Smart Wearable Technologies Inc. v. Fitbit, Inc., No. 3:2016cv00077 - Document 59 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 8/29/17. (hnw)
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I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A CHARLOTTESVI LLE DI SI VI ON CLERKSOFFI U,. GT COURT CE S DI . AT ROANOKE, A V FI ED L ALC 2S 2 1 27 J BY: SM ART W EARABLE TECHN OLOGI ES l C. N , U L ,CL ERK CLERK Ci lA c i N o.3: vi ton 16CV 00077 Pl i if antf, M EM OM NDUM O PI ON NI By:Hon. l n E . Ge Conr ad Unie S a e DititJ t d t t s src udge FI T,l , TBI NC. De e f ndant . S r W e rb eTe hn lge I c tçma'W e rbl' sldti a to a ans Ft i,nc mat aa l c oo is n .i l aa e' e h s cin g i t ibtI . s t ) (ç t i'f ralg difi g me t f S. tn No. ,9 ,8 B1(te: 8 Pae f). Ba e o C bf) o le e n rn e n o U. Pae t 69 78 2 sh 8 2 tn Fi ç sd n t Unie St e Supr me Cour' r c ntde son i TC He tand LLC v.Kr f Foods Gr he td ats e ts e e cii n arl at oup Brn sLLC,1 7S. . 51 ( 7 , ti h smo dt ta se ve u . Fo t er a o sst o t ad 3 Ct 1 4 201 ) Fi t a ve o rn fr n e r h e s n e f rh b be ow, heco utwilgr ntt m oto a ta f t ca et t Unie Stt sDiti tCour f l t t ' l a he i n nd r nser he s o he t d a e src t or t N o t r DititofCalf i he rhe n src iom a. Backaround OnAprl29, 6,heUnie St t sCour ofAppe l f rt Fede a Cic tr fi medis i 201 t td ae t a s o he r l r ui ea fr t y ' lng tn igr l t ti a to f r tn ifi e n , n ei p o ri a yj iil ititn o sa dn ue ha,n cins o pae t n rng me tve u s r pe n n udca d src i whc ac r r t d fn a ti s b e t op ro a j ds ito Se I r TC He rln LLC, 21 ih opo ae ee d n s u j c t e s n lu dcin. e n e at d a 8 F.d 1 3 ,1 4 ( d Ci. 01 ) rv' , 3 S. .1 4 ( 7 . 3 3 8 3 5 Fe . r 2 6 , e d 1 7 Ct 51 201 ) Smart Wearable Technologies Inc. v. Fitbit, Inc. Doc. 59 Appr xi ae y sx m o hsl tr Sm a tW e a e fld t i t taci a i tFibi,a o m tl i nt ae , r ar bl ie he nsan ton gans t t D e awa e c por ton ba e i Sa Fr nci c Ca i o ni ,a s ri cl i s of die t a i i e t l r or a i s d n n a s o, lf r a s e tng a m r c nd nd r c i rnge nto t $ 2 Patnt Co it ntwiht t n- ntoli ve r e, r W e r bl nf i me f he 88 e . nsse t he he co r lng nue ul Sma t a a e rle o isalg to e ibls i pes na j s ito i t e W e tr Ditito Vign at eid n t le ains sa ihng ro l mi dcin n h sen src f r ii o Dockets.Justia.com s p r t a s ri nta v n ei p o e i ti d src. Se Co l!4 Do k tNo 1(ç ra1 u po the se t h t e u s r p r n h s itit e mp . , c e . G l o Fo o t s r a o s pes n l u id cin e it a dv n i p o ri t i Co r . .'. f he e e s n , ro a j rs ito xss n e ue s rpe n h s u t . .) ' On Fe u y 1 201 Fibi m o d t dim ist c am sofi r ti rng m e t r br ar 7, 7, t t ve o s s he l i ndiec nfi e nt mde Ru e1 ( )6 o t eFe ea Rue o Ci l r c d . OnAp i 6 2 7 t emoinwa g a td l 2 b ( ) f h d r l ls f viP o e me rl , 01 ,h to s rne i pa ta de e i pa q a Sma tW e bl wasgr nt d l a t fl a a e d c n r nd ni d n r nd r ra e a e e ve o ie n m nde ompl i . ant Smar W ea a e ll d a ame d c t r bl ie n nde ompl i ,c ai ngt s m eve al ga i ,on Aprl1 ant ont ni he n nue le tons i 8, 201 7. 