Johnson et al v. Holmes, No. 3:2016cv00016 - Document 57 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 10/19/17. (hnw)
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CLERK' OFFI U.S. ST COURT S CE DI . AT F NOKE, G VA FIED L I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI CT RGW I A CHA RLO TTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI 02T 1S 2 1 27 JUL BY . : t . j s CL B I N CA J N SON a D ELM A R A OH nd CAN A DA , Pl i if , a ntf s Ci lA c i N o.3: 6CV 0001 vi ton 1 6 M EM ORANDUM OPI ON NI ANDREw HoLM Es,J OHN DOEs 1 3, d ALBEM ARLE cotm ry, r By: on. e E.Com'd H Gl n a Unie St t sDititJ t d a e src udge D e e nt . f nda s BincaJ hns a Dema Ca dafldt scvi rght a tonunde 42U. C.j1983 a o on nd l r na ie hi i l i s ci r S. a i tM d e H ol es a po i e of i e e pl ye by t A l m a l Count Polc De rm e ga ns rw m , lc f c r m o d he be re y i e pa t nt ( CPD' ' h e t n wn p lc o fc r ;a d Al mal Co n y (ç Comt ' . Th a to ; W ' t re mk o oie fie s n be re u t Ghe t y' ) t l e cin a e f om H ol e ' e f r s t s a c t pl i i f ' r s de e f l i a t a f c s op. The ds s r m s f o t o e z h he a ntf s e i nc olow ng r f i t pl n if c a m t tH ol e e ge i r ci lpr ii i vi a i oft EqualPr t c i Cl us ai tf s l i ha m s nga d n a a of lng n ol ton he o e ton a e o teFo re nhAme me ta dt tt Comt i s b e t omlncpa l b l yf r h alg d f h u te t nd n n ha he t y s u j c t lii l i ii o t e le e a t vo ain. Home a d te Comt h v mo e f r s mmay j d me t Fo t e f l wig ilto l s n h t y a e v d o u r u g n . r h ol n o r as , hem o i wilbegr nt d i pa ta de e i pa t e ons t ton l a e n r nd nid n r. Backcround The f l ng f c sa e et rt s e o pr en e i t lgh m os f vor bl t t olowi a t r ihe mdiput d r es t d n he i t t a a e o he Johnson et al v. Holmes plitfs S eAn es nv. b ry Lo b . nc, 7U. 2 2 2 5 ( 9 6 ;Li ra in P ry o an if. e d ro Lie t b v I .47 S. 4 , 5 1 8 ) betra a t f Doc. 57 Va. J 718F. 308,31 (t Ci. 3) v. udd, 3d 3 4h r 201 . 1 . TheTr fi Stpa Sub e n S a c o iePlitfs Rei n e afc o nd sque t e rh f h anif' sde k On t a tr n of A prl 26,201 H ol e ,w ho i Ca a i n,was on dut as a pa r he fe noo i 4, m s s uc s a y t ol o t e f t ACPD . Hi ( an goa't tda wa t us tr fi e or m e t... sat lt do fk r or he sç i m l'ha y s o e ç a fc nf ce n t a oo o Dockets.Justia.com ci n litr ito ' Home De .2 7 Do ke No.4 - .s e as i .(x lii g ta l u rmia n edcin. ' l s p 2, c t 9 1 e lo d e p an n h t d , yo utlze ta fc lws dif r t i r to of t ta fc lws t i ta e sops o peo e a do ii r fi a , fe en nfaci ns he r fi a o nii t t n pl nd ci nalntr ito 'o çhegn o ci nalee nty'ncudngt r tcs). Ac r i t rmi i e dcin'f r t mut f rmi lme s'i l i G coi ' t na co dng o Hol s s hwor i ne esaybe a eEg oonedrvesaot wihsgnsont sdeoft rc r me , uc k s c s r c us çnj i r md t i he i hei a t ts y t ' ca ng dr .' I ha a l m nyi ugs '' d. Hol pa ke hi par ve cl i t paki 1 ofa Supe 8 mot lon Gr e i rDrve mes r d s tol hi e n he r ng ot r e e nbre i i Ch ro ts il,Vigni,wh r t eACPD Ge ld t ha i ie t'' vovn ( ac tc n alte vle r i a ee h s nd e ) o ve ncd n s'n l ig G ro is t i n aci te . I a 13. The mot li l t a r st sr e f o a 7- e n con ninc so e. tvii s' d. t ' e s ocaed c os he te t r m El ve ve e e t r Asp r o hsci n ln edcinef rs Home r nt elc ns plts(rSa s' o ve ce i at f i rmia itr ito fo t, l s a h ie e ae o t g ' f hils n t ) t epakn lt o b t b i se tz ug t Vign aCrmi a If nnainNewo k(( N' h r ig o s f o h usne s s h o h he r ii i n l n o to t r & VC1 ' ) sys em . t Ata p o maey 543p. , fe r n ngt tj o s v r loh rv h ce , l sr n p rxi tl : m.a tr u ni he a s n e ea t e e ils Ho me a t t o aBM W 7- e i s anwih t lc ns plt num be W ZA5310. Hol e la ne t t he ag n s res ed t he i e e ae r m s e r d ha t ve cewa r gitr dt Binc J hns n. Hol r m e r dhe rng a he hi l s e se e o a a o o mes e mbe e a i boutapr vi c l e ous a l f r s r i i vi J o e v ce nvol ng ohns a he hus nd or boyf i nd. A t t t tm e H ol es s a c d on nd r ba re ha i , m e r he r oh rpoie d tb s t c e k f rid vd aslle wih J l o . Home ds o e e t a n t e lc aa a e o h c o n i iu l ik d t oms n r l s ic v r d h t . Dema Ca d wa lse a a S s o it'o J h o Home De l ! 