Dome Technology, LLC v. Golden Sands General Contractors, Inc. et al, No. 3:2016cv00069 - Document 43 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/28/17. (hnw)
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I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A CHM LOTTESVI LLE DI SI VI ON CL S OFFI U. DI COURT ERK CE S. SX AT RIANOKE, S L D VA FIE J 2 UN JU BY: . D OM E TECH N O LO GY ,LLC, 1 7 UDL cu qt EY sjj puw o Ci lAc i No.3: vi ton 16CV00069 Pl i if a ntf , M EM O R O GOLDEN SANDS GENEM L C ONTRA CTOR S,l C. e a1, N ,t . U M O PI O N NI Hon.Gln E.Com'd e a ChifUnied St t sDititJ e e t a e src udg Dee f ndan s t. Do Te l lg , me cmoo y LLC ( o Te h lg ' fldti dv riya to a an tGo d n ç me c noo y' ie h s ie st cin g is l e r ) S n sGe e a Co ta t r,n .ç le Sa d ' a dAmeia Bu ie sCo tn iyDo s I . a d n r l n rco s I c (t d n n s' n Go l rc n sn s n iut me ,nc ( BC Do s), se t gcamsf rb e c o c nrc . Th c s i p e e tyb f r t c u t C W me' a s ri li o r a h f o ta t e a e s r s nl e oe he o r n he olow ng e s , he our l r n o t de e nt 'm oton t com pe a bir ton. Fort f l i r a ons t c tw ilg a t n he f nda s i o l r ta i t de e n s'm oton. he f nda t i B ackzround Dome Te l ol i a I ho lm ied la lt c cm ogy s n da i t ibiiy ompa t ts cilz i c tu tng ny ha pe a ies n onsr c i ça g -c l id til ukso a er ifr e c nceed me . Am. mp . 1 Do ke No 2 s r es ae n usra b l trg en o c d o rt o s' l ' Co l! , c t . 5. Go d n S n si a Flrd c r o ain t a o fr g nea c nr cig sr c s I .! 2 ABC l e a d s o i a o p rto h t fes e rl o ta tn evie . d . Dom e i a Fl i cop o ai n t ts c ai e i lasng conc e e domes prm a iy busne s s s orda r to ha pe i lz s n e i rt , i rl i s c niu t d me , ih aeb i t h us ac mp n ss se iatu t r. S eLa !3 1 . o tn iy o s whc r ul o o e o a y' y tms n sr cu e e d ! , 1 t . Dome Technology, LLC v. 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Se g n r l L= j 5 153 (u l n t epa t s o n cin t he o rt rj cs e e eal d. j .- . o ti g h ri ' h ve y . ni e c n rc l e po iiiis. Th pa t sa r e t tGo d n S n wo l s r ea teprfre o ta ma r s nsb l e ) e ri g e d ha l e a ds ud ev s h eer d t e g nea c n rco f rteCo peaiePrj cs s ei j3 1;ha ABC Do swo l fclaea e rl o ta t r o h o rtv oe t, e i 4) t t me ud a ii t t mu u lya c p a l p oe tc n tu to a r e n bewe n God n Sa d a g n r l o ta t r t al c e tbe rj c o sr cin g e me t t e le n s s e ea c n rco a Do Te l lg a s b o ta t r s e i a j 52 a ta God n Sa d a d Do nd me cmoo y s u c nrco , e l .; nd h t le n s n me Te h o o ywo de trit s p rt s b o ta t g e me t o aprjc- y p o e t a i, e j. c n l g ul n e no e aae u c n rc a r e ns n oe tb - rj c b ss s ela j 5.,7.. 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Se L-j2. e d. 2 ovi d or n he conta t l rg s of s t f c r ba k a ot r no yme de e es pr de f i t r c ua i ht eof , ha ge c nd he npa nt f ns s onta t' l j7. ubc r c ' d. 1. The Staegi Ali nc Agr e e a s c ai t f l ng ç s e r s uto ' r t c la e e m nt lo ont ns he olowi t put e ol in' Di pr son,whi h i l ovii c nc udest a bir ton ca eon whi ht de e nt 'm oto i ba e he r tai lus c he f nda s i n s s d: An u rsle dsue à t e tePat ss lb frt eov d y n eov d ip ts ewen h ri hal e is rs le e by nonbi ng m e a i ndi diton. Any diput c am , or c r ve s s e, l i onto ry a ii s ey be we n t Pa te out of or r l i t a rsng oll t e he ri s eatng o ny i e r t ton, c t u ton, pe f ma e o br a h o t s ntp ea i onsr c i ror nc r e c f hi Ag e me t(ncu i boh a to i c nr c a d i tr)aii re n i ldng t cins n o ta t n n o t rsng o to o r ltn t t e t c me to t i Ag e me t ( ldng u f r eaig o he nbre n f hs re n , i u i nc t f he onnai pe f ma e, m odii a i or e e i n of t s ton, ror nc fc ton xt nso hi a re n) o a y fr o r le (n l dn d ma é ,rs iso , g e me t r n o m f eif icu ig n g s e csi n s e ii pefnna c ,n t to , ndp ntv d ma e )t a i no p cfc ro n e ijmcin a u iie n g s h t s t r s ve by nonbi ng m e ai n s l be s tl e l i l by e ol d ndi di to hal e ted xcusvey a bir to The a bir ton s l be he d i a l to m ut ly r t a i n. r t a i ha l l n oca i n ua l a re bet t p is o in t t al a re te i Ora o , g e a l o he m e , r f o muu ly g e d,h n n lnd ll Fl i I s lbe co uced t r t a pi s of a by t orda. t hal nd t mde he us ce nd he r e oft Ame i a Ar tai n As ociton. 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' As c emplt d by t Sta e c Alince Ap ee nt Gol n Sa ont a e he r t gi la me , de nds and Dome Tec ogy e e e i oaM a trSubc r c o Agr e e ti Augus of201 Se Am . hnol ntr d nt se onta t r e m n n t 3. e Compl . ! 