Beacon Wireless Solutions, Inc. et al v. Garmin International, Inc. et al, No. 5:2011cv00025 - Document 142 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 5/9/2012. (jat)
Download PDF
W ER : OFFI :, Dlm O ur OE S. S AT R- OKE, VA ' Fl ' , I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI O F V I N I CT RGI A HA RRI SON BU RG D I I ON V SI z , . f A % Jokl . j. 2 2 2/ 2 ' , , BEA CON W I RELESS SO LU TI S,I C . eta1, ON N , . Ci lActo N o.5: 1 cvvi in 1 - 00025 Pl ntf s ai i f , M EM O R AN DU M O PINIO N GA RM I I N NTERN A TI A L,l C. etal, ON N , . By: Ho Gln E. n. e Conr ad Chi fU nie St t s Di t i tJ e t d a e s rc udge D ef endant s. Th sc s i p e e tyb f r t ec u t nted fn a t' to f rs mmayj d me t i a e s r s n l eo e h o r o h ee d n s moin o u r u g n . Fort r s nss tf t be ow,hec t l g a i pa ta de i par t de e nt ' he ea o e orh l t our wil r nt n r nd ny n the f nda s m oton. i 1. Fact and ProceduralBackaround ual Be onW iee sSol i ,nc.iBea on' a Be onW iees Eur ( Li td ac r ls utons I (l c ' nd ac ) r l s ope UK) mie (Be c nEu o e'(o lci ey C litfs' iiitdt scv l cino M ac 21 2 1 û a o r p ' c le tv l,k an if' ntae hi ii a to n rh , 01 i ) p ) a i tGami I enai ,l (t r nItr tona')andGar nUSA,l .ts nni gans r n ntr tonal nc.ûGami nenai l' mi nc ç Ga n USA' ( l tvey,S e nt'.Thi c ese fom abusnes rltons pgoneba ' coleci l c nda s' ) def ) s as tms r i s eai hi d be w e n t o t hnol co pa e t ti ta l co l bor t t desgn and m a ke a t e w ec ogy m ni s ha nii ly la a ed o i r tn a i a i t tw o d i e a e Be con' G l pplc ton ha ul nt gr t a s obalPos to ng Sys e ve cl t a ki pr r m ii ni t m hi e r c ng og a it Gami It nai lspes lna gai de c (t '.Ese i l t pl nif no r n ner tona' rona vi ton vies : PND' sntaly,he aitfs ) cl i t tt de e a m ha he f ndant ,ba e on i talr pr s nt tons ofcom pe a i t pe i o t s sd nii e e e a i ns ton, ap d nt he pl n if 's i i d know l ai tf s pec alze edge oft t e tm a ge e i t y a t i e e i fe t he l e na m nt ndus r nd he r xt nsve l e m anagem ents em pl f t devel an a i ton t w oul alow t def yst at onn o op pplca i hat d l he endant t so i egrat t rPN D S w ih t pl ntf s'vehi e t nt e hei t he ai i f cl racki pr ng ogram and t hen,unbeknownstt t o he pl i if , a t a i aton s cii to publc s t tt def nda scoul boos PN D a ntf s m de he pplc i pe fca i ns i o ha he e nt d t E s l by a l ngt pli tfs c aes lowi he a n if ' ompe io st i e r t t i ve c etac ngpr a si t t tt r o nt g ae her hil r ki ogr m n o he de e f ndan s PN D Sasw e l M o e s ii a l t pl i t fs c ai t tt de e nt t' l. r pec f c ly, he a n if l m ha he f nda s mia opra e t pl ntfs ta s c e sa br c d anondicl ur ag e me s ppr it d he ai if ' r de e r t nd ea he s os e r e nt (s ondicos eAg e me )e c e bybohpa te t tpr bie eihe pa t fom d N s l ur r e nf' xe utd t ris ha ohi td t r ry r di c os ng t ot rpa t spr pr e ar i or a i orf om utlz ng s h i or a i f a s l i he he r y' o i t y nf m ton r ii i uc nf m ton or ny pur eunr a e t t pa tes busne sr ai ns p.Fu t nnor t pl i if a s r t t by pos elt d o he ri ' i s elto hi rhe e, he antfs s e t ha , m a ng publct pli if 'pr it r i onua i r ga di t a i ton, hede e ki i he antf s opre a y nf ton e r ng he pplcai t f ndan s t t i r t c l ps oft a i a i sm a ke va ue t t pl ntf s The pl i if alo cl i rgge ed he ola e he pplc ton' r t l o he ai i f . a ntf s s a m t tt de e nt utlz t pl i if 'pr i t r tee m a ha he f nda s ii ed he a ntf s opr e a y l t nage e s t m pl t o m a m nt ys e a f r nd o he ta s r t i a m a rno c e pl t d by t nondi c os e a e e . Fur he m or , t r r de ec e s n nne t ont m a e he s l ur gr em nt t r e a c r i t t epan if,h d fn a t we eu j sl e rc dtr ug t ep an if' c o dng o h litfs t e e e d n s r nu ty n ihe h o h h litfs unco pe a e pr s on ofva uabl s r c s a r s ce f om w hi t de e nt m ns t d ovi i l e e vi e nd e our s r ch he f nda s be ft by s li PN D Si or r tng t a i ton. The pl ntf si ta ed t sl w s t ne ied e lng nc po a i he pplca i ai i f nii t hi a ui, br ngi c a m s a i tt de e nt f m i a opra i oftade s c e s br a h ofco r c , i ng l i ga ns he f nda s or s ppr i ton r e rt, e c nt a t brac ofa i i i fc c r c, un us e ihme t ( cke No.1. e h n mpled-n-a t onta tand j t nrc n. Do t ) The def nda spr vi l m ove t c tt ta f rve a t dim i st i pled e nt e ous y d he our o r ns e nue nd o s s he m i ober he s ue andum c n rc a du j te rc me tcams On Oct 5,2011,t courti s d a mem or o ta t n nus n ih n li . opi o on t de e nt'motons ( ke No. ) Thec t nidt mot t ta fr ni n he f nda s i . Doc t 38. our de e he i o rnse on ve nue, g a e i pa t nd de e i pa tt m o i t di m i s The c tg a t d t m oto but r nt d n r a ni d n r he ton o s s . our r n e he i n t di m i sw ih r pe tt Bea on' i ple i f c c r tc a m ,de er i ng t tt o s s t es c o c s m i d-n- a t ontac l i t m ni ha he pli if 'i id c r c cai e a t d fom t s me f c sa cic sa st tga rs antfs mple onta t l m m na e r he a a t nd r um t nce ha ve ie t t rexpr cont actcl m . M or s fcaly,t courtconcl o hei ess r ai e pecii l he uded t t conductwhi hat he ch, accor ng t t pl ntf s,exceeded t s di o he ai i f he cope oft N ondi os e A gr entand f m ed t he scl ur eem or he ba i frt i i c r tcli (hepr s ofc ss o he mpled ontac am t omies ompe ai andt pr sonofsr ce nston he ovii evi s a rs c )fowe fo t Nondicos eAgre ntsune o c a eta e me t a e ' nd e oures l d r m he sl ur e me ' nfr e bl tgre nt o gre' pr vi i How e r a t o s on. ve , lhoug t c tdim i s Be on' i ple c r c c a m , he c t h he our s s ed ac s m i d ont a t l i t our t unde a s ntt m oto t dimisa t Be on Eur pe' i i c r tc am , ook r dvieme he i n o s s s o ac o s mpled ontac l i de e mi ng t tt Nondicos eAgr e e twa n guouswih r s c t wheherBe c t r ni ha he s l ur e m n s mbi