aso s Lt P'hi 2 3F.d 1 ,1 0 (t Ci. 0 0 . rhe ,fl e d r r ctl JD. s c . d. s p, 1 3 75 8 4. r 2 0 ) Fu t r Tghz a ba e e ias h t oft e e e sofaca e ofa i s he l m nt us cton, uppoz e by m e e c l or sa e ent,do not td r onc us y t t m s 2 J as mo e t ds s Co n 1Ifrakof u jc matrjr dc n, o tn igta ii potce fo MRR A lo v s o imis u t 1 o lc sbe t t ui ido c ne dn h tts r e td rm e s stto Col t1 Iby q lEe i lniy. ca e t co tf dst tCa hi scqm sa etm e ba r d, tnee notr a h ti n m I ua i d mm l t Be us he ur m ha s on' l i r i re i d ec a de ii n on qua i ed i m u zt c so ll m zip i s fc . As r tv I ba,5 6U..6 2 6 8 (0 9 . y atraclm i sae a q tl ufie' hcof . q l 5 S 6 , 7 2 0 ) Onl fe li s ttd de uaey ' m a i t n fbe s y t he f uppored by s t howi a s off ct conssentwih t alga i i t ng ny et a s it t he le tons n he com pl i .'Tw om bl,550 U . a 563. ant' S. t A sam t oflm ia i def e T us be r s by t de e ntt ough a t e i t tons ens f t aied m he f nda hr n afim a i def ns ,a t bur n ofe t bls ng t a fr a i . e er t on t fr tve e e nd he de s a ihi he fim tve def ns es s he dee nt' fnda . Good nv. a ar I c, 4F.d 4 8 4 4 ( t Ci. 0 7 ( ena ctto ' ma Pr x i, n .49 3 5 , 6 4h r 2 0 ) i t l iains nt onitd . he f a t s fce tt r l on a af ai dee ea ealg di t r te ) W n f cs ufiin o ue n fgm t f ve f ns r le e n he c mpli ,hed fns ma bera h db amoéo t dsls u rRul 1 9 6.o antt ee e y ec e y n o inis nde e 2 $()J. l L The efcs ho ve, tf la l a a gon t fc oft c mpli . m c nd, s a t, we r mus f e ry ppe r c he a e he o ant ' hmo ' Fr deik but & Pot ma R. Co. Fo s, F.d2 , 5 (t Ci. 9 3 . e rc s o c R. v. rt 4 3 44 2 0 4. t 1 9 ) h 1 1 Vi#ni Codej 8.12 3. 1. r a 0 -4 2 MRRJ c tndsa dCahi doe n c nts,ha Vigni Cod j80 -4 . A one , n s on s ot o ett t ri a e .12 32 g vçnst a lc bl lriai nspe i f rCo 1 1 Vigni Co j80 - 4 . pr v de : o r he pp ia e ir tto rod o unt 1. r i a de .1 2 32 o i s l N o pe s confne i a sa e orl lc r c r on i d n tt oca oz e dona f clt s l brng or ha l a iiy hal i ve br ought on l s be l a pe s l a ton z l i t t c n i ha f ny r ona c i eatng o he ondii of hi tons s c i m ent untlal a l bl a i st tve r m e e a e e use Such onfne i l vaia e dnanit a i e di s r xha t d. a ton s l be br c i hal oughtby or on beha fofs pe s wihi one yea a t r l uch z on t n r fe c us of a ton a c es orwihi sx m ont a t r aladr rit a r m eci a e c i c ru t n i hs fe 1 nilsz éve e les a e e use whihe rocc sl t r r xha t d, c ve ur a e . Va Cod . . e Ann. 80 - 4 . j .1 2 . 2. 