0n M a 9, 7, t tm o dt dim isc ran pori nsoft n e y 201 Fibi ve o s s e ti to he m ndedc am sofi r c li ndie t ifi e n , ru n t Ru e 1 09() Tha s me d y Ft i flda a s rt t en n e n r me t pu s a t o l 2 6 . t n a , ibt ie n n we o h me d d ng c mp an . Alh u hFibtdd n tmo et d s s f ri r p rv n et rRu e 1 ()3 o o lit t o g t i i o v o imis o mp o e e u mde l 2h () f t Fe r Ruls o Ci l Pr e e Fibi i ude a a fr tve de e e die t d t t he de al e f vi oc duz , t t ncl d n fima i f ns r c e o he pos i lt t tt Supr m e Cou twoul c nge t ve r l a id i pa e c es Se sbiiy ha he e r d ha he nue u e pple n t nt as . e Ans r! 2 ,Do ke No 4 (t n e i i r p ri t i j d ca dsrc u e 2 U. C.j we 6 c t . 4 s u s mp o e n hs u iil itit nd r 8 S. ve 1 0 ( ) Amo o h rt n s Fibte p c lq h t h S p e Co r' u c migd cso i L 4 0b. ng t e hig , t i x e ts t a t e u rme u ts p o n e iin n q r TC He rln LLC ( 2 6 1 5 wilc n e te Fe e a r ut'jc re n to - d e at d a No. 01 - 0 ) l ha g h d r lCic ils u rnt ain wie ve u r l pu s n t wh c t sc s h sb e b o g t' . n e ue rua t o ih hi a e a e n r u h .) ' The Supr me Cour is d is decson i TC Hea ta on M a 22, 201 I TC e t sue t ii n rl nd y 7. n He rl nd,t Co tr ve s d t Fede a Cic ts l t ndi hol ng t tt pa e tve a ta he ur e r e he r l r ui' ongsa ng di ha he t n nue sau e 28 U. C. j 1 0 ( ) ic r o ae t e b o d r dei iin o c r o ae çe i e c ' tt t, S. 4 0 b , n o p rt s h r a e fnto f o p rt d sd n e' r co ane i 28U. C. 1 () TC He ta 13 S.Ct a 1 nti d n S. j 39lc . arlnd, 7 . t 520. TheCour i t dhedt t tnsea l ha Gado e tcco o a i n Ees de 'onl i is St t ofi or r ton f pur eso t pa e ve & m s i p r t o r i s y n t a e nc po a i or pos f he t nt nue s a ut .' I a 1 7. t t e ' d. t 51 2 On Jme 1 201 Fibi fl d t i t ntm otont ta f rvenue, nt ndi t ti lght t 4, 7, t t ie he nsa i o r nse co e ng ha n i ofTC He rl nd,ve i i ope i t sditi t I r s ns t t moton,Sm a tW e r bl a ta nue s mpr r n hi src . n e po e o he i r aa e ac knowl dgest tve i i ope . Ho e r Sm a tW e r e ar ue t tFibi wai d t e ha nue s mpr r w ve , r a abl g s ha t t ve he de e eofi ope ve by notr sng i i e t roft m o i pr vi l Gld unde Rul f ns mpr r nue aii t n ihe he tons e ousy e r e 1 b) I r pl Fibi arue t tt dee e ofi ope ve wa no a lbl t i t 2( . n e y, t t g s ha he fns mpr r nue s t vaia e mtl he S pe Co rd cd dYC Herln , ndtu ta ted fn ewa no wav d u rme ut e ie at d a h s h th ee s s t ie . a Theco t dahea i onFibi' m otononAugus 1 201 Thema trhasbe n f l ur hel rng t ts i t 0, 7. te e uly bre e a i rpef r viw. i f d nd s i or e e St andar o R e e d f vi w W h n al o j cin t v n i rie , te plitf g n r ly be te b r e o e l b e to o e ue s as d h an if e e al rs h u d n f e tbls ngt tve i pr r Se Col mz sShi r I v. t o Ke W e t 735 F. sa ihi ha nue s ope . e o a' pva d. nc. Civ f v s , Supp. 2 41 , 6 ( D. . 