Crawford et al v. Senex Law, P.C., No. 3:2016cv00073 - Document 85 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 11/7/17. (jcj)
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CLERK' OFFI E U. . ST COURT S C s DI . AT > œ , VA FI LED d 2? 1 0k 7 I THE UN I N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A CHARLOTTESVI LLE DI SI VI ON TERICRAW FOM ,GARRY BROW N, LY DI G REEN , A LORETTA PENNI NGTON,a nd PA TR I A SA UN DER S, CI i vi ly a on be fofa ls m ia l ndi dua l nd hal l i lry st a e i vi s iu t d ndi dual, J U BY; DL , L ERK Ci lA c i n N o.3: 6- - 73 vi to 1 CV 000 M EM OM NDUM OPI ON NI Pl i if , antfs By:Ho Gl n E. lad n. e Cozr Unie Stt Diti tJ t d a es src udge SEN EX LAW , C. P. , Def nda . e nt Thsa to u e t FarDe tCo lcin Pr cie Ac,1 U. C.j 1 9 e s q (he i cin nd r he i b le to a tc s t 5 S. 6 2 t e.t ' I FDCPA',i c re ty b f r t ec u to d fnd n ' mo in f rj d me to t pla ig . ' s u rn l eo e h o r n ee a ts to o u g n n he e dn s ) Fo t r as saed be ow,t moton wilbede e r he e ons t t l he i l ni d. Backcround The f l ng f c s a e tke f o t pl ntfs ame olowi a t r a n r m he ai if ' nded c ompl i a we e ant nd r pr vi l s t f t i t c ts me or ndum opi on de ng t de e nts moton t e ousy e orh n he our' m a ni nyi he f nda ' i o di m i s Se Cr w f d v. Se x La .P. ,N o. 3: 6- s s . e a or ne w C. 1 CV 00073, 201 W L 1743880, a *1 7 t ( . Va M a 3 20 7 .W heea p o rae ti s mmayoftefcsas icud salg to s W D. . y , 1 ) r p r p it,h s u r h a t lo n l e le ain fo t de e ntsverfed a wer r m he f nda ' ii ns . Th d f n a t Se e La P. (çe e ',i a lw 51 i Hn t n Vigni,t a e ee d n , n x w, C. t n x' s a 7 n mp o , r i a h t S ) m Crawford et al v. Senex Law, P.C. Doc. 85 a sss ln lr s wih c l ci o ed rn fo tna t. Am.Co l !( 0 1 S n x sit a d od t ol t v r ue e t r m e n s e ng mp . ( 1 , 3. e e ! adve ts is l t lndl ds a a C ries te f o a or s t sop s p' t t bot pr pa es a s nds Notc s of one t ho ' ha h e r nd e ie Nonc ince(ç ie'orç tce ' t t nt who o rnta lt f e a r prs nt t ompla t c ' G i s' o ena s Not No ) we e nd ae e s nd e e e s he ln lr si lws isa ans tn n s I ! 1 . a do d n a ut g i t e a t. d. 5 Dockets.Justia.com CLERK Ea h oft nn e pli tf slve i apr pe t m a ed by a lndl d who had r t i c he m d a n if i d n o ry nag a or e aned S ne t is Noie t tn n swh h d fie t pa rn wh n d . J !9 Ea h n me e x o sue tc s o e a t o a ald o y e t e ue - . c a d i pli if r c ve a Notc prn ed on hi or he l ndl d' ltehe d a a fxe wih t antf e ei d ie it s r a or s e tr a nd fi d t he ln lr see to i sg au e I ! 1 .TheNoiea vs d. e tn n o tea u to d t a do d' lcr n c in t r. d. 9 tc d ie t e a t f h mo n we o h t lndl d,i l ng a la t$27 i a t ne s f e ,a sa e t tt lndl r ha C e aned he a or ncudi t e s n tor y' e s nd t t d ha he a o d d & t i r 1 Se x La PC a t ha ar dy dr fed t sno i a pr vi d l ga ad cedue t yo l ne w, nd hey ve lea a t hi tce nd o de e l vi o tr no o la c . J ! 1 ,21 Am.Co .Ex.A. Th Noie drce t tna tt snd nc mp in e' . ! 8 ; ' mpl ' Z e tc ie td he e n o e pa ntt t l ndl d a pr ded t lndl r sa e sa t lphonent nbe a t t o yme o he a or nd ovi he a o d' ddr s nd e e u r t he op f t Notc Am .Co pl Ex. .TheN o i wa ned t t i t t na ' l or di notr c ve he i e. m . A tce r ha , f he e nts andl d d e ei pa e of t r a l t f e wihi fve da of t da e t N o i was r c i d, G n ym nt he ent nd ae e t n i ys he t he tce e e ve t a Unlwf lDeane o ot r lw s tm a be fl d agans you a you wilbe a rs ofl i a u t i r r he a ui y ie i t nd l t ik osng p s e so o y u p o ry a do h vngaj d me te tr da an ty u . .' Ja Th rtr o s sin f o r r pe t n /r a i u g n ne e g is o . . # . e eu n ' a r s o t e l pe lse 'he l ndl d' na e butSene s a es i Hn pt n,Vig ni dd e s n he nve o it d t a or s m , x' ddr s n m o r i a. S e ea. Am.Co l ! 