1 TheM a trSu o ta trAge me tp o i e t ti G u re e a1p ira r e n s 7. se bc nr co r e n r v d s ha t s pes d s l ro g e me t, s wrte o o a, t e God n Sa d a ( meTe h oo y rlt t t es b e tmatro itn r rl bewe n le n s nd Do c n lg j eai o h u j c te f ng tr ontacor r me t t s Ag ee nt'3 M ase Subc r t Ag ee nt a 1, D oc t No. 25- The M ase hi r me .' ke 2. tr Subc r t A g ee nt c nti ge r t r s a pr so a ia e t wor pe f m e ontacor r me o a ns ne al e m nd ovii ns pplc bl o k ror d u d rt i i iu lp oe ts b o ta t,i ldng prviin rlt d t i t a c c vea , n e he ndvd a rj c u c nr cs ncu i o so s eae o nsl n e o rge r s hed i pa nt a i c ulng, yme , nd ndemnika i The M a t rSubc r t rAgr eme as c ai f ton. se ontac o e nt lo ont ns t f l wi pr so tte SLEGAL N OTI he olo ng ovii n ild C CES AND DI SPUTES': ' gl od rt a o dc n lcso lw, fads uea ie o to et r ln r e o v i o fit f a i ip t rs s u f i he Pa t s pe f ma e t r a Subc r t Agr e e , t n t ry' ror nc mde ontac e m nt he he va i t i e pr t ton a pe f r nceoft sAgr me s lbe ldiy, nt r e ai nd ro ma hi ee nt hal gove ed by t La o t Stt i whih t c r s ndi m he ws f he ae n c he or e po ng S bc nr c Ag e me p oe t i l c td I t e a e e o a u o ta t r e nt rj c s o ae . n h bsnc f diput Subco r c Agr eme a pr vi d a s ed nta t e nt s o de bove,t valdiy, he i t i e pr t to a pe f m a e oft sAgr me ,sa ng a o , nt r e ai n, nd ror nc hi ee nt t ndi l ne s l be go m e by t La o t St t ofFl i a i s h hal ve d he ws f he a e orda nd n uc c s o ya yj dca p o e dn s l b b o h i t eComt o a e nl n u iil r c e ig hal e r ug t n h t y f M imiDa e Flrd wi nt ( )y a so t ed t t c u eo n - d , o ia t wo 2 e r f h ae he a s f hi a ton a c ue but i no e n a tr fna pa e t t ci c r d, n ve t fe i l ym nt o he Su ontacor Subco r c ora e t pm i i t i a bebot bc r t . nta t gr es o cpa e n nd md b a y p o e dng whih dr cl o i dr cl r lt g t tls y n r c e i s c ie ty r n ie t eae) o l y i Ag e me t(iiain abtai na /r d ain . Nods u eo r e n l g to , r irto ndo me ito ) t ip t r c r ve s s li e f r w ih t pr es oft c t uc i a ont o r y hal nt r e e t he ogr s he ons r ton nd Subc t ac or s l pr e d w ih t w o k w ihout ca i on r t ha l oc e t he r t us ng i e l i n,de i i ncy ordel y. N o w ihs andi anyt ng i t nt m pto fce a t t t ng hi n he 3ABC Dom e i nota pary t t M a t Subconta orAgr ment ss t o he ser r ct ee . 4 f rg i t t c n rr ,hee cu ielg l tid cina wel s o e ong o he o tay t x lsv e a ju s ito s l a t vai t i e r t ton,andpe f m a et ra Subco r t he ldiy, ntp ea i ror nc mde ny ntac Agr me s lbei t a opra ec t ofa gove e by t ee nt hal n he ppr it ours nd m d he La o te S ae wh r te p oe t ta i t s b e t o t e ws f h tt e e h rj c h t s he u j c f h Subc r tA gr e e i l a e ontac e m nt s oc t d. 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Ats es c i ubc r c s omepoi d i t c t ci n phas ,Gol n Sa a ke Dom e nt urng he onsm to e de nds s d Tec m ol t as i c r a n pori ofD o e Te l ol ss ope ofw or ove t Gol n Sa . l ogy o s gn e t i tons m c m ogy' c k r o de nds çspe fc l Gol n Sa r que t t t Dome Tec og a sg Gode Sa q t ç ciialy, de nds e sed ha hnol y sin l n ndsg he r ponsbiiy t c t c t i c bl s doo s a m a door c e e e r wa o e c es i lt o onsnz t he mpa t a t r nd n oncr t nty ys n a h d me' Am. mp . 4 Al o g E meTe h oo yn v rsg dam itnc a g o d r o . ' Co l ! 4. t u h < h Do c n lg e e ine te h n e r e , . .. Gol n Sa t t s opeofwor fom DomeTe l og ' ndts nta t d wih at r de nds ook he c kr cmol y'a dubco r c e t hid pat wh c me i a d t o o e t e ep rin o te wok fo Do Te l l g ' J=! ry o a n n o k v r h s o t s f h r r m me cmo o y. # ! o ' 4546. Dome Tec og a lge t t i f l c hnol y le s ha t uly ompl t d is r m ani oblga i t r t e e t e i ng i tons mde he s on r c s I M ar h a Se e be of201 DomeTe hnol y s ubc ta t . n c nd pt m r 4, c og ubmitdi ce t Gol n te nvoi s o de Sa d f rt woka maeil p o d df r heNo t An aPrj c. God nS n so l ma e n s o he r nd tras r vie o t rh n o e t le a d ny d pa ta pa e son t i c s l vi a lt i balnce of$350, 77. I J y,Ocobe , ri l m nt he nvoi e , ea ng r mpad a 973. n ul t r a De e nd c mberof201 a i J ma yof201 Dom eTe l ogys 4 nd n ar r 5, cmol ubmitdi ce f t wo k te nvoi s or he r a d maeil p o i e f rt Sur Prj c. God n S n so l ma ep ril y n so t e n tras r v d d o he t' o e t le a d n y d a t pa me t n h y a i c s la ng a t d ba a eof$363, 0. nvoi e , e vi n mpai l nc 88 85. God n S n 'j si ain f r wih odng c ran n u t wa t a i h d is e le a ds u tsc to o t h li e ti mo n s s h t