01 ) Ho ve, c u ev n i c nsd rd aG ro lp iie e)o d 4 41 E. Va 2 0 . we r be a s e ue s o i ee û s na rv lg l f pe ted fn a t'rt rta a G bs lt srct e jo t ec ut'Le o v. e tW . tdCo , h ee d n ' ahe h n n c ou e titr l n h o z ' r y Gr a Uni a t e p. 4 3U. 1 3 1 0( 9 9 , d fn a t ywav isp ii g t d ma dap o e v n i i d e 4 S. 7 , 8 1 7 ) a e e d n ma ie t rvl e o e n r p r e ue f t o s e n tma eaCi l a ds fce t b e to , 28U. C. 1 0 () o k tmey n ufiin o j cin' t ' S. j 4 6b . Rue 1 ()o teFe e a Rulso Ci l o e mep o i e ta e r dee s t acam l 2b f h d r l e f viPr c d r v d s h t vey fn e o li f r le m us be a s red i a r s i pl adi i one i r quie a t tc ran de e es or ei f t s e t n e ponsve e ng f s e r d, nd ha e ti f ns , icu igt d f n eo i r p rv n e ma b a s re b mo in S eFe R. v. 1 b . n l dn he e e s f mp o e e u , y e s etd y to . e d. Ci P. 2() Asag ne a r l ,hede e eofi ope ve i wai d i i i no r s di t frtm otonfld e rl ue t f ns mpr r nue s ve f t s t aie n he is i ie t e Rul 1 S eFe R. v. 1 ( )2 . Thi nl , o v r e tn so l t d fn e t a md r e 2. e d. Ci P. 2 g () s l h we e , x e d ny o ee s s h t e we e ç valbl t t pa t 'a t tea le tm e. I Thus a de e nt doe notwave t r ç ia e o he ry' t ha ri r i a d. , f nda s i he de e eofi ope ve i s h de e e wasuna ia ea t tm et de e ptfld isfr t f ns mpr r nue f uc f ns va lbl t he i he f nda ie t is Rul 1 moton. A de e ei t valbl i Sislgalba i di note s a t tm eoft a we e 2 i f ns s ma ia e f tt e ss d xit t he i he ns r 3 orpr a we m oto ' Gim o e v.Pa e tnin I e i SefGove n e Aut ,843 F. 958, e- ns r i n.' l r l si a nt rm lr m nt h. 3d 9 4 ( C. r 20 6 (i to a ditma q tto ma k o te ) 6 D. Ci. 1 ) ct in n n e l uoain r s mitd . a D i c s on s us i 1. Chanze i t I w ofve n he a nue I p tn ifi e n a to , e u i p o e Snt ej d ca dsrc wheeted fn a t n ae tn rng me t cins v n e s r p r d h u iil itit r h ee d n i r i s or whe e t de e nt has commit a t of i rnge nt a has a r gulr and esde , r he f nda ted c s nfi me nd e a e tbih d pa e o b sn s. 2 U. C.j 1 0 I 1 5 ,te S p e Co r c n ld d sa ls e lc f u ie s' 8 S. ' 40 09. n 9 7 h u r me u t o cu e t t f pup os soft pae ve sa e a domesi c por ton K e i s'o y i iss ae of ha, or e he tnt nue t mt , tc or a i K sde ' nl n t tt r i c po ain. S eFo ro Gls Co v Tr n mir P o s Co p, 5 U. 2 2 2 6( 9 7 . I n o r to e u c a s . . a s ra r d . r .3 3 S. 2 , 2 1 5 ) n ra hn isd cso t Co r rj ce t e agl n t a j 1 0 i c po ae t ebr a e e c ig t e iin, he u t ee td h r l t h t 40 1) n o rts h o d r me d fni o o Ce ie e' o tie i t eg n r l n esau e 28U. C. 1 91c . S ei a ei t n f t sd nc 'c n an d n h e e a ve u ttt, i r S. j 3 () e d. t 22829. Alhough Congr sha nota e dt pa e ve sa ut snc Four wa dec de i t es s nde he t nt nue tt e i e co s i d, t h sn n e t eg nea v n esam eo t o c so s I 1 8 Co g e sa n e j1 91c a me d d h e rl e u tt n wo c a i n . n 98 , n r s me d d 3 () t p o i eta Sfo p r o e o v n eu d rti c a tr ad fn a tt t sac r o ain s al o r v d h