3 Th S pr meCo tofVigni ha hed t a Vig naCod j80 - 4 2 a ist eu e ur t i a s l h t ti i e .1 2 3. ppl o e a a to wh r : 1 apli if sfc nfne ' tt tmet ec us ofa ton a c u d'a ny cin e e () antf wa f o i d a he i h a e ci c r e y nd f ' ()Tlec us ofa t . . eaes t g)pantf' Toncto ofc nfne n .' n v. 2 f' a e ci . r lt gj o a li if c l ins o i me t' Bi tl on s i ' Ha ood 2 3Va 3 1 3 , 22S. 2d2 4, 4 (0 2 (ii Va Code An j80 , 8 . 8 , 85 7 E. 4 2 6 2 1 ) ctng . . n. .1 2 .) M o e ve , ri i Cod j80 - 4 .: l tt pei a l se n i af litf 432 . r o r Vigna e .1 2 32s i ai mi ons rod ppi ve f f an if e p 4 i no l ri a c r ed a t tm es fl he ac i r ldng t c s onge nc r e at t he i he les r ton ea o ondii ofhe tons r c i me t'Luc sv. ood , 7Va 35 3 1 7 6S. 2 4 7 45 ( 1 ) onf ne n . a W ? 28 . 4, 6 , 5 E.d 4 , 0 20 4 . TheFA C pladst Cas on w a c i a t tm et c us ofac i e hat hi s onined t he i he a e ton- t ti, ha s t alg d r f a of J a dissa ft pr vdea tps c tcme ia i - a c d he l e eusl MRR A n t t f o o i n i y ho i dc t e on c me , a t ca e ofa ton r l t t hi condii ofconfne e .The c zthnds and nd he us c i e aes o s tons i m nt otr , Ca lin d snotc t s, ha VignaCod j80 - 4 2pr s rbe ao - e rsam eo szo oe on e t t t ri i e .1 2 3. e ci s ney a tt f l tt f rCou 11 Fr t fc oft eFAC,Ca honwa r la e fo M RRJ o i ai o mi ons nt 1 . om he a e h si s ee s d r m A n D e m be 11 2015,t l tda e t alge i de t tea m e a f iur t pr de ce r , he as t he le d na qua e t t nt nd al e o ovi me ii a MMRJ c l ha oc u r d. !28 Und rVigni Codej8012 3., d cne t A oud ve c re FAC J . e ri a . -4 2 Ca hi had untlD e m be 11,201 t fl a c pli r l t d t t c tonsofhi s on i ce r 6 o le ny om ant e a e o he ondii s c i me . i t a d le ,fi t sa to onl nu r 3 , 01 - a tzt l ltt onf ne ntHe nse d al d ing hi cin a a y 1 2 7 fe he i iai i l n ons pei ha e p r d. r i aCo j8012 . t r f ep o i e t tCo tIIi tme rod d x ie Vigni de . - 432 he eor r v d s ha un I s i ba r r ed. l . E qualPr ecton Cl us V ot i a e Re o n zngt i, slonc ntndst tVigr aCodej80 - 432 ofe t c g ii h s Ca li o e ha til i .1 2 . fnds he Equa Pr e i Clus oft Foure h Am e l ot cton a e he t ent ndm e . nt TheEqualPr ec i Clus ot ton a e pr v d s f S aes l . . n t a ype s wili isj idc n t e u lp o e to o i e :< tt hal . de y o n ron t ! t urs iéo he q a r t cin No na oft lws'U.. t a e . V,j1 f hee ua pz e ton r ql e ntdo snottk he a . S Cons. m nd XI ' .f q l otci e lr me e l' i ae fom t St e alpowe ofcls ii a i butke psgover e a de ii a r fom r he at s l r a sfc ton, e nm nt l c sonm ke s r tea dif r nty pe s who a ei alr lva r s c sai 7V e v.W c ,293 F. r éng fe e l r ons r n l ee nt e pe t lke.' ne he 3d 9 7 , 3 (t Ci. 0 2 ( ena q otto a ctto o te ) 26 7 0 4. r 2 0 ) i r l u ai ns nd iains mitd . h nt 5 Theeem e sofa s es f e lpr ec l nt ucc s ul qua ot don csi a ewels ted.Ca hi f us l m r l etl s on f