t e pe t o t a on Eur w as a part t t contact ope y o he r . F rh r r,hec u t e idt emo int ds s wi r s e t ob t pan if' nu t u temo e t o r d ne h to o imis t ep c t oh litfs u j s h e c me t li , eemii t a t eu j s e rc n cam a g a l e n td fo a mi h n cams d tr nng h t h nu t n ihme t li r u b y ma ae r m b oa rs toff c st n t cic s a e t tg rs t t e e s c r tcl i . M o e r de e a t ha he r um t nc s ha ave i e o he xpr s ontac a m r s e iial tec u t eemie t a t eu j s e rc me t li c ude c mpa smo e p cfc l h o r d tr n d h t h nu t n ih n cam o l n o s r y, c uc t nt meeus anddicos eofc i nta i omai (heconduc embrce by ond tha he r e s l ur onfde ilnfr ton t t a d t ee p e sc nrc cam)i t a teu j s e rc me tcam a g byc ne ltdte h x r s o ta t li n h th nu t n ih n li r ua l o tmpae h al ton t tt de e nt a opra e t a plcai a i t gr t d i i o ac me cil legai ha he f nda s ppr it d he p i ton nd n e a e t nt om r a pr twhi ht def nda st n s d. oduc c he e nt he ol The ea t ,on Apr l1 201 t de e nt fl a s l m oton f s m a y r fer i 2, 2, he f nda s ied ea ed i or um r j d me tag i gt a n g n i is eo maeil a te it a t a y o t ep an if' o r u g n , r u n h t o e une su f tra fc x ss s o n f h litfs f u cams ( li . Docke No. ) Thepl ntfsfldt i s aldbrefi opposto onAprl25,201 t 86. ai if ie her e e i n iin i 2, c e ng t tt exi t e ofge ne i s ofm a e i lf c pr c ude e r of s m a y ont ndi ha he senc nui s ues t ra a t e l s nty um r j udgme i fvoroft de e nt ( nt n a he f nda s. Docke No.111) Thedee nt fl t i rpl bre on t . fnda s ied her e y if M a 2,201 ( ke No.1 ) Theco the r agume o t moi onM a 4, 2. y 2. Doc t 25. ur ad r nt n he ton y 201 II. D i si scus on A. Standard ofre ew vi I c n ie igamoinf rs mmayj d me tu e F d r l l o Cii P o e u e5 , n o sd rn to o u r u g n nd r e ea Rue f vl r c d r 6 çt co ti r quied t vi t f c sand dr r as bl i e e e i a lghtm os f vor bl she ur s e r o ew he a t aw e ona e nf r nc s n i ta a e t t nonmovi pa t ' Sha v. r 1 F. 791 798( h Ci.1 .Thec r ma o he ng ry. w Stoud, 3 3d , 4t r 994) ' ou t y g a ts mmayj d me t nl wh n viwigterc r a awh l a di t elg tmo t rn u r u g n o y e , e n h e od s oe n n h ih s f vor bl t t nonm ovi pa t t r i no ge ui i s ofm a e i f c a t nonm ovi a a e o he ng ry, he e s n ne s ue t ral a t nd he ng p ry i e tte t j d me a amatro lw.Ceoe Co p v. tet 4 7U.. 1 , 2 - 4 a t s n ild o u g nt s t f a e ltx r . Cart, 7 S 3 7 3 2 2 ( 986) Ter sFl Fa hi .I .v.Buri tnl .l ,763F. 6 61 ( h Ci.1 ) 1 , ry' oor s ons nc . lngo ndus.nc. 2d 04, 0 4t r 985 . Fo ap ry' e ie c t rieag n ieis eo maeilfc t a a iss mma yj d me t r at s vd n e o as e un su f tra a t h t vod u r u g n , t e ie c mu t el uc ta ara o a l j r c udrt n av r itf rt en n vng he vd n e s b i h h t e s n b e u y o l eur ed c o h o mo i s pa t ' Andes v.Li rvLo l .477U. 2 248( 986) ry. ' ron be t bby.nc, S. 42, 1 . B. A nal s ysi 1. Trade secret cl m s ai A ss a e a t t d bove, he pl i if as e t c ai a i tt de e nt unde t Kans t a ntf s s r a l m ga ns he f nda s r he as Unior TrdeSecesAc (C fm a rt t 4 KUTSA' agui t tt defnda smia o itdt rta ), r ng ha he e nt s pprprae hei rde s r t . To es a i h t i o m a i qu ii sasa t a s c e unde K a a l a pl i if ec e s t bls hat nf r ton alf e r de e r t r ns s aw, a ntf mus s t tt i or ton( )ha i pe te onomi vaue;( dervesisval fom t how ha he nf mai 1 s nde nden c c l 2) i t ue r no bengge r l lnownorradiyaserana e;a ()hasiss rcymant ne by t i nealy c e l c ti bl nd 3 t ece i ai d r a o bl efo t.Dods I 'Pa t.l v. t r,3 F.Supp. 997,1 0( Ka e s na e frs on ntl rs nc. Alendo f 47 2d 01 D. n. 20 ;sealoKUTSA,Kan.SttAnn.j60- 204)( 1. 04) e s a. 33 4 201 ) The def nda sas e t ha t pl i if 'pur t d tade s c e s ditl i o t o s pa a e e nt s r t t he a ntf s pore r e r t s il nt w e r t c tgores ( )va i faursofBe co sfee ma me s tm t t t oug t ae i : 1 rous e t e a n' l t nage nt yse ha,hr h he 4 itg ain a piai n aeds ly do t es re o aGami P a d( )tsigs p o t n e rto p lc to , r ipa e n h c e n f r n ND, n 2 e tn u p r pr ded t t defendant t ough t pl ntff 'feetm anagem ents t pl f m . The ovi o he s hr he ai i s l ysem ator l def ndan s c e t tt e de e i t r or i c e t tt e alege tade s c e sdo e t ont nd ha he vi nc n he ec d ndi at s ha hes l d r e rt not i r a iy,qua iy ass h unde Ka a lw. Fis,a or ng t t def nda s t de in , n e lt lf uc r ns s a r t cc di o he e nt, he sg f a ur s f i t qua i y a ta s c e sbec us t y a e no ke s c e , i t d,a e di pl ed e t e a l o lf s r de e r t a e he r t pt e r t but ns ea r s ay t t pl ntfs'c t e s A c y Sol i . sLLC v. i e t Gr up,I ,81 F.Supp. o he ai i f usom r . enc utonscom Tr z to o nc. 9 2d 1 ,1 28( D. . 1.Furhemo e t dee nt cone t fat esdei no 001 0 E. Cal201 ) t r r ,he fnda s tnd,he e ur rve i d pe d n v lefo b i k p s ce, u o l fo p bi us , n te aen t h s b e t n e n e t au r m eng e t e rt b t ny r m u l e a d h y r o t e u j c c ofras bl me ur sofs rc byt pli if.KUTSA j60e ona e as e ece y he antfs 33204 ;Pr esi Pr . 