Crawford et al v. Senex Law, P.C., No. 3:2016cv00073 - Document 35 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 5/3/17. (hnw)
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CLERKSOFFI t,9. ST, CE J DI COURT ATROANOKS, A V FIED L I THE UN I N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FO R TH E W ESTERN D I STRI O F V I N I CT RGI A CH ARLOTTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI FA 23 2 1 1Y . 27 J BY TER ICR AW FO RD ,GA RRY BRO W N , LY D I G REEN , A LORETTA PENNI GTON,a N nd PA TR I A SAUN DERS, CI i vi ly a on be fofa lsm ia l ndi dua l nd hal l i l ry st t d i vi s iua e ndi dual, , EY CLERK CL ERK Ci lAc i No.3:6- 00073 vi ton 1 CVM EM O R AND U M O PI I N N O Pl i if , a ntf s By:Hon. l n E.Co a Ge nr d ChifUnie St t Diti J e t d aes srct udge SEN EX LA W , C . P. , Def nda . e nt Pl ntf sbr ng t s a ton pur ua tt t Fai DebtCole ton Pr c i esA c ,1 U . C. ai if i hi c i s n o he r lc i a tc t 5 S. j1 # s q.(he' 692 . e t t ! FDCPA'.Themat i c rntybef et c tondefnda tsmotont ' ) ter s ure l or he our e n' i o dim is Fort r s sae t moton wilbede e s s. he ea ons t td,he i l nid. Backaround Thef l ng s ma y oft f t,t ke fo t pl i if 'compl nt i a ce ed as olowi um r he acs a n r m he antfs ai , s c pt tue f pur e oft def nda ' m oto t dimis Se Erc on v.Pa dus 551 U. 89,9 r or pos s he e nts i n o s s . e iks r , S. 4 ( 2007) Thedee nt Se x La P. (ç ne ',i al fr l ae i Hn on,Vigi a. . fnda , ne w, C. tSe x' s aw im oc td n mpt ) r ni Se x s i i s i a ssi a rm e c ne pecalze n s itng pa t nt ompl xe i Vigi a c l tpa tdue r ntpayme s e s n r ni olec s e nt . Ea of t na e pli tfs ha be n a t na a a r i ntalpr ry i whi t lndl d ch he m d a n if s e e nt t esde i ope t n ch he a or Crawford et al v. Senex Law, P.C. e ged Se x t f cltt o due r ntcole ton. nga ne o a iiae ver e lc i Doc. 35 W ihi fvet s ve daysa rbe ng l t o hi orhe r ntpa e , c na e pl i if t n i o e n ûe i a e n s re ym nt ea h m d a ntf rceve awrte i ie ofNonco inc ' ( ri ri ie'ort ie ' .TheNotce e id itn t c Not mpla e' heenahe k c ' i c s' Not Not ) i a a s t be s nt f om t l ndl d, a i i on t l ndl d' l te he a c ai a ppe r o e r he a or s t s he a or s e t r ad nd ont ns n el o r e s gna u e f om t l ndl d.The N o i e i t u t t t na t s nd pa e s t t e t oni i t r r he a or t c nsr c s he e nt o e ym nt o he Dockets.Justia.com l ndl d,a pr vi st lndl d' addr s .Ea h No i lsst amountowe i l ng l e a or nd o de he a or s es c tce it he d, ncudi at f esa a l a t$ i at me sf sf rg r tngt Notc The lte s cii ly saest t e nd t e s 27 n tol y' ee o ene a i he i e. et r pe fcal t t ha t lnd or hastr t ne Se x La PC a t y ha ar a dr td t snotc a pr de he a l d ieai d ne w, nd he ve le dy afe hi i e nd ovi d lgaladvie duet yourno e c o ncomplanc ' Compl Ex.A.Thee l i whih t lte i s nt i e. ' . nveope n c he e tr s e no e t na e of t r e nt a rm e c t s he m he elva pa t nt omplx. Ho ve , t r tln add e s i fom e we r he etr rs s r Hmnpt Vigi a whe eSe x i l caed.The e l pealo be r aposa no a i i c tng on, r ni , r ne s o t nve o s as t l t ton ndia i t t t N otc w as s nt fom Ha p on, V igi a. I t a oun due i no pa d i a tm el . ha he ie e r m t r ni f he m t s t i n i y m a z , Se m er nex i tat a unl w f de a ne a to ofe a oxi a e y one m ont a t r a nii es n a ul t i r c i n, l n ppr m t l h fe t nan r ce vesa N otc ofN onc pla . e te i ie om i nce Pl i if a l ge t t by s ndi t N otc s Se x i ac i asa de colec or i pos ng a ntf s le ha , e ng he i e , ne s tng bt l t , m i ce t n dicos e r quie nt on Se x.The g a me of t pli tfs c rai s l ur e r me s ne r va n he a n if ' ompl i i t t ant s ha Se x s ndsdumzng l te st pl ntfswihou i ntf ng is l a ade colecora wihout ne e i et r o ai if t t de iyi t ef s bt l t nd t c ra n sa u orl r r d dicos r s i vi aton of t FDCPA. Spe ii a l pl i if e ti t t t iy-equie s l u e , n ol i he c fc ly, antfs c e t t Se x us t f l ng pr s t s nd t N o i es t r i n s who a e l e on ont nd ha ne es he olowi oce s o e he tc o es de t r at rntpay nt:(1 t lndl d s ndsSe x als ofa c sf whiha d i alge y pas e me s ) he a or e ne it c ount or c ebt s le dl t d e ()S ne p e ae t eNoieo No c mpin eo lndo d lteh a ( )S n x afx s u ; 2 e x rp r s h tc f n o la c n a lr etr e d; 3 e e fie t l or see to csg t e;a ( Se x t n prnt ands ndst Notc diecl t t he andl d' lcr ni inaur nd 4) ne he i s e he ie r ty o he t na .Pl i i f a s r t tSe x