1 ,3 . S v rlo te tn n sr c ie t i No ie i e v lpe e. ., mp . ! 9 9 e ea f h e a t e ev d her tc s n n eo s sn e wihapo tl tto idc t g d lv r fo Hn o Vign a Se i . 1 .I t tmp d t sa noain n iai ei ey ' m mptn, r ii . e d ! 9 f he n r t na di no pa t lndl d wihi a utone m on h a tr r cevi t N o i e t n Se x e nt d t y he a or t n bo t fe e i ng he tc , he ne wo l i iit a t a u d t ie a t n a ans t tna t S e eg,d. 7 ud ntae n mlwf l ean r ci g i the e n . e . ..i ! 6. o Bas d on t na e pl i if e r e es t c pl i a l ges t t Se x us t e he m d a ntf s' xpe i nc , he om a nt le ha ne es he f l ngpr e st sndNotc : ( )alndor s ndsSe als o ac ount wih alege y olowi oc s o e ies 1 a l d e nex it f c s t l dl ovedue rnt ( Se x prpaesNotc s on t lndl d' lter a ( Se x atxest r e ; 2) ne e r ie he a or s e t he d; 3) ne fi he ln lr ' ee o i sg au e t e c Noie a d ( ) Se e p it a d s n s te No ie a d o d s ldr no i n tr o a h tc ; n 4 n x rns n e d h tc s diecl t t tnans l !1 Plitfs c tnd t tt s pr s e tbls s t t Sene r ty o he e t. d. 7. anif one ha hi oce s sa ihe ha x ope a e as a de c l c or w he i s nds t N otc s and t r f e,t Se x m us i ntf rts bt ole t n te he ie , he e or hat ne t de iy is l a a de c l c o a dic os i t Notc sc ti i or ton r quie by t FDCPA. t ef s bt ole t r nd s l e n he i e eran nf ma i e r d he / 1 .! 1 ,1 8 Plitfsa sr t a S n x i tn in ly fist i ld t erq ie ds l sle d ! 8 6 . an if se t h t e e ne to al al o ncu e h e u rd ico t s r whe i snd teNo ie .I ! 1 3 n t e s h tc s d. 7 . l is ve i d a we ,t de e ntelbor e on t f - tp pr e s i ntfed i t n t rse ns r he f nda a ats he ourse oc s de ii n he a e d co pl nt The de e nta s rst tSe x colabo at wih e h l dl d t pr pa e m nde m ai . f nda s e t ha ne l r es t ac r or o e r aNoietmplt. Ve i dAn we ! 1 . W h n aln lr rq e t ta Se e is eaNoie t e ae rse s r 7 c e a do d e u ss h t n x su tc , Se x a s r s t ti a yz t l s a t r l van l w t g r t a t nan - pe i i Notc ne s e t ha t nal es he ea e nd he e e t a o ene a e e t s c fc i e. 1 . Ea h lte icu e ac a g f rlg ls r ie S ne p o d st teln lr J s g . A d c elr n ld s h r e o e a e vc s e x r vie o h a do d. - j21 I 1 lndl d r pr s nt tve t n e e toni a l sg t Notc t r by s a i t r pe t of a or e e e a i he l cr c ly i ns he ie, he e we rng mde naly pejly t tt Noie c nan tu a c re t f cs a d t a t e ln l r p se s s t rt ha he tc o ti s r e nd o rc a t n h t h a d o d o s se he r n c say d c me t t s bsa taetef csi teNoie 1 . g 9 Fial Se e p it a d e e s r o u ns o u tnit h a t n h tc . d j 1 . n l n x rns n y, mal t eNoie a t edr ci no teln lr s 1 . 1 . is h t s t h ie to f h a d od . d ! 7 c De e nt m ant i t t l he c e ton a a o l of ea h i vi f nda i ans ha % t r a i nd ppr va c ndi dual N o i of tce N o ompla e i a l ng, c lbor tve pr e s be we n Se x Law a l ndl ds whe e nc i nc s o ola ai oc s t e ne nd a or r lndl dsm a e r de ii a Se x La si l m e tc it s el ofpr vi ng l ga a or ke ve y c son nd ne w' nvove n onsss ol y o di e l a c r ga di compla e wih a i a e 1 a t m i s e ilt s ofprntng,f di dvie e r ng i nc t pplc bl aw nd he nit ra a ks i i ol ng, a d mal t Noie . -s( . Th d f n a tc ne d st a ço g' ual me nsç fw n ing he tc s' t !20 e e e d n o e e h t ç n 'us l a t e i 'J l l y a ho ls' I Acc di t t de e nt is a rii i cai Se x pr pa e t N o i s tr . d. ' or ng o he f nda , t dve tsng ndi tng ne e r s he tce pr de o y ç ge r l s a e e t of a l bl s r i es' a e h l ndl d sgns a de aied ovi s nl : ne a t t m n a vaia e e v c ,' nd ac a or i t l e ge n lte t touti st a t s r iè t ber rd.I ! 