Simon et al v. Regal Investment Advisors LLC et al, No. 3:2016cv00090 - Document 36 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 04/28/2017. (ssm)
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CLERK' OFFI S C EU. S. ST ATROANOKEDI . O URT FIED ,VA L I THE UN I N TED STATES DI STY CT COURT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI CT RGW I A CHARLOTTESVI LLE DI SI VI ON AF2 23 2 7 2 J BY: RO LAN D H . SI ON ,e a . M t 1, Pl i if, antfs 3 t cLEfK . W CL ERK Ci lAc i N o.3:6CV00090 vi ton 1 M EM O M N D U M O PI I N N O REGA L I VESTM EN T A DV I N SORS LLC,e a . t 1, Hon.Gln E.Conr d e a Chi fUnied St t s Di t i tJ e e t a e s rc udg D e e nt f nda s. Pli if Rolnd H.Si antfs a mon,Ca l R.Aye s Ea lRiha d Br ros r , r c r ownl ,I ,a J n M ai ee I nd a n Th ma fld t i a to a an tRe a Ive t n Ad io sLLC ($ A' a d fl i i iu l o s ie hs cin g i s g l n sme t v s r G ' n oz ndvd a RI ) r de e nt i t Cic tCour f r t Cot y of Al m a l s ki m one ar dn a s f f nda s n he r ui t o he mt be re, ee ng t y m ge or al ge vi ai ns of sa e a f de a lw . 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Ir c ie b t d c me t o tes med y.) u n n o lit n wo e aae a s e ev d oh o u n s n h a a '; ' 1 a 5 (n iai gt a thee v lp 'c nann t sl nsa d c mp an wa gv nt hi d. t 0 idc tn h t t n eo e' o ti ig he l t mmo n o lit s ie o m o t e2 t o De e e, u t a h ddn ttp ng i' n it 28h' (mp ssa d d ;d. t n h 4 h f c mb r b th t e i o S e ) f u tlhe t ' e hai d e )I a 78 o ) ( susi whe hebe a a r of(hee se eoft pa ka 'a Gt c e sc ai d dic sng n c me wa e G xitnc he c ge' nd the ontnt ont ne t wihi t tpa ge' (mphassadde . Att c uson ofhi de ii Banesrieae t n ha cka ') e i d) he oncl i s poston, r etrtd ta h S n gqgh c s )t b i fd r l o r. I . t8 h t e û ts t e a e o e n e e a c u t' d a 4. wa ' 4 St andard ofRevi ew S dea c u t ae c u t o l td j rs ito , wh c G o s s o l ta p we i r l o rs r o rs f i e u id ci n' ih s se s n y h t o r Fe mi ' p a horze b Consiu i a sa u e.' Kokkone v.Guar a Lie l .Co.ofAm . 511U . ut i d y tt ton nd tt t ' n din f ns , S. 3 5 3 7 ( 9 4 . 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A denuacv ofB arnes'Consent Se ton 1 a ofTil 28oft Unie SttsCodepr vi st tShedee ntort ci 441() te he td ae o de ha ç t fnda he def n s' a r m ove i ny cvi a ton br enda t 'm y e f a i l ci oughti a Stt c tofwhih t diti tc t of n a e our c he src ours t Untd S ae h veo ii a j rs ito ' 2 U. C.j 1 41a . t e to 1 46 o Til 28 he i tts a rgn l u idcin. 8 S. e ' 4 () t cin 4 f te s d srb st a prp it r mo a p o e u et iv k fd rlu id ci n. Babo r 6 0F.da e ci e he p o rae e v l r c d r o n o e e e a j rs ito ' r u , 4 3 t ' 605. Thi sa t , c wa nme s tm e whih s ndedbyt Fe r Co t J iditon a Ve Clrfc ton he de al urs urs c i nd nue a iia i Ac o 201 (J t f 1 t CVA', r v d s i pe t e t a ta f lo : $ ' p o ie ,n ri n p r, s olws ) n ( Re rme s ge r ly.- () The notc ofr b) quie nt; neal 1 ie emova of a cvi a ton o l i l ci r pr e ngs l befld wihi 30 da a trt r eptby t de e oce di ha l ie t n ys fe he ec i he f ndan ,t oug t hr h s r i oro he wie, ac oft i tal ea ng ...; e vce t r s of opy he nii pl di ( )A)W h n acvia to i r mo e s eyu d rs cin 1 41a , 1d fn a t 2( e i l cin s e v d oll n e e to 4 () a1 e e d n s whoha bee pr ry i i d a s ve m us i n i orc e t t r m ova of ve n ope l o ne - nd er d t oi n ons nt o he e l t a ton. he c i ' ( Ea hd fnd n s alh v 30d y a trr c itb o s r ieo t a d fnd n B) c ee a t h l a e a s fe e ep y r evc n h t ee a t o t eiiilp e dngo s mmo sd srb d i paa rp ( )t fl t noieo f h nta la i r u n e c ie n rg a h 1 o ie he tc f rm o l e va . ( I d fn a t a es r e a d fee ttme , n altrs r e d fn a tflsa C) f ee d ns r ev d t ifrn i s a d ae-ev d ee d n ie no i e of r m ova ,a ea le - e ve de e ntm a c e t t r m ova e n tc e l ny ri r j r d f nda y ons nt o he e l ve t h t t e rir s l d de e houg ha a le -ewe f ndan di no pr vi usy i ta e or cons nt t t d t e o l niit e o rem oval . 