i e i na l f is t i l t r quied di c os e w he i e nt a ntf s s e t ha ne nt nto ly a l o nc ude he e r s l ur s n t s ndst N otc s e he i e . Pli if compl ntal ge one c antfs' ai le s ountf rvi a i o t FDCPA.Pl ntf sas e tt t o oltons f he ai if s r ha Sene hasvi ae jj1 x oltd 692d,pr bii haasme o a e i t c lci ofdebt 1 2e ohi tng r s nt r bus n he ole ton ; 69 , pr hi tng t us of f l e or m i l di r pr s nt tons a 1 o bii he e as sea ng e e e a i ' nd 692g, r qui i ce t n , e rng rai i or a i a nf m ton boutt va i t oft de t t be i ude i t de c l c i c m uni a i . he ldiy he b o ncl d n he bt ole ton om c tons 2 The fvena i med pl i if alo s e t c riy a c a sofpr s nta f r rtna s o r sde i antfs s e k o e tf l s e e nd o me e nt f e i ntal pr r i l a e i V igi a whos l or e ged Se x t f iia e ove due r nt ope tes oc t d n r ni e andl ds nga ne o ac lt t r e c l ton.Pl i tf s s e s a ut y da age f e h cl s m e be ,co pe a o y da a s a olec i a n if e k t t or m s or ac a s m r m ns t r m ge , nd a t ne sf esa c t .The pa te ha be n f l he r on t is s and t ma tri rpe tor y' e nd oss ris ve e uly a d he s ue , he te s i f r vi w . or e e St andard ofRevi ew Rul 1 b)6 of t Fedea Ruls of Ci lPr ce e pe t a pa t t move f e 2( () he rl e vi o dur nnis ry o or dim is ofac pli f f iur t sae acli upon whi r le c n begr nt d.To s vi s s al om a nt or al e o t t am ch e if a a e ur ve dimi s lf r f iur t sae a c am ,a pl ntf m us e t bls i a a pl usbiiy' by pl di s sa o al e o tt li ai if t sa ih s cil a i lt ' f ea ng k a ualc e t ta l st c t o dr w t r a o bl i e e e t tt def nda i labl t ct ont nt ha low he our t a he e s na e nf r nc ha he e nt s i e f f t mic or he s onduc alge 'As r f v.l l 556U. 66 678( t le d. hc o t qba, ' S. 2, 2009) I r i on a 1 b)6) . n ulng 2( ( moton,al we lpla ale to i t c i l l- e ded l gai ns n he ompl nta e tken astu a a 1r a ona e f t ai r a r e nd l e s bl acual i e e s a e d awn i t pl i if s f vor Edwar v.Civ of Gol bor l F. 231 244 nf r nce r r n he a ntf a . ds t ds o, 78 3d , (t Ci.1 9 ) Ho v r C atb to ap an ifmu tkud e (elcamsa r steln fo 4 h r 9 9 . we e ,l l o tm, litf s n g h r li cos h ie r m g c e va e t pl i e't r i t di m i s l' W ag M or Doc sLLC v.Coz r , 680 F. 359, onc i bl o aus bl o es s s s a . ' e s at 3d 36 65 ( h Ci.201 ( i BelAt.Cor v.Twombl 550 U. 544,5 ( 4- 4t r 2) quotng l l p. y, S. 70 2007).The ) compl ntm us c t n s fcentf t ç o r ie arg t r le a ai t on ai ufii acs s a s i ht o ei f bove t s c ai l ve 'a t he pe ul tve e l' nd Ss a e a cl i t r i t t i pl us bl on is f c ' Tw om bl 550 U . a 555, 570. I it t a m o elef ha s a i e t a e.' y, S. t n c i rng aRul 1 b)6)moton,t c tma c i re bisatac dt orrf r t i onsdei e 2( ( i he our y onsde xhi t t he o eered o n t c ant Se Philpsv.LClI ',l . 1 F. 609,61 ( hCi.1999 . he ompli . e li nt nc, 90 3d l 8 4t r ) Di cuss on s i lfhe FD CPA pr ec s c um e s f om a i a de ptve pr c i e by de i' ot t ons r r busve nd ce i a tc s bt c l c or ,a pr e t non- bus ve de c l c or f om c pe ii di a nt ge. Yar v v. ole t s nd ot c s a i bt ole t s r om ttve s dva a ' ' ne 3 Oc n Loa S r . LLC, 2 F.S p 2 5 9 5 5( . Va 2 3 ( o n, . (iig Unt d we n e vs 9 9 u p. d 6 , 7 W D. . 01 ) M o J) ctn i e Sttsv.Na' Fi Se vs.l ,98 F. 1 ,1 ( h Ci.1 ) A pli ifmus pla t ae tl n. r . nc. 3d 31 35 4t r 996). antf t e d he f l ngt etbls avi ain oft FDCPA:()t tt pl nifi at ons r'asdei d olowi o sa ih olto he 1 ha he aitf s t ume' c fne byt FDCPA;( t tt defnda i at btc lcor' defne byt FDCPA;a ( t he 2) ha he e nt s s ole t 'as i d he de nd 3) hat t defnda e gedi a a to omison i vi ai oft FDCPA.l (ii W ihe sv. he e nt nga n ny c r si n olton he d. ctng t r Evea 98 F.Supp. 9 ( D. 1 ) lnd, 8 942, 45 E. Va. 997). I t i t ntc e t r i no diput t tpl i if ar cons n he nsa as , he e s s e ha antfs e umer wihi t me ni of s t n he a ng t FDCPA.Howe r ne ma t a gument i s he ve ,Se x kes wo r s n uppor ofis m o i t dim is Fis, t t ton o s s . rt Se nex as e t t t whe i s nds out t Notc s i i no a de c lc or I t a i i s rs ha n t e he ie , t s t bt ole t . nse d, t s p romig amiitra fn t n f rte ln lr s wh aet ce io sa d n ts b e tt te e fr n n se il u ci o h a do d , o r he rdt r n o u j c o h o ght e ng t d, FDCP S c n ,Se e ag e t a plitfs ae s b e t a hei ened pl adi sandar A. e o d n x r u s h t an if r u j d o whi h t y ha notm e . c he ve t D e Cole or bt l ct The FDCPA a i t ç btc lc o s' whi h i sa ut iy de i d a t ny per o who pples o ç de ole t r , ' c s tt orl fne s t a sn us s a i tu e alt of i e sa e c me ce or t mais i a busne s t prnci l e ny nsr m nt iy ntr tt om r he l n ny i s he i pa pur e ofw hi h i t cole i of a de s or who r gul ry c l c s or a t m pt t colec , pos c s he l cton ny bt , e a l ole t te s o l t die ty o i r ty, de s ow e or due or as e t t be o e or due a he . 