4) ocr sve ods, I v.Swat 258P. 969,978( n.2011.Thedee nt aloa guet tKUTSA' t e nc. rz, 3d Ka ) fnda s s r ha S hre ye rsaut oflmia i ba sa aci by t pli if wih r pec t e g oft t ve a t t e i ttons r n ton he antfs t es t o i ht he wel fau e .KUTSA j6 - 25 e t rs 0 33 . Se cond, he de e nt ca ego i e t pl i if 'pur t t s i t a s r t asnot ng t f nda s t r z he a ntf s pored e tng r de ec e s hi mor t npr blm -ol ng s ppor a t ha d r c tt i t pli if 'c e ha o e s vi u t nd he r wa e onsiutng he antf s omm unia i c ton box. A sG a m i w a de l ng bot t i e f c s c fc tons f t i eg a i n ap i a i r n s ve opi h he nt r a e pe i i a i or he nt r t o plc ton a t s a et r s de on isPN D S i utlze t pl i if 'c m uni tonsbox a nd he ohw r o e i t , t ii d he a ntf s om ca i nd c l bor t wih t pli if t de glt hesi t a i to a s t r Ac r ng t ola aed t he antfs o bug ic n he pplcai n nd ofwa e. co di o t def nt ,t st tng s he enda s hi es i uppor f l t qua iy a a t a s c etbec us t s t ais o lf s r de e r a e he uppor ha no t s i pe nte onom i val a i no ke s c e by t pl n if .M or s cii aly, he nde nde c c ue nd s t pt e r t he ai t f s e pe fc l t dee nt aguet tt yutlz dt pl ntfs'had r (hec fnda s r ha he iie he ai if rwae t ommuniai box)i t sme c ton n he a ma mwrasdo t pl i if c t e s Furhe r whiet def nda sdo notc es t tt he antfs' usom r . t nuo e, l he e nt ont t ha he 1 I taly,t defndan salo a s redt tt plitfs pum ore ta s c esc e plt at r nii l he e t s s e t ha he an if' td r de e r t ontm aed hid cae y i vi v i f ei lngua tansatonst t smia t t fat es aediplyedont s r e ofa tgol nvol ng arous or gn a ge r l i ha , i lr o he e ur , r s a he c e n G a m i PN D. H owe r i t rr ponsve bref t pl ntfs do notc e i t f ei I r n ve , n hei es i i , he ai if at gorze he or gn angua ta l tons ge r nsa i a ta escesb tise d rfrt te meeya i n iaysr ie. ( c e No 1 1a 21) s rd e rt, u n ta ,ee o h m rl st cl r evc s' Do k t . 1 t . a l ' 5 tc nc l eal o teplitfs te t na e n s se (..teu deli s u c c d , e h ia d tis f h anif 'l e ma g me t y tm e:,h n ryng o re o e alort ,pr oc s orfr t)quaiya ta sces i i undiput t tt defnda s g ihms ot ol, omas lf s rde e rt,t s s ed ha he e nt we e no a f ded a c st t e t c ca de a l . Siva D a a Sys v.l e Cor ,1 Ca . r t f or c es o hes e hni l t is l co t . nt l p. 09 l Rpr 3d27,34( l Ct App. 0 ,o ruldonohe grundsbyKwi e DaaSys v.ne t, Ca. . 201 ) ver e t r o ks t t . ltl Co , 46P.d8 7( l 2 1 (on d e n tb e e uigma hnera a l s fwae S e m.2 3 7 Ca. 01 ) C e o s o , y x c t l n c i -e d be o t r ,us ' t unde l ng s ce c e;nordoesone ac r t r ui ie know l dge ofa t a s c e s he r yi our od quie he eq st e ny r de e r t e mbodi i t tc ') ed n ha ode. . ' I r pons ,t pl i if c e t tt i tade s r t di tl i o t r e s pa a e n es e he a ntf s ont nd ha he r r ec e s sil nt h e e r t c tg re :( )tec mbnain o tet led sg fau e ;2 t s u c c d a doh r ae ois 1 h o i to f h wev ei n e tr s () he o re o e n te tc c lde a l oft s e hni a t is he ohwa e r sde i t pli tfs fe tma r e i nt n he a n if ' l e nage nts t m pl tor a me yse af m nd i t tlmaisbo a ()vey s ii tc c li onnai pr de byt pli if t t n he ee tc x; nd 3 r pectc e hnia nf ton ovi d he antfs o he d e nt f t pur e ofa s s i t de e nt t e ne rt PN D s t a e and t ef nda s or he pos s i tng he f nda s o ngi e he ofw r he i e f es ct a i .W ih r pe tt t co bi to o desgnf t es t pli if ntrac pe ik tons t es c o he m na in f i eaur , he antfs c nt nd e s ntaly t tt vii lt t c t r ofi vi ualf a ur sdoe notviit t ta o e s e i l ha he sbiiy o usome s ndi d e t e s ta e he r de s c e s a usoft c bi ton oft e f a ur sbec us a t e de e s e rt tt he om na i hos e t e a e, s he vi nc ugge t , he ss t c bi ton w asnott e diy as e t i bl ' i ot rw o ds t c bi ton wasnotea iy om na i d a l c r a na e' n he r , he om na i r sl duplc t o a PN D by ot si t s al t m edi - i e c m e ci lte tm a ke untlt i a ed n her n he m l o um s z d om r a l e r t i he def ndan spubls d t i e f c s ii a i ns m ade a ia e t i PN D s t a e a s d e t i he he nt r a e pec t c to , va l bl he r of w r , nd ol c bl st te bl a fee m a em e s t m t c m uni a e w ih a G a m i PN D . a e ha na e l t nag nt ys e o om ct t r n W ih r s c t t und l ngs c cod and o he t hni lde a l oft pl i if ' t e pe t o he eryi our e e t r ec ca t is he antfs s ohwa e, hepl i if ar t tt de e nt mia opra e t etades c e sb t si r t antfs gue ha he f nda s s ppr it d hes r e r t y e tng t pr he oductw ih t uli at purpos ofm aki i avaiabl t a1 oft pl ntf s'com pett s. t he tm e e ng t l e o l he ai if ior W ih r pe tt t t chni li o m a i n pr de b t pl i if t t de enda s durng t t es c o he e ca nf r to ovi d y he a ntf s o he f nt i he 6 e ne rng sa t pl i if c e t tt sta f roft hni li or ton c tt e ngi e i t ge, he antfs ontnd ha hi r nse ec ca nf ma i onsiutd m uc m o e t n m e e com m o a e pr e - ol ng s ppor .The s cii i or a i h r ha r npl c obl m s vi u t pe fc nf m ton f nihe s e y t t def nda sw a no ge r l kno n i t i ty and de i is ur s d ol l o he e nt s t ne aly w n he ndusr rved t i pende te nde n conom i va ue f om notbei ge r ly know n. c l r ng ne a l Ahe r viwi t pari 'bre s hea i a gume on t is a as es i t r e e ng he tes i f, rng r nt he s ue, nd s sng he e de i t r c d, he co tc ude t tt e s e ofge ne i s sofm a e i lf t vi nce n he e or t ur oncl s ha he xit nce nui s ue t r a ac p e l d t ec u t r m g a tn t moinf rs mmayj dg n wi r s e t ot rcu e h o r fo r nig he to o u r u me t t e p c t he h m i a opra i oftade s c e s c ai . M o e s ii ly, he c tde e m i t ta gen ne s ppr i ton r e rt l m r pec fca l t our t r nes ha ui is ofmatra f cte ssa t whehe t pli if ha ta s r t und Kans s1w i s ue e i l a xit s o t r he antfs ve r de ec e s er a a n t co bi ton oft t ve des g f a ur a i t t c c li or a i pr vi d t t he m na i he wel i n e t es nd n he e hni a nf m ton o de o he de e nt i t de opm e oft i e f ees cfc to .Ho ve ,bec us t c t f nda s n he vel nt he ntra pe ii ai ns we r a e he our beive t tt de e nt di notm ia opra et tades r t c prs d i t s c co le s ha he f nda s d s ppr it he r ec e s om ie n he our e de a o he t hni lde a l oft pl i if 's t a e t co twilg an t de e nd t r ec ca t is he a ntf s ofw r , he ur l r t he f ndan s m o i t ' ton frs mmayj d me t st t i a p c o t epanif'KUTSA cam . o u r u g n a o hs s e t f h li t s f li Ka a lw r cog z t t e nt ns s a e nies ha , ve hough i vi f alr sofa br de f aur ndi dual e tze oa r e t e c ombi ton m ihte s i t ma ke ,t c bi ton oft e f t esnonehels m a nai g xit n he r t he