tG lr u p s s f e u n e h s h n e, ee d n ha i o p r t h l g o b d e dt rsd i a yj iil itit nwh c i i s b e t op ro a j rs ito a tetme e e me o e ie n n udca d src i ih t s u j c t e s n lu id cin t h i t ea to i c mme e ' TC He rln ,1 S Ct a 1 9(mp a i a d d ( i to o te ) h cin s o nc d. ' ata d 3 . . t 51 e h ss d e ) ct in mitd . a Be us jj 1 a 1 ae l t i t s me c ptrof t Unie Stt Code t ca e 391 nd 400 r ocaed n he a ha e he td aes , he a nd e pr mpt dt quesi ofwhehe Co e shad sa t rl ove r e Fotr me m nt o e he ton t r ngr s tm o iy r uld tco. I VE n Hol naCor v.J onGa Appla Co.91 F. 1 ( d.Ci.1990 ,heFe r lCic t di p. ohns s ince , 7 2d 574 Fe r ) t de a rui a s r dta q e to ' t eafr tve Th Co r ra o e ta t p r s çfo p r osso n we e h t u si ni h fimai . e u t e s n d h t he h a e ç lr u p e f n l ve unde t sc ptr'sç xa ta casi lngu ofi r ai 'J. a 1 a t t nue r hi ha e'i t c nd l sc a age nco portony'-. t 579, nd ha e 1a J 4 j 1 9 ()te eo ep o i e t d fnto o Ce ie c 'f ral t rv n sa ue i t s me 3 1 c h r f r r v d s he ei i n f d sd n e' o l ohe e ue tt ts n he n i r c p e,I .a 1 0. Be a s j 1 0 ( )flswi n t e rlv n c ptr t e Fe ea Cic i ha tr d t 58 c u e 4 0 b al t h ee a t ha e, h d rl ru t hi c n ld dt tj1 91c ( lal a p ist j1 0 ( ) a dtu rd fn st eme nngo t tr o cu e ha 3 () ç e ry p le o 4 0 b , n h s e ei e h a i f he e m c tesde 'i t ts ci ' J .t1578. Ac or ngl t Cour hedt tçhefrtt tfrve r i s n ha e ton.' #aa c di y, he t l ha ç is es o nue t u d rj1 0 ( )wi r s e t oad fn a tta i ac r o ain i lg t ft 1 8 n n me t n e 4 0 b t e p c t ee d n h t s o p rto ,n ih o he 9 8 me d n s h t j 1 9 () i wh t rt d fnd n wa s be tt pes n l u idcini t d src o s i a o 3 1 c, s ehe he ee a t s u j c o ro a j rs ito n he itit f ut t t tm et a ton wascomm e ed. I a 1 4. he i he ci nc ' d. t 58 ' ç l wi VE Hol ng,no ne de l pm e s oc ur e t i Congr s a e t Tolo ng di w ve o nt c r d mtl es dopt d he ta . c re t rin o j1 91i 20 1( g i la n j 1 0 ()t l rd . TC Hearl nd,137 S.Ct u rn veso f 3 n 1 a an e vig 4 0 b mat e l' e ' a 1 2 (i to o te ) S cin 1 91a no prvie t a,ç l e t soh r s p o ie b t 5 0 ct in mitd . e to 3 () w o d s h tGexc p a te wie r vd d y a g t lw,'i ss c i s lgove t ve ofa1cvi a tonsbr hti diti tc t oft Unie a 'fhi e ton hal' m he nue 1 i l c i t oug n src ours he t d S ae . 28 U. C.j 1 91a. S cin 1 9 ()2 ,i tr ,p o i e t a,ç fo alve u tts' ' S. 3 () e to 3 1c ( ) n l n r v d s h t i lr l n e z l pur es'ce ti e ii ,i t rornoti p o aed,s l bede m e t r i ,i ade e n , pos ,' ra n nttes Gwhe he nco r t ha l e d o esde f f nda t i a yj d ca d src i whc s c d fnd n i s b e tt t ec u tsp ro a j s ito wi n n u iil itit n ih u h ee a t s u j c o h o r' es n l mi dcin t h r s c t t ecv l cin i q eto ' 28U. C. 1 91c( ) epe t o h ii a to n u sin. ' S. j 3 ()2 . l 201 t Fede a Cic tr fim e VE Hol ng,r as ngt tt 2011n e e s n 6, he r l r ui ea fr d di e oni ha he m ndm nt t j1391pr de no ba i t atrisprorde iin. Se l r TC He