1 U . C. r c l r ndiec l bt d s red o w d not r' 5 S. ' j 1 ( .The FDCPA S nealy do notrgult cedior whe t y c ld de on t i 692a6) t r l es ge e ae r t s n he ole bt her o a co t' He on v.Sa a rCo ume USA,l ,81 F. 1 ,1 ( h Ci.201 . wn c un . ns ' ntnde ns r nc. 7 3d 31 34 4t r 6) The pl n l ngua of t s a ut y defnii of de colec or esabls t o a t r tve t s s ai a ge he t t or i ton bt l t t i hes w le na i e t f c i rngwhehe adee nti ade c l t :( )t prnci lpur et ta ( t or onsdei t r fnda s bt olecor 1 he i pa pos es nd 2) he r ary colec s t .Gol t n v. Huton.I am .Y uzeksG ai egul l l t est ds ei t ngr nen,Carr l & Bert oti 374 ol ol t, F. 56,61 ( Ci.2004) tl ,t ovealsr t e ofj16 6 ma s cea t twhe 3d 2d r . t- he rl tucur -hus 92a() ke l r ha n a s sig wh te a p ro q aiis a a ie tc lco , g e c t t mus frt d tr n se sn eh r e s n u l e s d b ol t r' t ot j t is eemi e f e h r whehe t pes stsi o oft saut ydei tonsgi n i t mai txtofj 1 ( t r he ron aifes ne he tt or fnii ve n he n e 692a6) ' He on,81 F. a 1 ' ns 7 3d t 36. . . . . I i w e ls tl d t tSc pa e t tpe f t s l- e te ha û om ni s ha r onn m i s e i dutes ...s h a s uf i a ni t ral i uc s t fng nd prntng t de c l c or s l te s'a e notde c l c or f pur esof t FD CPA .W hie v. i i he bt ole t ' e t r ' r bt ole t s or pos he t Goodma 200 F. 1 6,1 9 (t Ci.2000) Defnda ciest s vealc est til tae n, 3d 01 01 7h r . e nt t o e r as ha lusrt whe t s r of a du ng lte i nota de t c lc or f pu pos oft FDCPA.For n he ende nni et r s b ole t or r es he e xampl,i Powelv.ComputrCrdi.I ,975 F.Sup 1 34 ( D.Ohi 1 ,t Cour e n l e e t nc. p. 0 S. o 997) he t de e ne t t a c pa was not a de c l c orw he i s nt ç t nni d ha om ny bt ole t n t e t put r a s 't t ls e com e Gr m ' ha it d t c e t r s a es as t r t r a es a t c e t ' bilng de rm e a t phone he r dio ' ddr s he e u n ddr s nd he r dior s li pa t nt s he numbe t c t c .Addii nal t l te i tuced t d t t pa t c e t r die ty,a r o on a t to ly, he et r nsr t he eb or o y he r dio r cl nd t txtoft lte t nke t de orf c i t cedior M ec Media Ce e .L. a he e he etr ha d he bt or hoosng he r t , ry c l ntr ds t u 1041 l r a hi t c us on t tt de e ntwasnota de c l c or t Cou ta s not d . n e c ng he oncl i ha he f nda bt ole t , he r lo e t t t c e t t ade s gnii nt c ng t t l ng ge of t l t bef e a ovi t ha he r dior s m i fca ha es o he a ua he eter or ppr ng he l te . l Si ia l i Fr to v. tba J bl & Ca t Cr tA ae e t r' d. m l ry, n a t Cii nk. a on. ' piol edi ncv,N o.94C 1 1 1 8 7, 996 W L 55 49( D.11 Se .25,1 ,t Cour bele t tt f tt tt cole to a ncy 45 N. 1. pt 996) he t ived ha he ac ha he lcin ge d d notdi c s w ih Cii nk t c l c i pr es or w ha se t t ke w ih c r a n deb or , i s us t tba he ole ton oc s t t ps o a t e ti t s di no m ai ai fl s o t de or , nd w asnotc pens t d f a hi be i m a lng t d t nt n ie n he bt s a om a e or nyt ng s des ii he l te s wei d i f vo of a d e m i to t t t c l ton a ncy w a m e el a m aii et r ghe n a r et r na i n ha he olec i ge s r y lng s r c .A l o r l va t t a l i w a t tt l te sls e t na e a phone num beroft e vi e s e e nt o he na ys s s ha he e t r i t d he m nd he c e t ,Cii r dior tbank,a a c a t l a * s ont c . d. t 3. l La c v.Arow SeviesBura 987 F.Supp.6 ( D.11 1 n uba h r rc e u, 25 N. 1. 997)a Tr lv. nd ul Las Svs,l ,98 F.Supp.600 ( D.ll1 ,t dititco t f und sg fc ntt tt on . nc. 2 N. l 997) he src urs o iniia ha he e iism alng t dunni lte sha ltl o no i ntte ii he ng et r d ite r nputi c n omposng t t toft l te sa i he ex he et r nd t t t co pa e di no pr de a f l - p de c l c i s r i s Se al o A cui v. ha he m ni s d t ovi ny olow u bt ole ton e v ce . e s l no Crdi Co r Se s,4F.Supp.2d 9 929( D.Ca.1 (ç'ec antdoesno alge e t ntol rv . 27, N. l 998) if ompli -h t le ta ge e d n )h d a yr l i d at gt elte.) Fial,n Ra dev. S r ss P.48F. h t d fn a t a n oe n r fi h etr'. n ly i n l GC e v .L. , n ' Supp.2d835( D.11 1 ) t Cour c i r t txtoft dun nglte a t entt t N. 1. 