om na i hos eaur t es y q lf asa t a s c e pr de t tt c bi to is l s ts i s t r r m e soft ua iy r de e r t ovi d ha he om na i n t e f a i fe he equie nt he tades c e saut . Se Koc Hvdr a bon Co.Di ofKoc l . l v. r e rt tt e e h oc r . v. h ndus, nc. Ande s No. r on, 90- 1 K,1992W L 79046,a *2-3( Ka 1 (oncudi t talhoug ac ranc t r 292t D. n. 992) c l ng ha, t h e ti usome ls wasc piedusngpublc i or ton,age ne is ofma e i lf tno t l s e se it om l i i nf ma i nui s ue t ra ac nehe e s xit d ast whehe t ls qua ii asata s crtde ndi on Chea ountoftme a e ns i o t r he it lfed r de e e pe ng t m t i nd xpe e t wo dtkefrot r t duplc t t i o mai ';Andew Com . Va DornI .l . ul a o hes o iae he nfr ton' ) r v. n e ndus. nc, CI A. 88241 0,1 W L 1 V. No. - 4- 990 36779,a * n. ( Ka J y5,1 ( tr ni t t t 4 3 D. n. ul 990) deemi ng ha, e n i C ndi d f t es'ofa desgn w e e ûg e a l know n,' he pl ntf c or ton' ve f t vi ual ea ur ' i i r t en r ly 't ai i f om a i s t xa tc bi ton off a ur s c d be c r c e i d a a uni s uton t t ne ofis t c om na i e e t e oul ha a t rze s que ol i o he eds t c t rbas a t quaiya a(r s ce'';Ma v.Taz Che Co.440P. 640, usome e nd hus lf s tade e rt'l nn te m. , 2d 647( n.1 )(i ta sc e ca e s i ac nai ofc Ka 968 E r de e r t n xit n ombi ton ompone s e hofwhih,by A nt, ac c is f m i be i t publc dom a n.A know l dge oft bes com bi t o ofpr e s sor t el, ght n he i i e he t na i n oc s e s tmsofco nai ofelme t ma a untt atades rt'. yse mbi ton e ns y mo o r ece.' ) The pl ntf si t i t ntca e poi tt e de e i t r co d s ai if n he ns a s n o vi nc n he e r ugges i t tt tng ha he pr c s com bi ton off t esof e ed by t i pr e ie na i ea ur fr he r oduc w a no ,i t w o dsoft s a ut , t s t n he r he t t e C e diy a c r a na e, ore s l r plc bl i a G a n PN D i t s c o oft f e t t a l s e t i bl ' a iy e i a e, n r ' nni n he e t r he l e m a ge e i usr s r d by t pli if be o et de e nt publs d t ei e f ce na m nt nd ty e ve he antfs f r he f nda s ihe l nt ra z s ii atons m a a l e t i PN D s pec fc i , de vaiabl he r ohwa e a s d c r , nd ol onne tng c es K oc c i abl . h Hvdr a bon Co. D i ofK oc I oc r , v. h ndus .l . 1 W L 790 a * . nc , 992 46, t 2-3. Evi nc i t r c d de e n he e or as s sst tt sco bi to off a ur sde i d i pende ec lo ugge t ha hi m nai n e t e rve nde nt onomi val fom not c ue r ben ra iya c rana l a dwa t es b e to r ao a eef rso sc e y.S eA1 W . t ig e d l s e ti be n s h u j c f e s n bl fo t f e r c e 1 Pe Suppl Co.v.HilsPe Pr .Di ,Col t- molveCo.8 F. v l' t ods v. caepal i , 40 Supp.1 1 ( Ka 433, 438 D. n. 1 )(tW l t rt pos e s ofs hi or tonha tke r s na ese t pr e tis 993 tg hehe he s sor uc nf mai s a n ea o bl tps o otc t scec i as aquesi offc . . ( nl ra ona ee f t ar rquie t pr tc t e r y s lo ton a t . . Ol y e s bl fors e e r d o oe t he scec ofpuai ta s rt,nota1c eva eef t ....) Theef e,hec t er y ttve rde eces l onc i bl fors '. r or t our ' conc ude t ta ge ne i s ofm a e i lf c e s sa t whe he t pl ntf s co bi ton of l s ha nui s ue t r a a t xi t s o t r he ai if ' m na i t e ve de i f a ur s c tt esa t a s c e u rKa a l w . Se U ni r a Eng a ngw l s gn e t e ons iut r de e r t nde ns s a e ve s l r vi l v.Duat 51 F.Supp.2d 11 11 ( Ka 20 CThee se eofatades rti a nc. re, 9 40, 51 D. n. 07) xitnc r ece s n is f t tiroffc.'' 1W . tSuppl Co.840F. pp.a 1 7(; e se o a sue or he re a t' , ) Al Pe v , Su t 43 $The xitnce f 8 tades r tund t Unior Tr de Sec e sAc i aque ton off tf de e na i byt r ec e er he f m a rt t s si ac or t nni ton he tiroffc.) re a t'. ' Furhe m or a t r g ne i s ofm a e i lf c exi t a t w he he t s cii t r e, no he enui s ue t ra a t s s s o t r he pe fc tc c li onnatont tt pli if ta mitdt t defnda s(o alw t dee nt t e hnia nf i ha he antfs rns te o he e nt t lo he fnda s o ac r t t vedesgnfaursont i PNDs flswihi t a tofata s rtunde quie he wel i et e her ) al t n he mbi rde ece r KU TSA . U ni s Eng avi l ,51 F.Supp. a 1 ; 1 W . tSuppl Co. 8 F. ver al r nc. nc. 9 2d t 15l A l Pe v , 40 Supp. 1 at 437. Evi nc i t r or s esst tt si or ton wa notge r lykn de e n he ec d ugg t ha hi nf ma i s ne al own, wa t s b e to ra o a eme s rso sce yb t epanif, n d rv di d p n e t s he u j c f e s n bl a u e f e r c y h li t s a d e ie n e e d n f ec no i va ue bas d on is e usve s i t m a ke . Fort e r a ons t co tw ilde t o m c l e t l i ne s n he r t hes e s , he ur l ny he moinf rs mmayj d me ta t t eKUTS cam rltn t t epan if ' o i aino to o u r u g n s o h A li eaig o h litfs c mb n to f desgn f aur sa t hni a i or a i pr de t t deenda s2 i e t e nd ec c l nf m ton ovi d o he f nt . On t o he ha a e ai d a he t r nd, s xpl ne bove, hec r wilg an t moton a t t KUTSA t ou t l r t he i s o he c a m a i r l t s t t s r e code a ot rt c m i lde aisoft pl i i f 's t a e. A s l i s t e a e o he ou c nd he e l ca t l he a ntf s ofw r sa e a t t d bove, her i no di put t tt pl i if di notafor t de e nt a e st t s t es s e ha he a ntf s d f d he f nda s cc s o he e t l i alde ais. Fo t sr as t c t le t tt de enda sdi notus o o he wi e ec m c tl r hi e on, he our be i ves ha he f nt d e r t r s 2 I s r i , tec u tee t ted fn a t' rume tta KUTS Strey a saueo lmi to sb r n o ulng h o r rjcs h ee d ns ag n h t A' h e -e r ttt fi t in as a a a tonbyt pl ntfswih r pe t eihtoft t l de in fatr s Ac di t t deenda s t n ci he ai if t es ct o g he weve sg e u e . cor ng o he f nt,he pl ntfskne orr as bl s d ha knownt tt defnda s'fr tac ofalege m ia oprai ofei t ai if w e ona y houl ve ha he e nt is t l d s ppr iton gh o t ef au e o c r dmo et a t r ey a sb f r t e isa t utwa tld o M a c 21 2 1 S eKUTS j f h e tr s c ure r h n h e e r e o e h n tn s i s ie n r h , 01 . e A 6 -3 5(ç a to frmia p o rainmu t ebo g t t ntrey asa trtemia p o raini 03 2 ç cin o