1 nga me t e tr ha lne he cual e vc s o endee d. 5. PtoceduralH i orv st O n O c o r 5,2016,pl ntf s fl d a one co m t co pl nt ag ns Se x,aleg ng t t t be ai i f ie - t m ai ai t ne l i ha Se x ope ae a a de c lc orbutf is t ma c ran sa ut iy-e r d dicos e i ne rts s bt ole t al o ke e ti t t orl r quie s l ur s n vo ai n o t f l wig p o iinso t F ilto f he ol n r v so f he DCPA: () j 1 9 d prhiiig h r sme to o 1 6 2 , o btn a as n r a u e i t c lcin o d b ; ( ) j1 9 e p o iiig t e us o fle o mila i b s n he ol to f e t 2 e 6 2 , r hbtn h e f as r se dng rp e e tto s a ()j 1 9 g r q iig c ran if r to a u t v ldt o te d b t e r s nain ; nd 3 6 2 , e urn e ti n o main bo t he aiiy f h e t o be i ndud i de e l o c ed n bt oledi n ommunia i ns. The tve name pl i if a s r que t d c to i d antfs l o e s e c riiain o a ca so p e e ta df r rtn n so rsd n il o risl c td t Vigna e t c to f ls f r sn n o me e a t f e ie ta prpe t o ae n r ii f e whos lndlr havee age Se x t f c lt t t c l to ofove due r nt e a o ds ng d ne o a iiae he oleci n r e . On De e be 21 201 t de e ntmove t dimi st org na c c m r , 6, he f nda d o s s he i i l ompl i f rf iur ant o a l e t saeacam u o wh c rle ma b g a td, l s a tt Rul 1 b ( )o t Fe ea Ru e o tt li p n ih eif y e r ne pz u n o e 2( )6 f he d r l ls r ofCi lPr edu e. The c ztde ed t moton,r lng t tt pl ntfsha plusbl al ge vi oc r otr ni he i u i ha he ai if d a i y le d t tSe x i a de c l t whe is ng N oi eg a t r f r ,t tt a e e of c rai ha ne s bt olecor n s ui tc , nd he e o e ha he bs nc et n di cos e i t Notc vi a e t FD CPA. s l ur s n he ies ol t s he On M a 8,201 pli if fld a a nde co pl nt whih i i ntc lt t orgna y 7, antfs ie n me d m ai , c s de i a o he i i l co pl ntw ih t e e i oft a da nt c a e. I r s ns on J 28,201 de e nt m ai t he xc pton he d m un l us n e po e, une 7, f nda fld isve ii d a we . ie t rfe ns r On J l 2 ,2 7 t ed fnd n mo d frj d me to tepla ig a d f rasa o u y 7 01 , h ee a t ve o u g n n h e dn s n o ty f dicove y. The pli if t n moved t c s r antfs he o ompe c ran dic r A fe a he rng on t l e ti s ove y. tr ai he dico r m o i ,t c r sa dico r i pa ta gr nt t m o i t co pe i pa t s ve y tons he ou t t yed s ve y n r nd a qd he ton o m l n r. Dic r r m ansope a t la lt buti saye a t da ag . s ove y e i n s o i biiy, s t d s o m es Th c u th l a spaae h a ig O t e moin f rj dg n o t e p e dng o e o r ed e rt e rn n h to o u me t n h la i s n Ocoàe 6, '7.Themateri now f lybrefda rpef rviw. t r 201 t s ' l i e nd i or e e u St andard ofR evi w e Th c u trviws a moin f rj d me to te p e dng u d r Ru e 1 c o t e or e e to o u g n n h la i s n e l 2() f he Fe r Rul s of Ci l Pr e e usng t s m e s a r f r vi w i a m o i n t di m i s de al e vi oc dm i he a t nda d or e e ng to o s s 4 t e Rue 1 b () P md r l 2( )6 . ETA v U. De t o Aci. 8 F.d 5 2 5 6 ( t Ci.2 7 . . S. p' f rc, 61 3 0 , 0 4h r 01 ) Ac o dn l t c u t y g a taRue 1 ()moin o y Gf a tra c p ig a1welpla e c r igy,he o r ma rn l 2 c to nl t , fe c e tn l l- e d d i al ga i i t pl i ipscompli tastue