6 Do k tNo. 6 2. l r na a s it d s n t s cae' f o ns n. l s c. , c e a 4Hol e r membe ed he rng Ca m se r ai nada snn i r a i t t pr vi uscalf s l c . He a s ' me n elton o he e o l or ewi e lo r c le hea i t tCa a' lce e wass pe d. Hol c ike on ahype lnk as oca e e a ld rng ha nad s i ns us nde mes lc d ri s it d w ih Ca da' na e a w a a e t s e a pho og a of Ca da. H e l a ne t t Ca da' t na s m nd s bl o e t r ph na e r d ha na s drve ' lc ns ha be n s pe i r s i e e d e us nded f f ii t pa c l s or a lng o y hid uppor . t A ts e poi d i t tpr s ,a A f i an- ne i n m a e t t 7- e n a go om nt urng ha oce s n rc O rca n xied he El ve nd t i t d i r s s a oft BM W s dan. H ol e m a c d t phot r ph f om t polce da a s n he r ve ' e t he e m s t he he og a r he i t ba e t t ma who e t r t ve ce a dee ne t Ca o he n n e ed he hi l nd t nni d hat nada wast drve . Cons que l he i r e nty, afe Ca da e t t 7- e pa ki 1 ta t ne on t Gr nbr e D rve H ol e i ta e a t r na xied he El ven r ng o nd ur d o ee i r i , m s nii t d t a fc s op oft ve c e. Ca da i m e a e y pule i t t pa li l ofa ne r busne s r fi t he hi l na m di t l l d n o he rcng ot a by i s , w he e t s op w a c r he t s onduc e t d. Ther c di e pm e i Hol s'par lc rca ur t ta t so on vi * Afe e or ng qui nt n me to a pt ed he r fk t p deo. tr a oa hi t ve ce, m e a ke Ca ppr c ng he hi l Hol s s d nadawhy hewa o drvi a i br e hi t thi s ut i ng nd nt m d m ha s lce ewa s pe d. I r s i ns s us nde n e pons ,Ca e nadai c t d t thewasnot'wa et tli lce ewas ndi a e ha à r ha ls i ns s pe us nded a t theha no r eved a pa r k ad sng hi o t s pe i nd ha d t ec i ny pe wor vii m f he us nson. Ca da na a s d Ho me t theha pr vi l pad $1500. t ge hi lce eba k afe f lngt m a dvie l s ha d e ousy i , 00 o t s i ns c tr aii o ke c l s ppo tpa e s Hom es s e nty i r d a t wheher Cana ha t velc e hid u r ym nt . l ubs que l nquie s o t da d he iil r gita i He t n c e sr ton. he omm e t o t l r sze ofCa n ed n he a ge i nada s c l phone a pe e i o t ' el nd er d nt he wi w oft ve c e. Sho ty t r afe ,a dipa c rr di Hol e a a s d hi t t ndo he hil rl he e tr s the a oed m s nd dvi e m ha $ ' r c ds i ca ed t tCa e or ndi t ha nada' lc ns had be n s pe d o M a c 28,201 and t tnotc s ie e e us nde n r h 3, ha ie ha be n de i r vi fr tc a smai. I t m e ntme,Ca daco a t d J d e lve ed a is l s l n he a i na nt c e ohns a a r nged on nd z a f he t brngt ve cer itai n t t s e oft ta fcsop. W hiewatng f rJ or r o i he hi l eg sr to o he c ne he r fi t l ii o ohns n, o Hol e r t e t hi par ve de. m s eum d o s tol hi S vea miue ltr j s b f r J h s n a v d Home rtr d t Ca d ' v h ce e rl n ts ae , u t eo e o n o ni e , l s eu ne o na as e il a i r d a t how m uc he silo d f c l s ppor. Hol e ane t tCa nd nquie s o h tl we or hid u t mes xpli d ha nada s ' lc ns w a s ils pe d d t f ii t m a c l s i e e s tl us nde ue o a lng o ke hid uppor pa m e s A tt tpoi , ohns n t y nt . ha nt J o ar i at t scene of t t af i sop w ih t ve cl r sra i rved he he r fc t t he hi e egi t t on. Johnson, w ho i al s so Af i a A m e i a was drvi a BM W s tutlt ve cl H ol e a s d t m t tCa da r c nr c n, i ng por iiy hi e. m s dvi e he ha na w oul no be alow e t d i t BM W s da f om t s e d t l d o rve he e n r he c ne. #Thecour ha r vi t s e ewed t vi whih i desgna e asDef nt 'Exhi t4,Doc tN o.46he deo, c s i t d enda s bi ke 4. W hieHol wa t l ngt Ca l mes s aki o nadaal J rd ohns n,af m ae o fc ra oa he J hns s o e l fi e ppr c d o on' ve ce. Afe Hol ans r que tonsfom J hi l tr mes we ed si r ohns n r ga di t ba i f t so a t o e r ng he ss or he t p nd he m am e i whi h H ol e ha de e m i d t t Ca da' lc ns w a s pe d,H ol e a t l rn c m s d t r ne ha na s i e e s us nde m s nd he f m a eofi e r tu dt t par ve cl W hiet r t f m aeofi ro e ve t tCa da e l fc r e tme o he tol hi e. l he e,he e l fce bs r d ha na w a d i ng a ç c c r ' Se V i ofTr f i St 1 1 I r s s r vi s e a. ni ' e deo a fc op 3: 6. n e pons , ol e no e t ti w a e H m s t d ha t s an C xpe i c r' 1 a 1 20. s nsve a . d. t 3: e ' J ohns n s e pty a oa hed Hol e pa r ve c e a r quesed Hol 'badge o ubs que l ppr c m s' tol hil nd e t mes nlm be a abusne sc r whi hhega he . Afe s wakeda y fom t ve c e Hol s l r nd i s a d, c ve r tr he l wa r he hil , me comme e t t f ma eofi e t tJ ms wa pr bl ups tbec us heha nm t t gson nt d o he e l fc r ha ol on s oba y e a e d he a t ve c e Ca da w a drvi he hi l na s i ng. H ol e not d t the di no c r i J m s e ha d t a e f ohns w a ups t on s e . Att co l i oft tafi so Hol e i s Ca da a s he ncuson he r fc t p, m s s ued na umm onsf d i ng on a or rvi s pe d lc ns A fe goi ove t sz m ons wih hi ,H ol e e a ned t t i Ca us nde i e e. t r ng r he lm t m m s xpl i ha f nada t c e oft c l s ook ar he hid uppor pa e s a go hi lc ns bac f o t D e rm e o M o or t ym nt nd t s i e e k r m he pa t nt f t Ve ils (DM V',t e sae c u t mih r d c t c r e t d ii wi u a lc n e h ce $ ç ' h tt o r g t e u e he hag o rvng t t ie s . ) ho Folo i t tafi s op,H ol e r n a tona lc ns pl t s t ough t V CI s t m . l w ng he r f c t m s a ddii l i e e a e hr he N ys e At s e po n t r fe ,Hol c aced a s r ior wih t J fe s Ar a Dr om i t he eal r mes ont t upe v s t he e f r on e ug En o c me t (J f r e n C ADE' ts f r e a d i ur d a t wheh r te e wee a y a tv d g I ' a k oc n nq ie s o ) t e h r r n cie nl i si tons i vi Ca da. The s pe vior ad s Hol e t t Ca da' nn e wa nve tga i nvol ng n u rs vied m s ha na s m s f m iirbutt thewasnoti vedi a ope i si tonsby t t k f ce a la ha nvol n ny n nve tga i he as or . O n A pr l27,201 H ol esa i f r aw a r ntt s a c t pl i if r i nc f t i 4, m ppled o r a o e r h he a ntf s' es de e or he s pe i notfc ton pa r k t tpur t dl ha be n m a l d t Ca us ns on i i a i pe wor ha por e y d e ie o nada I t a fda t . n he f i vi s it d i s ppo toft s a c w a r nt H ol e s a ed t tt s a c w a r que t d i r a i ubm te n u r he e r h r a , m s t t ha he e r h s e s e n el ton 4 t t ofns o So p rtn amoo ve il o t ep bi r a wa so t Co n at whl o he fe e f t j eaig l t r hce n h u lc o d y f he mmo we 1 i h e lc n eo p iie et d ieha b e s p nd di vo ain o Vigni g o e462- 01' Af. ie s r rv lg o rv s e n us e e n ilto f r i a q d . 