sp r pito s b ru h wi h e er fe h s p rp ito s An hi ds o ee o b tee ecs o rao a edig n es o l h v b e dso ee '.l tal,h c ut oe ta, ic v rd r y h x r ie f e s n bl l e c h ud a e en ic v rd.) ni ly te o r n ts h t i ' i t t exentt tt defndant ase tt tt saut oflm iai be n t r n whent pa tesm a va ius o he t ha he e s sr ha he tt e i ttons ga o u he ri de ro pu i de onsr to ordicos esoft fa r st m s l sfom 2006t 2008,t sagum en f l bec us ,a blc m tains s l ur he e m e he eve r o hi r t ais a e s dic s d a s us e bove,mer publcdicl ur oft f t est s vesdi notnec s iy desr tades r tsausi e i s os e he eaur hem el d esarl toy r ec e tt f du ia i silr ne difc t Thedee a sas bas t i saut oflm iai a gum e on t i a s ri plc ton tl emai d fiul. fnd nt lo e her tt e i ttons r nt her s e ton t ,i Fe uay 2007,t deenda spubls d a eal veso oft a i to s ika i f fveoft hat n br r he f nt ihe n ry rin he pplcain pect tons or i he t vedesgn fa u e Furher or t defndant poi t e de ei t r or s wel i e t r s. t m e,he e s nt o vi nc n he ec d uggesi t tt pl ntfs tng ha he ai if wer a aeoft spublcdicl ur fom Fe uay 2007t M a c 2008.Howe ,t sa gum e lke s m us ew r hi i s os e r br r o rh ver hi r nt i wie t fi.Theplitfspoi t e de i t rcor i c tngt tt defndanst m s l swe euns eofwhen, al anif nt o vi nce n he e d ndia i ha he e t he eve r ur e cl t s cik ai we epubls d.I a eve ,t cou tfndsm os convi ngt pl ntfs'a g e xa ty, he pe t tons r ihe n ny nt he r i t nci he ai if r um nt t tt m e epublc ton oft i e fces cii tons by is l,woul notr ndert fatr sr diy a c ti bl ha he r iai he ntra pe fcai , tef d e he e tle ea l s erana e w ihou t sm ula ousa l lt oft PND s t r a con ci c e . Ahe al,iw a t c bi to t t he i t ne vaiabiiy he ofwa e nd ne tng abls r l t s he om nain oft desgn f at r st tcons iut st pl ntf s pur td t a s cr t . I s t t c tde e m i t tt he i e u e ha tt e he ai if ' pore r de e e s n hor, he our t r nes ha he def nda shave f l t ca r t rbur ofpe s s o on t ssa u e oflmia i a gum e . e nt aied o r y hei den r ua i n hi tt t i t tons r nt 9 mi a opraet s t hni a dea l whe t yutlz d t pl n if 't e ai sha dwa et s ppr it he e ec c l tis n he iie he aitfs elm tc r r o t s mz de l t i e f ce s c fc tons a t s t a e r s de on t PN D S Se K U TSA e t d ve op he nt r a pe i i a i nd he ofw r e i nt he . e j6 - 3 0 2 (r v dn ta ç s p r p ito 'me nset e t c u sto 'o û icos r o 0 3 2 4) p o i ig h t s a p o rain' a i r t q iiin' r û s l u e r mi h a d us 'ofata s cel seas Siva o,1 Ca. r 3da 3 ($ doe no , e cutng e' r de e rt; e lo l c 09 lRpt. t 4 EOne s t by xe i m ac ne r ada e s t e ç e't unde l ng s ur e c hi - e bl of war , us he r yi o c ode; doesone a uie t r s t nor cq r he equiie knowldgeofa ta s c ese e ny r de e r t mbodidi t c ' .Theeor t co twilg a tt e n hat ode.) ' rf e,he ur l r n he moi nf rs mmayj d me t t r s e tot eKUTS cam a ir ltst tepan if' to o u r u g n wi e p c t h h A li s t eae o h litfs s ur c a ot rt c c lde aisr s de i t i s t r . o ce ode nd he e hni a t l e i nt n he r ofwa e 2. Bre h ofc r tc ai ac ont ac l m A s s a e a ve t pl n if brng a br ac ofconta ta ton a ns t de e nt , t t d bo , he ai t f s i e h r c c i gai t he f nda s c e ng t tt de e nt br ac d t N ondi c os e A g ee e tby di cl i t ont ndi ha he f nda s e he he s l ur r m n s os ng he pl i if 'c i nta i or a i ast tt r i de i d i t c r c ,t t r pa tes a by a ntf s ont de i l nf m ton, ha e m s f ne n he ont a t o hi d ri , nd o he wieusng s h i or ton i ama rnotc t mplt d by t c r c . Thedefnda t t r s i uc nf ma i n nne on e a e he onta t e ns a s r t tno g nui is ofm ae ilf te sswih r pe tt t br a ofc r tcli s e t ha e ne s ue tra ac xit t es c o he e ch ontac am be a e none oft i or a i t tt y di c os d orus d f lw ihi t a bi oft c us he nf m ton ha he s l e e el t n he m t he Nondicos eAg e ment s l ur r e . Cl us 1oft N ondi c os e A gr e e tpr de a e he s l ur e m n ovi s: d t i t a i or a i 'a us d i t s A gr e e s l i l confden i l nf m ton' s e n hi e m nt ha l nc ude,buti s no lm ie t a l tade s c e s non- i i or a i da a, know - , t i t d o, l r e rt, publc nf m ton, t how doc ntton,hadwae,s fwae (ncudi lsi t r ofand doc tton ume ai r r o t r i l ng itngs he e umenai rltd t r t ,di a ,drwi a s iiai r ai t a pa t is eae he eo) agrms a ngs nd pecfc tons eltng o ry, t busne s or pr i s oduc s w hi h i m a ke a i ont de t a ' or k opr e a y' a t c s r d s t i n i l' c û pr i t r ' nd whi h i di cl e by e t rpa t t t ot rpa t I onna i di c os d or ly c s s os d ihe r y o he he ry. nf ton s l e a l o vi ualy s l be c i r d Contde i l l or a i i s h i or a i i r s l ha l ons de e i nta nf m ton f uc nf m ton s i ii as tconfdental' or lpropr e ar ' at t tm e of di cl e and i dentted t i i' l i t y' he i s osur s r uce t wrt e s m a y f m by t di c os ng pa t a s ntt t r e vi ed d o it n um r or he s l i ry nd e o he ec i ng pat wihi t ry ( )da a tri taldicosze. Durng t st ry ( da ry t n hit 30 ys fe nii sl lr i hi hit 30) y pe i s h or l or vi ua i or a i s dic os s l be pr de t s e r od, uc a s l nf m ton o s l ed ha l ovi d he am pr ecton as ConfdentalI orm aton. ot i i i nf i 10 ( ke No.1 1a 1) Doc t - t. Ac or ngt t de e c di o he f ndan s t pl ntfsf ie t ma k a confde i orpr itr t , he ai if al d o r s i ntal oprea y any oft doc en s orot r i or a i t tt y pr vi d t t de e nt i t c s of he um t he nf m ton ha he o de o he f nda s n he our e t i bus ne sr a i hi A s s h, he de e nt a gue t ti onna i i nots e tw ihi he r i s el tons p. uc t f nda s r , ha nf ton s w p tn t c r tsr a h.Howe r t pl i if a g t tt çs l i l buti notlm ie t ' he ontac ' e c ve , he antfs r ue ha he thal ncude, s i t d o' ln ua eo tec nr c ij csa iui it t c nrc a drn e si a n bl t t a g g f h o ta t ne t mb g t n o he o ta t n e d