999 ,he t onsdeed he e he ni etr nd he iy o whom t l te die t d t de or t con a t whe he t s nde a s e age i f l w he e t r r c e he bt o tc, t r he e r l o ng d n olo up c l c i s r ce a t r s ndi t l te ,t i e ac i be w e n t c e t a t s nde , ole ton e vi s f e e ng he e t r he nt r ton t e he r dior nd he e r t extntt s nd wa a t i d t wor ou pa e tpl ,a t compe a i pa d t he e he e er s u horze o k t ym n ans nd he ns ton i o t s nde i deer i ng whe he t de e ntwa mer y pe f m i mi se i lt s he e r n t m ni t r he f nda s el ror ng nit ra a ks. Fr t s c es i be e c ea t t s ver lf c or a e m a e i lt t de e m i ton om he e as , t com s l r ha e a a t s r t r a o he t r na i ofwheh r a snd re a e i meey miitra f n to s rn ei i n ts be tt t te e e ng g s n rl n se il u ci n , e d rng t o u j c o he FDCPA, rwh t rt s n e i a tv l c le t g d b f ra oh r Th s f co si cu e ( ) o ehe he e d r s ciey o lci e t o n t e . e e a t r n ld : 1 n whehe t snde i t cst de ort c a tt snde o t c e t a t de ;( t r he e r nsnzt he bt o ontc he e r r he r dior bout he bt 2) whehe t s nde wass tntal i ve i t drfi oft lte ;( whehe t s nde t r he e r ubsa ily nvol d n he a tng he etr 3) t r he e r pr desf l up de cole ton sl c s ( t e e t whih t s rc n stl t ovi olowbt lci ewie ; 4) he xtnt o c he ende a ete he matr ( t co ns ton sr t e f t snde ;a ( t e e t whi t s nde te ; 5) he mpe ai tucur or he e r nd 6) he xtnt o ch he e r ke psisow n r or r r ng t de or . e t ec ds ega di he bt s J tasi i wele tbls d t tt FDCPA doesno a pl t m i se ilf tons i i us t s l- sa ihe ha he t p y o nitra unc i , t s s m ia l w el- e te t t t FD CPA c n a y t l w y s ç i l ry ls tl d ha he a ppl o a er û who û e a l e ge i r gul ry' nga n c ume- tc lci a tviy. Hei zv.J rki ,51 U. 291, (995 .Thequesi of ons rdeb-ole ton ci t ' nt et ns 4 S. 299 1 ) ' ton S t r a l w y or 1 w fr çeg a l e ges i de c l c i a tviy . i he whe a er a im r ul ry' nga n bt ole ton c i t m us be t a s s d o a c s - c e ba i i lghtoff c or be rng on t i s ofr ul rt ' G ol t i s es e n a e by- as s s n i a t s ai he s ue eg a iy. ' ds e n, 37 F. a 62.Fa t r t t be . on whe he a e iy i r ul r y e 4 3d t c o s ha a r t r n ntt s eg a l ngage i de cole ton d n bt l c i 6 a tviy i l . c i t nc ude' ( )The a ol e numbe ofde c lci c 1 bs ut r bt ole ton ommuniai is d,a o c lci c tons s ue nd/r ole tonrltd r lvantpe i s,( t fe ue y of s h c mmuniai a o ltgai eae ee rodt) 2) he r q nc uc o c tons nd/r ii ton a tviy,i l ng whehe a pa t nsofs h a tviy aedic ni e,( whehe t ci t ncudi t r ny ter uc ci t r ser bl 3) t r he e iyhaspes nne s cii ly a sgnedt wor onde c l to a tviy;( whehe ntt ro l pe fcal si o k bt olecin ci t 4) t r t e iy hass tmsorco rcor i plc t f iiaes h a tviy,a ( )whehe he ntt yse nta t s n a e o acltt uc ci t nd 5 t r t a tviy i u rak i c he c i t s nde t en n onne ton w ih o oi c i r l to hi w ih e ii s ci t ng ng lent e a i ns ps t ntte t tha r t i t l wy or fl t as iti t c l ci ofo sa ng c um e ha ve e aned he a er i' o ss n he ole ton m utt ndi ons r de Oblgai ns . . . W hehe t l w pr c i s e de c l c i b i s by bt i to . t r he a a tce e ks bt ole ton usne s m a ke i is f a ha ng de c l c i e rie m a a s be a i c t r of t r tng tel s vi bt ole ton xpe ts y lo n ndia o he r ul rt ofc l c i aspa toft pr c i e. eg a iy ole ton r he a tc I a 6 6 s e as J mesv.W a ,724 F. 1 2,1 7- 8 ( 0h Ci.201 (doptng t d. t 2-3; e lo a das 3d 31 31 1 1 t r 3) a i he Gol t nf cor) Hese v.GrhamsBrc & Smih.P. ,28 F. x35,41(t Ci.2008) dsei a t s; tr a iht t C. 9 App' 5h r (a ) s me. l Dowln: v.Kuc r Kr & Br LLP,N o. 9 l 11 n i ke aus uh. 9C V 958RCC,2005 W L 1 337442 ( D. Y. 0 5 , h Co r g a tdp an ifsmoin f rp rils mmayj d me to t eis e S. N. 2 0 ) t e u t rn e litf' to o a t u r u g n n h su a of labiiy whe t 1 w fr dr t d,pr pa e a prnt d a r nt de a notc t ta i lt n he a im afe e r d, nd i e e - m nd i e ha ppea e rd t c o ome fo t lndl d- r dior Thel te wassg d byt l ndl d,butbo et lw fr ' r m he a or c e t . et r i ne he a or r he a im s fl num be on t botom .l had no ot rm a ki i c tng t ta t r pa t wa i l d. ie r he t t he r ng ndia i ha ny hid ry s nvo ve l a d. t Upon non ymen a cons nt fom t l ndl d- r t , t 1 fr woul pa t nd e r he a or c edior he aw im d c m e e c vi e c i pr ee ngs a t r s ndi t l te .1 The Cour not t tçla lt om nc i l vi ton oc di fe e ng he e t r d. t ed ha fi biiy unde t FDCPA i f us dont ewhoa t lypr paet doc nt'J.n. (ii Romea r he s oc e hos cual e r he ume . .s 1 ctng 'p v.Hebege & Asocs,1 F. 111 11 ( Ci.1 98) Sllqbtc lcor camo e det i r r s . 