3 . f ' f r Sea c W a r nt D oc tN o.46- The s a c w a r ntw a i s d by a m ag s r t t t s m e o r h r a , ke 5. e r h ra s s ue i t a e ha a da Thewa r rtdie t d ofi e st çf t t s a c 'hepl i if r sde ,iihe i da or y. ral r c e fc r o torhwih e r h't antfs' e i nce Get r n y ni ht' f t C pa t e of M o orVe ces s pe i n notfcai n f r f Dem a Ge g ' or he t De rm nt t hi l us nso ii to o m or l r ne Ca da. Se r h W a r t Doc tNo. 5. na ' a c ' ran , ke 46Alhoug Hol t h mes ha pr ousy is d ct to t ove 50 pe e f d i ng o a d evi l s ue iai ns o r opl or rvi n s pe us nded lce e he ha ne ra i f ,or e c e a wa r ntt s a c f a s pe i i ns , d ve ppled or xe ut d, ra o e r h or us nson ' no i e f om t DM V . Li w i e,t r i no e de t t a tc r he ke s he e s vi nce ha nyone e s i t A CPD ha t ke l e n he d a n ? s c a to Se Ru e 3 ( )6 De o Liue a t Darl By r 78 Do k t No 49 7 u h cin. e l 0 b ( ) p. f e tn n rel e s , c e . (c n wldgn ta ted p n n h dn ve o tie awarn t sa c f raDM V n tfc to a k o e i g h t h e o e t a e r ban d ra t o e r h o oiiain f m i hi 1 ye r a a polc of i r a t the di notknow ofa ot rof i e who had done or n s 8 a s s i e fce , nd ha d ny he f c r s ) Home camst a h h dln n dfo a t e o fc r oha atn e S o s r o g ng o . l s li h t e a e r e r m noh r fie wh d te d d t me o t f a s tanig'h tsbanln )s ac warn sgn rfrn et d ii s pe d dn tfc to s' o l ri n 't a E ti ig e rh ra t ij eee c o rvng us n e oiiain 'c u d o be us d S s par of a i s i tve t . H ol e D e 51. I t s pa tc a c e H o m es e t a t n nve tga i ool' ' m s p. n hi r i ul r as , l b le e tha teewa ap si it t a ge wo l fn s men r oisi sd g ep anif' eiv d s t h r s o sbl y h t h ) ud id o ac tc n i e t litfs) t i h rsd n e' Home De 6 s e as i a 68 (Th war n wa o tie a p r o a e ie c . ' l s p. 7; e lo d. t t e ra t s b an d s a t f n i tga i n i r f e e t t d i ng s pe d notfca i nves i to n e er nc o he r vi us nde ii t on. W a t r a pos i lt t t1w a s he e s biiy ha s goi t fndnac isi i t tr i nc Yes sr' . ng o i rotc nsde ha esde e? , i.) ' H ol e a t o ot ro fc r e ut d t s a c war a fve da l t r afe 11: p. . m s nd w he f i e s xec e he e r h r nt i ys a e , t r 00 m o a Frda ni . D urng t s a c H ol e m a c m e sa n i y ght i he e r h, m s de om nt boutt m one t the l t d i he y ha oca e n t rsde e. Uli tl hea t ot ryfie sdi notfndt DM V notc o a nacoi . he e i nc tmaey, nd he he fc r d i he ie r ny r tcs Pr ort l avi t pl i if r s de e H ol esr t e Ca da' dr ve ' lc ns t hi . i o e ng he a ntf s' e i nc , m e unz d na s i r s i e e o m I. I St i tca Evi nc ats i l de e Hol e wa o di rl a sgne t s c o s1a 2 oft ACPD t nior Theta fcsop m s s r na iy s i d o e t r nd he e t y. r fi t a s e nts a c occ r d wihi t e s t r Acc di t saitca daa g ne a e by nd ubs que e r h ure t n hos ec o s. or ng o t tsi l t e r t d t ACPD,t po a i ofs t r 1ard2 i 68.4% whiea 1 21 blck. Thepopul i he he pulton ec o s l s 0 t nd 8. % a aton oft e ie c t t i 80. he ntr o m' s 56% whie a 9. y t nd 69% bl k. ac The r c d i udesar c a br akdo oft s e or ncl a il e wn he ummons / t i is d by Hol e i esciatons s ue m sn ye r 2009t ough201 a ar cal e kdownoft a r s sm a byHol e dlrngt ed me as hr 6, nd a i br a he r e t de m s zi hos n ye r . For al of t o he ofk e s a sgne t s t s 1 a 2,t r or i l as 1 he t r t r s i d o ecor nd he ec d ncudes a r c a a il br a e kdown oft i ct tonsa m'essi 2015. her iai nd r t n Fr 2009t oug 201 Hol e is d 655 s mons s Oft e 46. we ei s d om hr h 6, m s s ue um e. hos , 56% r s ùe t bl c i vi l a 53.3% we e is t whie i vi uas Dtrngt s petm epe i o a k ndi duas nd 1 r s ued o t ndi d l. li he a i rod, Hol s m a 330 a r ss Oft i vi l ar se 60. me de ret. he ndi duas r e td, 30% we e bl c a 39. r a k, nd 70% we e r whie. t I 201 t o y ye rt tda a w as pr ded f a 1of e s a s g d t s c or 1 a 2, n 5, he nl a ha t ovi or l ic r s i ne o e t s nd Hol is d sl ons st 9 i viua s Oft e 51. mes s ue lmm e o 2 ndi d l . hos , 09% we e bl c a 47: r a k nd 83% we e r whie. Tha s m eye r Hol e m ade67 a r s s Oft i vi ua s a r s e 59. w e e bl c t ta a, m s re t. he ndi d l r e t d, 70% r a k M- a 40. w e e w hie. nd 30% r t A 1 o t ot rA CPD of i r as i 1 f he he fce s s gned t s c o s 1 a 2 i s a t t lof285 s m ons s o e t r nd s ued o a um e i 2015. Of t e 21. n hos , 75% w e e i s d t bl k i vi s a 73. r s ue o ac ndi dual nd 68% w e e i s d t whie r s ue o t i vi l . Tha s e ye r a 1oft o he ofi e s a s g d t s c or 1 a 2 m a a t alof ndi dua s t nm a, 1 he t r fc r s i ne o e t s nd de ot 207 a r s s Oft i vi ua s a r t 38. 