t a su d de tvec ngeor r f rcos ove msi r e byist r pm y s on r t ,who t k ove duc i ha de s o t m ncu r d t hidubc tacor oo r t s o eo wok f rted o so b t p oe t. Do Te h lg c n e dst t h d d cie he c p f r o h o r n o h rj cs me c noo y o tn ha t e e u tv c hange or r a e no s ppora e bec us Gol n Sa as umed r ponsbiiy f r a1 c t de s r t u tbl a e de nds s es i lt o 1 os o e msi u rd a tri t o o e t e s o e o wok f rt eprjc d o sa d hie a oh r v m nc re fe t o k v r h c p f r o h oe t o r n rd n te s ontacort pe f t wor Addii l Dome Te hnol cai st tGol n Sa ubc r t o ronn he k. tonaly, c ogy l m ha de nds di no pa f c ran ma e i s i l ng co r t f m s conc e e a r ba ,wli h we e d t y or e ti t ral, nc udi nc ee or , r t , nd e r lc r pr ded a DomeTe hnol sown e ns ovi t c ogy' xpe e. On J y 2,201 a Se e be 24,201 Do e Te hnol s nt c r ponde e t ul 5 nd ptm r 5, m c ogy e ores nc o Gol n Sa a ABC Domesr que tngf 1 pa e oft a o mt al dl dueont N o t de nds nd e si u1 ym nt he m t s lege y he rh An aP oe ta d te S y P oe t Go d n Sa d a dABC Do sh verf s d t ma et n rj c n h = r jc . l e n s n me a e u e o k he r ue t d pa e t . eq s e ym n s 6 ProceduralH i t s oa The pa e t diput atis i t s a to a e nott onl dipu e be wee Do e ym n s es sue n hi ci n r he y s t s t n m Te l ogy a t def nda s On Se e be 1 201 f l ng an t uc es f m e a i c mol nd he e nt . pt m r , 6, olowi ms c sul diton, God nSa d a dABC Do s o nl fldwi t Ameia Ar tainAs o ito ade d le n s n me j ity ie t he rc n bi to s cain mml h r f ar ta i a i tDome Te hnol or bir ton gans c ogy,i a co da e wih t d s e r s uton pr vii o n c r nc t he iput e ol i o son f t Stae c Alinc Agr e e . On Se e r 1 201 Do e Tec nol y a we e t he r t gi la e e m nt ptmbe 6, 6, m b og ns r d he a bir ton de a a fld a c mt cai agans Gol n Sa a ABC Do e . Dome r ta i m nd nd ie ot er l m i t de nds nd m s Tecmol ha al ge t tt defnda s r f a t pa f wor pe f m e t rt Norh l ogy s le d ha he e nt ' e us l o y or k ror d mde he t Ar Subc r ta t S= y Subc r tc tm t sam a e br a h oft Sta e cAlinc ma ontac nd he ontac onsi e t dal e c he r t gi la e Ag e m e t Howe r DomeTe hnol y ma n a nst ta bir to i nott a o it f nl re n. ve , c og i t i ha r tai n s he ppr pra e o m t s kt r ove y off ndsal ge y d t rt s nta t . o ee he ec r u le dl ue mde he ubco r c s Ac or ngl a trflng isc e c am i t a bir to pr e ng,DomeTe l ogy c di y, fe ii t ount r l i n he r tai n oc edi cmol fl d t sa ton s e ng t r c rnmount a lge y o ie hi c i e ki o e ove s le dl wed f s r i e a m ae i l pr ded or e v c s nd t ra s ovi unde t N o t Anna Subc r ta t Slr y Subc r t I t a e d c pl i , ie o r he r h ontac nd he zr ontac . n he m nde om a nt f l d n M ac 6 2 7 Do Te h oog a srste f lo ng cams ( )b e c o t eNo t An rh , 01 , me c n l y se t h olwi li : 1 r a h f h rh na Su c nr c a an tGod n S nd ;2 b e c o t eSIV S b o ta ta ans Go d nSa d ; 3 b o ta t g is le a s () r a h f h U u c n r c g i t l e n s ( ) b e c o tegu rn e o s bc n rc pa me t g is ABC Do s a dt j it e tr la iiy ra h f h aa te f u o ta t y n a an t me ; n 4l on v n u e ib l t a ns AB C D om e . gai t s On M a c 20,201 Gol n Sa a ABC Do esfl d t i t n m o i t c rh 7, de nds nd m ie he ns a t ton o ompel ur d ai he to n y 2 a bir ton. The co thel a he rng on t m o i n o M a 1 , 201 The moton hasbee r ta i 4 7. i n f ly br e e and i no r pe f r vi w . ' l if d u s w i or e e 4Thedef endant alo movedt sa dico ype ng ade son ont rmoton t c s s o t y s ver ndi cii hei i o ompe ar ta i . l bir ton I r pons t pl ntf agr t pospone di ove y. Ac di y,t m o i t say dic r wilbe n es e, he ai if eed o t sc r cor ngl he ton o t s ove y l dim i e msmoo . s ss d t Di scussi on Th F dea Ar irto Ac ( .)g v r t rg t a dr s o sb l iso t p ris e e rl btain t G ' o ens he ih s n e p n iii e f he a t TAA ' t e wih r pec t a a bir ton a ee nt Pa tn Gr di & Pa nc I .v.Ska kaU . Bl . t es t o n r ta i gr me . te a ng vi nc ns S. dg. I .3 0 F3 2 , 0 (t Ci. 0 4 (iigM o e H. neM e l p v. ec r Co t. nc, 8 .d 00 2 4 4 h r 2 0 ) ctn s s Co m' Hos . M ru y nsr Co .4 0 U. 1 2 - 5 ( 98 :. Th Su e Co r o t Uni d S ae h sitprtd t p , 6 S. , 4 2 1 3 e prme u t f he t tt s a ne ee he e FAA t r lc & lbe a f de a polc f vorng a bir ton ag e m e s. M os sH.ConeM e ' o efe t t i r l e r l i y a i r ta i a r e nt ' ' e m l Hos ,460 U. a 2 The FA A p o de t ta wrte abir ton a e m e G halbe vai p. S. t 4. r vi s ha itn r ta i gr e nt ç l s ld, ir a e ande o c abl s veu s h gr revoc bl , nf r e e, a pon uc oundsase s a l w ori e t f t r vocai n