28U.. j 1 4 ( ) SC. 4 6 b . The 2011 a e m ndme s c fe t wel- t bls û ue of una m iy' a ia e t nt odii d he lesa ihed s l r ni t ' pplc bl o c s s iv li g mutpl d f n a t,whc rq ie t a a1d fn a t j i i o c nsn t a e n ov n li e e e d n s ih e ur s h t l e e d n s on n r o e t o r mova. Se L seas Ha todFiel .Co. Hare vil M ut I .Co.736F. 255,259 e l e 4; e lo rf r r ns v. lys le .ns , 3d ( h Ci.201 (ç SuprmeCour ha consr d ( 1 a 1 ofTil 28 t r quiea1 4t r 3) $ The e t s tue jj 441 nd 446 te ) o e r 1 d fn a t i ac s t j i i o c nsn t r mo a, r ai tes -ald çteo u nmi ') e e d n s n a e o on n r o e t o e v lce tng h o c le rl f na i t ' l y.' Then nd e t alor ol d acic ts i a t whe t 30- y r m o lpe i begnst rm i me m n s s es ve r ui plt s o n he da e va rod i o t n m ulide e nt c es i whi h t def nda s a e no s r e a t s me tm e. Prort t t- f nda as n c he e nt r t e v d t he a i i o he 6 e cm e oft JCVA,t Unied St t sCour ofAppea sf t Fo t Cic ta e ar e na t nt he he t ae t l or he urh r ui dopt d ul t tç e uied a n tc o r mo a t be fld wi i te frts r e d fn a ts tit a ha s q r g) oie f e v l o r ie t n h is-e v d ee d n ' hrpd y h wid w. Bab u , 6 F.d a 6 7 (e fimig is a h r n e t t e r l m iuae i n o ' r o r 40 3 t 0 ra fr n t d e e c o h ue c ltd n ' M c n e v. ado Tnzte o Ma ya d Co nt Colc , 5 F.d 9 ( t Ci.1 9 ). Kin v Bo r f se s f r ln mmu i le e 9 5 2 24 4h r 9 2 ) v Howeve ,t 2011 a e r he m ndme sGo r l Ba bo a M c l e on t spoi 'a a pt d nt tve nled r ur nd Kim y hi nt' nd do e t ls-e v d d fn a tr l,l e wh c ' ea h d fnd n ha tit d y fo t e d t o he atsr e e e d n ue md r ih d jc ee a t s hry a s r m h ae f g s r i et fl anotc ofr moval' M oor v. hlk, E11 - 2e v c o ie ie e .' e Sve a No. .- 1 2727,201 U . Dit LEXI 1 3 S. s . S 9 3 9, t* 7( M d.ul 1 , 01 ) 7 2 a 3 D. J y 1 2 3 . As o he co t ha r c l no e (he n nde sa t doe not a es t f m t r urs ve e enty t d, I t me d tm e s ddr s he or co e mus t ke Neihe doesi e e sy a es whe c e mus betl d i s pa aefom ns nt t a . t r t xpr s l ddr s n ons nt t ie f e r t r t no ie of r moval' Ga e a W iln - ie Condo.As ' v.Oua iv Buit LLC,No. he tc e . ' t s t li ms Brc sn lt ls 3:6 c - 2 2 - C,201 U. Dit LEXI 1 38 ,a #1 ( S. S p .7 2 6 ;s e as 1 -v 0 0 2 CM 6 S. s. S 2 0 t 1 D. C. e t , 01 ) e lo Grfi e v Ce rRa i s& I waCiyRv Co, 8 F.d 1 8 ,1 8 ( t Ci. 1 )(Th 20 1 ito n . da p d o t . .7 5 3 1 2 1 7 8h r 20 5 $ e 1 ç a nd nt t j 1 t tc te t r eofunani t di no de ci t f m ofortme me me s o 446 ha odii d he ul miy d t s rbe he or i fn f rc n e twhe mutpl d fnd nsaeiv le ' . r me o o s n n li e ee a t r n ov d.) ' A. Or e nalNo i e o Re oval ii tc f m Agans t sba kdr t c t us frtc i rwhehe t orgi lnotc ofr m ova i t hi c op,he our m t is onsde t r he i na ie e l fldb t eRe a Dee d n sc mpidwiht enzeo u a miy c d fe i j 1 4 ( )2 ( . e y h g l fn a t o le t h l f n ni t o iid n 4 6 b ( )A) As sl a i d a lmm rze bove,t orgi lnotc alege G he i na ie l d, s upon i or