6% w e e bl c a 60. re t . he ndi d l r esed, 1 r a k nd 87% w e e w hie. r t 6 11 1. The A CPD ' Polc s and R es S ie pons s t C om pl nt e o ai s I 200 t ACPD a pt d apolc on t asbas polcng. Se ACPD Rul 1 05 a 1 n 2,he do e i y ç - ed ii ' ç bi ' e - t, Doc tNo.46- 1 The pup os oft polc wa t ma cea t ts h polcng,de i d a ke 1. e he i y s o ke l r ha uc ii fne s dth d tnin,ne dcin o oh rdà a aete t n o a ype s n o t s l b sso ter t l e ee to itr ito r te ip rt r ame t f n ro n he oe a i f h i l r calorehni sa usorc r c e itc ,'i ç ai t c tt ha a t rsis' s l c pt bl .' l Thepolcy e unac e a e' d. i mpha iest ta l sz ha 1 c tz ns ha çhe rg t e lpr e to und rt lw' a Chef nda e a rg t bef e ii e ve E i ht o qua ot ci n t e he a ' nd i u m nt l i ht o ' e t r fo unr as bl s ar hesa s i e by gover nta nt , a t tt ACPD t sc r d rm e ona e e c nd ezur s nme ge s' nd ha he ' t ha ge i wihpr e tng t e rght,f al,r ga dls o r c .... I at2. t otc i hes i s or l e r e s f a e ' d. ' Bewe n 2011 a Aprl 26, 201 t A CPD r c ved fve compl i s fom t e nd i 4, he e ei i ant r Afi a Ame i a ctze al gi t t Hol e ha e ged i r c al bis polcng. rc n- rc n ii ns le ng ha m s d nga n a i ly- a ed ii A c or ng t t de e nt ,a 1oft co pl n s w e e de enni d t be t m f m de orH ol e c di o he f nda s 1 he m ai t r t ne o l ot d t m s wa e n rtd' By r De l!6 Do ke No 4 - 0 s xo eae . ' es c. , c t . 6 1 . Afe t s j c sop and s ac t ACPD rceved a c an fom t pli if tr he ub e t t e rh, he e i omplit r he antfs al gi t tHol e ha e ge i r ilpr ii le ng ha m s d nga d n aca oflng. Se ge ntGr g Da swasa nt a t r a e vi ppoi ed s he i tgai ofi r Da si ewiweds ve al ndi d l, ncud ngt pli if , m e , nd nvesi tng fce . vi nt l e e r i vi uas i l i he antfs Hol s a t o he t o ic r who a sse Hol e i e c i t s a c w ar nt Da sf md t t he t r wo f e s s it d m s n xe utng he e r h ra . vi ot ha Ho mesha acedi o ry i r tm lngCa l d t mpr pe l n et i nada' drve ' lc ns r t rt n s itngi t t s i rs i e e ahe ha ubm ti t o he DM V ,a by f lng t c pl t a i i nd aii o om e e n nc dentr po ta r qui e i a l c s i vi a s a c e r s e r d n 1 a es nvol ng e r h war nt I hi i si to r por, vi as not dt t hetm i oft exe uton o t s a c ra . n s nve tgai n e tDa s lo e ha t i ng he c i f he e r h w a r ntç ul be s r tni d t be m or co i r t w hie s r ng l r s s a c wa r nt f r ra s d co c u i ze o e ns de a e l e vi ow ik e r h r a s o pe s l pa r .' I e na hw e tga i R e t a 8, D oc t N o. 46- . D a s uli a e y r ona pe s ' nt r l s i ton por t ke 1 vi tm t l 1 de e m i how e r t tHol e ha note ged i bi - ed polci t r ned, ve , ha m s d nga n as bas i ng. 7 Ad iin l iiinc mplit weeld e a an t l satrtes b e tn ie t S e dto a cvla o an s r o g d g is Home fe h u j c icd n . e D a s D e 54- D oc t N o. 4 - 4 (c n wld ig ta te d j rme trc ie a t tlo vi p. 55 ke ' 9 1 a k o e gn h t h e a t n e ev d oa f ee e c mplit i 20 4 a d attlo sve i 2 5 . Ho v r t r c r i d v i o a y lv n o an s n 1 n oa f e n n 01 ) we e, he e o d s e od f n de a l co e ni t s e ntco ait . Ac or ng t t de e t is nc r ng he ubs que mpl n s c di o he f ndant,no oft m we e s ne he r s t ne us ai d. 17 5. T e t m onv f si rom O t r I vi s he ndi dual The pl n if ha aitfs ve ofe e de l r to fr d c a a ins or de ii t tmony f o poston esi rm o he t r Af i a A m e i a i vi ua s who we e s oppe by H ol e w hie drvi e nsve l ng r c nr c n ndi d l r t d m s l i ng xpe i -ooki ve c e The i vi l m ai t n t tt y w e e s o d f r no vald r as a t tH ol es hi l s. ndi dua s n ai ha he r t ppe o i e on nd ha m e a r d t s a c t i ve c e wihoutpr nde vo e o e r h he r hi l s t obabl c us . e a e Addii ly,bo h sd ha pr de exc p t fom Pa ea Gr e tona l t i es ve ovi d e s r m l e nwood' de ii n. s posto Gr nwoodwo ke a apo i ofi e f t ACPD fom 1 t i 201 Ats m epoi dlrng ee r d s lce fc r or he r 997 mtl 2. o nt zi hi l s fe he t e Gr e ood he r ofi e s us r i s urx a w ines e of i e s s op ve c e a t r r enur , e nw a d f c r e ac al l s nd t s d f è r t c m e i o t r ce oft drve . H o e r G r e ood c d notr ca lt s cik pe i om ntng n he a he i r w ve , e nw oul e l he pe f rod oftmei whihs hi i nt oc re SeeGr nwoodDe 1 Doc tNo. 1 (ûsop d i n c uc ncde s cu rd. ee p. 4, ke 49- 5 GI t pe e xposng mys l t c ran pe et r s i c dha gone o up untlllf,butIco dn' t l i e f o e ti opl he e, o t oul ve n i et ul t el y u.) Gr e wo d tsiid t a s e dd n trp r t i ie t t h g rr n i o fc r o ' . e n o etfe h t h i o e o t he ncd n s o ihe-a kng fies ' be us s di notwa tt de lwih a G ga i c ns nce . 