rlndLLC,821F. a o ovi d ss o le t i cso en e a ta 3d t 1 34142. For27 ye s fom 19 t i 201 Q Hol ngr mande bi ng pr ede on t s ar, ' r 90 mtl 7, G VE di e d ndi ec nt hi ll u ta e ey oh rdsrc c u t eaiet p tn l iain. Smps n Pef r nc Pr d . co r, nd v r t e itit o r r ltv o ae t i g to ' i o ro ma e o s t ' v. a t r r f Sa e v, o.5: 6- - 55- , - CK ,201 U . D i t LEXI 1 M se c a t f t N 1 CV 001 RTV D 7 S. s . S 34609,201 W L 7 3 2 0 ,a * ( . N. Au 2 ,2 7 . Un e t e F d r lCic i' itr rtto o j 6 0 01 t 6 W D. C. g. 2 01 ) d r h e ea ruts n ep eai n f 1 0 ( ) v n ewa p o e i t sdsrc a t etmet i a to wa sld. 4 0 b , e u s r p r n hi itit t h i h s cin s e 5 As Fibi pr di t i is ans r ho e r t Supr m e Cour a ogaed t Fede al t t e ced n t we , w ve , he e t br t he r Cic tsl t nd ng pae ve nze on M a 22,201 whe i de ded TC He rlnd. The r ui' ongsa i tnt nue l y 7, n t ci a ta que to pr s nt d i TC He rlndwa < r pr rve le f apaen i rnge e lws t s in e e e n a ta s i e ope nuç is or t t nfi m nt a ui whe br oughtagans adom e tcco por ton.' 1 S. . t1 6. Afe co i dngt n e i t si r a i ' 37 Ct a 51 tr nsde he m ndme s nt t j 1 91c i t e y a s sn e Fo ro wa de i e ,t S p e Co r c n ld d t a te o 3 () n h e r ic u c s cd d he u rme u t o cu e h t h G me d nst j1 91d dn t d f t me nngo j1 0 ( ) sitr rtdb Fo ro. l .t s n me t o 3 i o mo iy he a i f 4 0 b a n ep ee y u c ' t a a ' 1 1 7. The Co tt r f e r ve s t Fe r Cic ta hed t tGa dom e tc c por ton 51 ur he e or e r ed he de al r ui nd l ha $ si or a i çe i 'o yi isStt ofi po ai f pur eso t pae ve saut.' J Unde rsdes nl n t ae ncor r ton or pos f he tnt nue tt e' . Z r t sanda d, hepa tesa e t tve i i pr ri t sditi t l t r t és ri gr e ha nue s m ope p hi src . I. I W ai ver Rahert n c le ngt pr it ofve i t sditit Sm a tW e a e a gue t t t ha hal ngi he oprey nue n hi src , r ar bl r s ha Fibi waved t def ns ofi o rve by f lng t r ie i i t m o i nspr vi usy fl d t t i he e e mpr pe nue aii o a s t n he to e o l ie t rRul 1 Alho h apa t i g ne a l he dt ha wa ve t de e e ofi ope ve mde e 2. t ug ry s e r ly l o ve i d he f ns mpr r nue i t tpa t f ie t r ie i i am o i pr vi l fl d unde Rul 1 a e pto e ssi t f ha ry al d o a s t n ton e ousy e r e 2, n xce i n xit f he d fn ewa n tç v ia l t t epat ' tt a e zirtme S eFe R.Ci P.1 )g ( ) As ee s s o E albe o h ry'a h t a le i . e d. v. 2 ( )2 . a i caed a ve Fibi a g t tisve c le wa pr vi l f ecos d by co r lng ndi t bo , t t r ues ha t nue hal nge s e ousy or l e ntoli cic tpr e nt a t tt de e edi no bec ea ia et i t Supr me Co tde i d r ui ec de , nd ha he f ns d t om va lbl mtl he e m' c de TC Hea ta rl nd. I ot r wo ds Fibi m ant i t t TC He rlnd consiut a i t r ni n he r , t t i ans ha a ta tt es n n e ve ng c ngei t 1 w s scen t a d wave . Se Hola v. gli rM i r l Cor ,181F. ha n he a uf i t o voi i r e lnd Bi kve ne a s p. 3d 5 605( h Ci.1 )(xpli ngt ta e pto t t ge r nzeofwave e ssG n 97, 4t r 999 e ani ha n xce in o he neal l i r