r t me a e o he y i t r e a i t tdco i nta l o to 'i no lm ie onl t i or a i n l bel d a s h. n e pr t ton ha t ntde i l nf nna i n' s t i t d y o nf m t o a e s uc Addii ly, hepl ntfsc e t tt s e ntc tona l t ai if ontnd ha he ubs que onduc ofbo h pa te i ha t l t t ri s n biualy e ha ng i or i n wihoutm a ki a c i nta orpr it r n nded t xc ngi nf mato t r ng s onfde il opre a y me he N ondi c os e A g ee ent The de e nt as e t ha t pl i if 'û our e ofdea i ' s l ur r m . f nda s s r t t he a ntf s i s c lngs' a g entm us f lbas d upon t N ondi c os e Agr m e ' r qui e entt ta1 a e e s r um t ai e he s l ur ee nt s e r m ha l m ndm nt t t c r tm us be i w rtng. o he ontac t n ii t nde K a as l w ,t i s ofw he hera c t a ti a bi s u r ns a he s ue t on r c s m guousi a que ton of1 w t s si a o be de e m i d by t co t' I e a e Li ng Cm t . l v. om es e d Co. 1 F.Supp. t r ne he ur . nt ar t d vi ' vs . nc. H ta , 06 2d 11 ,11 ( Ka 2000)( tng Clr v.Pr nta I .Co.ofAm.464P. 253, 6( n. 41 43 D. n. cii ak ude il ns , 2d 25 Ka 1 7 ).Assae i o e c u t u igtemoinh ai ,h c u t o cud st a ca e1o 9 0) ttd n p n o r d rn h to e rng t e o r c n l e h t lus f t Nondicos eAgr eme i no a g he s l ur e nt s t mbiuous buti t d,cea l r uie t ti onna i be , nsea l ry eq r s ha nf ton m a ked a c nfde i lo pr pre ar t qua i y a (co i n i ll or a i 'wihi t r s o i nta r o i t y o lf s s nf de t a nf m ton' t n he m e ni oft c r c . H o e , hi l alc l i doesnote t a l i . Se Scha e a ng he ont a t w ver t s eg onc uson nd he na ys s e fr v.Al Thi sExtror l ,1 P.d450,2007W L 258 69,a *2( n.CtApp. 1 ng ei , nc. 66 3 05 t Ka . 2007) ( unpubls tbl de son)( i t tt i eprttonofawrtenc rc pr e t a ihed a e cii notng ha he ntr eai it onta t es ns spaaequesi fo whehe awrte c r tha be nmodiid) Ast pli if pr ry e rt ton rm t r itn ontac s e fe . he antfs opel f e s i t i a gtm e ,c ti we ls tl d i K a ast Che t r sofa w rten c r c m a or ca t n he r r l nt d s l e te n ns hat t e m i it onta t y 11 be va i d,m odii d,wai re fe ved,a l d,o w holy s ta i by a s eque l e u e nnule r l e s de ny ubs nty xec t d contact whet s s r , her uch ubsequenty execut contactbe i w rtng ori par .' Car x Serv. l ed r n ii n ol'' - Sys.l .v.Ki leler 927F. 511,518( 0hCi.1 )(uotngCoonr d& W azConsr . nc, dd-l l , 2d 1 t r 991 q i o l t. Co.v. otlEntr.l .535P. 971,979 0( n.1 ) ûf si tu eve whe t M e es.nc, 2d -8 Ka 975). çhi s r e n n he m i t n co r c c ai a pr son pum ori t r ui e t ts e ntm odik a i nsbe te nt a t ont ns ovi i tng o eq r ha ubs que t to e de edbyawrtng. #-(ii Nihol & She r Co.v.Ma 92P.5 5 ( n. vi nc ii ' s ctng c s 'J pad xon, 45, 46 Ka 1 ) 907). The Supr m e Cour ofK a a ha e a ne t s S odi i a i 'doc rne: e t ns s s xpl i d hi é m fc ton' ti One pa t t a c r c c l otunia e a l c nge t t r st r of M odii a i ry o ont a t a m l t r ly ha he e m he e . fc ton r quies t a s nt of a l t pa te t t co r c . The r m ut l as e i as e r he s e l he ri s o he nt a t i ua s nt s m uc a r qui ie i efec i a m od tc ton a i i i t i tal c e ton of a h e s t n f tng ii a i s t s n he nii r a i c r t M ut as e m a noto y be s w n by a e es agr e e , a s ontac . ual s nt y nl ho n xpr s e m nt but l o m a be i ple f om t c r um s a esa c y m i d r he ic t nc nd onduc oft pa tes l e t rca e t he r i . n ihe s , howe r t r m us be a m e tng of t m i w ih r s c t t pr ve , he e t ei he nds t e pe t o he opos d e m odii a i f c ton. Fa t Ka n 4 P.d9 8 9 ( n. 9 ) s v. ha , 81 2 5 , 61 Ka 1 71 . Furhe mor t Sa e m e t modiy ac r c mus bes t r e, he tgr e nt o f onta t t uppo td by i pe nt re nde nde c i rton. M as v. e Co.774F.Supp. 61 ( Ka 1 )(ii Bl kv. onsdeai ' rh Colman , ' 608, 6 D. n. 991 ctng oc Fe k,499P. 1 2,1 4 ( n.1 2).kcourss ul besow t hol t twrte c r t da 2d 05 05 Ka 97 ) k t ho d l o d ha itn ontacs h v b e mo iidb a t o t ep ris. .' l . itr a q tto mak )(u tn a e e n dfe y cs f h a t . . d (nen l uoain r s q o ig e ' Alxa rv. ik,11 P. 46 467(941) t ns c t ha ge al r s ve e nde Flc 9 2d 4, 1 ). l as ours ve nerly eer d Ka m odii a i n t t e c r um sanc whe e t pa tes S dopt d a c s ofcond tt t i t c to o hos i c t es r he r i a e our e uc o he r mut stsa tondifr ntfom t te pr se i t orgi c r c.' l (ntr l ual aifci fe e r ha x e sd n he i nal onta t'' d. i ena q tto maksomitd)( i Fat481P. a 962) uoain r te quotng s, 2d t . Som e K a a c eshol t tt s m odii to doc r ne a i s onl t c t uc i ns s as d ha hi tca i n ti pple y o ons r ton co r c s Se ee. ,Bos on Hnnna l t l LLC v.Am . c d. Fa iv Phvs c ans N o.1 251 nt a t . e R. t h n ', A a Qf m l ii , 0- 0- 12 CM ,201 W L 1 2 37870,a *4( Ka J n.18 201 ;Fiz ni v.Shafr 1 P.d 1 5, t D. n. a , 2) tmo s fe , 92 3 8 2008 W L 4291 42, t*4( n. .App. 6 a Ka Ct 2008)( publs dtbl de iin) Howe r ohe c es un ihe a e cso . ve , t r as t nd t dia e wiht sc r c e i to oft sae o Ka a lw. Se e. ,Ca - Se v.Svs. e o s gr e t hi ha a t rza in he t t f ns s a es c. rx r . I ,9 F. a 518( tnni ngt tala ebewe nafa hiors e nta afa hie nc. 27 2d t dee ni ha e s t e r nc s ubtna nd rnc se s e ntw asm odii by a s eq n ag e e des t t f tt tt or g na con r c ubt na fed ubs ue t r em nt pie he ac ha he i i l t a t i l dapr so sai t tico dno bemodiide e byawrtngl Pe r Asocss ncude oviin ttng ha t ul t fe xc pt ii ; nnc o s . l , nc.2006W L 13 2,a *11( tr ni t tm itnwave andwrte modiiai 2025 t deemi ng ha te i r itn fc ton cl us ofa c l c i s vi sconta woul notpr l a fndi ofw ai rorm odii a i i a es ole ton er ce r ct d ec ude i ng ve tc ton f Shepa te r i l w avedt i rght ... mademodii ai t t t r s.. wihout û t ri s outne y i her i s or fc tons o he e m . t rgadt t ca e r quii t twaveso c nge bema i wrtng.l Nihol & She r e r o he lus s e rng ha i r r ha s de n ii ' ; c s ' pad Co.92P. t546( tr ni t tac r c f t s l ofg