63 3d , 7 2d r 9 ).tlle ole t s l t va he r quie e s of t FD CPA m e e y by ha ng a c e t s gn a vi a i c m uni a i ' 1 e r m nt he rl vi r dior i ol tve om c ton.' d. Si iary, i K havt n v. St n & St n.Es . t def m l l n i er er qs, he endant l fln tprepar a r aw in û ed ent dem and l t and caus i t be sentt Pl ntf ,by and t ough Pl ntf s l or t f l eter ed t o o ai if hr ai if andl d, hat aied t i l c r a n w a ni a no i s r qui e by t FD CPA . N o. 1 CV 41 201 W L o nc ude e t i r ngs nd tce e r d he ' ' 269, 3 5520000, a *1 ( D. Y. Se . 30, 201 . Notng t t t C r ac of prntng a t E. N. pt 3) i ha he t e t me i i nd di s m i tng com m uni a i s e na i c tons i t c e t ' or a he ' na e do not i plc t t n he r dior s not r s m es m i a e he FDCPA,'t Cour ne rhees hel t tpli if ha s fcinty al d t tdef nda di ' he t ve t l s d ha a ntf d ufi e l lege ha e nt d ' o e t m e e y pr n ordi s m i at c m uni a i ns'be a e t 1 w fr a s pr pa ed a k r han r l i t m s e n e om c to ' c us he a im l o e r nd s ntt lte .-.a * ( tngAuui 4F.Supp. at929,La c 987F.Suppa 630,Tr l e he etr J s t 6 cii k no, 2d uba h, t ul, 982 F.Supp.at605,a Powel 975F.Supp.a 1 ) The1w fnn' Si ve n e e d nd l, t 041. a i st nvol me t xtnde b y n mees r ieo n tc , a ds be tdt e511t terq ie n so t FDCPA. d. t e o d r e vc f oie' n u j ce h -1 o h e ur me t f he ' 1 , 1 a 5 ( i Rome 1 F. a quotng a, 63 3d t Fi l i Si r ky v. Bor h. G ol t n. A ls hul r & naly, n be s a ds ei tc e Schwa t P. ,No.99CV3227,2000 W L 1 635( D. Y.Se .28 2000) t Cour de e rz, C. 448 S. N. pt , ,he t nid de e nts moton t dimi swhe pl i if alege t tt def nts ntunsgned notc s f nda ' i o s s n antfs l d ha he enda e i ie i ca i t t pa e was due t t l ndl ds The Cou t f ndi tng ha ym nt o he a or . r ound t t pl ntf s had m ade ha ai if ls ii f c ua a l ga i i t i a e d com pl i t t de e a s r ul ry pr pa e a 'pec fc a t l le tons n he r m nde a nt ha f nd nt eg a l e r d nd sn t reda n t e o b h l o g lndo d ,h t h n tc swe ep itdo ted fn a t' e t h e - y oi s n e af f t a lr lt a t e oie r rn e n h e e d n s c he pa r a t tt no i sbo ea e a i us i enal by t de e nt 'l a #6. pe , nd ha he tce r bbr vitons ed nt r ly he f nda s. d. t ' Tur ng t t pl ntf s c pl i i t i t n c e i i cl a t s m e f c o s ni o he ai i f ' om a nt n he ns a t as , t s e r hat o a tr s ugge tt tSe smpl pe f m sa mi se i f ton whe s ndi outt dunni lter . s ha nex i y r or nit ral unc i n e ng he ng e t s For e m pl t l te s a a o t c e t -a or s lte hea a i tuc pli tfs t xa e, he et r ppe r n he r dior lndl d' e tr d nd nsr t a n if o c ac t l ndl r a t t de .A ddii naly,pl ntf s ha a l ge no f ct i ca i t ont t he a o d bou he bt to l ai if ve le d a s ndi tng hat Se x ca s tl t m a t ratt si tals a ne n e te he te hi nii t ge. On t ot rha ce t n f c or t nd t s he he nd, rai a t s e o uppor pl ntf s a g e t tSene i a de t ai i f ' r um nt ha x s bt c l c or whe i s nds t dunni l te s Pl ntf s ha a l d t Se x dr fs s ole t n te he ng e tr . ai if ve lege hat ne a t , ends a nd a i s e s t N otc s The c t nto t t Se x d afs and s nds t N otc i bol t r d by dm nit r he ie . on e i n ha ne r t e he i es s s e e t f t each N ot ce cont ns vi ualy i i t ,despie t N otces alegedl com i he act hat i ai rt l dentcal ext t he i l y ng fom dif r nt lndl r .l ca be i ere fo t c r fe e a o ds t n nf r d r m he ompli a a whol t tt lndlr ant s e ha he a o ds m erel passi y pr de Senex w ih t debt ' cont i onnaton,and Senex t i tt es y vel ovi t he or s act nf i hen nsiut t c l cton e f t, w hi h i ude e r hi f om s ndi t i ta c m u c tons t he ole i f ors c ncl s ve yt ng r e ng he nii l om ni a i o flng t unl w f de a ne ac i ns Com pl Ex.A .Furhe ii he a ul t i r to . . t nnor ,t t of t l te i c t e he ext he e tr ndi a es t tSe x c r at e sf esf s ndi t lte ,a i notpad pe lte s nt I Thi ha ne ha ges tonzy' e or e ng he e tr nd s i r et r e . d. s f c c d s ges t t Se x i pr di m or t a m i se i l s r c Fur he a t oul ug t ha ne s ovi ng e hmz ni t r a e vi e. t nnor Se x e, ne c ede t ti i tt est unlwf de a ne aci ns a whe i fl t e cvi s t ,i acs onc s ha t nsiut he a ul t i r to , nd n t ies hes i l uis t t a a de colec o . e .sBr i Supp.3 n. Doc tNo.1 s bt l t r D f ' . n 4, ke 4. Sene a g t t unde V igi a l ,a el c r c sgna ur i vald a t t s x r ues ha , r