Kenney v. Palmer-Stuart Oil Company, Inc., No. 3:2017cv00053 - Document 12 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 10/13/17. (jcj)
Download PDF
CL ERKS OFF CE U, DI COURT I & SX AT ROANOKE, VA FI LED I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FO R THE W ESTERN D I STRI OF V I GI I CT R N A CHARLOTTESVI LLE DI SI VI ON 22T 13 2 1 27 . , CLERK : D W CLERK TI OTH Y K EN N EY , M Ci lAc i No. 1 vi ton 3:7CV00053 Pl i tf , a n if M EM ORANDUM OPI ON NI By: Hon.Gln E.Cor a e ld r PALMERSTUART O1 COV PANY, L UniedSttsDititJ t ae src udge I d/ aPRESTON AVENUE SHELL, NC. b/ D e e nt f nda . Pli ifTi o hy Ke y fl t saci n a i tde e ntPa me - ua tOi Company, antf m t nne ied hi to gans f nda l r st r 1 I c,algn av oain o teFarLa rS a d r sAc (F A',2 U.. j20 # s g. n n . le ig i lto f h i bo tn à d t ç LS ' 9 SC. 1 . e a d ç ) 1 br a h ofc tac .TheCl r hase e e de a t a t sma tri c r nty be o et c ton ec on r t ek nt r d f ul, nd hi te s ure l f r he our p an ifsmoin f rd futj d me t Dee d n h sn tms nd d t t e mo in Fo t litf to o ea l u g n . fn a t a o po e o h to . r he r a ons s tf t bel , he m o i n w ilbe gr t d. es e orh ow t to l an e Backzround Si et de e nti i de a t t f t t ryi t sltg i n a et ont se The nc he f nda s n f ul, he acs mde l ng hi ii ato z mc e t d. de e nt a r s a a , ga , a s r c s a i i Cha l t s le V i g ni e pl f nda , e t ur nt s nd e vi e t ton n r ote vil , r i a, m oyed t he pl i ifi t r saza ' kic n fom De mbe 201 t Dec mbe 201 a Se e r 21, antf n he e t lr nts t he r ce r 3 o e r 4 nd pt mbe 201 t M a 29 201 Durng t fr tpe i ofe oy e ,t pl ntf sgne a agr e e 5 o y , 6. i he is rod mpl m nt he ai if i d n e m nt Kenney v. Palmer-Stuart Oil Company, Inc. Doc. 12 esabls ng hi pa a $1 00 pe hour f e g holr a da Dlrng t s c pe i of t ihi s y t 0. r or i ht zs y. zi he e ond rod e oyme ,t de e ntor l a e d t pay t pl i if$1 00 pe hotr a r uie t mpl nt he f nda aly gr e o he antf 0. r z nd eq r d he pl ntf t w or e ght a a hal hour pe da w ihou a br aks ai if o k i - nd- - f s r y t t ny e . Ac or ng t t pli if howe r t de e c di o he a ntf, ve , he f ndantr i l r duc t pl i ifs t a outney e ed he éntf ot l Dockets.Justia.com hour ofwo k by a a r geoffvehour pe w e k f a a a ofs ve a a ha fho lspe s r n ve a i s r e or n ver ge e n-nd- - l tr r da The pli ifas e t t the notfe t de e ntsm a ge e a y. a ntf s rs ha iid he f nda ' na m nt boutt unpai wage , he d s b t de e ntde e t ti ha undepa d t pl i ifard r us t pr e t pl i ifs ut he f nda nid ha t d r i he antf l ef ed o oduc he antf tm ec r . i a ds On J y 28,201 t pl ntf f l d t i t nt a ton a l gi t o c m t aga ns t ul 7, he ai i f ie he ns a c i le ng w ot s i t he d f n a t ( )ta t d fnd n f i dt p yp an if e t wa e ,n voain o teFLS ee d n : 1 h t he ee a t al o a litf pv ri e me g s i ilto f h A (comt1', n ( )t tt ed fn a tha b e c dt epate 'c n rc t pa t p