c dbemodii bya , a deemi ng ha onta t or he ae oods oul ted s e nto a ag e m e de pie t orgi c r c ' r qui e en t ta s e nt ubs que r l r e nt s t he i nal onta t s e r m t ha ny ubs que a e me sbei wrtng) Sc fr 2007W L 258 gre nt n ii ; hae, 0569,a * ( tr ni t tacove ntnott t 3 deemi ng ha na o c pe e w a m odii by t c om t s fed he onduc oft pa te des t a pr son t tt ag ee en c d t he ri s pie ovi i ha he r m t oul bea nde onl byam ii ) s as 1 Am. ur 2dConta t j51 ( i t tt l l me d y tng ; ee lo 7A J . rcs 4 notng ha he ' e u f l we by c t ge r ly ( st tunl sac r ti r quiedby lw t bei wrtng, he olo d ours ne a l C ha es ontac s e r i a o n ii t c r tc nbemodiidorly,e nt ontac a fe al ve houghipr de t tica bemodii onl i wrtng' t ovi s ha t n fed y n ii ). A lho h t c s cha t d by Ka a 1 w on t s i s a ar l s t n c e r t c t t ug he our e r e ns s a hi s ue ppe s e s ha l a , he our no t l si oft opi ont tt r i pes svea hort u rKa a lw (ncudi t nehees s he ni ha hee s rua i ut iy nde ns s a i l ng he c s lw ctda )s a e a ie bove uppori t prpostont ta u mbiuouswrte a e me (t r tng he o ii ha n nn g itn gr e nt ohe t nac tuci c rc)ma bemodii byas eq ta ee t des t awrte ha onsr ton onta t y fed ubs uen gr men, pie itn am e e pr vi i i t or g na co r c . A s sa e a ndm nt o s on n he i i l nt a t t t d bove, vi nce i t i t n c e e de n he ns a t as s ugge t t t durng t pa tes bus ne sr a i hi ea h pa t pr vi d ar ua y c i n i s s ha , i he r i ' i s el tons p, c r y o de g bl onfde tal 13 i o mai t t o he wiho ma ki i ass h.Thepli if poi t e de e i c tng nf r ton o he t r t ut r ng t uc a ntfs nt o vi nc ndia i t t def hat he endant corpor e r esent i under ood t t i or aton t recei f om s' at epr atves st hat he nf m i hey ved r t pl i tf s a t he a n if , lhoug no l be ed a s hs a i e d t be te e a confde i la h t a l s uc w s nt nde o r at d s i nta nd, f t r or ,t tt de e n s i t u t e pl est t e tt i or a i a c i nta . urhe m e ha he f nda t ns r c ed m oye o r a he nf m ton s onfde i l He c ,heeaeag a y fcsfo wh c ara o a l j r c udd tr n t a t eewa a n e t r r r u bl a t r m ih e s n be u y o l eemie h t h r s m ee i oft m i by t pa te ,e de d by t i c s ofco uc , o e e i o a tng he nds he r i s vi nce he r our e nd t t nt r nt n a e m e t m odiy t N o s l ur A g ee e ' cl us r ga di ho i or a i gr e nt o f he ndi c os e r m nt s a e e r ng w nf m ton e ha d by t pa teswoul quaiy asS xc nge he ri d lf i i nta l or to 'u rt c r t Ca confde il nf ma i n' nde he ontac . rx Se v. . l ,927 F. a 51 .Pe r As oc . l ,2006 W L 1 r Svss nc. 2d t 8, nnc o s s s nc. 320252,a *11 Fas , t ; t 481 P. at961 N i hol & She r Co. 92 P. t546. Furhe m o e t r a gua y w a new 2d ; c s pa d , a t r r , he e r bl s c i r ton f t sm odii a i be a e, onsde a i or hi f c ton c us unde t o i na c r t t pa teswer no r he r gi l ontac , he r i e t r quie t m a nt i t s c e y oft ot rpa te 'i o m a i n t tw asnotm a ke a e r d o i a n he e r c he he r i s nf r to ha z d s pr i t r M a s 774 F.Su a 61 s e al o Rie S a e Ba ofRie v.Spil a 75 opre a y. r h, pp. t 6; e s l v t t nk ly lm n, 0 P. 1 1 ( n.1 )(dsq hmodfc tonofawrte conrc mus bes ppo tdb 2d 024, 028 Ka 988 dl uc iiai itn ta t t u re y c i r ton i pende a s pa a e f om t o i i lc i a i s ons de a i nde nt nd e r t r he r g na onsder ton uppo tng t r i he c rct' onta -). He e,t c ur c udest tt r i a ge ne i s ofm a e i lf tast w he hert nc he o t oncl ha he e s nui s ue t r a ac o t he N ondi c os e A gr em e ' pr vi i de i ng E s l ur e nt s o s on fni s i nta l o m a i ' asa ende or contde i l nf r ton' w m d modii byt s e ntdeai oft pari .Sc fr 2007W L 2580569,a *2(ç' ted he ubsque lngs he tes hae, t ç-he f quetonofwhehe ac r thasbe modiid i aq si offc. (ii l r Esaeof si t r ontac en fe s ueton a t' ctng n e tt ' Snook,38P. 68 ( n. 3d 4 Ka 2002),seas 1 C. S. rcsj1 Ctol tonsrgar ng ) e lo 7B J. Conta t 042 l uesi e di . t m odii i ofa cont actar onesoff ,and ar t be det m i by t t eroff upon he fcaton r e act eo er ned he ri act 14 t e de oft c s ') he vi nce he a e. .Fort sra on,hec t l de t motonf s ' hi e s t our wil ny he i or ummay r j d me t st t b e c o c n rc cam. u g n a o he ra h f o ta t li 3. Unj te ihme cai us nrc nt l m A se a ne i gr t rdet i i t c tsm e or ndum o ni a t m oton t xpl i d n ea e a l n he our ' m a pi on t he i o dimissa ( ke No.38a 22-24) t d e nt aguet tt pli if'unus s s tge Doc t t ,he efnda s r ha he antfs j t en i hm e c ai i pr m pt d by bot KU TSA a t e es c r c cl m . l ta l t r c nt l m s ee e h nd he xpr s ont a t ai nii ly, he c u t oe t a KUTS d e no o eaet b rt pan if' n u te c me tcam b c u e o r n ts h t A o s t p rt o a he litfs u j s mi h n li e a s t be ftt tt pl i if b t he ne i ha he a ntf s es owed upon t e de e nt c e pl t m o e t n sm pl ta h f nda s ont m a es r ha i y r de s ces(..i onuai t tdoe notrs t t lve ofata s ce a t la ilr e rt ie,nf ton ha s ie o he e l r de e rt nd he inclay s r i es' ha t pl ntf spr de t t de e nt durng t r r l tons p,i l ng f ei e v c ' t t he ai if ovi d o he f nda s i hei e a i hi nc udi or gn ta l i s r esa mar tngs rnsaton e dc nd kei uppor) W of Elc.I v.Duc t. le e .nc. kworh,266P. 51 532 t 3d 6, - 33( n. ) M e wael o.Svs.l v. c sonI o.Sol i . Ka 2011 ; di r nf . nc. M Ke s nf utons LLC, 06- 91J L, No. 23 -W 2007W L 9261 a *2 ( Ka M a . 