ai n a bei f't ti Bar s nf m to nd le ,' ha f ne ha bee pr ry s r edwih pr es ,E woul cons ntt t r movaloft St t Cour Aci n d n ope l e v t oc s t he d e o he e he ae t to t ti Co r. Noieo Re v la !28 o h s u t' tc f mo a t . ' I M a v.Boad ofEducai o Prnc Geor s o t 71 F. 735,7 ( h Ci. n vo r ton f i e ge'f unv, 3 3d 42 4t r 201 ) t Fourh Cic thed t tt nle ofuna miy doe no r r t tG c o t 3 , he t rui l ha he l ni t s t equie ha d h f he ea defnda ssgn t noi ofrmo lortl a spaae notc ofr mova c yi wih j e nt i he tce e va ie e rt ie e l ompl ng t 7 1 b)' l tad,:a noi of rmova sgne a fld by a atr y f r one dee nt 446( .' nse I tce e l i d nd ie n tone o fnda r pr en i una g e es tng mbi uousy t t t ot r de e nt c e t t r mova s ts i t l ha he he f nda s ons nt o he e l a ifes he r qui e e of u ni ous c e f pur es o r m o l, I (mp ssa d d . Snc t e e r m nt na m ons nt or pos f e va . 4 d. e ha i d e ) i e h 2 r m ovi de e n s i M a e es l sa e i t no i e ofr m ova t tt y had co ule e ng f nda t n yo xpr sy t t d n he tc e l ha he ns t d wih t non e t he r movi de e nt a t t t norr m o ng de enda had c e ed t t ng f nda nd ha he le vi f nt ons nt o he r emova ,heFo t Cicui co l lt urh r t ncudedt t(her m ova wasefe tvey a t t td hediti t ha G e t l f c i ' nd hus ha t ' t src co tdi note ri de i ngt r m a t ca et saecou t' I a 740,742. ur d r n clni o e nd he s o tt r . d. t ' Unlket notc ofr m ova i M a t Reg D e e nt 'orgi lnotc i l d no i he i e e l n yo, he al f nda s i na i e ncude i c ton,muc l s a t a g ndia i h e s n m mbi uousr pr s nt ton, ha t i a t ne we eaci o behafof e e e a i t t her tor ys r tng n l orwiht cons to Ba ne . M e ey alegi I n i o m a i a bei f'ha anonr m ovi t he en f r s r l l ng t upo nf r ton nd le t t e ng de e ntç f nda s d c e t t r m ova' i no t s m ease e sy s ai t theha i f c , woul ons nt o he e l' s t he n xpr s l ttng ha d,n a t c n e td Noieo Re v l t!28 s eAn eAr n e Comt v. ie Pa .ns Co, 0 F. o s n e . tc f mo a a ; e n u d l t ' Untd c I . .9 5 y S p .2 7 2 9 ( M d 1 95 ( o dn ,p irt M a o t a t e rmo n d fn a t f i d t u p 7 , 7 D. . 9 ) h l ig ro o y , h t h e vig e e d n s al o e s ts yt una m iy r quieme by a l i upon i o mai n a bei f t ta he de e nt a if he ni t e r nt legng, nf r to nd le , ha not r f nda d dn to j d t tep tto frr mo l. Be a s al ft d f n a t ddn t a iuo l i o b e o h eii n o e va) c u e l o he ee d n s i o un mb g usy j i i t eo iia noieo rmo lt a noie b isl, sn ts fiin t s tsytez l o on n h rgn l tc f e va, h t tc , y tef i o u tce t o aif h ' e f u t mani iy. m t B. Suppl entalN otce em i OnJ nua y26, 1 t Re De e nt fl a s e nt lnotc e e sngBa ne ' a r 20 7, he gal f nda s ied uppl me a ie xpr s i r s cons ntt r mova . Thepl n if a guet tt s e e alno i i i fe tvebec us t e o e l aitf s r ha he upplm nt tce s ne f c i a e he 2 I M a , t F rhCic titrrtdtepea n me tv ri o 28U. C.j1 46. Ma o, 3 n vo he ou t rui nep ee h r-me d n eson f S. 4 y 71 F. a 740. However t Cour no e t tisr soni woul ha bee t s m ee n i i we ea yzi t 3d t , he t t d ha t ea ng d ve n he a ve f t r nal ng he curentve son oft saut I at741n. . r ri he tt e. d. 1 8 def nda sa euna et pr vet ti wa fl dwihi 30 da fom t da eon whi h Ba n wa e nt r bl o o ha t s ie t n ys ' he t r c r es s s r d wih pr es Fort f l ngr as , heco tag e s e ve t oc s. he olowi e ons t ur r e . Pro t t e 2 1 n nd n s t j 1 4 ,t Fo rh Cic i h l t a (ndvd a ir o h 01 me me t o 4 6 he u t r ut ed h t G