xit ç whe t r ha bee a i e ve ng c nge i t 1 r cog zng a is t t was notpr vi l he e s n n nt r ni ha n he aw e nii n s ue ha e ousy a l ey a t tt e pto a ist n çhé ewa sr pr c de t prort t c nge vaiabl ' nd ha he xce i n pple ç ' whe t r s tong e e n ' i o he ha s h t t t f iur t r s t i s was notunr a o bl a t o uc ha he al e o aie he s ue e s na e nd he pposng pa t was not i ry 6 p eu ie b t f i r t r iet eis es o e ' (u tn Cu t Pu ' Co v. ts 3 8U. rj d c d y he al e o as h su o n r' q o ig ri bla . But, 8 S. u ) s 1 ,1 3 (96 :. 30 4 1 7 A se l i r sng numbe ofditi tc ursha c i r d t ss m eis --whehe tadiy nc ea i r src o t ve onsde e hi n s ue t r TC He rlnd co tt e a i e v ni c ngei t l w s ht tt de e eofi o rve a ta nsiut s n nt r e ng ha n he a uc ha he f ns mpr pe nue wa nota ia eprort t tdecson' AsofJ y 201 whe t pa te c s val bl i o ha ii . ul 7, n he ri s ompl t bre i o eed ifng n t p n i moin,te ç la te d ...( s t hod ta TC He rln i n ta itr e n he e dng to h û e r rn c wa ) o l h t a ta d s o n n e v nig c hangei t lw . Ha He d Pr . I .v.CodeCor ,No.2: 7- 67- G,201 U. Dit n he a ' ' nd l odsm nc n. 1 1 RM 7 S. s. LEXI 1 2 3 , 01 W L 30 5 5 , t* ( S. J l 1 ,2 7 (iig c s s icudn Co l S 19 2 2 7 8 8 9 a 3 D. C. u y 8 01 ) ctn a e , n l ig bat Boa s LLC v. Se Ra Boa s I ,No.2: 5- ,201 U. Dit LEM S 90728,201 W L ts a y t . nc. 1 21 7 S. s. 7 2 5 6 9 a * ( D.Va J ne7 2 7 ,i wlc te d src c u th l t a,Gb a e o t 5 6 7 , t 3 E. . u , 01 ) n l h h itit o r ed h t ç l s d n he i g Su e e Cour' hol ng i TC He rl nd,Four o has c i d t be bi ng snce i wa pr m ts di n a ta c ontnue o ndi i t s d cd di 1 5 , n t u ,th sb e a ia l t e r d fnd n sn e 1 5 ' . Sic t ttme e ie n 9 7 a d h s i a e n valbe o vey ee a t ic 9 79 n e ha i , ) a g o ng num be ofdititc t ha r ac t o r wi r src ours ve e hed he ppost co l i ie ncuson. Se e. ,Si o e. c. mps n Pef r n e Pr d . 2 7 U. Dit LEXI 1 4 0 ,201 W L 36 0 ,a * (la i g ro ma c o s, 01 S. s. S 369 7 20 01 t 5 ç- v n çl c i r d t opposng mp l nt a dit t c ur opi ons t i Cou tc l s t tTC onsde e he i me s nd sdc o t ni , l s l r oncude ha He rln c n tttsa itr e i g c a ei te lw.) M a cl flvs.Lt . Plsi De a t d o si e n n e v n n h ng n h a ' ; x li n . d v. a tc v. a u ' e Gr .LLC, . 1 -v 6 , 01 U. DitLEXI 1 4 2 2 7W L 3 7 5 4, t* ( D. n . p. No 3:6 c - 3 2 7 S. s. S 28 3 , 01 4 9 0 a 4 E. Te n Au .1 , 7 (& hi c u t id i d f u t od srb TC He rln a mz ti oh rt na g 4 201 ) $T) s o r fn s t ifc l t e ci e ( a t d s yhng te ha a sgnii a c ng i t l w o ve i fc nt ha e n he a n nue. To do ot r s woul i e t l sa ng he wie d gnor he ong-t ndi sgriia o t VE Hol nede ii a t rla uponi f ma ye s' ; sorh.nc. i lfc nce f he di cson nd he eince t or ny ar.) Cutf t l ' v.LEM M Li da i Co. N o.1 c 1 qui tng , 2- v- 200,201 U . D i t LEM S 1 7 S. s . 