an ift e ç l ' a d 2 ha h ee d n d r a he h ris o ta t o y he litf h t ) a r e - p n h u l wa ef ra1h u swoke (comt1' . On S p e r1 2 7 t Clr ge d u o o ry g o 1 o r r d t t 1' ç ) e tmbe , 01 , he ek ma ea e tyo d fula ans t d fnd n .Thepanif w mo e f rd fut u me t d n n r f ea t g i the ee a t litf no v s o ea lj dg n . St andar o R e e d f vi w Rul 55 of t Fede a Rul s of Ci l Pr dtr s t f rh a t se pr es f e he rl e vi oce le e s o t wo-t p oc s or o ti igad fut ud me t W h nadee d n fist p e do o h m ied fn a a to ,he b ann ea lj g ù . e fn a t al o la r t e s e e d n cin t Clr hast a hort t e e a def ul. Se Fe R.Ci P.55a . Afe t Clr se r of ek he ut iy o ntr a t e d. v. () tr he ek' nty d ful ap ryma mo frd fu tu g n .Fe R. v P. 5b . ea t a t y ve o ea lj d me t d. Ci . 5 () , I r viwi t moton, t c t ma viw al welplade f t al ge i t n e e ng he i he our y e l l- e d ac s le d n he c mp an a tu f rpu o e o la it . Se Fe R.Ci .P.8 b ()(ç n alg to - oh r o lit s r e o m s s f ibl y e d. i v ( )6 ç le ain t e A. t n o r l tng t t a ot tofdn a - i a i t d i a r s ha ne e a i o he m m m ges s dm t e f e pons ve pl adi i r uie a i e ng s eq r d nd t ealg to i no d ne ' s eas Ry n v. me o n sFi Newo k 25 F.d7 , 8 h le ain s t e id. e lo a Ho c mia n. t r , 3 3 78 7 0 ); (t Ci. 0 )Cç'ed fnd n, hsd f ut a mist ep an i swelpla e alg to so 4 h r 2 01 -h ee a tby i e a l, d t h litY f l- e d d le ain f f t' (ntr l ctton omitdl. Ac or ngy, i t deaul j ac.) i ena iai ' te ) c di l n he f t udgme c ntxt çhe nt o e , i t a p o raei ur i wheh ro n ttefc o t epla i g s p rsted f ut u g n a d p r p it nq iy s te r o h a e f h e d n s u po t h ea lj d me t n t c us s ofaci t r i ' Ande s v.Fot f Advanc m e ,Educ.& Emp' of Am . he a e ton he e n.' r on md. or e nt t I d a s 1 7F.d 6 8(t Ci. g 1 ,1 9 )( n u ls dtb eo ii n . n in , 8 3 2 4 h r Au . 0 9 9 u p bihe a l pn o ) 2 1 tefcsalg di t c mpan etbihla ii ,tec utmu tte dtnniet ? h a t le e n he o lit sa ls iblt h o r s h n ee n he y a o it amot ofd ppr pra e mt nmage . Rya 253 F. a 780- 1 I s doi t c ur m a c s n, 3d t 8 . n o ng, he o t y onduc t a e de ir he rng unde Rul 55( ( . Thecou tma alo decdet a t ofda s n vi ntay a i r e b)2) r y s i he momt mage wiho a he rng i t r or c ans s fc e t e de . Se Ande s v. Fo t ut a i f he ec d ont i ufi i n vi nce e ron und. f or Ad a c me t Ed c & Emply n o Am.nda ,1 5F.d 5 0 5 7 ( t Ci.1 98 ( oi v n e n. u . o me t f l ins 5 3 0 , 0 4h r 9 ) n tng ta tn s me çr u tn e a dsrc c u te trn a d fu tj dg n ma a r d ma e h t G o ic msa c s itit o r ne ig ea l u me t y wa d n g s i a c ran be fo te p e dng wi o th li g ahe rn ) Pan es& Al e Trd sI us se ti a l r m h la i s t u od n h ai f'; itr l d a e nd . i Pe so Ft v. pi lRe trto & Pan i Co,91 F.S p 2 6 0 68 ( M d 2 3 n in md Ca t so ain a itng . 9 u p. d 8 , 4 D. . 