t m fr tde ons r e t he lasbe n tea e difze l f ls m tat hat a e r t d fe nty rom ot r Mdf whom hei sm ia he s . h s i lHy sm at a t tt une ltea e w a t r tl ofi e i ed nd ha he qua r r nt s he eszt nt ndona orpum os ul l ef dstmi éon'Kobev. a 8 F.d1 4 1 6(t Ci. 1 )(nba )(uoig ici na . l Ho n, 49 3 1 , 4 4h r20 7 e nc q tn ' M ors v. ra h , 3 F.d6 8 6 4(t Ci. 0 ).fCahonma e t ss owig rion Gar 2 9 3 4 , 5 4h r20 1)l s i k s hi h n , fhec t p oc e t deez n whehe t ds rt i te t n cpbej tf dund r f out z e ds o trnie t r he ipaiy n zame t a usii t e e t rqust lve ofsr tn ' ors nv Garg y 2 F.d6 8 65 (t Ci. 0 ) At he e iie e l cuip'M rio . ra ht, 39 3 4 , 4 4h t 2 01. t sse < c t ge rl prs st ttesauei vai a wileett c l ng f hi tp,< ou' neal eume ha h ttt s ld nd lrjc he hal e i a t y e f t casii a he l sfc don dt w n by ta satzei r donal r lt d t a lg tm a e sat i e es. ' a le t tt s a ly ea e o e ii t t e ntr t' ' Kobe 8 9 F.da 1 6 (uot Ci o Clbu nev. e ur Lii Ct.I .47 U.. 3 l ,4 3 t 4 q i ng f e r Clb ne v n r nc, 3 S 4 2, 44 (98 ).< saea e ua pt t cin cnm, Ca h o T tp e d s f intfc st 0 1 5) < tt n q l o e to li 7 s i n f To 7 mus la u hce a t o s ésy ea h r qlie ent'V e ,293 F. a 731.I Casùon f l a et rs e t c t a f c e lr m .' ne 3d t f l ais t ihe t p, he our mus fnd t tVigni Co j8012 . d sno v oaet eEq a Pr tci n Clus t i ha t i a de . - 432 oe t i lt h u l o e to a e 1. Si iqry Siuat m l l t ed Fis,Cas on m us de onst et thei sm ia l st t d t non- one swih t t hi t m tat ha s i lry iua e o pds r t r pe t sa t oflm ia es ct o t m es i t dons He f is fT'e Ti ia l st t d's a r z qliesa . al. f h sm lry iua e t nda d e lr pl i ft i ndf pe s m a e i lyi nic lt hi orhe w ho ha r ceved dif r nt anéf o de y r ons t ral de a o m r se i fe e te tne t'Kobev. a 81 F.d 1 0 1 5 (t Ci. 1 ) va ae o ot r r un , ra n . l Ho n, 3 3 6 , 8 4 h r 20 6 , c td n he o ds ' 8 9F.d 1 4 ( h Ci. 01 )(nba ) A pli fmus p od ee i nc t a T ho s a 4 3 1 4t r 2 7 e nc. anéf t r uc vde e h t f wg) n s e te l lg d g e ofsmi rt 'A ( od Wi i v. wn ofMa s l N. , 5F. x rmey a h e r e i l ip'J qu ng ls To i a l rhal C.27 , Ap x 2 7 23 ( . Ci. 0 ) p' 2 , 3 4t t 2 08 . h 6 A ppl ng t ssrnge sa r i a e ha f yi hi ti nt tnda d, nm t s ve ound i difc tt de onsr t t t t fiul o m ta e ha t y a e sm ia l stz t d e t ot ri a es See e .Bea a v. e u Di.N o.7:2he r i lry i a e ven o he nm t . a ., m n D r, 1 c 0 6 , 1 W L 4 6 4 , t* ( D. . y2 , 01 )(ndigidiûc lt beive v-01 3 20 2 4 0 36 a 3 W. Va Ma 9 2 2 h n t f ut o le t timae aee rsmi ryst ae t ot e i tsv sàv spa o ede ii ) Sa ev. ha n ts r ve i l l iu td o h r nmae i-- i r l csons; ld a Ha o Roa - e 'l t 3 3F. u 2 7 9 7 2( D. . 