a dr wi a 1r as bl f c ua i e e esfom le tons n he antf an r nd a ng 1 e ona e a t l nf r nc r t e f t i t pli ips f vor i a ar c ran t t pl ntf ca hos ac s n he antf a , t ppe s e ti hat he ai if nnotpr a s tof ove ny e fcsi s p o to hi cam e t l g h m t rle. 1 (nen lq o ai n makso te ) a t n u p r f s li ni i i o eif' d. itr a u tto r mi d ; tn ' l s eas BelAt.Co .v Two l ,5 0 U. 5 4 5 5 5 0 ( 0 7 (e uiig ac mpan t e lo l l p . mb y 5 S. 4 , 5 , 7 2 0 ) rq rn o li t p /ont n f c ss t i tç o r ie arg t r ifa c ai a t ufk en ' a s i ht o ele bovet s c a i l vel'a t ç t t ac am t he pe ul tve e ' nd o s ae l i s t rle t t sp a sbeo isfc ' . o eif ha i lu i l n t a e' ) l c n onduc i t s a l i , a di t i t c ' m a c i r t c pl i , t a w e , tng hi na ys s s rc oul t y ons de he om a nt he ns r matr o p b i rc r e hbist t p e dn s a de h bt t t eRul 1 ()moint a ae tes f u lc e o d, x i t o he la ig , n x i is o h e 2 c to h t r i eg a t t co ai a a he tc a syv.Oinit 75 F. 343,347- ( h Ci. 4) nt r l o he mpl nt nd ut ni.M se a i, 9 3d 48 4t r 201 4 Fe R. v. 1 ()($ c p o awrte isr me tt a i ale hb t oape dn i apato d. Ci P. 0 c ç o y f itn n tu n h t s l x ii t la ig s r f A t e pe dn f ralp r o e . Ho v r Sfo te p r o e o t s moin ( d fn a t h la ig o l u p s s' ). we e, û l r h u p s s f hi to t ee d n) g he c nnotr l on alegai ns off c c ai d onl i t a we ...be aus Pli if we e not n ey l to a t ont ne y n he ns r c e a ntfs r r q ie t rp y t g ) a s r a d al alg to s i te a we a e d e d d nid. e ur d o e l o t n we , n l le ain n h ns r r e me e e ' he ' Alx n e v. t o Gr e s r ,8 1F. u p. d4 9 4 3 ( . N. 2 1; e F d R. v. e a d r Ci f e n boo 0 S p 2 2 , 3 M D. C. 01 ) s e e . Ci P. y 8b () (l a rs o sv pla ig i n t r q rd a alg to i c nsd rd d ne o ()6 ç f e p n ie e dn s o e uie , n le ain s o i ee e id r ç a od d. v ie ' ). E hl t (j u ta k o e g st a amoin f rj d me to t ep e dng i n ta i ie he co r c n wld e h t to o u g n n h la i s s o n W opporl iy t r -ii t is r ied and de i d i a moton t dim is t Fede a Rul s do t t o e ltgae s ues a s m c de n i o s s , he rl e n tfal b ra d fnd n fo a srig a Ru e 1 ()moin f rj g n o t e p e dng o lty a ee a t r m se t n l 2 c to o ud me t n h la i s smp y b c us he o s e p e o sy a s re a Ru e 1 b ( )moin t d s s . Bur v. i l ea e r h rviu l s e td l 2()6 to : imis' ' ke Nai n trM o t.LLC,No.3:4 3 201 W L 4 31 0 ,a * ( D.Va Aug 9 2 6 to sa rg 1 CV8 7, 6 2 7 5 t 5 E. . . , 01 ) (uoigEse v Ci o So re. , CI A.1 - 8 q tn tp . t f mes t Ky.No. V. 0 2 6AR1, 01 W L 8 5 4 , t* ( D. y 2 1 4 8 7 a 2 E. Ky M a.8 2 1)(leain a i tr lq o ain mak o te ) F rh nno e çti wel . r , 01 ) atr t s nd nena u tto r s mitd . u te r , t s l o i s tldt a ted nilo amo int ds s r manss b e tt rc nsd rto u tl h gq u t et h t h e a f to o imis e i u j c o e o i eain ni t e co r e e tr fn lu g n i t ec s . I a * (n ena q o ai nmakso te ) n e s a j d me tn h a e' d. t 6 itr l u tto r mi d . ' t D i c s on s us i çfhe FDCPA pr e t co lm e s fo a i a de e i pr c i s by de s' ot cs nsl r r m busve nd c ptve a tce bt cole t s a pr t c sno a i de c l c o s fo c l cor , nd o e t n- busve bt ole t r r m ompeii dia nt ge. Ya ne v. ttve s dva a ' r y ' Oc n Lo n S r . LLC,9 F.S p 2 5 9 5 ( . Va 2 3 ( o n J)(iigUntd we a e vs 29 u p. d 6 , 75 W D. . 01 ) M o , . ctn ie Sae v.Na ' Fi S r s.l c,9 F.d 1 ,1 ( t Ci.1 9 ). Th p anif alg tts tl n. e v . n . 