01 ) (i ngt tt c ur ne notc tndi ha he o t ed onduc a e de ir he rngt deemi damag a G y t n vi ntay ai o tr ne es nd t ma r l i t a on a fda t or docl t r e de e i t r c d t de e mi t a o it ey nse d fi vis tmen a y vi nc n he e or o t r ne he ppr pra e S .) um ' . ' D i si scus on 1. Fai Labor St r andards A ct Pli if a lges t t t de e n vi ae t FLSA by f ii t pa t pli if antf le ha he f nda t ol td he a lng o y he antf e r ove tm e wag . The FLSA c e e a prvae rg of a ton f e pl e t r cove a ned ri es r ats i t i ht c i or m oye s o e r t i ove t wa fo e oye s 29 U. C.j207. The FLSA' br d de ton of mpad ri me ges r m mpl r. S. S oa snii ç mpl r'i ude Ga pe s n a tng die ty ori r ty i t i e e tofan e oye i t oye ' ncl s iny r o c i e rcl ndiecl n he nt r s mpl r n ' rlto t a e l y e' J j20 () Th e l y emu tb S n a e i c mmec o i t e eain o n mp o e . Z ' 3d . e mp o e s e ç g g d n o re r n h e pr ucin ofgoodsf c od to or ommece or( je o di a e eprs e gedi co r eori r , be mplye n n ntr ie nga n mme c n t pr tonofgo f co r e. I j207() 1. he oduci ods or mme c ' d. ' a() The FLSA r qui e t t a e pl e r c ve overi e pa f r w o k per or ed o r 40 e r s ha n m oye e ei tm y o r f m ve ho s i a w o kw ee a a r t notl s t n one a a ha ftm est e pl e' r gul rr t of ur n ny r k t ae e s ha nd l i he m oye s e a a e pa . 1 .j2 7()2 . Th te ua rt'me nsteh u l rt. 2 C. R. 7 8 1 9 W h l a y d 0 a() e ç g lr ae' a h o ry ae 9 F. j 7 .0 . ie n r 3 e oye nee notc mpl r d ompens t e oye on a houry ba i,ove tm e c pe a i mus be ae mpl es n l ss ri om ns ton t ba e on a houry rt JJ Slhe saut howeve,e mpt fom t s rquie nt çny sd n l ae. 1S &- tt e, . r xe s ' hi e rme a r - e o e pl mpl yee m oyed i a bona fde e c i ...c pa t ''I r Fn iy Dola FLSA Lii , n i xe utve a ciy.' n e m l lr tg. 6 7F.d5 8 51 ( t Ci.01 )(uoig29U. C.j21 ()1) 3 3 0 , 3 4h r2 1 q t n S. 3 a( ). He e,t undiput f c se tbls t tt de e nti a e oye wihi t m e ni r he s ed a t sa ih ha he f nda s n mpl r t n he n ng oft FLSA,t tt pl i ifwa nota e mpte oye a t tt pli tf di notr c ve he ha he antf s n xe mpl e, nd ha he a n if d e ei ove tm e pa f hour wor d i e es of 40 hour pe wee The pl ntf alege t t on ri y or s ke n xc s s r k. ai if l s ha , a r ge,he wor d 42. hour pe we butt the wa pa d f onl 37. hozspe we k. ve a ke 5 s r ék, ha s i or y 5 lr r e Thus a ce i a t e pl ntfs wel- e ded a lgai ns t c ltfnds t t pl i if ha , c ptng s nz ai if ' lpl a le to , he otr i ha antf s s fce t p e t a t d fn a tviltdt eFLSA, n ta d fut u g n i p o e a t ufiinl ld h t he ee d n oae h y a d h t ea lj d me t s r p r s o Countloft c he ompli . ant I I. Breach of C ont ract Pli if ne s e r le on hi c am f br a h of c r c unde Vigi a lw . antf xt e ks e if s l i or e c onta t r r ni a Al o g tecam aie un e saelw,h c u t a s p e na j rs ito o e i a pa4 t u h h li rs s d r tt a te o r h s u plme tl u idcin v r t s l h oft ç n c e orc r ry'ast FLSA cai 28U. C.j136 a . Gn Vigni t he l me as s