0 4 ( t a ingtil mptn dsl gl al 0 S pp. d 7 , 8 E. Va 2 0 ) i e wat ra k , nma i n smi rystztdt c n ce i t s; a esv. s, 0 F. up 2d8 2, 1 ( D. ot i l l it e o o vitd nmae) W tr Ba s 3 4 S p. 0 8 0 E. a a Va 2 0 )(tt i ma e no smi ryst ae t f d r lnmae) I f lo ,t n, ha . 0 4 sae n ts t i l l iu td o e e a i t s. t olws he t t a fp rs e sa eno smi ry st ae t no prs ne s'Rolrv. n,1 7 F.d 2 7 2 4 f jion r r t i l l iu td o n- io r . l Gun 0 3 2 , 3 r a ' e ( h Ci. 9 7 . 4t r 1 9 ) M o e v r Tg h us ofd fee tsa te o l tt f rdifr ntofe e do s r o e ,rq e e ifr n ttz s f i ai o fe e fns s e t t mi ons notc ea ean i di cas iiaton orbkr n a f r t nvi ous l sfc i zde unda e alrght' Unied St esv.H a , m nt i .' t at m No . 9 4 2 9 - 7 3, 0 WL 3 6 3 , t 1 (t Ci. 00 )( rc im) s eas Cha e s 9 - 77 , 9 4 7 20 0 4 9 5 a * 4 h r 2 0 pe ura ; e lo s S c Cor . Don ls , 25U. 3 4, 1 (9 5 rf laue ofl tt g t matr of e. v. ad on 3 S. 0 3 4 1 4 ) g ttts i ai o o tes s mi on r me y no t d sr ton off nd m e a rg s' I ta fst t tsofl tto e d , t o e tuci u a ntl iht. nse d,f ja u e i ai ns ). g mi fe ee apu i poiya utt prvlg t l gae a Ci t ij tfc to i rprsnt bl lc bo he iie e o i t' nd fnd her usiiain n c d nee st a dc n ninc .. g o d rt)s r t c zsfom li éo ofsaecqms' c siy n o ve e e .i r e o pae he ou t r iga n tl li . n t : D a & Buse ',I v. hieFlntM al LLLP, 61 F. p' 55 ,5 7 (t Ci. 01 )q s ve trs nc. W t i l, 6 Ap x 2 5 4h r2 5 at . t oatzto i oii l ( ot ChaeS c, 5U. a 3 4. v leains n rgna) qu i v ng s e .32 S. t 1 ) W ih tlsi nnnd,t cotr ha ltl toubl conc udi t tCaslon,whos c m t li n i he zt s ite r e l ng ha li e bi a ans MRRJ r ltst t c diinsofh sc i me , snotsnl al stztd t gi t A eae o he on to i onf ne nti i i ty i a e o l a no rs r wihpe s n i u ycqms whos cnmsa eg v r d b Vigri Cod j80 np iones t r o njr li , e li r o e ne y r i a e .1 t 2 3' t - e rsa u eofl téon . isfc , t i aCo j8012 . o ya pl st 4 s wo y a tt t i a s On t a e Vigni de . - 432 nl p i o mi e camsT eaig t t c ndtonsof. . onf me . Va Co Ann. 80 - 4 2Be a e li f ltn o he o ii r . c i nt: . de ne ' j .1 2 3. c us fp rs r a enotsmial smae t non prs e s'Rolr 1 7 F.d a 2 4,tf l ws r jiones t g i lty i td o - ion r , le, 0 3 t 3 i ol ' o t ti vi l who a s r c m st nec s rl a i ef om i prs e a enotsm ia l ha ndi dua s s e t bi hat es a iy rs z m ionm nt r i lry stz e t i vi l who a s r c nm st do nota e fom i pzs it d o ndi dua s at s e t l i hat ds t m ionm e . nt I a ate ptt ciéngtih Role ,Cas on c nm st t r lva c pa ion i n n t m o ls zs lr hi l i hat he ee nt om rs s no bevenp io r a n prs es b i ta ftecéz nswhoaeijze whi t t e rs nes nd on ion r, utnse d ' e i e f r nt d l r e te aenotc e a dfl s t i no c i d' n rrecéz nswhoweeij e hy r onfn d n ie uiwhl t onfne 'a d f e i e e f r nurd wbl c i e a d f es iwhl no c nfne 7P1' Rep. ie onfn d n l ut i t o i d. . s Opp. fMRR A' Mo . l e ' s De . J S t Din isCo . Op ? 