23556,201 W L 3381816, 7 a * ( M im. g 4 201 )(E oh l t t urorman dg o 1w a a1 i so r h ls t 4 D. r Au . , 7 ç T) o d ha Fo c e ie o d a t ltme ve t e a t t t nt s ve ye s a t t t(hede e nt s dhaver ie t i ope ve defns a we y-e n ar, nd hus ha t f nda q houl as d he mpr r nue e e t 7 te tme t i c s wa fld ef ci l in r s rai ' Opo h i hs a e s ie , fe t y g o e e l y. ve t ); tLum.l .v.Cre I c,No nc e. n . . CV- 60 28PHX1 -38 DLR, 01 U.. s. 2 7 S DitLEXI 1 471 , 01 W L 31 0 4 , t 5( Ari J l S 1 72 7 3 6 2 a * D. i. uy 2 20 7 (Tos g s t a t ed fns o i r p rv n h sawa b e a alb e a dta TC 4, 1 ) < ug et h t h ee e f mp o e e ue a l ys e n v ia l, n h t $ H e rl nd di no ef c a c nge i t 1 w be us i me ey a lr st vibiiy ofFotr o, a ta d t fe t ha n he a ca e t r l fim he a lt lc i e t sgnii n i gnor s he i fca t mpac ofVE Hol ng a t pa e ba ' r la e on t c s f rnea l t di nd he t nt rs ei nc he a e o ry t red c d s' (iaina ditr a q oainmakso te ) h e e a e .) ctto n n en l u tto r mitd . ' Aferc e u l consde i t decsonson bo h sde oft is t co ta e wih t ar f ly i rng he ii t i s he s ue, he ur gr es t Fibi t tTC He rlnd sgniia l c t t ha a ta i fc nty hange t l w o ve i a tonsf pae i rnge nt d he a f nue n c i or t nt nfi me . ç rt frttmei 2 y as ad f n a t yag ece i yt a ve u i i r p ri a u iil s he is i n 7 e r, e e d n ma r u rdbl h t n e s mp o e n j d ca Fo d src wh r ii s be t oac u ts ro a j rs ito b t eei i no ic r o ae a dha itit ee t s u j c t o r' pes n lu id ci n u wh r t s t n o p rtd n s no r gul r a esa ihe pl e of busnes . W ese h Ae os Cor v. 3 Co. No. e a nd t bls d ac i s' ' tc r ol p. M , C1 - 0 7 RBL, 01 U. Dit LEXI 95 68 2 7W L 26 29 , t* ( . W a h Jme21 75 6 2 7 S. s. S 7 , 01 71 7 a 2 W D. s . t , 2 7 . Tl s p e ie agu n wa p e iusy f r co e by c n r lig Fe ea Cic i 01 ) l rcs r me t s rv o l o e ls d i o to l n d rl rut pr e nt Thus as a pr c i l m a tr t l l ba i f r Fibi' m oton t ta f r wa ec de . , a tca te , he ega ss o t ts i o r ns e s t valbl prort TC He rlnd. Fibi t r or di notwavet ve c le ebyf ii t ma ia e i o a ta t t he ef e d i he nue ha lng alng o riei i ise rirmo in . S eGuc iAm.I c v. exncLi 7 F.d 1 2 1 5 3 ( d Ci. as t n t a l e to s e c . n . W i i , 68 3 2 , 3 - 6 2 r 2 4 ( li t tad fn a tc n o bed e dt ha ewav dad fn et a wo l h veb e 01 ) hodng ha ee d n n n t e me o v ie ee s h t u d a e n dr cl c nrr t t n-x si gcr ut r c d nt. ie ty o ta y o he e itn ic ip e e e ) The cotr not ,howe r t te n i i we e t ac e t pl i i s rgum e tt tt tt es ve , ha ve f t r o c pt he antY n ha he de e e ofi pr pe ve w a a w a a ia eunde Fotr t c ts de i i o t i s of f ns m o r nue s l ys va l bl r lco, he our ' c s on n he s ue w a ve w oul r m a n t s m e. Bas o t pa tc a f c s a c r um s a es of t i t nt i r d e i he n ed n he ri ul r a t nd i c t nc he ns a c s ,t c tfndst tFibi di notac l e onabl i f ii t r s t is e rira t t a e he our i ha t t d t mr as y n a lng o aie he s ue a le nd ha g a tn t emo int ta frwil o ' d l p eu iet panif Uni es v rlo t ec s s r ni g h to o rnse l n t ' uy rj dc he litf. lk e ea f h a e n 8 i whi h de e nt we ef n c