ontoves ' he l m. S. 7() l r i a, he l ee n so a c us o a to f rb e c o c n rc a ea flo :( )alg lo lg to o a lme t f a e f ci n o r a h f o t t r s olws 1 e a bi ain f d fn a tt t ep an if ()av oaino ab e c o t t ih o d t ; n ( )ac n e u n il e e d n o h litf;2 i lto r ra h f ha rg t r u y a d 3 o s q e ta ij r o d ma et tepli t ' Av ain Re .I c v. Sp cat l s Co, 7 F. u p. d nu y r a g o h ani ' ito s. n . XL e ily n . .2 6 S p 2 E 5 7 5 8( . Va 2 0 )(iigBr wnv Ha ms 4 7S. 2 8 5 8 7( .1 9 ). 6 , 6 W D. . 0 3 ctn o . r , 6 E.d 0 , 0 Va 9 6 ) The c tfndst tt pli ifhaspld s fcintf t t s our ha he antf e ufi e acs o uppo thi cai f br ac r s l m or e h of c tac. The pl i ifalege t the ha a o alco r c wih t def nda ,i whi h t on r t antf l s ha d n r nta t t he e nt n c he de e nta e d t pay t pl i if$1 00 pe ho f r eghtand- - l hotr pe day. Thul f nda gr e o he antf 0. r ur o i - a ha f ls r , t de e antha a l ga l e or a e o i to t pa t pl i if unde a va i c r c . he f nd d e ly nf ce bl blgai n o y he antf r ld onta t 4 Pli iff rhe alege t t fom De e be 201 t De e be 201 a Se e r201 t i a ntf ' t r l s ha, r u c m r 3 o c m r 4 nd pt mbe 5 mtl M a 2016,t de e y he f ndan f ie t pa hi f al t hozs he wor d. As a r ul,t t al d o y m or l he lr ke es t he de e nt ma e i ly br a he is oblga i t pa t pl i if f wor pe f f nda t ral e c d t i ton o y he antf or k ronne a t t d nd ha f iur r s t d i da a s f r t a ountunpai The e or bas d oz t pli if s wel al e e ule n m ge o he m d. r f e, e ï he a ntf' lplade f c ua a l a i ,t c tsnds t de e n la e t t pl n if f r br qc of e d a t l leg tons he our he f nda t ibl o he aitf o e h c nr c, n wil n e d f ut u g n a t Comt I o ta t a d l e tr ea lj d me t s o t 1. 11 1. D am aze s The c tm a a d da a s wiho a hea i but o y i t r or s ppors t our y war m ge t ut rng, nl f he ec d u t he d a r ques e Se D ie am ges e t d. e y cTv .l .v.Ya e N o.4: 4CV 00011 2005 W L 3 nc nc y, 0 , 435030,a * t 2 ( . Va De .1 , 0 5 (i igta ahe rngt d tr ned ma e wa n t e ur dbe a e W D. . c 2 2 0 ) fndn h t ai o eemi n g s s o r q ie c us pl ntf l es nt d s ic e e de et s ai if t e e uf i nt vi nc o uppor isc am f rdn pr t t l i o mage ,c t a f esby wa o s oss nd e y f u c n rdce a fd vi ' n o ta itd fi a t ).Alh u ht eplitf lc c mpeetme rc r s h ma çho s t o g h an if a ks o lt i e o d , e y G w s t n u ta e tn o hswo k a amatro j s a dr a o a l ifr n e' Pf r v. o he mo n nd xe t f i r s te f u t n e s n b e n e e c . o r Fo d ' Lin I . 