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R at onalB as s R e e i i vi w Eve i Ca hi w e e a e t esa ih t thei sm ia l stz ed t nonprs r n f s on r bl o t bls ha s i lry itat o ione s wihr g r t saae of i iai ns Vigni Co j 801 2 32e sl wi tnd r t l t e a d o ttzs l tto , r i a de . - 4 . ai t a s a i m y hs ona bassr vi w. he fs ilore i e e W n foca cononac lgiléon i ati s t Equa Pr ec i Cl us i e sa s s ue, he l ot ton a e a l t St t wi l i de a t Consitton pr s e t te n i pr dent lows he a es de atm , nd he ttzi e um s ha ve m ovi decsonswile ual bez ctfe by t de oc atcpr es es' Ciy ofClbtr v. ii l vent ly e ii d he m r i oc s .' t e zne Clb n Li n Ct.I .4 3U.. 3 , 4 ( 9 5 ( e n lctéonsomitd .filnls a e uz e vi r nè, 7 S 4 2 4 0 1 8 ) i r a ia nt te ) f e s l sa t a f c sa f m e alrghtors e pr ec e cas ,cotr sge r l a cor t t m e f e t unda nt i om ot t d l s zt ne al c d he y lgsai afto pr s mpt of l t b a lig aê do lb sssa a dofz ve ' e ilt on sr ng e u i vai f y ppyn a na a i tnd r e im ' on di W id v. dd , 3 F.d 3 4, 4 (t Ci. 01 )(uot Helrv. o , 0 U.. 2 l ns Ga 7 4 3 4 3 7 4 h t 2 3 q i l ng l D e 5 9 S 31 , e 3 9 (9 3) 1 1 9 ). H eght ne s r i onl a i e d c utny y ppze whe a g oup ofi l dua si a s pec orquass n r nci vi l s us t i s pec cas oraf nda e a rghti i ved.Cl bur ,473 U . a 439- A g oup i us t l s ' m nt l i s nvol u e ne S. t 40. t s onl as pec or quas- us ctca swhe Ttpos es esi m ut e c r c e i t ,f ce y us t is pe ls n f i s s m abl ha a t rsj a s cs l so i o on oig cs rmia on, ri s jc t abirr bt nso s meba i be ond a t rc r g n l c i n é o s ub e t o r ta y ude n o i i ss y isa l yt c nto . Wikns 7 4F.d a 3 (ii Clb ne 47 U. a 4 9 43 . t bit o o r l' li , 3 3 t 48 ct i ' ng e ur , 3 S. t 3 - ) K a ebr aki t 1w i akol a y a a m a prs r w11e ntzly ber las f us e ng he a s Bec unt r ct nd ny ione s 1 ve ta l ee ed, t Tt t ofi r er i i net ran i m ut e c r c e i éc ..., an i di bass he sa us nca c aton s ihe m abl ha a t rs nor nvi ous i ofca sfc to ' I (l rtoni o ii l (uo gM o sv. a k 88 F.d 6 6 6 0 (t lsiiai n.' d.at ai n rgna) q én s- Clr 6 2 8 , 9 4 h ' e Ci. 9 9) Thu , zs ne saeno as pe tca s 1 r 1 8 ). s p io r r t us c ls. d. AsCa honi n patofas s c ca sa , sdealda ve Vig naCod j8 1 s i s ot r u pe t ls nd a ti bo , ri i e 0 e 243. doe noti plc t a Smda ent lrght r i lba i r viw a i . nde r i l 2 s m ia e m a i , atona ss e e pples U r atona bai rviw, r i aCo j 8 - 4 . fsa c r e asr ngp e