8 3 31 35 4h r 9 6 ) e litfs le e vi ai ofFDCPA pr so t ta y onl t a d btcol t ,'a de d i 1 U. C. oltons ovii ns ha ppl y o s de lecor' s fne n 5 S. j1 9 a 6 , o c mmisc ran t a u a t Sn c n e to wi t ec lcin o a y d b . 6 2 () wh o t e ti mlwf l cs û o n cin t h ol to f n e t' i h e ' 1 U. C.jj16 169 1 5 S. 92d, 2e, 692g. l mo n f r u g n o t ep e dng , h d fn a tc n e d t tS ne i no ade t n vig o j d me t n h la i s t e e e d n o tn s ha e x s t b colec o be a e i a s as a age t o t lnd or n n t a t fce o e oye ' e m pt l t r c us t ct n n f he a l ds ki o n G i r r mpl e' xe of u d r 1 U. C.j 1 9 a6 ( fo te FDCPA' r q ie n s Alen tv l te d fnd n n e 5 S. 6 2 ( )A) r m h S e urme t. tr aiey, h ee a t c e t tSe x i n0 c l c i de a t Notc s sage butr t rpr di l la c ont nds ha ne s t ole tng bt t he i e t , ahe ovi ng ega dvi e a mi se i s l c st t l ndl dsw c t te c Notc r m anst a toft l ndl d f r nd nit ral ewi e o he a or h ha a h ie e i he c he a or o whih i wass nt De enda f rhe c am s a am a troflw,t te c Notc c tt est c t e . f nt u t r l i , s te a ha a h i e onsiut he , # a tofal z l d be us oft lgale f toft l or sel toni sgnat eon t Notce c ald or ca e he e fec he andl d ecr c i ur he i . A s de f om bei vr i tons o a g e sr i e i s i r ng ai n r um nt a s d n uppo to t de e nt s m o i t r f he f nda ' ton o dimis t a gl e s r ie i s s s , he r lm nt a s d n uppor of t i t nt m o i do not de onsr t t t t t he nsa ton m tae ha he pl ntf sc nn pr a s to f t e ilng t m t r le The c 'fndst de e nts ai if a ot ove ny e f acs ntti he o e if ouz i t he f nda ' *De e ntas r s consiutona cl ms whi t c tfndspr ma u ea de i st addr sa t ssa i f nda lo aies tt i l ai , ch he our i e t r nd clne o es t hi tge n t pr ee ngs he oc di . 6 a gum e tt tSe x a t a an a r n ha ne c s s gento t l ndl dsunpe s i ,pa tc ary whe eCongt s f he a or r uasve ri ul l r es r pe e . s c f c e m pton f $: ny a t r y- tl w c l c i a de as a a t r y on e al d t pe ii xe i or da he t o ne a - a ole tng bt n t o ne b h l o a d i tena o a cin .' Hen zv. e kis 51 U. 2 ,2 4 (9 5 (u tn e af f n n h me f le t' it J n n , 4 S. 91 9 1 9 ) q oi g ' P b. 9 - 0 ,58 3()F) 91S a.8 4 8 5 . By c e tn s p rt e mp insf rat r e s u L. 5 1 9 0 6 ( , tt 7 , 7 ) r aig e a ae xe to o to n y a f r of e s o e pl e of a c e t , Co r s i c t d t t i di no vi w a t ne nd o fc r r m oye s r dior ng e s ndi a e ha t d t e tor ys a tng on bç l ofc e t r t be i t s m e c t gor asofi r ore oye sofc e t s l ci haf r dio s o n he n ae y fce s mpl e r dior . n r mo ig t e e to f ratr e s Co rs e p e s disitntta ta r bes b e tt e vn he x mp in o to n y , ng e s x r s e t n e h t G wyes u j c o l t e (DCPAjwh n ve t e me tte g nea Ce tc le t r d fnto ' 1 a 2 5 Noa l h F e e r h y e h e rl d b o lco ' eiiin. d. t 9 . tby, ' c t ha f ours ve ound lwye s t be de c l c o s whe s ndi Notc unde c ran a r o bt ole t r n e ng ies r e ti cru tn e . Ro av. i e z& Aso s,1 3 $.d 1 1 1 7 ( d Ci.1 9 ) Do ia v. ic msa c s me Heb me s c . 6 ' 1 , 1 2 r 9 8 9 wl 3 n Ku ke Kru & Brh. , 9 C1 1 9 8 c r as u LLP.No. 9 V 1 5 RCC, 0 5W L 1 3 4 2, t*12 ( D. Y. u e 20 3 7 4 a - S. N. J n 6,2005) . k . Ast bot t agume t tSe x i t lndlr sa nta t agume t tSe x o h he r nt ha nl s he a od' ge nd he r nt ha ne doe note ge i de c l c i a tviy a t N o i ssa t c u'fndsc lc sbewe n s nga n bt ole tng ci t t he tce t ge, he ot t i onfit t e t alegai nsi t a nde co pl nta t a lga i i t ve i d a we t tm a t he l to n he me d m ai nd he le tons n he rfe ns r ha ke he e ty o j d me o tep e dng ia