8 F.d 1 6 1 6 (t Ci.1 8 )(nena q oain ma k o te ) An e o e o . nc, 51 2 0 , 0 4h r 9 8 itr l u tto r s mitd . mply e may e tbls a prm af i c eoft d wa ba e on s n deca ai oror lt si o sa ih i ac e as mpai ges s d wor lr tons a e tm ny. Se 'n v. ik n ou l .2 9F. u p. d 1 9 1 7( D. 20 6 . na o Ch c e - t nc, 0 S p 3 7 , 8 D. C. 1 ) I t s c e,t pl ntf has s n hi as he ai if ubmitd a t onta c e a fda t a tsi t t te n mc r dit d fi vi te tng o he e se e oft co r c s t hour t pl i ifwor d,and t pay t pl ntf r eve The xit nc he nta t , he s he antf ke he he ai if ec i d. c ti co nc t tt a fda tpr vi s a s fc e tba i f a r ng dn ag wiho a our s nvi ed ha he f vi o de ufi i n s s or wa di m es t ut headng. a. FLSA The pl ntf s e dn a s f rt i ove tm ew a sunde Cot 1a t i wa ai if e ks m ge o mpa d ri ge r mt nd mpa d ges unde t pa tes c r c s unde Co t 1 . U nde t % w r r he r i ' ont a t r un I r he ç one ong,one r ove y r e ' a pa t ec r ul ,' r y 5 ma n trc v rt c f rt es meij r ,e e i t p ry A srsmut e c nsse tte re y o e o e wie o h a nu y v n f he a t se t lpl, o itn h o is i ofr c r Clncy v.Skylne Grl.LLC,No.CI ELH- 2- 598,201 W L 5 e ove y. a i il V. 1 1 2 409733,a *5 t ( M d. v.5 20 2 ,rp r a d rc mme dain a o td No.CI A.ELH- 2 1 9 ,2 3 D. No , 1 ) e o t n e o n to d p e , V. 1 - 5 8 01 WL 6 5 4 ( M d. b,1 ,2 3 (iig Ge .Te.Co o t eNo twe tl .v EEOC,4 2 3 4 D. Fe 9 01 ) ctn n l . f h rh s nc . 46 U. 31 , 3 ( 9 0 (1 . . o swi u s yngt a tec u t c na s ul p e ld d u e S. 8 3 3 1 8 ) çt . g e t t a i h t h o rs a nd ho d rcu e o bl G ho rc veyb a i dv d ll .Th ,heplitf ma o l rc v ro c f re c u p i h u o e o r y n n iiua. ) us t an if y ny e o e n e o a h n ad o r f ' wok. SeeL. (i ngt tt pl ntf co donl rco roncef r$ lda ge r uli fo r d fndi ha he ai if ul y e ve . a o 1 ma s es tng ' m a1 r De e ntsf iur t pa hi hi des r d wage 'alhough pli tf esabls la lt unde f nda ' a l e o y m s e ve s' t a n if t ihed i biiy r tr esau e a df rb e c o c n rc i h smoinf rd f utud me t. h e ttts n o r a h f o ta t n i to o ea lj g n) I t s c s ,t pl ntf ha s itd ar a fda twih t s pa ae c l ultons of n hi a e he ai if s ubm te l fi vi t wo e r t a c a i dn a s - o unde t FLSA a o t r t c r c s - but net r c l ulton i m ge ne r he nd ne mde he onta t ihe a c a i s a pr it The pl ntf s c l a i unde t FLSA s ksr c r f r un i wa 9o p opra e. ai if acultop r he ee e ove y o pad ges m onl t wee t the wo ke ove tm e Ho ve ,f t e wee ,he s ekspa e notonl y he ks ha r d ri . we r or hos ks e ym nt y f r t i ove tme wage ,but a s f t i r ul r wa s The pl i if ha no made a o mpad ri s lo or mpad eg a ge . antf s t c am unde t FLSA f t i r ulrwa sand t r f e c nno be a r s h da a s li r he or mpa d eg a ge he e or a t wa ded uc m ge unde t FLSA . W hie t pl i ifi e il t pa e oft i r gul rwa unde t r he l he antf s ntted o ym nt mpa d e a ges r he co r c s he i note il t t FLSA r t oftme a a haf f o ri e hour t r t nta t , s ntted o he ae i nd l or ve tm s mde he c nta t . Thus t c l a e t hi hes a o t whi h t pl i if i e il and f r w li h o rcs , o a cul t he g t m unt o c he a ntf s ntted o lc t r i no doubl r co r t c twila r da a st rt FLSA cli onl f t i he e s e e ve y, he our l wa d m ge mde he am y or mpa d ove tm ehour a da a sunde t co r c cai o y f rt i r ulrhozs. ri s nd m ge r he nta t