iiu l i d fn a t h vetit d y fo tetmete aes r e wi p o e so wihac mpan t j i ee d n s a hry a s r m h i h y r ev d t r c s r t o li t o on h i a ot r s va i r m o lpe ii ' M cKim e 955 F. a 928;s e a s Ba bour 640 F. n n he wi e ld e va tton.' r y, 2d t e lo r , 3d a 61 n4 ( oi t a S n eatmeyp tto E sfldwihnt ei ta t it- a wid w, a h t 2 . n tng h t t c i l eiin i ie t i h ni l hry d y n o e c o l i ltrs r e d fn a t h u dh v tit- a sfo t d t o sr iei whc t j i t p tto ae-e v d ee d n s o l a e hry d y r m he ae f ev c n ih o on he eiin f rr mo a,b c u e j 1 4 alwse c d f n a tt it d y i whc t a t) Al u h o e v l ras 4 6 lo a h e e d n hry a s n ih o c' . t g ' ho ( r ura M c nne we e l giltve y ove r e wih r pec t whehe t da eofs l c t bo nd Ki y r e sa i l Ba ruld t es t o t r he t ewie on t frts r d de e ntti r d t wi w f r flng oft Notce o Re o l' t he is-e ve f nda rgge e he ndo o ii he i f m va , hey ' S r n t ve z dwi r s e t ot ed a ln fro h rd fn a t t j i a'o ieo Re v l' ç e o o m l t e p c t h e d ie o t e ee d n s o o n N tc f mo a. we e h ' M oo e 201 U . D it LEX I 97329,a *39. A sJ r , 3 S. s . S t udge H ola r e a ned i M oo e l nde xpl i n r, a he lhy r pec f c r ui pr e ntw oul s a t es t or i c t ec de d ugge tt tBa bour a M c i y s ha r nd K nne s o db c nsd rd o er ldo l t tee tn t tte aei o tbl wih h ul e o i ee v rue n y o l x e t ha h y r nc mpai e t t t J he VCA . I t s r r i i not worhy t tt Hous J cir Comm it e n hi ega d t s e t ha he e udi a y te Re o to t eJ p r n h VCA i iae t a t en n me t t j 1 46b ( )wee smpy ndc ts h t h me d ns o 4 ()2 r i l i e d t r s ve t c r ui s i r ga di Sde e m i ng t da e on w hi h t nt nde o e ol he i c t plt e r ng t t r ni he t c he 30- y pe i begnst nm.' Re ta 1 Not ng i t J da rod i o ' por t 3. hi n he VCA s ugge t t t ss ha Congr s w i he t pr vi a ope e d tm e f r m o l To t c r r t e s s d o o de n n- nde i or e va . he onta y, he J VCA die t t tea h de e nt i e il d t a t ry- y pe i a tr beng r c s ha c f nda s ntte o hit da rod fe i s r d,a t Hous J i ir Co it Re tsa e t tt J e ve nd he e ud ca y mm tee por t t s ha he VCA i not s i e d t çal an i fniepe i f r nt nde o slow nde i t rod or emova .' Re ' a 1 l' pol t 4. t I a *39d. t 40. Thi c ur, as ha ot r i t Fourh Cic t fnds J s o t ve he s n he t r ui, i udge Hola r s r a oni lnde ' e s ng pe s i r uasve. Se Qa e a W ila sBrc Condo. As ' v. Ouaiy Buit LLC, N o. e t s t lim - i e sn lt l. 3:6c 0 0 2- C,2 6U. Dit LEXI 1 0 8 ,a *1 ( S. S p . ,2 6 ( ni , . 1 -v- 2 2 CM 01 S. s. S 2 3 0 t 9 D. C. e t 7 01 ) Cu e J) ; W hiev.Li rv M ut Fiel .No.M J 1 579,201 U. Dit LEXI 57928,at*3( M d. t bet . r ns, G- 66 S. s. S D. M a 2, 6)( r s J.. Consse wiht s decsons t c t ncude t taltrs r e y 201 Ga bi, ) itnt t hee ii ,he our co l s ha ae-e v d 9 def nda ha t ryda fom t tmehei s r dw iht i ta pl a ng t et rc e t a e nt s hit ys r he i s e ve t he nii l e di o ihe ons nt o n 9 exitngno ie o r movalorfl hi own notc ofr m ova wih t co en oft e rir s r d si tc f e ie s ie e l t he ns t he a le -e ve def nda s3 e nt . I t sca e,Ba nesha notfl d hi o no ie ofr n hi s r s ie s wn tc emova a t tm e f doi s ha l nd he i or ng o s ce rye pie . S e2 U. C. 1 4 ( )2 ( . M o e v r teRe a Dee a t aeu a l t la l x r d e 8 S. j 4 6 b ( )B) ro e ,h g l fnd ns r n b e o esa ih t the c e e t t i notc ofr m ova wihi t ry da ofbeng s r ed wih t t bls ha ons nt d o her i e e l t n hit ys i ev t he i iilp e dn S eW e t o v F o k,1 7 F.S p . 