1 a 16. Gr e ca e he d n o a t ny t tve o eque s' d. t ne ' e nwood alo s t si t ts ne rwines e Hol e s ak ne tvey ofa he r ce e tfed ha he ve t s d m s pe ga i l not r a . ProceduralH i orv st I Fe u y of201 J n br ar 6, ohns a Ca on nd nada fl d s taga ns H ol e i t Cic tCour of ie ui i t m s n he r ui t A l m a l Co mt H ol e r m o d t c e t t s c t on t bas s o f de a que to i be re t y. m s e ve he as o hi our he i f e r l s i r j rs ito u e 2 U. C. 1 31 u idcin nd r 8 S. j 3 . 8 On Aprl 8 201 t pl i if fl d a a e d c i , 6, he antfs ie n m nde ompl i a ns Hol e ,t e ant gai t m s hr e u k o poieo fc r,a d Al mal Co n y a srig camsu d r42U. C.j 1 8 . I n n wn l fies n be re u t , se t li n e c n S. 93 n Co n 1 t p anif alge ta Home ç i ltd g i)rg t p oe t d b t Fo rh a d u t , he litfs le d h t l s t oae t r ih s r t ce y he u t n v he Fouree h Am e t nt ndme st t Unied Stt sConsiuton t befe fom unr as bl s ar he .' nt o he t a e tt i o r e r e ona e e c s' Am. mp . 2 , c e No. 0. I Co n I,heplitfsalg dt a Home G iltd ( er Co l! 2 Do k t 2 n u t 1t an if le e h t l s s oae t iq v h rg s pr e t by t Fouth a Fo te h Ame m e s ...t be fe fom lnr as iht ot ced he ' nd ure nt t nd nt o r e r l e onabl e s iu e 'b ' ezn t eplitfsi o d rt c nd ta u ra o bl s ac ' J. ! 2 . I ez r s' y ' iig h an if n r e o o uc n n e s na e e rh. #a 6 n s ' Comt11t epanif a sre t thec n u td s rb d i tec pp an S iltdEh ijrg t t 1,h litfs se td ha t o d c e cie n h o lit ç oae ter ih v t e u l p oe to o t 1w a g aa te b t e Fo re n h Ame d n . 1 .! 28 o q a r tcin f he a s u rn e d y h u te t n me t' d ' . S e iial ,h panif alg dt tCth a piainf rasa c war n i t i c s a dt e p cfc ly te li tfs le e ha t q e p lc to o e rh ra t n hs a e n h l s ac is l weemo iae ,n sg iia tp r, y gh ij a e' I . 1 e rh tef r tv td i in fc n a tb t er r c . d ! 9. ' Hol sa t Comt mo dt dimist a ndedc antt rRul 1 b)6)of me nd he t y ve o s sl he me ompli mde e 2( ( t Fe r Rul ofCi lPr ed e. On Se e be 6,201 t m oto wasgr nt d i pa ta he de al es vi oc ur pt m r 6, he i n a e n r nd de e i pa'. The c tco l ni d n t t our nc uded t tH ol e w a e tted t qua ii i m uniy o t Fourh ha m s s n il o lfed m t n he t Am e ndme c am sa ii fom t is ncea e c i n oft s a c wa r nt snc i c d nt l i rsng r he s ua nd xe uto he e r h ra , i e t oul no be s i t t Hol e vi aed t pl i if ' ce ry esa ihed rght t r t Fourh t a d ha m s olt he antfs la l t bls i s mde he t Am e ndme . Howe r t t e e t pl ntfsal ge t tt s a ch oft i r i nc was nt ve , o he xt nt he ai if le d ha he e r her esde e r c al m otvae t c thel t t t pl ntf s sa e a plusbl e l pr eci n ca m a i ly i td, he our d ha he ai if tt d a i e qua ot to li a i tH o m e . Li w i e t co t l t tt n e d c m pl i s tf t s fci ntf c st ga ns l s ke s , he ur he d ha he m nde o a nt e orh uf i e a t o s a e a c a m f m uni i lla lt a i tt Co mt t t l i or c pa i biiy ga ns he t y. Folo i t c pl ton of di co r H ol e a t Cot t m ove f s m a y l w ng he om e i s ve y, m s nd he my d or um r j udgme ont rmai ng cams The c thel ahe rng on t moton on Se e r21, nt he e ni li . our d ai he i ptmbe 201 The m oto ha be n f ly bre e a i rpe f rr vi w . 7. i n s e u l i f d nd s i o e e 9 St andar o R e e d f vi w Rul 5 öft Fe r Rul s of Ci lPr e e pe mis a pa t t move f sl a y e 6 he de al e vi oc dur r t ry o or lmm r I j d me t çl ec u thal rn s mmayj d me t f h mo a t h wsta t eei n g n n u g n . d- o r s lg a t u r u g n i t e v n s o h t h r s o e uie -h dipuea t a ymaeil a t n t mo a t se tte t j d me t sama tro lm ' Fe R. s t s o n tra fc a d he v n i n ild o u g n a te f a ' d. Ci P. 6a . I d cdn wh t r og a t s mmayj d me tmo in tec u t t iw t e v. 5 () n e i ig ehe t rn a u z u g n to ,h o r mus v e h r c d i t lghtm os f vor bl t t nonm ovi pa te ,a dr w a1 r s na e i e e e i e or n he i t a a e o he ng ri s nd a l ea o bl nf r nc s n t rf vor Ande s 477 U. a 255;Li rara ' ry ofVa. 718 F. a 31 The c u' hei a . r on, S. t be t in Pa t , 3d t 2. ot t ç n twe g t e de eorm a c e biiyde e mi tons' J obsv. . Adm i Ofieof l nno i h he vi nc c ke r di lt t r nai . ac ' N C. n. fc t Co rs 78 F.d5 2, 6 (t Ci. 1 ) l u t, 0 3 6 5 8 4h r 20 5 . w D i cuss on s i Seci 1 i e cvilabiiyo a pes naci t rc orofsaelw t de i ton 983 mpos s i li lt n ny r o tng mde ol tt a o prve a he pe s o t r ght a prviege s c e by t Cons iuto a t l w s oft Unied not r r on f he i s nd i l s e ur d he tt i n nd he a he t S ae . 