f nda s r oundt ha wai d t de e eofi pr rve ,t sca ei sili o ve ve he f ns m ope nue hi s s tl n t r ltvey e ry sa ofltga i n. Se e. ,CobatBoas 201 U. Dit LEXI 90728, he e ai l a l t ges ii to e. R. l t , 7 S. s . S 2 7 W L 25 6 , t* ( tn ta d fn a t idc tdls ta t rewe k beo etil h t 01 5 79 a 2 noig h t ee d ns n iae e s h n h e e s fr ra t a t e wa td t c alng ve ue; El i S . La d v.Hu h s Newo k S . LLC, No h y n e o h le e n ) bt ys n ge t r ys. . 2: CV15- 00037- SRW RSP,201 U. DitLEM S94495,201 W L 2651 ,a #1 ( D. x. 7 S. s. 7 618 t 9 E. Te Jme2 , 7 ( o igt thed fn eo i rpe ve u wa r ie ls t nt mo tsp i r o t 0 201 ) n tn ha t e e s f mp o r n e s as d e s ha wo nh ro t til. Th Mak n*h aigi tremo t a ya dtetili no sh d ldt be i u tl ra) e rma e rn s he nhs wa n i ra s t c e ue o gn ni l N ove r5, mbe 2018. M o e r t r i no i i a i ofa i e i ldely o t pa tofFibi r ove , he e s nd c ton ny nt ntona a n he r t t i s e i t ta frv nu . Ft i o j ce t ve uei isa s ra t e fld t i sa t n e kng o rnse e e ibt b e td o n n t n we nd h n ie he n tn m o i ls t n one mont a tr TC He rl nd wa decded. Unde t e cr lm sa es t ton e s ha h fe a ta s i r hes icl tnc , he c tfndst tFibi ha notwave t de e eofi o rve . our i ha t t s i d he f ns mpr pe nue 1 11. Transf er Be a e i i lndiput d t tFibi i no i r r t i Vigi aa doe notm ant i a c us t s l s e ha t t s t nco po aed n r ni nd s i an r g lra d e tbih d p a e o b i e si t i ds c,v n e i i r p r S e 28U.. j e u a n sa ls e lc f usn s n h s ihi t e u s mp o e . e SC. 1 0 ( ) TC He rlnd 1 7S. . t1 1 Rahe t nds si t ec s f ri r p r n e 4 0b; a t , 3 Ct a 5 7. t r ha imisng h a e o mp o e ve u , a t ec u t id t a t itr s o j siewo l besr e b ta se ngt c s t ad src i h o r fn s h t he n ee t f u tc ud e v d y rn fni he a e o itit n whihi c u dha eb e b o g tri al . S e28U. C. 1 0 () Ther c r idc tst a c t o l v e n r u h ilily e t S. j 4 6 a . e od n iae h t tev s mao iyof t i' e ly e ,n ldn t p icpa dei n r o t a c s dp o u t, h at j rt Fibts mpo e s icu ig he rn i l sg es f he c u e r d cs wo k i Fibi' Sa Fr ncs o ofi es whe eFibi' doc nt a ealosor r n t ts n a ic fc , r t ts ume s r s t ed. Ac r ngl t co di y, he c twile r ie isd s r ton t ta f rt ca et t No t r Ditito Ca iom i ,whe e our l xe cs t i c e i o r ns e he s o he rhe n src f lf a r Fibi ha a r gulr a e tbls d plc ofbusnes a i a lged t ha c t t s e a nd sa ihe a e i s nd s le o ve omm itd a t of te c s i rnge nt See28U. C.j1 b) nfi me . S. 400( . *Mak nv. etiw I tu nt.Ic. 2F. 9 7(e . r 1 9 )(nb n )a 5 7U. 3 0 r ma W sve nsrme s n .5 3d 6 F d Ci. 9 5 e a c, Vd, 1 S. 7 (9 6 . 19 ) 9 Co l in nc us o Fo t r s nssa e t c t l g a tFibi' mbton t ta f rve r he ea o tt d,he our wil r n t ts i o r ns e nue. TheCl r i ek s diecedt s ndc e oftlsm e or ndum opi on a t a ompa ng or rt a1co ms of r t o e opi s li m a ni nd he cc nyi de o l t el r co d. e r DATED: i Xh d yo Aug t2017. Ths a f us, U rie t t s Di t i tJ lt d à e s rc udge 10