r ni aw n e t oni i t e s i nd ha uppors t t pr he opos to t t t l te s a e f om t l ndl ds not Se x.H ow e r i D ow lnc t ii n ha he e t r r r he a or ne ve , n i , he def ntl w fl pr n e t l te a ha t l ndl d physca l s g i.D ow lng,2005 W L enda a im i t d he e t r nd d he a or ' i ly i n t i 1 337442,a * Nonehees ,t Cour dee m i d t t t l w 51, was a tng a a de t 2. t l s he t tr ne ha he a 44 1 ci s bt c lco ,s b e tt te F A.I s h li g te Co r rle o t fc ta t e lw fr ol t r u j c o h DCP n o od n , h u t eid n he a t h t h a im e dr fe pr pa e prnt d, a ha t lte s r ed on t pl i if pro t i tt tng a td, e r d, i e nd d he et r e v he antf i r o nsiu i pr e ngsi housng c tLx The e o e t c tbele t tt m or r e ntquesi i oc edi n i our. d a r f r , he our ives ha he e elva ton s whet r Se x dr f s pr pa es prnt ,a ha t N o i s s r ed. Pl i t fs ha m a t s he ne a t , e r , i s nd s he tce e v a n if ve de hi alg to S eCo . 1 ,1 . u temo e l eSies va dDo i ,h No iec nan a le ain. e mpl! 7 71 F rh r r ,i b rk n wl t e tc o tis k ng s a l m a ki i c tng t t i i no f om t l ndl ds Dow lng,2005 W L 1 442,a *2* m l r ng ndi a i ha t s t r he a or . i 337 t , Si rkv,20 W L 1 be s 00 448635,a * He e t pl ntfs a lge t t t r t n pos o fc box t 2. r , he ai if le ha he e ur t fi e a e sbe ongst Sene a nott l ndl d.I s t i a a s t tt i t ntc e asaleg ddr s l o x nd he a or n hor , t ppe r ha he ns a as , l ed b pl ntfs i t r c y ai if n hei ompl i ,i mor f cual smiart t ca e i whi h l w tr ha ant s e a t ly i l o he s s n c a l ms ve been f ound t be debtcoled orst t cas i whi h t senderoft l t erm er y per or ed o l han he es n c he he e t el f m m i s eralf i ni t i unctons. 9 M or ove , l ng t s ve al of t f t s d s us e i G ol t i pl ntf s ha e r ooki o e r he ac or i c s d n ds e n, ai i f ve as e t f t s s red ac s ugge tng t t Sene r gul r y e ge i de c l c i a tviy. Fi s , t s i ha x e a l nga s n bt ole ton c i t r t he co pl ntes a i hes a pa t r o s ndi outt N otc s wihi fve t s ve days ofr ntbe ng m ai t bls te n f e ng he i e t n i o e n e i due.W ihi t e y t f t da t r a t r Se x i tt es a unl w f de ai r a ton.The e t n w nt o or y ys he e f e , ne nsiut n a ul t ne c i s fcsi c t a irquenc ofs h c a t ndiae s e f y uc ommuniai ...i l ng g patr ofs h a tviy. c tons ncudi aq ten uc ci t ' ' Gol t i 374 F.d a 6 Sec dsen, 3 t 2. ond,t spa tr of a tviy a t al ge f c t tSe bot hi te n ci t nd he le d a t ha nex h dr fst l te sa tl t unlwf deai rs t s a t he etr nd qes he a ul t ne uis ugge t t tlheac i t i unde tke i ss ha k t tviy s ra n n c m e ton w ih ongoi cle r l tons ps w ih en ii st tha r t i d t l w ye orfln t ol c i t ng i nt e a i hi t tte ha ve e a ne he a r i o n a s s i t c l c i ofoutt ndi c lm e de oblga i .'l Thid,pl i if ha pl d s i t n he ole ton s a ng onsz r bt i tons ' d. r a ntf s ve e t t Se x a r i e is pr tce a a done s o s p' i t r s of c l c i de i ha ne dve ts s t ac i s i t p ho ' n e m ole tng lnque r nt nt e . Co l! 1 ; e F. C. S a f r 6 6F.d 3 3 ( t Ci. 98 )(i p elema a v rie mp .( 5 s e T. v. h fne, 2 2 2, 6 7h r 1 0 dAlp l g e y d et s hi bus ne s as a de c l c i ag y r t r t n a 1 w pr ctce a m i e pl s ver l s i s bt ole ton enc a he ha a a i , nd ght m oy e a e pl s f t pur e of s i ii de cole ton bus nes or c a i deb or t s ur m oyee or he pos olc tng bt l c i i s ont ctng t s o ec e pa nt ofa ount;aci te whih ma galwihi t FDCPA)' ;Gol ti 374 F. a yme s cc s tviis c y fl t n he .) dsen, ' 3d t 62 (t hehe t lw pr cies e de colci busne sbymakei is fa havi de t t r he a a tc e ks bt le ton i s W r tng tel s ng bt c lc i e rie m a a s be an i caor of t r ulrt of c lc i as pa t of t ole ton xpe ts y lo ndi t he eg a iy ole ton r he Prci .). a tce' The e or ,f om t f c s c a ne i t c pl nt t c tfnds t tpl i if ha rf e r he a t ont i d n he om ai , he our i ha a ntf s ve sae acam t a,ftu , o l s be tS n xt teF A a ad b c le t r l ta isa c , ttd li h t i r e c ud u j c e e o h DCP s e t o lco . n h t n tn e a c um e ne d onl pr one vi a i n t c l c s a ut r orac uald age .Se Spenc r v. ons r e y ove ol to o ole t t t o y t am s e e He re W e l ,81F.Sup 2d 58 590 ( Md.1 .Plitfsha i l ndes n- bb. nc. p. 2, D. 999) anif ve ncuded f t acs algi t tt y we e de i oft rquied dicl ur ,i vi ai ofjj 1 e( 1 a le ng ha he r prved he e r s os es n olton 692 1 ) nd 1692g. D i scover m ay confnn pl ntf s' t y t t l or m er y act as passve y i ai