5 6 5 2 ( D. . . 0 )(Th nta la ig. e swo d . r n 7 u p 2d 3 ' 4 N. W Va 2 01 I e , < peii ng def nda sbe rt bur n of e t bls ng c ttoni e nt a he de sa ihi ompla e wih t r quie nt oft inc t he e r me s he r mo a sau e icu igt rq ie n so t ej id ro tmeyc nsn o a1 ee a t. e v l ttt,n ldn he e ur me t f h on e r i l o e t f l d fnd ns' ). Co rsi teW etr Ditit fVignaha eç ge dwiht eo ewh l n mao iyo u t n h sen src o r ii v t r e t h v r emi g j rt f a o he c urst t whe e ade e nti s r d t o h asa ut y a nt t r m o lpe i sa t t r o t ha , r f nda s e ve hr ug tt or ge , he e va rod trs w he t de e ntac ualy r c ve a c o t c pl i . Pur yr LLC v. n he f nda t l e ei s opy f he om a nt' ' A . Phoc t x Te hs . ao c . LLC, . :6 c - 0 4 20 6U. Dit LEXI 1 9 0 a * ( . Va De . , 01 )( lo , No 5 1 -v 0 0 7, 1 S. s. S 6 61 , t 6 W D. . c 8 2 6 Di n l J)(ii gR i v. vey, 0 F. u p. d 8 9 8 ( . Va 2 4 (o e , .; e as Go d n . ctn t Li l 3 4 S p 2 2 , 31 W D. . 00 ) J n s J) s e lo r o e v Hato d Fie I s Co,1 5 F.Ap ' 4 6 48 (t Ci.2 0 )(mp bihe )(d'etme f r . rf r r n . . 0 p x 7 , 0 4 h r 0 4 t u ls d df i o -h r mo a b gnswh n S d fn n a tal h src i d ac py o te c mp an .' ( u tn e v l ei e t ee da t cu l a e eve o f h o lit') q o ig he y ' Lil v. l CSX Tr n p.I c,1 6 F. p 2 6 2 6 3 ( D. . . 0 2 ) Th sc t t i d n y a s s n . 8 Su p. d 7 , 7 S. W Va 2 0 ). i ol fn s o r r as t de a e f o t' s pror de i i ns Ac or ng y,Ba nesha t ry da fom whe he e on o vi t r m he e i c so . c di l r d hit ys r n 3 Asot rcourshavenotd,t sconcl i appear t beconsse wih t Fourh Cicui' deci on he t e hi uson so it nt t he t r ts si i Ma n vo. SeeGaes 201 U. Dit LEXI 120380,a *1 .M oor 201 U. Dit LEXI 97329,a *41.I t , 6 S. s. S t 9, e, 3 S. s . S t n t t ca ,t Fourh Cicui was pr se e wih t potnta f ms ofcons nt t r ha se he t r t e nt d t wo e il or e , he emovi de e ng f ndant' s una guous sa e mbi tt ment i t notce of r moval t t r codef nda c entd t r n he i e hat hei e nt ons e o emoval and t he codef endantsown wrten i ca i ofc e ,whi wasfl mor t n 30da aferi wa s v wih t ' it ndi ton ons nt ch ied e ha ys t t s er ed t he compl nt Se M avo, F. at740,742 & n. Thepli if a gue t tt lterc dno ber ledupon ai . e 713 3d 2. antfs r d ha he a t oul t ei t s if t una miy r quiement snce i wasuntmel l a n. f lhough t Fourh Cicui di not o atsy he ni t e r ,i t i y. d. t 2. W t he t r t d e p esy rs leteplitfs agu n,i r l d tli l,o teatsain o ter mo ig d fnd n g' x rs l e ov h an if' r me t t ei , el y n h tetto f h e vn ee a ts) e ng couns i t notceofr el n he i emoval r t rt t s eque se r t co ent t hol t tt r eofunani t , ahe han he ubs nt pa ae ns , o d ha he ul miy had been s ifed. M oor 2013 U. Dit LEXI 97329,a * s al M a 71 F. at742. Slhus, atsi ' ' e, S. s . S t 42; ee so yo, 3 3d s- whi o l a if rn e t eFo rhCic ia pe r et e t ha c n iee te(ub e e tc nsn ju tmey l ny n n ee c ,h u t rut p as ih r o ve o sd rd h s squ n o e t ni l e oratl tt havepr e e t cl e quesi ' Gats,2016U . Dit LEXI 1 eas o es nt d he os r ton.' e S. s. S 20380,a 1 n. 2. t 20 1 ac l r ceved a co of t i ta pl a ng t co e t t Rega De e nt 'no i of maly e i py he niil e di o ns nt o he l f nda s tce r m ova . e l The Re lDe e n s fl t s e nt lnotc of Ba ne 'co e t r m o lo ga f nda t ied he upplme a ie r s ns nt o e va n J nua y 26, 201 D urng hi de ii Ba ne i taly t tfed t t he w a ( a r 7. i s pos ton, r s nii l es i ha s û ial phys c ly ha d' t e l pe co ani t s nde ' he nve o nt i ng he umm o and c ns ompli on De e be 24,201 Ba ne ant cm r 6. r s D e 45. Ba neslt ri c e ashe di i hi c r c e a fda t t the c d nots wih p. r ae ndiatd, d n s ore t d fi vi, ha oul ay t a ol ec ti t whenher eve t s monsa c bs ut era n y ec i d he um nd ompl i .4 L= a 7 75; r sCo r c e ant d t 4- Bn ne r e t d , Afi . 