xit t a n quiy or he e to o a y c nr c. 9 U. C.j 2. Th FAA r q rs a c u tt sa S n s i o p o e dng' f n o tat' ' S. e e uie o r o ty i y ut r r c e i ' a pe ng a bir ton ofç ny is r f r bl t a bir ton t ra ag ee e ti m ii f s h ndi r ta i s s ue e e a e o r ta i mde n r m n n tng or uc a abi ain' 9U.. j3. r t to . r ' SC. TheUnie St t sCour o Appe l f t Fourh Cic thashe dt tapa t ca c m pe td ae tf a s or he t r ui l ha ry n o l abi aint e t FAA i i etb ihe f l ee n s ç 1 t ee itnc o ad s ueb t e r t to md r he r f t sa ls s oz lme t :ç ) h x se e f ip t ewe n r ( t ep ris ( )awrte a r e n t ti cu e a abtainp o iin wl c p r o t t c ve h at ,2 e itn ge me t ha n ld s n r irto r v so l h u p rs o o r i t diput,( t r ltons p oft ta a ton,whih i e de ed by t a e me ,t he s e 3) he eai hi he rnsci c s vi nc he gre nt o i trtt o f r inc mmec , n ( )tefiu e n ge to rf s l ft d f n a t oabtae ne sae r o eg o r e a d 4 h alr , e lc r e u a o he e e d n t r irt t ed s ue' Adcn v. bo Re d eI c.3 3F.d 4 6 5 0 01( t Ci.2 0 )(iain a d h ip t. l s La r a y n . 0 3 9 , 0 - 4h r 0 2 ctto n ' i itr a q tto makso te ) I ti c s ,o l t s c n ee n i i ds u e Th s nen l uoain z mitd . n h s a e ny he e o d lme t s n ip t. i ee n iv le t q sin :()wh t rt r i ad ai a re n t abi ae' a d ( ) lme t n ov s wo ueto s 1 ehe hee s i ld g e me t o r t t, n 2 v r ' whehe çhe diput i q si f l wihi t s pe oft a bir ton a e m e . Chore t rt t s e n ue ton als t n he co he r ta i gr e nt' ' lv En es.nc v. c e ' Ba b c Ret.I c,8 7F.d5 3 5 3 (t Ci. 1 )(i n Mt ih tr.I . Dik y s r e ue ss. n . 0 3 5 , 6 4 h r 20 5 ct g t i i i rt v. h tl Ex r s.nc, 2F.d1 3 1 9( t Ci. 0 3) s eas A&G Co l p. I tg iy S u t p e s I .71 3 7 , 7 4h r 2 1 ); e lo e a Co v.n e rt Co l ls I c, 0 F. u p. d7 9 71 ( . Va 2 09 . a Sae .n .6 0 S p 2 0 , 3 W D. . 0 ) 1 . Exi t nc o a V ald A rbi r i A er e e se e f i t aton e m nt Thefr tque to whe he avai elo ce bl a bir to a r e e e ss çi am a tr is si nt r ld, rf r a e r tai n g e m nt xit- ts te ofc t a ti e pr tto go m e by sa e lw . Rot - cLa t v.Sa a rCo um e USA. on r c nt r e ai n ve d tt a ' ' aM ry nt nde ns r I c, 0 F.d6 0 6 9( t Ci. 01 ) s eas Ad ns 3 3F.da 5 1(ç h t e apa t a re n .7 0 3 9 , 9 4h r 2 2 ; e lo ki , 0 3 t 0 t eh r ry g e d W t abtae ...i a q eto o sae 1w g venn c nr c f r to .) W h n t pate o r irt s u sin f tt a o r ig o ta t o mai n' . e he ris ' diput whe he a o i ton t a bir t e s s ( hepr s s e t r n blga i o r tae xit, t t e umpton i f vorofa bi ton doesnot i n a r ka i a p y' No h v. l Br ssnc, 8F.d5 9 61 n. ( t Ci. 01 )(i n Grn t Ro kCo p l . o i To l o .I .70 3 9 , 1 6 4h r 2 3 ct g a ie c . ' i v I 'Bhd o Te mse s 5 U.. 8 ( 01 ). I i Eo nya t es c n se o t ea ay i.ntl . f n tr , 61 S 2 7 2 0 ) ts ç y l t h e o d tp f h n l ss g d tnnn n t s o o teabtaina re n- lh t c u t a pyt fd r l lc fv rng ee ii g he c pe f h r irto g e me t t aq o rs p l he e ea poiy a o i a bir ton a r s vea bi te i f vorofa bir to ' Sha n v. e i a Co .769 F.d r ta i nd e ol m guiis n a r tai n. ' r e Am rpln p , 3 9 9 91 ( t Ci.2 4 ;s eas Ap le Eneg tc .I . Ne k Ca ia Mkt.LLC, 4 0 , 4 5h r 01 ) e lo pid r eis nc v. woa ptl s. 65 F.d 5 2 5 6 ( d Ci.2 1 (lee b c u etep risd s u eno te so e o a abtain 3 2 , 2 2 r 01 ) çlr, e a s h a t ip t t h c p f n r i to e r c a ebutwhehe a oblgai t a bir t e ss t pr lmpton i f vorofa bir ton doe not l us t r n i ton o r ta e xit ,he esl i n a r ta i s a y.) ppl '. ' I t s c s ,t de e nt a g t t t a bir ton ca e i t Sta e c Ali nc n hi a e he f nda s r ue ha he r ta i lus n he r t gi la e Agr e e i va i a e o c a ea t ta1ofDom eTe hnol sc am sf l wihi t s pe e m nt s ld nd nf r e bl nd ha 1 c ogy' l i al t n he co oft a bir ton c a e Il e pons ,Do eTe hnol y a gt st tt a bir to clus i t he r tai l us . rr s e m c og r z ha he r tai n a e n he e Sta e c Ali nc Ag e me wa Ss r ede ' by vit of t M a t r Subco r c b r t gi la e r e nt s tupe s d' rue he se nta t r Agr e e tsm e ge a f r m s l c i ca esa t t t rt f um s l to c a e t s e m n ' r r nd o u e e ton lus nd ha, mde he or eeci n l us , hi c u t a e cusvej rs ito o rtecamsa sre i t en n e c mplit o r h s x l i u id cin ve h li se td n h me d d o an . The i s ofwhehe a a bir ton c a e confi t wih,orwa s r e d by,a he s ue t r n r tai lus lcs t s upe s de not r pr s o i ç ope l a yz d t de t û ldiy's e o t a bir ton a l i .' Sha pe 769 ovi i n s ç pr r y nal e m r he va i t t p f he r t a i na ys s ' r , F.d a 91 (iain o te ) Ac o dngy, h sis ei g v m e b Vigni lw, iht e 3 t 5 ctto mitd . c r i l t i su s o e d y r i a a whc h pa te a ee a i s i t s c e a t pr s pton i f vor of a bir ton i no i plc t d. r i s gr pple n hi as , nd he e um i n a r ta i s t m i a e Se j ss eas Miso Re ie tasLLC v. il Ne Pr p .LLC,6 4 SE.d 8 8 8 0( . e . ; e lo sin sd n il t l Trpe t o s. 5 . 