p o rae Th d fn a ta srsta S ne c la o ae n l f u g nt n h la i s n p r p it. e ee d n se t h t e x olb rts wih e h l ndl d t ge r t a tm plt f t l ndl d' Notc s;a t l r t l or s t ac a or o ne a e e ae or he a or s ie c s mde he andl d' co r a die ton a e r se tke t pr pa e t Notc ; a ha no f l w ntol nd r c i t ve y tp a n o e r he ies nd s olo up c muri to wih t t na s a i fom lga aci ns t ke a t lndl d' die i om lcai n t he e nt sde r e l to a n t he a or s r cton. Bec us t e a ot r a l ga i a a e f t fr ttm e i t verfed ans e ,t de a e hos , nd he , le tons ppe r d or he is i n he ii w r m r Rue 8b ( )o t eF d r l lso Cii Pr c d r, h ya ed e d d n e o a o d dbyt e l ()6 f h e ea Ru e f v l o e u e t e r e me e id r v i e h pl ntfs M or ve ,s ai if . eo r ome oft a lgatonsa a t matral c lc wih t al gai i he le i ppe r o e i ly onfi t t he le tons n t a e dc he nde ompli . For e m pl t a nde c m pl i alege t t Se x dr fe a ant xa e, he me d o ant l s ha ne a td nd pr pa e t No i s whi h t ve ii a we denis. Compm' Am .Co l ! 1 (se e e r d he tce , c he rfed ns r e e mp . 7 t n x ç . p e r st e n n o inc d r n lte o La l r lteh a .)a d j2 (No ie sn rpae h o c mpl e u mig etr n ndo d etr e d' n g 0 ç tc s e t a ' t bewe n J ne 201 - J nua y 201 i cae t tt La or ha now r t i d Se x, whi h t e u 4 a r 6 ndi t ha he ndl d s e ane ne c d atd t Noie .) wih Vei e An we !1 ( e y n alg to si p z g a h 1 o t r fe he tc s', t rt d s r 7 d n i g le ain n a a rp 7 f he ' s a nd d c mp an a a srig t a çal o t eNoie o No c mpln e a is i tt me e o lit nd se t h t ç jl f h tc s f n o la c t sue n ls n g i Co li taep e ae c la o ai l b lndo d a d S n x .. .)a d!2 ( ( h ce to mpan r r p r d o lb rtvey y a lr s n e e .' n 0 $Tj e r ain ' & a a ova of e h i vi ua N o i e of Nonc nd ppr l ac ndi d l tc ompla e i a l ng, c lbor tve pr e s inc s o ola a i oc s be we n Se x La a l ndl ds whe e l ndl ds make e r de ii a Se x La ' t e ne w nd a or r a or ve y c son nd ne w s i ve e c it s ey ofpr di l ga ad c r ga di c nvol m nt ons ss oll ovi ng e l vie e r ng ompla e wih a i bl 1 w i nc t pplca e a a . temiitra ts s. .'. n h n se il a k . .) d ' Eve a s i al t ale to i t ve ii d a we t be tu t c tfndst tt n s um ng 1 he l gai ns n he rfe ns r o r e, he our i ha he ve i d a w e doe not o a e t ne f di c r fe ns r s bvi t he ed or s over on t f t s i ntfe i t c ts y he ac or de ii d n he our ' decson on t m o i t dim is Thos sx f cor be r on whehert s nde of dl ng ii he ton o s s . e i at s a t he e r mni ltesi a tv l c l ci gd b f race io .The i l e $ 1 wh t e t es n e isnzt etr s ciey ol tn e t o rd tr e y ncud : 1 ) eh r h e d r n t cs ( t d bo t c n a tt e snd r o t c e io a o tt d b ;( )wh t e t e s n e wa he e tr o o tc h e e r he r dtr b u he e t 2 eh r h e d r s s b tnilyiv le i t d a t go telte ; 3 wh t e t es n e pr vd sf lo u d b u sa tal n ov d n he rfi f h etr ( ) eh r h e d r o ie o lw-p e t n c le to sr ie ; 4 t e tn t wh c t sn e c n stl t ematr ( )t c mp nsto o lcin e vc s ( ) he x e t o ih he e d r a ete h te ; 5 he o e ain sr t ef t s nde ;a ( t e e t whih t s nde ke psisown rco dsr ar ng tucur 0r he e r nd 6) he xtnt o c he e r e t e r eg di t de o s. Cr wf d,201 W L 1 he bt r ' ' a br 7 74388 a * W hie t pl di i c t t t s e 0, t 3. l he ea ngs ndia e ha om f c or f vo t de e nt ce t n f c or s il t nd t s ppor t pl i if or r m a n rpe f a t s a r hb f nda , rai a t s tl e o u t he a ntf s e i i or ds o r i c ve y. M os no a y,t s