1 ($ d no kn w wh n t S mmo o Co litfrtc mei t my p s eso ' fd ! 4 : o t o 1 e he u ns r mp an is a no o s sin. ). Eihe wa i lghtofBa nes s n sa e nt ,heRe lDe e nt a euna et esa ih t t t r y,n i r ' wor t t me s t ga f nda s r bl o t bls ha Ba e tm ey co e e t t rno i eofr mova . nz s i l ns nt d o hei tc e l I. I O ppor univ t Cur t t o e Be a et Re lDef nda sa eunabl t pr t tBa n c e t t t i r moval c us he ga e nt r e o ove ha r es ons n ed o her e i a tm ey m a r t r mova i pr d al de eci . See Ga e ,201 U. Dit LEXI n i l nne , he e l s oce ur ly f tve ts 6 S. s . S 1 0 8 ,a * (i ig t e l e v lp o e u al d fcie 2 3 0 t 9 fndn h s mo a r c d rly e e tv r b c u e t e c n e t ya e a s h o sn vs t i l '; n y Hodnc 1 Lt . Alr dL. of. n .81F. u p. d 5 3 5 4 ( D. x. mt y' Ho e li s . d v. fe W lf l c, me ) S p 3 4 , 5 S. Te 2 5 ( çA)l ee d nswh h v b e p o el j ie a ds r e musj i i o c nsn t t e 01 ) ç ( ld fn a t o a e e n r p ry on d n e v d t on n r o e t o h 1 r m o of t aci n. The r mova i pr ed al de eci i s h c 'e i nottm ey e val he to ' e l s oc m ly f tve f uc ons nt s i l o tie ' ( u tng28U. C. 1 4 ( )2 ( ) W h nplitfs as ti p o e url ee ti a ban d.) q oi ' S. j 4 6 b ( )A). e anif r ie h s r c d a d f c n tm ey motont r m a c t i t Fourh Cic tr tney c l t tr m a i wa r nt d. i l i o e nd, ours n he t r ui ou i l onc ude ha e nd s ra e Se G a es 201 U . D it LEX I 1 e t , 6 S. s . S 2038 a * 25; hie, 6 U . D it LEX I 57928 a *4; 0, t 24- W t 201 S. s . S ,t J c med Es iav J c s n No DKC 1 - 0 9 2 5U. DitLEXI 1 0 6 , t# ( M d. a o e pn . a k o , . 5 2 5 , 01 S. s. S 4 3 9 a 20 D. Oc.1 201 ;Stve v.Thor bur No. 1 c 31 9, 4U. DitLEXI 11 t 5, 5) e ns ns y, 2:3-v- 71 201 S. s. S 2020, t* a 7 4 Asi c ed a ndiat bove, i i be t s yondquesin t tBar r ei t s to ha nes ec ved he ummonsa compli on t nd ant he s day andt tt wer i uded i t s envel ame ha hey e ncl n he ame ope. 11 ( D.W . .Au 1 ,201 ) Bec n v.Fa ne M a ,No : 1CV- 0 1 201 U. Dit S. Va g. 3 4 , r mn n . n i e .9 1 - 0 41 , 1 S. s. LEXI 7 8 7 a * ( S. J l 1 ,2 1;Belv. ene En es, .5:1 8 2 1U. S 5 6 , t 7 D. C. uy 2 01 ) l W r r tr.No 1 CV1 , 01 S. Dit LEXI 3 9 8 a *1 ( D. . . r 5 2 1, io Sy .I .v Na' Lo i Unv. s. S 6 7 , t 3 N. W Va Ap . , 01 ) Unc m ss nc . tl us i , 2 2 F.S p .2 6 8 6 ( D. . 0 ) F no v. o Li m I .No 30 CV0 01 , 0 6 u p d 3 , 41 E. Va 20 3 ; e t n Fo d o nc, . :2 0 7 20 2 U. DitLEXI 1 7 , t*1 ( . Va Aug 23 20 2 ( ih e, .. S. s. S 58 9 a 8 W D. . . , 0 ) M c a lJ) I t sc s ,t Rega De e nt ur t c tt t keam o efe bl a oa h,a fnd n hi a e he l f nda s ge he our o a r lxi e ppr c nd i t tt y e e t pr e la de e tby uli t l ob a ni Ba n s'c e t r m o l The ha he ur d he oc dtr l f c tma ey t i ng r e ons nt o e va . y m ant i t tr ma i notr q r d a l a t de e tr a e t t una m iy r quie nti i an ha e nd s e uie s ong s he f c elt d o he ni t e r me s c r dp ir otee tyo s mmayj g n . u e ro t h nr f u r ud me t TheRega De e nt 'ar um e i t sr r i notwiho s l f nda s g nt n hi ega d s t ut uppo tfo s m ede i i r rm o c sons fo ohe cruis l Es st v. meDe o U. A.lc, 9 F.d7 7 ( s Ci. 0 9 ,h r m t r ic t. n po io Ho p t