u ss e e Vigni de 01 2 32 f c o d d to r s mpdo ofvaiif'a i n l t nd d Tspr s me c ns t i l' l rv Doe 5 U.. 2 31 -2 ( 9 3 . s ieCa hin' f e u d o d ut . Hel . , O9 S 31 , 9 0 1 9 ) De p t s o s i ona ' e c enton t tf hebur n i on t gover e t de onsr t a r i lba i , Opp.24 ont i ha ç t de s he nm nt o m t a e atona ss' ' (iigEn us v Or De 'of rc, 3U.. 91 6 2 3( 0 ),ti Caho wh ber ctn it . . t A i.55 S 5 , 0 -0 20 8)i s s in o as t buz n fço ne i e r conc i bl ba i whih r ghts he de ft gatve ve y eva e ss c ni uppor iywhet rornott t t' he he ba i ha af nd to i t er c r , Helr 5 9U. a 3 0 21 (uo igLe a e v. ss s ou ai n n h e o d' l , 0 S. t 2 - q tn hnh us n ' e La eS r Aut Pa t Co.41 U. 35 , 6 (9 3) Th c ur i f ompeld u r k ho e o rs , 0 S. 6 3 4 1 7 ). e o t s ç c l nde e r éonalbassr viw t ac epta lgilt esge r i atonse n whe t t i a i pe f c a - i e e o c e sa ur ' ne alz i ve n he e s n m r e t ftbe we n m ea a ends' I a 321 i t e ns nd . d. t . : TheCor onweataofVigi a wli h i e ve d t def nd t c dt i lt of nm ll r ni, lc nt r ne o e he ons utonaiy Vign aCod j8 .4 - , ist z er a o wh t ed fe e l iainspei f r r ii e 012 3 2 post h e e s ns y h ifr nti tto m rod o c e ntr ltdi u i si waz ntd:ç )p e nt i a c r t dpe s fom fl g onfn me -eae njze s ra e ç1 r ve i nc t e ae rons r ln ( ng i fi l us sae orfa u e lws t;()p e e vn t S aesf nc s a ()p o i ig rvo o , tl, r ud lnt a uis 2 r sr ig he tt ' i e ; nd 3 r v dn na 1 0 s t rl iatonspe i t cam st ta er a l known t t c nm a when t ale d hor e i t i m rods o li ha t e di y o he l i nt he lge i jr o czs'Br Co n at Va l e v no De e eVa Co . 801 2 32 ECF hu y c k . . mmo we 1h . ntr e r fns . de j . - 4 ., r' N o. a 7. 39, t Anyoft s r i l s sandi aone i m or t s fc e t s f t c zt he e atona e , t ng l , s e han ufii nt o ads y he otr ta atd a bai e it fzVignaCod j8 12 32 Wihrs c t p e nt h t a on l ss xss o rii e 0 .4 .. t epet o rve i ng fi ouslw s t,t Fouth Cicui ha not t tf ione ltga rvol a uis he t t t s ed ha f s r ii éon hasa s e pr s um d s mel n oft n tr ofaTe r ai a a t t .' lr 1 7F.d a 2 4 (ii Ga l o ti g he a u e n r c e ton l ci y' Rol , 0 3 t 3 ctng be v. vi ' e L n u h 8 5F.d1 4 1 n. (t Ci. 9 8)Th Cor nwelhc ul ha ert l a , 3 2 2 , 25 1 5h r 1 8 ). e nmo at o d v ai l onay d trni d t a s re n t l tt pei f zp po tdi j iss fr d d t e et ne h t ho tnig he i ai mi ons rod o ut re nure ufe e ue o c i m e woul hep c b a esf onfne nt d l ur bus ound i prs rH ga i n ione ton. W i. r pe t pr e dng t Cor onwe lh' fna ,i i cla t a ç i ous t es ct o es r h he nm a t s i nces t s e r hat ztgi pl i fpr s i a fi ousc nm ,t andf e sng rvol l i hough r r l s ce ng on t m e is c be e r m ey a ey uc edi he tt , an xte l c sl t t edee da . Ha rlonv. td S ae , 1 F.d 1 4 11 (t Ci. 9 0 9 e o t o h f n nt' res Uni tts 6 3 2 1 , 6 5h r 1 8 ) s e y ' e as I si Prmc 1, lo oisv. a o 1 LLC, 10 c 1 4( J , 0 9W . 