co f ct de ons r t s t ne d f di c r Cotr s ha f und t t bl he e nd a or m ta e he e or s ove y. l t ve o a1w fr sprpaai n o d n i gltest à a i iain ta te 1w fr wa a tn a a a im' e r to f u n n etr o e n ndc to h t h a im s ci g s 8 de c l t and e age i de c l c i aci t whe is ng t lte s Se e. ,Kha i bt olecor ng d n bt ole tng tviy n s ui he et r . e. g. ytn v.Stl & Stl Es .No.1 CV41 201 W L 5520000,a *1( D. Y.Se .30,201 ; e' n em. qs, 269, 3 t E. N. pt 3) Dowlng,2005 W L 1 i 337442,a 1 Si r ky v.Bo al Gol t Als hulr& Sc rz.P. , t 2; be s r x dsdm tc e hwa t C. No.9 CV3 2 ,2 0 W L 1 4 6 5 a * ( D. Y.S p . ,2 0 ) Ro a 1 3 F.d a 1 7 9 27 00 4 8 3 , t 6 S. N. e t 28 0 0 ; me , 6 3 t 1 . Howe r co t ha co l d t t t s nde of d mni lte s di no e ve , urs ve ncude hq he e r t ng e tr d t ngage i de n bt c l ci a tviy whe e t s nde was i ol d i pt pa i t dunni l te s but t ole tng c i t r he e r l ve n e zng he w ng et r , he i ve e t wa m i m a . Tr lv.La on Sys,I . 982 F.Supp.609,607 ( D.I11997 nvol m n s ni l ul s . nc, N. 1 ) (i igs n e o d n i gltesn t obee g g d i d b c le tn a tvt wh nt ece i r fndn e d r f u n n etr o t n a e n e t o lcig ciiy e h r dt o f xe is f a d t onu l te s t t s nde f r e ty i o t s nde ' da a e a t n t c e t r e tr o he e r o n r nt he e r s t bas nd he he r dio a o t ltes beor is nce;s e as Po l v.ComputrCr di I c. 975 F.Supp. ppr ved he etr f e s ua ) e lo wel e ek. , n 1 3 1 41 ( D.Oh o 1 9 ) (i ig t a wh n c e io S de sg iia tc a g s t t e 0 4, 0 S. i 9 7 fndn h t e r dtr ç ma in fc n h n e o h l angua oft lte be or a ovi t lte ,'t s nde oft lte wa nota tng a a ge he e tr f e ppr ng he e tr' he e r he e tr s ci s d b c le t r. e t o lco) I t s c e,as e ane a ve t ve ii d a we as e t t t Se x e ges i a n hi as xpli d bo , he rfe ns r s rs ha ne nga n colabo atve pr es t ge r t Notc tm pl e f e h l or ci nt Ve i Ans r l r i oc s o ne a e ie e ats or ac andl d- le , rfed we ! 1 ,b ta mist a d rn t Go g c la rtv p o e s' o flig o tatmplt,Co g' 7 u d t h t u ig he d n , o lboaie r c s'f r iln u e ae l n ' l l me n o l afw ho r , t !20 By c n r s,hea n e c mpan alg sta Se e d a t a s ny e u s ts . t . o ta t t me d d o lit l e h t n x rfs e a pr pa e t Notc . Pli if ha as r pr s nt d t t c tt tt Notc t mpl t nd e r s he ies antfs ve lo e e e e o he our ha he ie e aes t t Se x us f dif r l ndl ds a e ne ry i ntca ,e e f r t lndl d' c ac ha ne es or fe ent a or r a l de i l xc pt o he a or s ont t i onnaton. See Am .Com pl Ex.A . Thus,a f i ue r ai over w hat Senex m eans by a nf i . act ss em ns l ola a i pr es ' a whe he s h a pr es de ons r t s t t Se x i s t ntaly c l bor tve oc s' nd c t r uc oc s m ta e ha ne s ubs a i l i ve i pr pa i t l te s Fo now ,i i s fci nt t t pl ntf s ha a l ged t t nvol d n e rng he e t r . r t s uf i e hat he ai i f ve le ha Se x dr t a pr pa est l te s See Aq no v.Cr di ContolSe v . 4 F.Supp.2d 927, ne afs nd e r he e tr . ui e t r r s, 9 9 ( D. l 1 9 )( i t a t ed fnd n wa n tad b c l co i p r be a eçth 29 N. Ca. 9 8 ûndng h t h ee a t s o e t ol tr n a t c us t q e e g 7 c antdoesnotalget tEefnda jha a r ei dr tngt lterl. ompli le ha d e nt d ny ol n afi he e t ' Ac e i t f c s a l d i t mne d co pl i a tue,a t c tmus ,o he c ptng he a t lege n he nde m ant s r s he our t t r f dor m a tnd t f vort pli tf s Alho h t t xto t Notc diec pa e t t a s y e o a he a n if . t ug he e f he i es r t ym nt o he l or t y a em aied i e l andl d, he r l n nveopest ti l ar t r a e