S. .n .5 0 3 2, 7 1t r 2 0 ) te Fis Cic tde lne t a yt una miy r quie e i afwoode ' a r The Co tthed rt r ui c i d o ppl he ni t e r m nt n t n'm nne . tr l t t$at hnialde e ti t r m o lpr s ...was s e nty c e whe Hom e De ha & ec c f c n he e va oce s ubs que l ur d n pot oppos d Es io' r m a moton,t r b cea l c 'mi tng is desr t be i f r l e post s e nd i he e y l ry omm t cai t ie o n ede a nce pos t ci d he n h r ui s l ha e co ut' I . Si Es io w as de de , t N i t Ci c tha he d t tr m ovi de e nt t' ' d .5 ng f nda s ma c r ad f c p ranngt teu a i t rq ie n p i r ot e tyo j g n , sha te y u e e e t e tii o h n nmiy e ur me t ro t he n r f ud me ta s h Fit Cic t a beti a un ihe opi on. Se De ti v.Re s g,630 F. 952,956 5 fh r ui, l i n n publs d ni e sfno iwi 3d -7 ( t Ci. 1 )(A1 d fn a t who h v b e p o el . sr e i t e a o mus j i a 9h r 20 1 ; l ee d n s K a e e n r p ry ev d n h di n t on pe ii f r m o l I t si no t ewhe t no i ofr m o li tl t dititco tma tton or e va . f hi s t nl n he tce e va s sed, he src ur y alw t ermo i d fn a t t c r ted fc b o ti igj i e o a1 e e d n s ir ote l h e vng e e d n s o u e h e e t y bann ond r f 1d f n a t pro t h o e tyo j d me t' (iaina d itr a q o ainmak o te ) S o ev. n o Ne Yo k n r f u g n .) ctto n nen l u tto r s mitd ; t n Bn k f w r ' 5The Fis Cicui nonet es notd t by f lng t srcty compl wih t r e ofuna miy, t rt r t hel s e hat aii o ti l y t he ul ni t he d fn nsSa ters ta tedititc r mih fndabra ho teu ni t rq rme t n rma d(h ) ee da t t n h ik h th src ou t g t i r e c f h na mi e uie n a d e n te y a to t saec u tad cso ghea p laec u two dh v be np wels t rve ' Es o io 59 F.d cin o tt o r, e iin t p elt o r! ul a e e o re s o e iw. p st, 0 3 ' a 77 s eas 28U. C. 1 7 d ( rviig wihl tde e to ,ha 'ano d rrma igac s t t t , e lo . S. j 44 ( ) po dn , t i e xc p ins t tG l r e e ndn a e o he mi l S aec r fo whc iwa rmo e i no rviwa l o a pe l oh r s '. tt ou tr m ih t s e v d s t e e be n p a or tewie' ) 12 M eln N. , 0 F. p' 9 9 9 1( 1hCi. 01 )(A tc n c l e e t eae t teu a i t l . A.6 9 Ap x 7 , 8 1 t r2 5 ( e h ia d f c rltd o h n n miy o & r quie e t ma be c ed by op i a m oton t r m a pror t t e r of s e rm n y ur posng i o e nd i o he nty umm a y r ' J d me t'. u g n .) ' TheRega Def nda sha notct d, ndt c t be nuna et l a e a decsons l e nt , ve ie a he our has e bl o oc t , ny ii fom wihi t Fourh Cic tt twoul a l r m o ng de e nt t c eade e tr l t dt t r t n he t r ui ha d low e vi f nda s o ur f c e a e o he t ni t r q rme t n t pro t t ee tyo s mmayj dg n . Tot ec nrr , itit ma miy e uie n a y i ir o h n r f u r u me t me h o ta y d src c rsi Sout Ca olna,M a ylnd, nd W es Vig ni ha e e sy r f e t alow r m o ng ou t n h r i r a a t r i a ve xpr s l e us d o l e vi de e nt t c et spr dur lde e tbyflng t c f ntsc e outi t pr s rbed f nda s o ur hi oce a f c ii he ode enda ' ons nt sde he e c i t ry- ypei Se Gae ,201 U. Dit LEXI 1 0,at* - ( clni t f l t hit da rod. e ts 6 S. s. S 2038 2324 de i ng o olow he r a oni o Es io a c udi t tChe ei nofe biiy i t tm ea l df rc e s e s ng f post nd oncl ng ha ç r s lxi lt n he i lowe o ons nt o t l n a tep ry s e i rma d rie t ed t e c wihn t ry d yso r mo a' ;Se n , o g s h a t e kng e n ass h ekin y ti hit a f e v l) tve s ' 2 4 U. Dit LEXI 1 20 a * ( o dn t a çth er ri n to tii ( c d fn a ts 01 S. s. S 1 2, t 8 h l ig h t K l e ro n o banng a o ee d n ' g tmey c n e ti icza l be a et et it- a fln rq ie n so j1 4 