2 8 , 9 Va 2 0 )(W h nt q eto b f r t c u t swheh rt pa t sha ea r e t ab tae t eei 0 8 ç e he u sin eo e he o r i te he ri v g e d o r irt,h r s l e noprsl in i fvorofabirbiiy.). e lmpto n a r ta lt ' Und rVignalw, o ta t b t e p risaes be tt t f lo ngb scr lso e r i i a c nrcs ewe n a t r u j c o he olwi a i ue f e i e r t ton: nt p e a i Co r c sa eco t e a m i tn,wihouta ng t mst twe e nta t r nsnld s te t ddi er ha r no i ude by t pari . W he et tr si ac r c a ec e r t ncl d he tes r he em n onta t r l a a unn bi uous t co r c i co t e ac or i t ispl i nd m g , he nta t s nsnl d c d ng o t an m e ni A c r ti no n g a ng. ontac s t mbi uousm e el be a e t pa te r y c us he ri s di a r e as t t mealng of t t r s us d. Furhe m or sge o he ri he e m e t r e, conta t m us bec i r a awhol wihou gi ng e phasst r c s t onsde ed s e t t vi m i o iolt d t nns Fi ly,no wor or caus i a c r c wil be s a e e . nal d l e n onta t l t e t d a m en ngl s i ar a ona e me ng c be gi n t i, rae s ni e s f e s bl ani an ve o t a pa te a epr s nd ri s r e umednott ha i l d ne e swor i t o ve ncude edls ds n he . contact r . TM Dema v we . v NCPo Va. l r épo r LLC . f .LLC, 5 S. 2 1 9 2 0( . 0 2 (nena ctto 5 7 E.d 9 , 0 Va 2 0 ) itr l iains a d q oain makso t d . Ac o dn l,i r s li g t e is e o wh t rte abi ain n u tto r mit ) c r igy n e ov n h su f ehe h r t to e r c a e i t Sta e c Ali l us n he r t gi lmwe Agr me wa s s d by pr vii i t M a tr ee nt s uperede o sons n he se Subc ta t Agre nt t c tmus co i rt c rcsa a whol a ç r zeu' onrcor e me , he our t nsde he onta t s e nd s moni ' ha t r pr sons S vi e f tt e h whe r as na y pos i e.' Sc lng v.Ha s 7 hei ovii , ç ng fec o ac gi n e o bl sbl ' huii ni , 47 S. 2 8 3 8 7( . 01 ) E.d 3 , 3 Va 2 3 . A. Ale r C l e rze aus Do eTe l o ogyIr tpoi st t m e ge ca ei t M a trSubc r c o Agr e e m cm l is nt o he r r lus n he se onta t r e m nt t s o uppor is poston t t t a bir to ca e i no vai a e or e bl Howe r t tt ii ha he r tai n lus s t ld nd nf c a e. ve , he m e ge c a e m e e y pr de t t t M a t r Subc t a t A g ee e i upe s des a 1 pr o r r l us r l ovi s ha he s e on r c or r m nt t r e s 1 ir a re n s m itno o a, e we nGod nSa d a d E meTe h oo y rlt t t s b e t g e me t, te r r lb t e le n s n Do c n lg ) eai o he u j c ng m a t r of t s A gr em e .' M as e Subc r t A gr m e a 1. The M a t r Subc r c o te hi e nt' tr ontac or ee nt t se ont a t r A g ee e , o w hi h A BC Dom e i nota pa t i ude t K t nd d s tofco t uc i n ge a r m nt t c ss ry, ncl s he ' a ar e s nsr to ner l tr a c tons'c e aed by t Sta e c Alinc Agr e e . Staeg c Ali nc e ms nd ondii ' ont mplt he r t gi la e e m nt r t i la e Ag e me tj53 Net e t meg rca eno a yoh rp o ii no t eM a trS b o ta t r re n .. ih r he r e lus r n t e r v so f h se u c n rco Agr e e t i caes t t t pa tes i e d f t M a tr Subc r c or Agr e e t e m n ndi t ha he ri ntnde or he se onta t e m nt o c omplt l s r e t Stat i Ali nc Agr e e or is a bir ton c a e.5 I e , t e ey upe s de he r eg c la e e m nt t r ta i l us nde d he r di oft m e ge cl us s es e by D om e Tec ogy w oul m a ltl s ns gi n t t ea ng he r r a e ugg t d hnol d ke ite e e, ve ha ABC Dom e i nota pa t t t M a t r Subco r c orAg e m e ort s onta t f t ss ry o he se nta t r e nt he ubc r c s or he No t An a d St r Prj cs Mo e ve,te pa t s e p e sy a r e t tt S rtgc rh na n t y oe t. r o r h ri x rs l g e d ha he tae i r e Alin e Age me two l çe i itc fr ffe n ( 5 y a s' t t i wo d g v r t er la c r e n u d t man na t o ite 1 ) e r , ha t ul o en h i r ' p rii to i a1 fteac ie t rld mep oe t, n t a i c u db mo iido tr nae a t pain n 1o h rhtcu a o rj cs a d h t t o l e dfe r emi td c onl i t l Pm i a eet s hmodiiai ortr nain. Stae cAl a eAgr me jj y ft l g es gr o uc fc tons e mi to ' rtgi l nc ' i ee nt .. 