l m nl o mpad eg a tr Unde t FLSA,any e oye who viltsj207 i la et an afce e oye f r r he mpl r oae s ibl o fe td mpl e o t a mt of t e oye s unpa d wage a a a tonal e he mot he mpl e' i s nd n ddii qual n o i lqui td m unt n i dae da ges 29U. C.j21 b) Hee,hepli ifa r t thewor dat a of58. o ri ma . S. 6( . r t antf ve s ha ke otl 75 vetme 6 hotr o rt c s of 21 wee The pl ntf s ove tm e r t was $1 00. Ba e on t ls ve he our e ks. ai if ri ae 5. sd he c ts r vi of t pli ifs c l ultons t c tbeive t tt pli ifi e ild t our' e ew he antf a c a i , he our le s ha he a ntf s ntte o da mage i t amountof$88125 f rhi l i ove tm ewa s s n he . o s mpad ri ge . Pli ifas s e lqui t dn s Se ton 21 oft FLSA pr de t tçf ny antf lo e ks i daed mage . ci 6 he ovi s ha çaj e o r who vi a e t pr vii of . ..s ci 207 of t s tte s l be la e t t mpl ye olt s he o sons e ton hi il ha l ibl o he e ly e'f rtiu d td d ma e ' i a a t e u lt çh a u to (h e lye 'q mp o e ' o çq i ae a g s' n n momt q a o ç e mo n f t e mp o es l t t ad mii m wa e ,o (h e o e 'qt ad o ri c mp ns to a te c s ma mp i n mu g s r t e mply es mp i vet o e ain, s h a e y me b . 2 U.. j21 ( ) Th G LS p an y e v so t a l u d td d ma e i a a t e' 9 SC. 6 b . e S A lil n iins h t i i ae a g s n n momt ' F q eq lt t unpai ove tme c ua o he d ri ompe ain ae t nor f ruc vi ai .' M a w v. ns to r he m or s hj oltons' vhe W el,1 5 F.d 21 ,2 0 ( t Ci.1 9 ) Ho ve,te c u th sb o d ds rto t r d e ls 2 3 6 2 4h r 9 7 . we r h o r a r a icein o e uc lqui t d dn a i t e pl r ç ho t t s ts a ton of t c tt t t ac or i da e m ges f he m oye s ws o he aif ci s he our ha he t omi so gvi rs t t a ton wa i good f ih a t t he had r as bl g ot ds f s i n i ng ie o he c i s n at nd ha e ona e r m or b le i gt a hsa to o s in wa n tavilto o FLS ' I ( tr lq o ai n maks eiv n h t i c r miso s o oain f A. d. i ena u tto r ' n a d atr to o te ) He e t e d fnd n h s ma e n s c s o n Th c u twi n le ains mitd . r , h ee a t a d o u h h wig. e o r l l t e or gr ntt pli tf lqui t dn her f e a he a n if i daed mage i t nmountof$881. brngi def nda s s n he 25, i ng e nt ' t a m o tr oblga i f FLSA vi a i t $1, 50. ot l nea y i ton or oltons o 762. Ne tplitfss e atr e sf e a d c ss e to 21 ( )o t eFLS ma d tst x, an if e k to n y' e s n o t.S cin 6 b f h A n ae he pa ntofa t ney' f sa cosst t pr valng pli il butt a mto t awad i yme tor s ee nd t o he e ii antfl he mot f he r s wi i te ds rto o t c tt Bu n e v.S o t 7 0 F.d 1 6 1 (t Ci.1 8 ) The t n h icein f he ou h r ly h r, 3 2 3 , 41 4h r 9 4 . c tm us r vi w a f e a a d r que t i pe nty f r a ona e s . K e m edy v.Touc of our te e e w r e s nde nde l or e s bl ne s r h Painc S ae Ho sng 1 c, 7 F. u p. d51 , 2 ( D. . 