8 3 8 , t* ( D. No. :8 v1 7 GBL/FA) 2 0 L 6 78 3 a 3 E. Va Ma. , 0 )( ot Harlo ) TheCo . r 4 2 09 qu i ng res n . mmon at c ul h vetto l d tr ne we l o d a ainal eemi d h y t t ri aCod j8 .4 - m a sa eof fi l usl iain a d hep pr sr et ha Vigni e 012 3 2 y tv f rvo o i g to n l e e v he t Com m onwe lh' hs . at s c Fi ly, t r pe t pr di s trlm ia i pe i f cli slnown t t nal wih es ct o ovi ng hoze i t tons zods oz nm c . o he cnma a t et et alg d i u yoc ure ,t S ptmeCo t ha no e t a S cin li nt t h i he l e njr c r d he u e m e u t s td h t e to 1 lw s t pr c e on prs c ltonsr lr a fs c fc de i i ofa sngl 983 a uis ediat d ion oncii eqlie fpe ii prvaton i e hu n ne d'W i onv. et r 5 U.. 9 , 5( 9 1 . Co ma e . l ' s S ie , 01 S 2 4 30 1 9 ) The mmon at c ul ha e we lh o d v r tonal det mi d t t s t rlm iai pe i f ope l a ount f t f ctt t a i ly er ne hat he hor e i t tons rod ' pz ry cc s or he a ha 11 c dto - -o me tcamsd nottk a lngt sufc a ot tpes a-nur on iinsofc nûne n li o a e s o o k a e s he ton lij y c am st ta i eouti oft prs cont xt'Br Com m onw eat Va.l e ve D e e e li ha rs sde he ion e . . ? lh nt r noz f ns Va Co e j80 - 4 2 ECF No. 9 a 1 . . d . .1 2 3., 3,t 2 W i. t e sat d z i lsi nnnd,<t e lpr ec i c nm i notac os one' t hes t e atonae n i fhe qua ot ton l i s h l e .' Role ,107 F. a 234. lr 3d t The c tfndst t lg sa tr sdetr i ton i entr l our i hat he e il tze' e nnna i s iey r t a. c u eVigni Cod j80 - 4 . ha ar do l ss do sno vi aea ai lBe a s r i a e .1 2 32 s a na' i, e t olt on ba f da ntl iht a d sno s bjc as pe tca st ds r t te t nt t ec ur un me a rg , nd oe t u e t us c ls o ipaae r ame , h o t ho d t a Vigni Co j801 2 32d snotofe t Eq l otci Clus . l s h t z i a de . - 4 . oe fnd he ua Pz e ton a e Acc di y,Cas on' c nm sa e tm eba r d. or ngl hi s l i r i re V. Concl i us on Vigt aCod j80 - 4 2pa s sc nsiu l tr Be a eCa hin c nc de ri i a e .1 2 3. se o ttéona muse . c us s o o e s t tVignaCod j80 - 432: l tto pei dgo r hi cqms t e aet bar d. ha ti i e .1 2 . s i ains ro ve ns s li , h y t i re mi me Acc di y,t M oéon t Dinns f Fal e t Stt a Chi ,ECF N o. wilbe or ngl he o s i s or iur o a e m 30, l GM NTED. nt I1a I a eDI M I ED W I PM J CE. J S Cou s I nd V r S SS TH UDI MRR A' M oton t SubnltSupplm ent lAut iy, i o i e a hort ECF N o.47, sD EN I A S M O OT . i ED Enee : lI- o&- L< ? trd -) ' e / +/ m J zve . r g . M i hae F. ba ki c l Ur ns ,' * . ' Che Unie S sDitit u e if td t src l dg '. * . 12 .