4 U. C. 1 3. Th p an if cam t tHome ' cinsi s c rn a de e ui a tty 2 S. j 98 e litfs li ha l s a to n e u ig n x c t ng wa r ntt s a c t i r sde r s t fo r c a pr ii i vi a i oft Equa Pr eci n ra o e r h he r e i nce e uled r m a i l oflng n olton he l ot to Clus o t Fouree t Am e a e f he t nh ndme . Thepl i if s e t hol Hol e a t Co mt la e nt antfs e k o d m s nd he t y i bl f t alege vi a i or he l d ol ton. 1. E qualProt i Cl m Azai H ol e. ect on ai nst m I i we le tbls d t tt Eq lPr t to Cl us pr hi t o fc r fom s l ci l t s l sa ihe ha he ua o eci n a e o bis fi e s r e e tvey e f ri lwsb s do r c . W h e v. ie S ae , 7U. 8 6 81 ( 9 6 . e as So v n o cng a a e n a e z n Untd tts 51 S. 0 , 3 1 9 ) s e lo w . , Forvil Polc De t 636 F. 293, 303 ( h Ci.2011 (f il pr ii or s e tve t le ie p', 3d 7t r ) t a oflng, elci Rac e ore ntoft lw,i avi ai oft Equa Pr e tonClus '. l i alowelstldt t nf c me he a s olton he l otci a e.) t s s l e te ha ' G he r g t eq lpr t to m a bevi a e e n i t a tonsoft polce a e a e a e unde s i ht o ua o ec i n y t ol t d ve f he c i he i r cc pt bl r t Fo t Ame me . M arhalv. umbi Le Re lHos ,3 F. 11 11 ( 0t Ci. he urh nd nt' ' s l Col a a z' p. 45 3d 57, 66 1 h r 10 2 0 ) s eas Untd Sae v Av r ,1 7F.d3 3, 5 (t Ci. 9 7 CTh Eq a Pr tcin 0 3 ; e lo ie tts . e y 3 3 4 3 2 6h r 1 9 ) e u l oe to Cl us oft Foure nt Ame e pr de ctze a de e ofpr eci n i pe ntoft a e he te h ndm nt ovi s ii ns gr e ot to nde nde he Fo rhAme me t r tcina is u ra o a l s a c e a ds iu e .) ut nd n p o e to gan t n e s n b e e r h s n ez rs' . ' El r quie e s f a cai ofr c al s l tve 1 w e or eme dr w o wha t s- e r m nt or l m -he a i ly eeci a nf c nt a n t he Supr m e Co thas c le t r i r e lpr t ton sa r .' M a s l,345 F. a 11 e ur al d o d na y qua o eci t nda ds'' r ha l 3d t 68 ( u tn Untd S ae v Ar to , 7U. 45 , 6 ( 9 6) Top e i o s hcam, h q oig ie tts . msr nc 51 S. 6 4 5 1 9 ). rval n uc li t e pli if mus pr tha t de e antfs t ove s t he f ndan ' a tonshad adic i i t r e f ta we em o i t d t ts c i s rm na o y fec nd r tvae N by adic i naor pur e' 1 Pl ntfs( n de s rmi t y pos .' d. ai if t ca monsr t dic i i t y e f c byna nga ta e s rm na or fe t mi s m ia l s m a ed i vi l who w as not i s i t d or t o h t us of s a i tc l or o he i l ry i t ndi dua nve tga e hr ug he e t ts i a t r e de e whih i r s est c c a quesi ofwhehe one cl s i beng te t d dif r n l vi nc c add e s he nzi l ton t r as s i r a e fe e ty f om a t rcl s t ti o he wi e s m ia l s t t '' Fa m Labo Or Com m . Ohi St t r no he as ha s t r s i l z y iua ed.' r r 2. v. o a e Hih yPar l 3 8F.d5 3 5 4( t Ci. 0 )(uoigCha e v 11S aePo ie 251F.d c wa to , 0 3 2 , 3 6h r 20 2 q tn v z . 1. tt lc , 3 61 , 3 (t Ci. 0 ); e as UntdS ae v. a i5 7F. p' 9 1 9 6(0h Ci. 01 ) 2 6 8 7h r 2 01) s e lo ie tts Alb , 9 Ap x 9 , 9 1 t r 2 5 (de iyi çhr eposi emehodsofpr ng dici nao y efc i as e tvee ore nt i ntf ng t e sbl t t ovi s rmi tr fe t n elci -nf c me c e:saitc le de ;t i n iia i ofasm ia l stz t d i vi ua who c d ha be n, as t tsi a vi nce he de tfc ton i lry it e ndi d l a oul ve e butwa notso d a a r se a i c rai cr lm sa es a dot e de ee t bls nga s t ppe nd r e t d; nd, n e t n icl t nc , nec al vi nc sa ihi n o fc rs p ten o smia ds rmi aoy b h v o '. To stsy t d s rmi aoy p po e fie ' al r f i lr ici n tr e a ir' ) aif he ici n tr ur s pr t pli if m us pr vet tt aci nst ke agans t m we em o i t d,a las i pa t ong, he antfs t o ha he to a n i t he r tva e t e t n r, by r c a a m us Se M a s l,345 F. a 1168. A di c i i t r pur e S a of e be a i l ni . e r ha l 3d t s r m na o y pos i y t n m i er dfo t ttlt oft rlva f t,i l ngt f c,i i i t e t tg prci jbe r nfre r m he oaiy he ee nt acs ncudi he a t ft s nz,ha a a tce a s mo e h a l o o e rc t a a oh r' W a hnzo v.Da i,42 U. 2 9 2 2 ( 9 6 . r e vi n n a e h n n te . y ' si tn vs 6 S. 2 , 4 1 7 ) Csi ia l apolceof i e ' pa t r oft a fc s o and a r s s hi ques i a s a e e st t i m l z y, i f c r s t e n r f i t ps ret, s tons nd t t m nt o he pe s i ve and ot rr e ntc r umsanc s may s ppo ta i e enc of dic i naor r ons nvol d, he elva ic t e u r n nf r e s rmi t y pu pos i t sco e . M a s l, F. a 1168. z e n hi nt xt' ' r ha l 345 3d t Towihsa ml r j me t t pli if aeno r uiedt c l i l pr t t tnd mmay udg n ,he antfs r t eq r o oncusvey ove he es e ile e nt oft requa pr t to c am . I t ad,t y < tpr s nte de f o s nta l me s hei l o eci n l i nse he i mus e e vi nce r m wh c a jzy c ud r a o a l ifr ta gh d fn a twa )moi t d b a d srmi tr ih l o l e s n b y n e h t t e ee d n s tvae y ici nao y r p z s a d g thi)a to sh d a d srmi t r efc. L s e as Bi hn v Ci o u po e n t ha s cin a ici nao y fe t' i; e lo na m . t f ' v M n h ta Be c ,3 F.d 9 9 9 9 (t Ci. 0 )(To a i s mma' j dg n , n ha n atn a h 41 3 3 , 4 9h r 20 2 C vod u l u me t Bi g m ç y mus pr ee de e s fce t pe m i ar a o bl tiroff tt fnd by apr ponde a eof t oduc vi nc ufi int o r t e s na e re ac o i e r nc t ee ie et a g q e iin. . sr cal moi ae .)(i to a ditr a q o ainmaks h v d nc h t t d cso . wa a il tv td' ct in n n en l u tto r he y ' a o te ) M a t v. z r 8 2F.S p 2 8 , 41( M d 2 2 (Mlri ne d n tp o ie mitd ; ri Come, 8 n u p. d 20 8 D. . 