2007 ,s as St Casl Fi snc. Fred n. 42, t -3 D. n. r 26, ) ee lo one te n.I v. i ma * Bilngs Ra e & Co.1 F.Su 2d65 658 ( D. 2002)( s ri t tbeor li . ms v , 91 pp. 2, -59 E. Va. ase tng ha, f e r a hi t pr m pton quesi c t tr tk s a ih t tt i or a i i i s . . e c ng he ee i ton, our s i s t t bls ha he nf m ton n s ue . e c ttt ta s ces'. onsiue r de e rt' ) The c td e m i t tt e es c t a tcl i lke i e doe notope a e t pr mpt our et r nes ha he xpr s on r c a m i w s s r t o ee tepanif' nus e rcu n cam (lh u ht ee itn eo tec nr d l t teso eo h litfs u j t n ilne t li at o g h x se c f h o ta i s h c p f mi t unus e ihme cam)be aus t No s os eAgre ntdoesno Seg ael t he j t nrc nt li c e he ndicl ur e me t l ult ) he r r l tonsoft pa te w ih r pec t ' he a la y s r c st tt pl i if pr vi d t t ea i he r i s t es t o't ncil r e vi e ha he a ntf s o de o he defnda t. I Corp v. e ns3 ce Hamit Sundsrndl ,444F.Supp.2d 11 ,11 ( Ka 2006) lon ta nc. 65 70 D. n. . (ntr lquottonmaksa fot t omit ) Ase ane i t c tsprvius i ena ai r nd o noe ted . xpli d n he our' e o 3 H oweve ,t c tnot t tt N ondicl ur Ag e m en doe r gul t t r a i oft pa te wih r he our es ha he s os e r e t s e a e he el tons he ri s t r s c t t dicl ur ofi o maton e nge byt pa te pur ua tt t c ta t l Cor v. a it e pe t o he s os e nf r i xcha d he ris s n o he onr c . ce p. H m lon S n srn lc, 4 F. u p 2 l 6 ,l 7 ( Ka . 0 6. u d ta d n .4 4 S p . d 1 5 l 0 D. n 2 0 ) 15 m e or ndum opi on,t N ondi cl ur Agr e e doe notgove n t pari 'r a i nsw ih m a ni he s os e e m nt s r he tes el to t r espectt t e servi because t ser cesw er pr ded pur uantt t contacts o hes ces he vi e ovi s o he r ' ça e m e t ag e ' pr s on, c t c tde e m i d t be une or a e a pa t t i gr e nt o r e ' ovi i whi h he our t r ne o nf ce bl s r of he c r c . Se U. e r . . r ie Co. M oha Consr, nc.No.11 cv- 491J KGG, onta t e S. x el W Extalt v. n t.l , - 2 -AW 201 W L 9 088, t*3( Ka M a .15, 2)( o di t tabrac ofco rc cai wil 2 07 a D. n. r 201 prvi ng ha e h nta t l m l n t re t nu j s e c me tcam u ls av l c nrc g v m step ris c n u t t o p e mp a n u t mi h n li ne s ai o ta t o e h a t ' o d c a d e is ei t u j s e rc me t li .I ohe wo d ,h c u t o l e t a ara o a l j r su n he n u t n ih n cam) n t r r s t e o r c ncud s h t e s n b e u y c d fndt tt pl i if 'pr son ofa ilr s r c t t def nt , c f l outi oul i ha he antfs ovii nc la y e vies o he enda s whih als sde t p vi w o t N ondi c os e A gr e e , t e a be h upon t de enda s unde he ur e f he s l ur e m nt besow d nef he f nt r c r um s a est tw oul r i c t nc ha d ende i uia e t r t nto oft tbe i .4 M edi ar I o.Svs. r neq t bl he e e i n ha nett w e nf , I ,2007 W L 9261 a * nc. 42, t 2-3. Fort s r as , he c tw ilde t m o i f s l m a' he e e ons t our l ny he ton or tm l y j d me ta t teu j s e c me tcam. u g n s o h n u t mi h n li 5 4. lm pled cont i ractcl m ai Ase ane i gr trdeaii t c tspr vi me andlm opi on( xpli d n eae t ln he our' e ous mor z ni Docke No. t 38a 1 t 4-22) t defndansaguet tt pli if'i idconrc cli i pre e by ,he e t r ha he antfs mple ta t am s e mptd t i c a m f rbr a h oft N ondi c os e A gr e e t Be a e t pl i if ha he r l i o e c he s l ur e m n . c us he a ntf s ve 4 Th ee nso a uj s e rc me tcam u d rKa sslw ae ()tec n erlo ab n ft yte e lme t f n nut n ih n li n e n a a r : l h o fra f e eib h plitf u o ted fn a t( )a a p e it no k o e g o teb n ft yt dee d n; n ()te anif p n h ee d n ;2 n p rcai r n wld e fh e eib he fn a ta d 3 h o a ce a by t deenda oft be ftunde cic t nc t woul r nde i c ptnce he f nt he nei r r umsa es hat d e r nequia et defnda ' tbl he e nts r tntonoft be ftwihoutha ng pad f i.J. . ee i he ne i t vi i or t W Thomps Co. W ele Pr . on v. ls ods Cop .758 P. 738,7 , 2d 45 ( n. 98 ) Ka 1 8 . 5 Howeve , i s r l g tec u t oe ta teme sr o d ma e u d rh uj s e rc me tcam i r n o ui ,h o r n ts h th n a ue f a g s n e te nu t nih n li s lm ie t t da a r ae t t pli if'pr sonofs r ce t t defnda t durng t deveopm e oft i td o he m ges eltd o he antfs ovii e vi s o he e n s i he l nt he applcai Ont ot rha t mea ur ofda a i t b e hofco r c cai woul co emplt bot t i ton. he he nd, he s e m ges n he r ac nta t l m d nt ae h he defnda s'pr isfom unaut ieds esa t cons nta da a socc i d by t dicl ur oft e nt oft r horz al nd he eque il m ge asone he s os e he pl ntfs'c i ntali or a i bas d upon t pl ntfs'a is onst tunaut i ed s e oft pr tf ls ai if onfde i nf m ton, e he ai if dm s i ha horz al s he oduc a l u d rteumb el ofh No icosr Age me t ( c e No. 7a 5. Futemo e tec u t oe, h udte ne h rl te ndsl u e re n. Do k t 8 t ) rh r r,h o r n ts so l h a panif sc e do t iKUTS cam,h me sr o d ma e t gud icu eb t tea ta ls c u e b litfs u c e n her A li te au e f a g st o l)n ld oh h cu lo s a sd y c mia po raina dteu j s e rc me tcu e b mia po rainta i n ta e it ac u ti c mp t g sp rpito n h nu t n ih n a s d y sp rp ito h t s o tk n no c o n n o ui n a t a Is . KUTSA j6 - 3 2.l nle o d ma e me s r d b a y oh rme h d ,h d ma e c u e b cu l o s' ' 0 3 2 ç iu f a g s a u e y n t e t o s t e a g s a s d y l m ia opra i m a bem e u e by i postonofla lt f rar s bl r t f am iappr it ' s ppr iton y as r d m ii ibiiy o ea ona e oyaly or s opraors unauhorze dicl ur orus ofatades rt' L. t i d s os e e r ec e. ds ' u 16 a knowldge t tBea on Eur i c r by t Nondic os eAgr me ' a tlaesc a e c e d ha c ope s ove ed he s l ur ee nts fiit l us ( c t . 7a 3 ,h c u t lg a t h mo infrs mma yj d me ta t t ei l d Do ke No 8 t ) te o r wil rn t e to o u r u g n s o h mpi e c r c c am . onta t l i 11 1. Conc us on l i Fort r s de aied above t cou twilgr nti pa tand de i pa tt he ea ons t l , he r l a n r ny n r he d fn a t' to f rs mmayj d me t S e iial tec u t l g a ttemoinwi ee d n s moin o u r u g n . p cfc l h o r wil rn h to t y, h r s c t t pl ntfs i id c r c cli ,a wilde t m oton wih r pec t t e pe t o he ai if ' mple onta t am nd l ny he i t es t o he r mai ngt e cai s TheClr i die t t s nd ce tfe c esoft smemor ndum e ni hr e l m . e k s r ced o e rii d opi hi a o ni a t a c pa ng or rt a 1c pi on nd he c om nyi de o 1 ouns lofr co d. e e r ENTER : Thi s O z# d y ofM ay,2012. a - Chi U nie S a e Di t i tJ e ef t d t t s s rc udg