01 ) Plitf c u s lh s te e h rd u i . n .7 9 S p 2 6 5 5 E. Va 2 1. anifs o n e a ad s d t tt y wilfl a moton f a tm e 'f e no lt rt n 1 da a trt e r oft s vie ha he l e i or to ys e s ae ha 4 ys fe he nty hi me r n t o i o a o d r Thec u t l te eo ed lye tyo j d me tf r1 d yst mo a dl pnin nd r e. m o r wi h r f r ea n r f u g n o 4 a o l 7 pe mi pl i ifsc ms lt fl t i f epeii r t antf ot e o ie he r e tton. Fial,t e plitf i e tte t a a r o po tu g n itrs t e 2 U. C. n ly h an if s n ild o n wad f s d me t n ee t md r 8 S. j j 1 on t a r t rt FLSA. I ees wilbegn t ac nz fom t daeofe r of 961 he wad mde he ntr t l i o c e r he t nty j d me ti t sc s a dwil c u lt u tlhed t o pa me t 2 U. C. 1 61a-b . u g n n hi a e n la c muae ni t ae f y n . 8 S. j 9 ()( ) b. Breach of Cont ract Thepl i ifa s s e da gesunde hi br a h ofc r tcli .Excudi a hour antf lo e ks ma r s ec ontac a m l ng ny s ar ad a c e f by t a r ofove tm ewage unde t FLSA ,t c tfndst tt le y c ount d or he wa d ri s r he he our i ha he pli ifhasalge hewoie 11 holr f whih hedi no r evep> att pa tes a e dantf le d r d 5 zs or c d t ec i y he ri ' gre upo r t of $1 00 pe ho l. The c tt r f e be ivest tt pl i if i e il t a n ae 0. r tr our he e or le ha he antf s ntted o n a r of$111 00f rbr a h ofc r t wa d 5. o e c ontac . The c ompli a s r q ss sa orl a horze i e es o a a r unde Count1 ant lo e ue t t mt iy ut i d nt r t n ny wa d r 1 f rb e c o c nrc . S-j a r o p eu g n 'n ee ti a matrwihn t e Co r' o ra h f o ta t dfhe wad f rj d me titr s s g te t i h u ts d srto ' Ta toAr.nc v. ic ein. to tl . TAT ltlLLC, 9 F. u p. 6 4 6 3( D. . 01 ) a fd, ' n 's 7 4 S p 2d 3 , 6 E. Va 2 1, f' 498F.App' 341( h Ci.201 .I lg oft pli ifsatmptt r s vehi c an of x 4t r 2) n iht he antf te o e ol s omplit t r mde payme wih t de e ntsm a geme bef r slng s ta t de e ntsf l e t nt t he f nda ' na nt o e i ui nd he f nda ' aiur o he i d rs o d i t i c u tt ec u tfnd p eu g n itrs a p o rae Because t partes di e p n n hs o r, h o r i s rj d me t n eet p r p it. n ts cf apat ulritr s r t i t i c nr cs te c u t l a r p eu g n itrs o pe iy ri a n ee t ae n her o ta t, h o r wil wa d rj d me t n ee t c a a n n a r t o 6 te sa d r j dg n itr s r t u d rVigni lw. S eVa Co e t n n u l ae f %, h tn ad u me t ne et ae n e r i a a e . d An .j62 3 2 ( 01 ) The c t' wi as a r p s-u g n itrs o t e a r u d r n .- 0 2 0 . öut l lo wad o tj d me t n ee t n h wad n e l Count1,t bepad i a or ncewih 28 U. C.j1 1o i n cc da t S. 961. Posj me i ers s lbe n t tudg nt nt et hal gi o a c u fo t ed t o t e ty o t i j d me tu tl h d t o p y n . S eLk j 1 61ac r e rm h ae f he nr f hs u g n ni t e ae f a me t e c 9 () () b. Concl on usi 8 F rt fr g ig r a o ,t e c u twilg a tplitf smo in f rd futj d me t o he o e on e s ns h o r l rn an if to o ea l u g n a ans t d fn a t Uh Clr i drce t sn criid c pe o ti me rnd m g i t he ee d n . e ek s ietd o e d et e o is f hs moa u f o ni a t a ompa ng or rt a1c pi on nd he cc nyi de o 1 ouns lofr c d. e e or ENTER;Ths Z # d yo Oco r2 7 i a f tbe, 01 . Unie St t sDititJ e t d a e src udg 9