01 ) l a t e o r vd i n o m hemi e i e c - h mu t nl s o ta ar a o a l j r c ul c n l et a avilto ve l ng v d n e e s o y h w h t e s n b e u y o d o cud h t o ain o czrd.) cl e ' r ' A ppl ng t s pr nc pl s t c tc nc udes t tt pl ntf s ha a yi he e i i e , he our o l ha he ai i f ve dduc d s fc e e uf i i nt e ie e t wih tn s mma y j d me t o te e ua p o e to cam a an t Home . vd nc o t sa d u r u g n n h q l r tcin li g is l s Viwi t e de ei t lg mos fvorbl t t pl ntfs aj yc dra ona yi e t t e ng he vi nc n he iht t a a e o he ai if, ur oul e s bl nfr ha Hol e a tons ha a di c i i t y e f c a w e e m otva e by a d s rm i t y pup os m s' c i d s rm na or f e t nd r i td i c i na or e. Fi s , he r o d i c t t tH ol e 'de s on t ob a n a w a r ntt s r h t pl i if ' r t t ec r ndi a es ha m s ci i o t i r a o ea c he a ntf s r sde e i nce f a DM V no i wa un e ede ed. Alhough Hol e had pr vi l i s d or tce s pr c nt t m s e ousy s ue c t to t o r 50 peo e f r d i ng on a s pe d lc ns , he had ne r a i d f , or ia i ns o ve' pl o r vi us nde i e e ve pple or execut a w ar ant t sear an i vi ' resi ed, r o ch ndi duals dence f a s pens on not ce. Li i i or us i i kew se, t a a s t tno o he ofi r i t ACPD ha e ged i s h c uc . Li utna t Bye s ppe r ha t r fce n he d nga n uc ond t e e n r tsiid d rngh sRul 7 ( )6 d p iint a h h dne e o ti e awar n t sa c f ra e t e u i i e 0 b () e osto h t e a v r ban d f ra t o e r h o DM V notfc ton f r i hi 1 ye r as a polce of i e ,a t the di no kno o a ot r i ai om n s 8 a s i f c r. nd ha d t w f ny he 12 o fc rwho hadt n s h aci n. Ast Unie St ts Co tofAppe sf t Fo t Cicui fi e ake uc to he t d ae ur al or he urh r t $ ha pr vi l no ed,Ghes c fc s ue e ofe n sl a ng u t t pa tc a de son bei s e ousy t t pe ii eq nc t ve t e di p o he riul r cii ng c lnge i udi al sgni n de rur f o nor a pr e les' ca be pr tve of hale d, ncl ng ry i fca t pa t es ' m r m l oc dtr ,' n oba i w he he a def nda w as m otva e by a di c i i t z i e . Syl a D e Cor v. Ca ve t t r e nt i td s rm na o y nt nt vi v. p. l r Comt 48F. 81 81 ( h Ci.1 ) t y, 3d 0, 9 4t r 995 . S c n ara o a ej r c ud fn t a t s ac wa rn wa o tie a ap ee tt e o d, e s n bl u y o l id h t he e rh ra t s b an d s rtx o s r h f rs m ehi o he t n t pa r r des rbe i t wa r ntafi vi,na y e de e ea c o o t ng t r ha he pe wo k c i d n he r a fda t mel vi nc o il ga d g aci t At t tme of t ta fc s o Hol e wa e f le l nz tviy. he i he r fi t p, m s s ngage i c i na d n rmi l i e di ton e f r s i a a ea kno n f na c i s a tviy. Dur ng hi de ii H ol es nt r c i f o t n n r w or r otc c i t i s poston, m t s ii d t theha l a ned f om a herof i e t tobt ni aw a r tt s ar h f ra s pe i e tfe ha d er r not f c r ha ai ng r an o e c o us nson no i c d be us d asa ç nve tga i t . H ol esD e 51. H ol esa s t s ii d on m or tce oul e n s s i tve ool' i ' m p. m l o e tf e e t noneocc sont thet ha a i ha hough hemi fndnac isi i t pli if'r sde e. Seej s t ght i rotc nsde he antfs e i nc ê . a 67t 68. A ddii na l H o m es di no i m e a e y e u e t s r h w a r nt a t r i w as to ly, l d t m di t l xec t he ea c ra fe t is s ued. I t a t wa r ntwa e c e fve da l tr a tr 1100 p. .o a Frda ni . nse d, he ra s xe ut d i ys ae , fe : m n i y ght W hie e c tng t s r h w a r nt H ol e 'c m e e on t m o y t t he f l xe u i he ea c r a , m s om nt d he ne ha ound i t n he r sde . I lghtoft s e de e,a i t a e e of a i c ton t the ora o he e i nce n i hi vi nc nd n he bs nc ny ndia i ha ny t r A CPD ofk e ha pr vi l f m d i ne es a y t s a c f a D M V s pe i notc a t r d e ous y ot t c s r o e r h or us ns on i e, r a o a l j z c u dfndt t h ra ra o fro tii t warn wa t s ac frn r ois e s n b e uy o l i ha t e e l e s n o b anng he ra t s o e rh o ac tc . Thid,ar a ona ej yc d fndt tHol s beift thewo dtndnac isi t r e s bl ur oul i ha me ' le ha ul i rotc n he pl i if r i nc w a gr unde i t unw a r n e a r ce bas d as um pton t t a ntf s' es de e s o d n he r a t d nd a - e s i ha A f i a Am e i a dr vi e nsve ca s a e lkel t be i ved i dl g taf i ki r c nr c ns i ng xpe i r r i y o nvol n ' r fc ng. D lrng u zi t taf i s op, Hol e c m e e t a he ofi e t t t BM W s da t t Ca he r f c t m s om nt d o not r fc r ha he e n ha nada w as d i ng w as a e ns ve ve c e. A fe i s ng Ca da a sl m ons f drvi on a s pe d r vi n xpe i hi l t r s ui na lm or i ng us nde 13 lc ns Ho me c nt t a s pe vs wih t l a dnl ts f r e a i r d ast whe he ie e, l s o aced u r ior t he oc l g a k o c nd nquie o t r t r we e a a tve dr i tgai i vovi Ca da Eve t he e r ny c i ug nvesi tons n l ng na . n hough Hol e wa a s d m s s dvie t tCana wa noti ve i ml i tga i ,Hol e nonehe e sbele d t the woul ha da s nvol d n y nvesi tons m s t ls ive ha d pos i l fndna c tc i t pli if r sde . Vi ngt r c di t lghtm os f vo a e sb y i r o i s n he antfs' e i nce ewi he e or n he i t a r bl t tepant f,tec u t o cu e t a ti e ie e whe c n i ee i c n u