3 F -H) 1 . (mp a i a d d . ( )( , 43 e h ss d e ) Consde i t c tacs asa whol ,t co tco l i rng he on r t e he ur ncudest tt me g clus i t ha he r er a e n he M a t r Subc r t r Ag ee nt c nno be c tu t r pudit t Ska e c Ali nc se ontac o r me n t onsr ed o e a e he t gi la e Agr e e ,whi hwase e e i obya1t e pa tes o isa bir ton c a e I t a t co ' e m nt c ntr d nt l hr e ri , r t r ta i l us . nse d, he ut t r adst m e ge ca e aspr di t tt M ase Subc ta t Ag e m e o y s r e s e he r r lus ovi ng ha he tr on r c or r e nt nl upe s de pror or lorm itn a ee nt bewee Dome Tecmol y a Gol n Sa r l tng t t i a te gr me s t n l og nd de nds e ai o he s be t matr o t t a r e n (.. t e g nea tl a c ndto s a pl a l t te u jc te f ha ge me t ie, h e r l e' nd o i n p i be o h ms i c s b o ta t r p ro df rGo d nSa d b Do Te hn lg ) u c nr c wo k ef nne o l e n s y me c oo y . B. For Se e ton C l e um l c i aus Theco t tmsne t t f r s lcton clus i t M a t rSubc r c o Agr e e . ur tu xt o he o um ee i a e n he se onta t r e m nt Do Te l l g a g e t th sc u t a G xcusve t idcino r h pa me tcamsb s d me cmoo y r u s ha t i o r h s G l i jl s ito ve t e y n li a e e r 5I t sr ga d, t ca e i ditnguihabl fom GKDn hi e r he s s si s e r USA.l v.Coa tM ac M ove s 1 F.Supp. nc. s h. r , 26 3 5 3( M d. 01 ) o whihDo Te l og rle . l ta c s ,h itg ain ca s i as s q e t d 5 D. 2 5 , n c me cmol y eis n h t a e te ne rto lu e n ub e u n a re nte prsl p o d d ta t p risC g e l t tt sd ume ts l c n tmt t e tr c nrc g e me x e sy rvie h t he a t c re ) ha hi oc n hal o si e he nie o ta t e a b t e (h p ris . 1 . t5 6. e we n te a t ) ' d a 5 e ' hus ha he o t ( a tr S b o ta tr Ag e me t fr m s lcin cl use,'and t t t t forum n he M se u c n rco r e n j o u ee to a ' s e ton clus s pe s dest pr xitng a bir ton c a e. P1' Br i Opp' 10,Doc tNo. elc i a e u r e he ee si r ta i l us .s . n n ke Fo t f l wi r a ons ho ver t c ur i t bl t a e r he olo ng e s , we , he o t s ma e o gr e. Fis t ef nz s lci n ca s d e no b so t x l i ejzidcin'o ti c u t rt h o m ee to lu e o s t e tw t cusv l s ito ' n h s o r. e r ' ' J I t d,t c a e pr vi s t twih r pe tt the vai t i e r t to a pero ma nsea he l us o de 'ha t es c o t t ldiy, nt p e ai n, nd f r nce t e a yS bc nr c Ag e me t'h ç o rso . .heS aewh r ap oe t h t st s b e t md r n u o ta t re n , t e i u t f . t tt ee rj c t a i he u j c ' c o te S b o ta tAg e me ti l ae ' s alh v G x lsv lg lj ds ito ' Ma tr f h u c nr c re n s oc td' h l a e t cu ie e a u dcin. e ' se S b o ta trAge me j 1 (mp ssa d d . Asoh rc u t h v n td abtain i a u c nr co r e nt 0 e ha i d e ) te o rs a e oe , r irto s m ehod ofç s er s uto wiho r s r t c ta ton. E. Dun' a Equi Co. Bd. t ç put e ol i n t ut e o t o our c i ' C. di ' He vy p. v. o Co 'so Ore nsLe e Bd, 9S 2 1 6, 38( . . p. 9 8 . I K o sn tiv le f mm r f la v e .71 o. d 3 1 La CtAp 1 9 ) t d e o n ov d lg lt idcini t es mesns a aj d ca p o e dn . I ; e as Pa a im S l. p v. e a jl s ito n h n e e s u iil r c e ig' d.s e lo r dc o s Gr . r ' Sha ha Pr cii Te h. ng i e son c Cop .No.1 CV, 5- 539,2015U. Dit LEXI 70596, t*7- 201 W L S. s. S a 9, 5 3 6 1 a * ( D. lJ ne1 2 5 (o igt a ç r taini no aGe a a to 'a dfn ig 46 0 7, t 3 S. Ca .u , 01 ) n tn h tç bi to s t lg l cin'' n i dn a r noc r ditonbewe nt abirtona f um s e tonca es;Si v. ae onta ci t e he r tai nd or elci lus l ms ClrndonNa 'l . tlns Co,3 6 F.S p 2d 1 1 1 8 ( D.Fl.2 0 ) (g e ig t tç r irto i n ta çe a . 3 u p. 31 , 31 S. a 0 4 a ren ha û btai n s o lg l a p o e dng ' Th s wh n çe d tg t e wih t eab tain prviin' t f nl s lcin r ce i ' ). u , e t a o eh r t h r irto o so , he o m ee to r ' caus t snotr quiet pa te t ltgat alcai s' ço r t t bara bir ton ofdiput l eG doe e r he ri s o ii e l l m 'or spe a e o r ta i s es w he e ot r s r qui e by co r c .' Pe s Se & Sa e y Svs l v.M o or a I ,297 F. r he wi e e r d nt a t' r . c. ft . nc. t ol nc. 3d 3 8 3 5 9 ( t Ci.2 0 )(o dn t ta f r m s lcin ca e whih p o d d t a Te s 8 , 9 - 6 5h r 0 2 h l ig ha o u ee to lus , c r vie h t xa c u t s alh ve S x l i j rs ito ' o r a y Sui o p o e dig'b o h u d r a o rs h l a l cusve u idcin' ve n t t r r c e n ' r ug t n e n e s a e m e , oul ber a t mea çha t pa te mus ltgaei Te sco t onl t ediput gr e nt c d e d o n G t he ri s t ii t n xa urs y hos s es t t a aen ts b e tt abtain);seas S a , 6 F.da 91 ,91 (od n t a af n m h t r o u j c o r irto ' e lo h pe 7 9 3 t 3 6 h li g h t o a s lcinca s , ihp o ie t a Gan a to b o h o matr r ltn t t i Ag e me t ee to lu e whc r vd d h t ç l y ci n r ug t n te s eaig o hs r e n r s l bemai ai d i Dal s'wasS i ompa i ewiht lt r a d a bir tonr quie e hal nt ne n la , ' t nc not tbl t he ae - dde r ta i e r m nt b c us lws iso tn p e e e abtain ( e a c u tma b ake t d cd t evai iy e a e a ut fe rc d r irto wh n o r y e s d o e i e h ldt , s o e a de t c a iiyo a mbi ai nca s )o f lo abtain( e ac u t ybea k d c p , n nbr e b l f n t to lu e r ol w r irto wh n o r ma t r se t e b c o sta iea abtaina r l'. o