swih t lndl r sna a ha nc ude e a n ddr s t he a o d' me nd Se x' P. Box,a c ne s O. ombi to t tm a not ce l die tt nant t s nd payme t t nai n ha y lary r c e s o e nt o he lndo d . Cf Po l,9 5 F.S p a 1 4 - ( o dn t ta ltè p e a e o t e sndn a lr s . wel 7 u p. t 0 0 41 h l ig ha etr rp r d n h e ig a nc ssa i r wa t c e t r sl te be a e i c ane t c e t r snn e a r tl ge y' t tone y s he r dio ' e tr c us t ont i d he r dio ' m nd e tm a d e s a d ce ry dr ce p y n t t ce io) Ad iin l ,at o g t e d fn a t d rs n lal ie td a me t o he r dtr. dto al lh u h h ee d n y cai t Se x a t o y a t die to oft lnd o ds t n e d co pl ntr ie t l ms hat ne c s nl t he r c i n he a l r , he m nde m ai as s he i e e e t t Se x i ta e unlwf lde ane a to wih l ndl d a hort a a m a tr of nf r nc ha ne niit s a u t i r ci ns t a or ut iy s te c s ,t po e ily lnki Se x t f l w- de c l to aci t Pl ntfsha alo our e hus t nta l i ng ne o olo up bt oleci n tviy. ai if ve s pld t t Se x a rie is pr c i as a ûo sop j p' f c l c i delnquen r ,a e ha ne dve ts s t a tce çne t ho ' or ole tng i t ent nd s h a rii may notbe t ge r lsae e o s r i e t tt de e ntc ht ndsi i. uc dve tsng he ne a tt m nt f e v c s ha he f nda o e ts Am. Co l ! 1 ; s e F. C.v.S fne, 6 F.d 3 36 ( t Ci. 1 80) (i dig t a mp . 5 e T. haf r 26 2 2, 7h r 9 fn n h t a rii a G i s as a de t c l c i a ncy r t r t a l w pr tc ' m a ti dve tsng ç ne s bus b ole ton ge ahe han a ac ie' y rgger FDCP c vea e ;Tr l,98 F.S pp a 6 6f d n t a d fnd n ' a v rie n sdd n t A o r g ) ul 2 u . t 0 sn i g h t ee a ts d e t me t i o s de c is busne s as de coleci n a t r by e pit t i s bt l to nd he e xpos t de e e he f ndan t FD CPA la lt t o ibiiy b c u e te G d e t e n s g je g n r l ame a ata tn b i s fo a1b sne s e a s h l v ri me t wer e e al i d t tr cig usne s r m 1 u i s a s y scor' e t s' ) Fi ly,t de e nt a g s t t t l ndl d' elc r c sgnalr ega ihes a a na l he f nda r ue ha he a or s e toni i tze t bls , s m a t r of l w , t t t N o i s a e t a t of t l ndl r a t r f r t t di c r i te a ha he tce r he c he a o d nd he e o e ha s ove y s unnec s a y. Fort r s ns sa e i t c ts de ii de ng t de e nts m o i t esr he ea o t t d n he our' cson nyi he f nda ' ton o 10 dimi s t c tco i s s , he our ntnuest bei ve t tt m o e r e nti r i ç t r Se dr fs o le ha he r elva nquiy s t he nex a t, whe pr pa e ,prnt ,a ha t Notc s r ed.'Cr wf d,201 W L 1 e r s i s nd s he ies e v ' a or 7 743880,a * A se ane t 4. xpl i d a ve pl n if ha madet tal ga i bo , aitf s ve ha le ton. l s t c tbeleve t tt ve i d a we doe notpr de a ba i f rde ai n um, he our i s ha he rûe ns r s ovi s s o vi tng f o t c tse ri rr i on t def nda ' m o i t dim is Dic r m a uli a ey r m he our' a le ulng he e nts ton o s s . s ove y y tm t l c im t de e ntst or oft ca e butvi wi t alegai nsi t n e d c onfr he f nda ' he y he s , e ng he l to n he m nde ompl i ant i t lghtm os f vor bl t t pl n if ,t c tc ncude t tt pl i if ha sa e a n he i t a a e o he aitfs he our o l s ha he antfs ve t t d pl us bl c a m t r le unde t FD CPA . a i e li o ei f r he Concl on usi F rtef rg i gr a o s t d fn a tsmoin f r u g n o t ep e dng wi b o h o e o n e s n ,he ee d n ' to o j d me t n h la i s l e l de e TheCl r i diecedt s nd co e oft sm e a nid. ek s r t o e pis hi mor ndum opi of a t a c pa ng ni l nd he c om nyi , o de t a 1c ms lofr c d. r r o l ot e e or DATED: s M d yo No e e, 0 7 Thil a f v mb r 2 1 . ' b Unie St t sDititJ t d a e src udge