if heor hat he andl ds el i pa tc pa s del ga i t e ie c l c i of t de t t a t r pary.Se x m i t s nd t r i i nt , e tng he ntr ole ton he b o hid t ne gh e he dunni l ter as pa tof a s r c t t i s i e t i d w ih t unl w f de a ne ac i a ng e t s r e d e ha s o nt rw ne t he a ul t i r tons nd ot r de t c l t o ef ors t tt l te s c n f ry be s i t be a pa tof t de c l c i he b olec i n f t ha he e t r a ail ad o r he bt ole ton a tviy.On t ot rha dic r a f t r motonsm a de onsr t t tt lndl ds ci t he he nd, s ove y nd urhe i y m ta e ha he a or dr f t l te s t t Se a t he e t r , ha nex doe no ke p fl s o t t na s untl i f l s a unl uldet ne s t e ie n he e nt i t ie n awf ai r a ton,t t f w of t l te s r ul i unl w f de a ne s t be ng f l or ot f c s whi h c i ha e he e t r es t n a ul t i r uis i ied, her a t c ma s y uppo tSe x' posto t ti doesno ac asade c lc orwhe i s ndst l te s At r ne s ii n ha t t t bt ole t n te hc et r . t i j n tr , we e , h c u'h sd tr n dt a panif ha ealg d fcsta rieter h s u cu e ho v r t e o l a eemi e h t li t s v le e a t h t as h i t f rghtofr i fom pos i et pl i e. a e dif r nty,t c r smpl doe notbele t t i elef r sbl o ausbl St t d fe e l he ou t i y s ive ha t c e c n be de i d on a m o i t di m i s he as a c de ton o s s . II. Pl ng St eadi andard Se nex c e ont nds t t t s a e a cl i unde t FD CPA , pl ntf s m us s ts y t ha o t t am r he ai i f t a i f he heghtne pl a ng sa r a tc a e i Rul 9oft Fe r Rul ofCi lPr edt e. e i e d e di t nda ds ri ult d n e he de al es vi oc l Rul r 9( rquiesa pa t alegi fa ormitke t ksae wih pa tc aiy t crumsa s b) e r ry l ng rud sa o ttt t riulrt he ic tnce consiutng faudormitke. Fe R.Ci P.9( .The ei icl tnce 'ar Shetme,pl e, tt i r sa ' d. v. b) s i r tmsa s' e s i ' c t ac a con e s of t f l e r pr en a i ns as w e l as t i ntt of t pe s m a ng t nd t nt he a s e es t to , l he de iy he r on ki he m ir pr s nt t o a w ha he obt i d t r by. Ha rs v. W es i s e e e a i n nd t a ne he e ' r i on ' tnghous Sa nna Ri r e va h ve Co. 1 F. 776,784 ( h Ci.1 9) Be a epli if alge vi ai ofj 1 2e,whih , 76 3d 4t r 99 . c us antfs le oltons 69 c pr bis f l e a m i l a ng c uc ,de e ntas e t t t pl ntf s cl i s ohi t a s nd s e di ond t f nda s r s ha ai i f ' a m ounds i f a n r ud, ma ngRul 9( a ia e ki e b) pplc bl. Se x c r c l poi t out t t s ve a dit i t co t , e n t e w ihi t W e t r ne or e ty ns ha e r l src ur s ve hos t n he se n DititofVigi a rquie a plitf t mee t Rul 9( sa r whe brngi a cam src r ni, e r anif o t he e b) tndad n i ng li pur uantt t FD CPA .See,e. ,Blck v.W els Fa Bank,3: 1CV 00081,2012 W L 1030137 s o he c. i l rgo 1 ( . Va M a. , 01 )( o n J) T e ei as ltho v r a ngd src c u' a r s te W D. . r 27 2 2 M o , .. h r s p i we e , mo itit o ls co s h , t c r Co r Pr tv. ves 6 F. p.2d61 61 ( D. 2008)(ole tngc es ounty. mpae ophe M r, 45 Sup 4, 7 S. Tex. c lci as a yi Rul 8()t FDCPA cams,wihNeidv.W ol f& Abrms L. P.45 F.Supp. ppl ng e a o li ) t l nof a om L. , 3 2 91 , 2 ( D. . 0 )(olci gc ssds sigFDCPA camsf rfii t me t e d 8 9 3 E. Va 20 6 c l tn a e imisn e li o al o e Rul ng 9( ' heght d pladi sa r ) Ma dititc rsha deemi d t tthe poston b)s i ene e ng tndads. ny src ou t ve tr ne ha k t ii rj ci 9 b ' a p iaint (h F A)i b te r a o da mo ewi ey a c p e 'Da i ee tng ( )s p lc to o te DCP s etr e s ne nd r d l c e td. vs ' v.W el Fa c Bal 976F.Supp. 870,885( D. x. 3) ls r o rk, 2d S. Te 201 . l t Easen Ditit of Vigi a,J n he tr src r ni udge Smih a i Rul 8( ' lbea notc t ppled e a)s i rl ie pla ng rquie nt t a FDCPA cli ra oni t tj1 e di e r me s o n am, e s ng ha 692e oft FDCPA difr fom he fe s r fa i t e i r ud n hr e mpora ways Se Neid,453 F.Supp.2d a 9 Fis,unlke a cai f tnt . e l t 23. rt i l m or c mon lw fa t FDCPA doesnotr quie a pl i ift pr a t lr la e on a f le om a r ud, he e r antf o ove c ua ei nc as rpr e ai Seej. (ii Na' Fi Sevs,98 F. a 1 .Sec e esntton. ls ctng tl n. r . 