nfr e r e sd n r irto wad ' ) Sec ond,t f u s l c i c a e doe notc t n a ot lngua i i a i ofa he or m e e ton l us s on ai ny her a ge nd c tve n i en t s r e t pr e si a bir ton c a eorot m iepr l mbir ton. See e. , nt t o upe s de he e xitng r ta i l us he s ecude ta i . g. UBS Fn. r s. n . Caiin Cl c 7 6F.d 3 9 3 9 (t Ci. 3 ( b e vngta ç n i Se v .I c v. rl o i , 0 3 1 , 2 4 h r 201 ) o s r i h tç e ni o wo dr a ona y e c t tac a e de i d t s r e d s ac ,orwavear tai n woul ul e s bl xpe t ha l us sgne o upe s de, ipl e i birto d me to abtain). To t e c n rr t ef nz s lcin ca s e p e sy c n e ltst t n in r irto ' h o tay, h o m ee to lu e x r sl o tmp ae ha dipu esbewe n t pa te ma ber ol dby mea ot rt n ltgai i l ngGa bir ton s t t e he ri s y es ve ns he ha ii ton,ncudi tr tai a o medain. M ase Subc r co Ag e me j 1 M orove ,as t de inae nd/r ito ' ' tr onta tr r e nt 0. e r he sg td s on r c o ,Do e Te hnol y s c t a l ag ee t S rii t i a be bo md b 't e ubc ta t r m c og pe ik ly r d o l tcpae n nd pa t y' hos pr e i . J. oc edngs #s Fort er as ns t si no ac s i whiht a bir ton c a ei o a e m e c nnot hes e o , hi s t a e n c he r ta i l us n ne gr e nt n ber o ie wih t f nt s e ton clus i ano he . Compre AppledEne c tcs I ,645 ec ncl d t he o m elc i a e n t r i r e i . nc. F.da 5 (lee t ePlc me tAg e me tsln u g t a çan ds u e bewe nt epate 3 t 25 çlr, h a e n re n ' a g a e h t gl y ip t ' t e h ris çhal b a j iae b s cfe c u t sa d i d rc c n lc wi t e En a e n s l e dudc td' y pe iid o rs tn s n ie t o fit t h g g me t h Ag ee ntspa al llng get t$ ny diput . . ha l r s l d t o h bi ng a bir to ' r me ' r le a ua ha a s e . s l be e o ve hr ug ndi r tai n. Bo h pr so a e ali l i ,bot a e m a t r a neiherad ist pos i lt oft t ovii ns r l-ncusve h r nda o y, nd t m t he sbiiy he oh r' (leaina o sin i o iia) wi Pes S c & S ft S s. n .29 F.da 3 6 te .) atrto nd miso n rgn l, t r. e . a ey y .I c, 7 3 t 9 ' h (t t e ta c vei alEip ts o a1ûli 'l t eabi ain p o so i tePr d c t h r h n o rng 1 d s u e ' r 1 cams i h r t to r viin n h o u t Ra ke r De eo me tAg e me t te f r m s lci n ca e c n e s Excu iej rs ito o Te s v lp n r e n, h o u ee to lus o fr e lsv u idcin' n xa c t onl wih r s c t ç ny s t or pr ee ng. Thi lm ia i n s our s y t e pe t o a ui oc di ' s i t to ugge t t t t pa te s s ha he ri s i e d t c a et a y onl i t e ntofa non- r ta ediput t tm us be ltga e i nt nde he l us o ppl y n he ve a bir bl s e ha t ii t d n co t'. l t d,t f m s e ton ca e i t M atr Subc r corAgr me t a be ur.) nsea he onl elci lus n he se ' onta t ee nt G n c 1 3 t rt ...a c mde sood s ompl me a y t a ag e me t a bir t ' Bn J i Ba r & Co.v. e nt r o n r e nt o r ta e. ' nk ulus e W a fed Lt .4 4 F.d 2 ,2 4 8 (d Ci. 0 5 . Ac o dngy t ec u tc n l e t tt e x il d, 2 3 78 8 - 5 2 r 2 0 ) c r i l, h o r o cud s ha h a birto ca ei t Sta e cAli nc Agr e e r mai va i a e or e bl a t tt r tai n lus n he r t gi la e e m nt e ns ld nd nf c a e, nd ha he f um s l ci n c a e i t M a t rSubc r c o Ag ee e tdoesnotope a et ba a bir ton or e e to lus n he se onta t r r m n r t o r r ta i whe ei i o he wier quie by t pa te 'c tac altr . r t s t r s e r d he ri s on r m e ms I. l Sc ope o t A r t aton A zre m e f he bi r i e nt Ha ng c l d t tt a bir to c a ei vai a e or ea e,t c tmus now vi onc ude ha he r tai n l us s ld nd nf c bl he our t deenmi whehe t sdiput f lswihi t s opeoft a bir ton clus Att sse o t t ne t r hi s e a l t n he c he r ta i a e. hi tp f he a yss t f de alpolc f vorng a bir ton c e i o pl y. The c tmus c tu t nal i, he e r iy a i r tai om s nt a our t onsr e he abtain ca eb o dy rs li ga yi mbiute a t ( s so . .nfv ro abi ain. r irto lus r a l, e ov n n ç g iis s o i ) c pe . i a o f r t to ' a t r ' Ad i , 0 F.d a 5 0 (i to a d itr a q o ain makso te ) S ae dfee ty t kns 3 3 3 t 0 ct in n n en l u tto r mitd . ttd if rn l,he a c tEma notde a pa t s r ques t a bir t a is E e si m a be s i wih postve our c y ny ry' e t o r ta e n s ue unl s t y ad t ii a sta et tt a bir ton clus i nots c ptbl ofa i e pr t ton t tc r t a s td s tr nc ha he r ta i a e s us e i e n ntr ea i ha ove s he s ere ds ue' Am. c veyCo n v. mp trz dThe a l cnc I .9 F.d8 , 2( t Ci. ip t.' ' Re o r r . Co ueie nn l ma i .nc, 6 3 8 9 4h r 1 9 )( u t Un td S e l r r o Am. W aro & Gul Na i ai n Co. 3 3 U. 5 4, 9 6 q oi ng ie tewokes f v. ri r f v R to , 6 S. 7 5 28 (9 0 8 - 3 1 6 :. Th abi ainca ea is ei t sc s e tnd t San d s u e cam, rc nr v ry e r t to lus t su n hi a e xe s o t l y ip t, li o o to es r g a ii . rsng out of or r ltng t 't i e r t ton, c tu ton,pe f ma e,br a h, o e ai o' he nt p e a i onsr c i ror nc ec r e f r e n o teS rtgcAlin eAg e me t S rtgcAlin eAg e me ta j 1 .. Th n o c me t f h tae i la c r e n. tae i la c re n t 44 e Fo rh Cic tha rc g ie t a t p rs ç riig o to o rlti lt' i a b o d o e u t rui s e o n z d h t he h a e ' gsn q u f r eal o' s r a n , a ng whihi G a a eo a e p n iera h. Am. c v r Co .9 F.da 9 (iigP i Pan c s t p bl f n x a sv e c ' c ' Re o ev m , 6 3 t 3 ctn rma it Co . .F o d & Co k i Mf . ,3 8U. 3 5 3 8( 96 :. S h af r lto ç o sno m v lo n ln c Co. 8 S. 9 , 9 1 7 uc o mu ai n i e t d lmi a bir ton t t ltr li e pr t ton orpero nce'o t Staegi Alinc Agr e e . i t r ta i o he ie a nt r ea i f nna ' f he r t c la e e m nt JJ Ry n & S n sI c v.Rho e Po ln Te tl.SA. 8 3 F.d 31 ,3 ( t Ci.1 8 ) .. a os n. n u e c x i . , 6 2 5 21 4h r 9 8 e 1 4 (nep ei a a btain ca s c v rn a1 d s u e t rsn i c n e to ' w11 t e itr rtng n r i to lu e o eig l ip ts ç iig n o n cin' 1 h r a 1 a re n) I se d tit e r c s e e y ds u e b t e t p ris h vng a sg iia t g e me t. n ta , l l mb a e v r ip t ewe n he a t a i g e i nfc n r ltons pt t c r tr ga dl s oft lbe a t he t t dipu e. I Thus lhet s f ea i hi o he ontac e r e s he a l tac d o he s t ' d. ' ,t e t or t a mbir ton c a eoft sbr ad h i notwhe he a ca m ar eunde o ag e me ora t r n ta i l us hi e t s t r li os r ne r e nt no he , butw he he a s gnii a r a i hi e s s be w e n t c a m a t ag ee e c ai ng t t r i fc nt el tons p xi t t e he l i nd he r m nt ont ni he a bir to c a e' Am .Rec r Cor ,96 F. a 94,s alo Ge El c.Ca t lCom .v. r tai n l us .' ove v n. 3d t . ee s n. e pia UninCo . n Gp . 1 F. p' 1 0 1 2(t Ci. 0 5 ('h so o a mbirto ca s o m Fi. , 42 Ap x 5 , 5 4h r 2 0 ) s 'e c pe f n tain lu e ç l i o co r c c n e e t a diput a ii t ras cond c r c ,pr de t tt diput n ne nta t a xt nd o s e rsng mde e onta t ovi d ha he s e 'i fc ntyr lts't t trtag e men '( ttonomitd) sgniia l eae o he is r e t' ciai ) te . Appl ng t e pr nc pl s t c tc l yi hes i i e , he our onc udest tD o e Te l ol y' c a m saga ns t ha m c m og s l i i t he de e an s f l wihi t s o oft Sta e c Ali nc Ag e ments a bir ton ca e. The f nd t al t n he c pe he r t gi la e r e ' r ta i lus Sta e cAlinc Agr me f r t gi la e ee nt onne t ba i oft pa te r l tons p,a t pa te a z ed d he ss he ri s' e ai hi nd he ri s g e t ti wo l g v r terrlto hp a t erp rii to i t ea c ie t a d mep oe t. ha t ud o en h i eains i nd h i a t pain n h r htcurl o rj cs c The Sta e c Ali nce Agr e e e e sy c e aed t tDom e Te hnol a Gol r t gi la e m nt xpr s l ont mplt ha c ogy nd den Sa woul e t r i o t M a t r Subc r c orAgr e e a i vi nds d n e nt he se onta t e m nt nd ndi duals onta t on a ubc r c s p o e tb - rj c b ss Do Te l l g s cams a e ba e o God n S n s pa me t rj c-y p o e t a i. me cmo o y' li r s d n le a d ' y n oblga i unde t s nta t c e aed by t Sta eg cAlinc A g ee nt a wela i tons r he ubco r c s ont mplt he r t i la e r me , s l s ABC Do e 'gua a e oblgai unde Se ton 7. of t Sta e c Alince Agr e e m s r nte i tons r ci 1 he r t gi la e m nt6 Ac or ngl t c ta e wih t de e nt t tt sdiput i s t inty r a e t t c di y, he our gr es t he f nda s ha hi s e s ufk e l elt d o he Staeg cAlinceA g ee ts a t brng i wihi t s ope ofisa bir ton caus . To t r t i la r men o s o i t t n he c t r ta i l e he ext nt t t t r i a n bi uiy as t w he he t a bir ton c a e e om pas e D o e e ha he e s ny m g t o t r he r t a i l us nc ss m 6 As i ca e above, ABC Domes i not a pa t t any ot r contac,and t Skaegi Alince ndi t d s ry o he r t he t c la Agr m e i t onl contactt ti ee nt s he y r ha mpos paymentoblga i uponABC Dome es i tons s. Tecmol sc am s a do smus be r s ved i f vo ofa bir ton. Se Adki ,303 F. l ogy' l i , ny ubt t e ol n a r r ta i e ns 3d a 500. t C onc us on l i Fo t r a onssa e t c r wilgr ntt de e n s'm oton t c r he e s tt d, he ou t l a he f nda t i o ompela bir to r tai n. Thi aci n wilbe sa d pe ng t c s to l t ye ndi he omplton oft a bir to pr ee ngs pur ua t 9 ei he r tai n oc di , s nt o U. C. 3 Th c u t ld rc t eClr t co et ec s f ra miitai p r o e wihte S. j . e o r wil ie t h ek o ls h a e o d n srtve u p s s t h t r t ng t tet rsdem a movet r ope t c e f good c us mde sandi ha ihe i y o e n he as or a e. The Clr i die t d t s nd c e oft sm e and opi on a t a compa ng e k s r c e o e opi s hi mor um ni nd he c nyi l or rt a1co e ofr or de o 1 uns l ec d. DATED: i I Ths X d yo Jme 2017. a ft , Cii fUlie Stt Diti tJ le lt d aes src udge 16