a ema d tr ' i lq o s n s n l be c us h hry d y iig e ur me t f 4 6 r n ao y' r ) (iai n > d itr a q oain mak o te l se- e n v.Ve io M d, LLC, No. çtto n n en l u tto r s mitd ;Ea trGr e rz n . M J 1 - 0 0 2 4U. Dit LEXI 1 0 2, t'1 - 5& n9( M d. uy23 2 4 ( o dn G- 4 1 4 , 01 S. s. S 0 76 a ' 3 1 . D. J l , 01 ) h l ig t tt r m ovi de e ha he e ng f ndan sco d no c e a de ec i r ova pe ii by obt i ng t untm e y t ul t ur f tve em l tton a ni he i l c n e t fan n e vn d fn a t. o s n o o r mo ig e e d n) Afe r viwi e si c s l w, hi c t s fndst o - - ic tde sonsct d by tr e e ng xitng a e a t s our alo i he utofc r ui cii ie t Rega De e nt unpe s sve. AsJ he l f nda s r ua i udge Cury e a ne i Ga e r xpli d n t s: Thi i,i pa t bec us i s s n r, a e mposng a src t ry- y dea i t r ie pr e al i tit hit da dlne o a s oc dur de e t a a bass f r m a i i plc ty i ns s e w ih a l i t r m ovi fcs s i or e nd s m i il nco i t nt t low ng he e ng pa te an o n- nded de dlne f m e tng t pr e al r quie e t ri s pe e a i or ei he oc dm e r m n s. Exc i de a be aus i i s r i alo i onsse wih t va i t ry- y usng ly c e t s ho t s s nc itnt t he rous hit da de dlne i ude i t saut a t Fourh Cic tsl sa i pr c i of a i s ncl d n he t t e nd he t r ui' ong-t nd ng a tce r quii co e wihi t r y da oft r e ntt i re e rng ns nt t n hi t ys he el va r gge vent . Gae , 01 U. Dit LEXI 1 0 0 a * 4(iigM c n e 9 5F.d a 9 ) ts 2 6 S. s. S 2 38 , t 2 ctn Kin y, 5 2 t 28 . 13 For t r as i ntfe i Gae , t c t lke s c ude t t t r m ovi he e ons de ii d n t s he our i wi e oncl s ha he e ng de e nt 'f itr t obt i tm e yuna mousc e i notac a ede ec i t pl i ifr ie f nda s a lle o an i l ni ons nt s ur bl f t f he antf a s s t de i incy wihi t ry da of r moval Thi c l i n c pors wih t a o to he fce t n hit ys e . s oncuso om t t he dm nii ns fom t Supr m e Co ta t Fourh Cic tt tc t (s d consr r m ova sa u es r he e ur nd he t r ui ha ours thoul tue e l tt t na r y,'i lght of sgni a f r im c rowl ' n i i ûc nt ede als once ns Ba bo , 6 F. a 61 s a s r . r ur 40 3d t 3; ee lo Ha to dF r I s Co.7 6F,da 25 ($ el l o t nmiyi c nsse t t oz o lg to t rf r ie n . , 3 3 t 9 ç ' e f ma i t s o itn wih l b iain o Th u r c n t er mo a j rs ito srcl b c us o tesg fc n f d rls c nc msi iae .) o snz e v l u idcin tity e a e f h iniia t e eaim o e mpl td' c ' (iai n a d i tr lq tto mak o te ) ctto n nena uoain r s mitd . i as s p re by t wele tb ihe s lo u po td he l-sa ls d prnc pl t ta Gdo sa tt pr pre yofr m o ls dber s ve i f vorofr m a ng i i e ha ny ç ubt bou he o it e va houl e ol d n a e ndi t c s t sa ecour. Ba bour 6 F. a 61 he a e o tt t' ' r , 40 3d t 3. C oncl i us on Fort r as saed, hec tc l st tt r m o lfom sa ec ti pr e aly he e ons t t t our oncude ha he e va r t t our s oc dur l de e tve snc t Reg De e f c i i e he al f ndant a e unabl t pr t tBa ne c e e t t r m o l s r e o ove ha r s ons nt d o he e va wihi t r quiie t rpday pe i t n he e st hit rod. Bec us t pli if r s d t s de i inc i a tm ey a e he antfs aie hi fc e y n i l m ame ,i c r be c e a t c s mus ber m a r r t a mot ur d nd he a e t e ndedt sa e c r . Ac or ngl t c t o t t ou t c di y, he our wilgr ntt pl ntfs m o i n t r m a l a he ai if ' to o e nd. TheCl r i diece t s nd co e o t sme or ndum opi on a t a c pa ng e k s r td o e pis f hi m a ni nd he c om nyi or rt a lc de o l ouns lofr c d. e e or moA D A TED : s è n da ofApr l 201 Thi y i, 7. Chi U nie St t s D it i tJ e t d a e s rc udge