3d t 39) ond,a FDCPA plitf n anif ne d notesa ih a t lda s I ( tng 1 U. C.j1 e tbls cua mage . d. cii 5 S. 692k()whih pr desf saut y a c ovi or tt or da ge i a ton t a t ma s n ddii o cualda ges.Thid,a mos i tnty,t FDCPA does no ma ) r nd t mpora l he t r quiet pl i ift esa ih s int r 1 e r he antf o t bls ce e . d. The FD CPA pr bis c r a n f a e a m i l di pr c i es i l ng t t he us ohi t e t i r udul nt nd sea ng a tc , nc udi he ç t e ofa bus nes ,co pa oror ni a i na e o he t n t t u na e of t de c l t ' ny i s m ny, ga z ton m t r ha he r e m he bt olec or s busne s c i s, ompa oro ga zai ' 1 U. C.j1 ( 4) Addii ly,û ny, r ni ton. 5 S. ' 692e 1 . tonal i ng lte sc n dunni etr a vi a e t FD CPA e n i t l ng ol t he ve f he a uage i t l te s i not ove ty or e i ty f l e ..,or n he e tr s rl xplcil a s dec ptve. Farasnt v.Ros n r & Asocaes LLC,2 F.Supp.3d 813,820 ( D.Va. e i ' i a os ' e bec s it , E. 201 . FDCPA i c i rdasrc la lt saut Mc aa v. v,488F.App' 677,682 4) The s onsdee tit ibiiy tt e. le n Ra x ( h Ci.201 .Cons nty,t a l i t on dhe c pact oft sae ntt mila 4t r 2) eque l he nayss ums l a iy he ttme o se d; t e de e ofa ua de p i n i unne es a y.' a ne 9 F.Supp. a 576.ûl ,know l dge vi nc ct l ce t o s c s r ' Y r y, 29 2d t ç-hus e ofa sa e e ' f liy i notane es a y e e ntt e tbls de e i 'l tt m nts a st s c s r l me o sa ih c pton.' d. Ne rhees, a pl ntf ca t e ve t l s ai if nno vade t rquie nt of Rul 9( by addng a he e rme s e b) i s ri illbelofsrd la lt Cozz rliv.ns r Pham.1 ,5 F.d 61 629( h Ci. upe tca a ti ibiiy. ael l pie r . nc. 49 3 8, 4t r 2008) W he a pli if'c ants . n antfs ompli oundsi fa Rul 9( a i .l Alowi ohewie n rud, e b) pples d. l ng t r s k ul undemi one oft prmay pur e ofRul 9( :pr e tng defnda sfom t k d wo r ne he i r pos s e b) otci e nt r he rputtona ham t t rs t fom fi ous alegains of fa e c e ai l r ha euls r rvol l to rudulnt onduc.'1 (ii t' d. ctng Hars 1 F. a 784 . rion, 76 3d t ) i a iy he r a Hee,t c tbeleve t compl ntçsaegl w ih partculrt t cicum stnces r he our i s he ai ûtt s t c tt i f a ' Fe R. Ci P. 9( ,l co ans s ci c algai of fc a t ea h onsiutng r ud.' d. v. b) t nti pe t le tons a t s o c i pl i if Forexa e t c antf. mpl, he ompli lsst s cii da e t tTe iCr wf r r c ve aNotc ant it he pe fc t s ha r a o d e ei d ie. Exa pl oft Notc s a e a tc t t c m es he i e r ta hed o he ompl i ,e fc i y i r r i t e e sof ant fe tvel nco po atng he ontnt t alge y flerpr s ntton.Se Goi v. le Cmt Se v .Bd.8 F. 1 1 ( h he le dl as e e e ai ç nes Valy y. r s , 22 3d 59, 66 4t Ci.201 ( i t tadititco tconsder k ume st taee iil i or aed i o r 6) notng ha src ur i st doc nt ha r xplcty nc port nt t c he ompl n by r f r nc ...a t e at c d t t c m pl n a e bis'whe e ua i ait e e e e nd hos ta he o he o ait s xhi t' n val tng amoton t dimis.Furhe ,pli if ase tt tt Notc wass tby Se x t Cr or s i o s s) t r antfs s r ha he ie en ne o awf d' r s de e i nce iunde t gui e ' of t l or l por e y s gne by a sa f m e be ' of t d r he s ' he andl d, ' pur t dl i d tf m r' he lndlr a fii t %ndc t t tt Noi was sntby Se ' Comp.! 44,45.The a o d, nd alng o ç iae ha he tce i e nex.' pl i if a s pl ad t tt r t n a es w as ac ua l t tof Se x,nott l ndl d,de pie a ntf s l o e ha he e ur ddr s t ly ha ne he a or s t t lte a rngt o i naewiht lndlr Compl!39.I s tt c anti l s he etr ppeai o rgi t t he a o d. . n hor, he ompli ncude s fc e l pa tc a i ed f t a t y r l t t e c na e pl i i f t t i plc t t tm e, uf i i nty ri ul r z ac s s he e a e o a h m d a ntf ha m i a e he i pl e a c e oft m i r pr e a i n,a i ntf t per on m a ng t m ir pr s nt ton ac , nd ont nt he s e es nt to nd de iy he s ki he s e e e a i t s tsy Rul 9( .The eor,r gadl sofwhehe Rul 9( or Rul 8() i t pr r o aif e b) r f e e r es t r e b) e a s he ope s andar f eval tng a com pl nt alegi vi atons of t FD CPA ,t courtconcl t d or ua i ai l ng ol i he he udes t hat pl i if ha me t i bu d n. Cons nty, t c t wil de de e an ' moton t antfs ve t her r e eque l he our l ny f nd ts i o di r s . s ni s 11 1. C l sC e t fca i as r ii t on The nam e pl ntf s a s s e t es a i h a cl s of pr e t a f m e t nt of d ai if l o e k o t bls as es n nd or r ena s r s de i pr pe te l t d i V igi a w hos l ndl r enga d Se x t f ciia e over e i ntal o ri s oca e n r ni e a o ds ge ne o a lt t due r nt c l to Nor al a diti t e t s d de i cas c rii ai k s e oleci n. m ly, src our houl c de l s e tfc ton ç oon as as pr tc bl 'Fe R.Ci P.23() l-o ve,compla ewih Rul 23 i nott bet tdbya acia e. d, ' v. c .slwe r l inc t e s o ese m oton t di m i s f f iur t s a e a cl i .'Gilbea v.Civ ofRi hm ond, i o s s or a l e o t t a m ' li u t c 417 F. 426,432 2d ( t Ci.1 ) Thec 'wildeer ne cas c rii ton whe apa t movesf o a i t 9h r 969 . oul l t mi l s e tfcai t n ry or r gans s h ce tfc i w hi h w il lkel be om e m or a opra e as t lt g ton de l . 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