cin wi te o h li i s h o r c n l d s h t h s vd nc , n o sd z d n o j n to t h f h a dotlevi nc o ot rAfi n- rc n i v dua s who we e s o nec a de e f he rca Ame i a ndi i l r t pped and s a c d by e r he Hol e ,c e t sa ge ne is ofma e i lf ta t whehe hi a tonsi t i tntc e we e m s rae nui s ue t ra ac s o t r s c i n he nsa as r m o i t d,a las i pa tby i e i r c dic i i ton. tva e t e t n r, ntntonal a e s rm na i Fi l t pl ntfs e lpr t c i cam i bolt r d by t saitc evi nc i t naly, he ai if ' qua o e ton li s se e he ttsial de e n he r c d. The sa itcsi c t t ti t ye f l wi t s a c oft pli tfs'r sdenc , e or t tsi ndia e ha n he ar olo ng he e r h he a n if e i e H ol e cied a a r s e A fi n- e i a i vi l a a s gnii a l hi r r t t n o he m s t nd r e t d rca Am r c n ndi dua s t i f c nty ghe a e ha t r ofi e si hi de rm e . Thes aitc a s r ve asrki dipa iy be we nt pe ce a of fc r n s pa t nt ttsi s l o e al ti ng s rt t e he r ntge Afi n- e i nsi t r l ntpopulton ofAl ma l Coun y asc rca Am rca n he eeva ai be re t ompa e t t pe c nt ge r d o he r e a ofAfi n- e i nsct d a are t d by Hol e . The c urt ec ze t tç t tsi sa enot rca Am rca ie nd r se m s o r ogni s ha s a itc r s ir f a e' nd,li a ot rki o e de e,he m a ber bute ' I ' Bhd.o Tea tr rem bl'a S ke ny he nd f vi nc t y y e td. ntl l ' f mse s v. ie Sae , 31U. 3 4 3 9 3 0( 9 7 . No tee s a t i sa eo t epr c e ig ,h Untd tts 4 S. 2 , 3 - 4 1 7 ) neh ls , t hs tg f h o e dn s t e r c d m us be vi w e i t lght m os f vor bl t t pl ntf s W he c i r i t t e or t e d n he i t a a e o he ai i f . n ons de ed n ha m a r t s a itcspr de f rhe s nne , he t ts i ovi u t r uppor f a fndi ofdi c i i t y i t nta e f . t or i ng s r m na or n e nd f ed Fo al fte era o ,h c u t o ld st a aj r c u dr a o a l i e t a Home ' r 1o h s e s nst e o r c ncu e h t u y o l e s n by nfr h t l s e f r s t s r h t pl i if 'r i nc w e e m o i t d by a di c i i t y pu pos a ha a f o t o ea c he a ntf s es de e r tva e s rm na or r e nd d ds rmi ao y ef c. Ac o dngy Ho me i n t e tte t s mmay j d me t o t e ici n tr fe t c r i l, l s s o n i d o u r u g n n h l pl i if 'e lpr e ton cl i . a ntf s qua ot c i am 14 ll. M uni palLi lt C l m A gai t Count ci abiiv ai nst he v Thepli if as fld s tunde j 1 a i tt Couny. W hiea munii lt i antfs lo ie ui r 983 gans he t l cpaiy s s be tt s i u d rj 1 8 ,s eM o elv. p' o S c S r s,4 6 U. 6 8 6 0 91( 9 8 , u j c o u t n e 9 3 e n l De t f o . e v . 3 S. 5 , 9 - 1 7 ) la lt at c s ç y whe et m l ii lt is l c us t c tm tona vi ai n a is ,' i biiy ta he & onl r he m cpaiy tef a es he onsi i l ol to t s ue' Ciy o Ca tn v Hars 48 U. 3 8 3 5 ( 9 9 (mp ssi o ii l. EAjml cpaiy t f n o . ri, 9 S. 7 , 8 1 8 ) e ha i n rgna) $ ( mii l t c nnno be he d la e s e v be a e i e pl a t te s --or i ot r w o ds a m uri i lt t l i bl ol l c us t m oys or f a or , n he r , lc pa iy cn behed la eunde j 1 o ar s nde ts rort or ' M onel,436 U. a 691 nnot l ibl r 983 n epo a upei he y. ' l S. t (mp a i i o iia) I se d a mu iiai i o l la l i i c us st d p iain o a e h ss n rgn l. n ta , n cp ly s ny ibe f t a e he e rv to f t pl i ifs c tt tona rgh s t o h a o fc a c t polcy,orpr tc Owe v.Bat antf ' onsiu i l i t hz ug n fi i l usom, i ac ie. ns l. Ci SaesAty . sc , 6 F.d3 9 40 (t Ci. 01 ) s eas Ca trv M o i ,1 4F.d t tt ' ts Of e 7 7 3 7 , 2 4h r 2 4 ; e lo re . n s 6 3 y 21 , 8(t Ci.1 9 ) 5 21 4 h r 9 9 . l t in e n her m ndedco ai ,t pl i if a lge t tH om esha ahit y a pr c ieof mpl nt he antfs le d ha l d sor nd a tc tr tng Afia Ame ia f çntusve s a c s' a t t tg umeous c ant by agei rc n- rc ns or s r i e rhe , nd ha tnl r i ' ompli s Afia - rc n g d be nldg db ctz n wiht eCo nyo Ale ret r u hisp lc rc n Ameia s ha ) e o e y iie s t h u t f b mal h o g t oie de m e t pr ort t i i nthe e n,a i tD e e ntH ol e , m pl ri a pm n , i o he nc de r i ga ns f nda m s co ailng bout sco uc hi nd t i i r p ry so pigc r a dt a ul s ac i p o ea dp a e . Am. mpl! 1 - 0. n mp o el tp n as n mlwf ly e rhng e pl n lc s' ' Co . ! 9 2 The pl i if f r he alege t tç di c plna y o ot r c r c i a ton wast ke a a r s t a ntf s u t r l d ha & no s i i r r he or e tve c i a n s e ul ofa oft ec ant,'a t tt Col y Ehee a quis ed t Defnda Hol ' ny hos ompli s' nd ha he mt l rby c e cg q o e nt mes t i e a b h v o a di lct e c u a gd h s r cieo tr eigAfia Ameia s' I a ! l g l e a ir n mp iil n o r g e ) i p a tc f ag tn rc n- rc n . d. t l y ' Thus t pl i if co pl n as e t d a t or o c t ç co , he a ntf s' m ai t s r e he y f us om t by ndona i ' Spe l v. ton.' l M c nil 8 F. 1 1 ( hCi.1 ) Da e, 24 2d 380, 390 4t r 987 . Unde t c r he ondonai t or oflabiiy,amunii lt vi ae j 1 Si mt cpa ton he y i lt cpaiy olts 983 çf mii l polc a r f l(o pu a so t orc r c a wi pr ad pa tr o unc tt i lco uc .' iym ke s ai t t t p o ore t des e te n f onsiutona nd t'' 15 Owe ,767F. a 402( tngSpel,8 F. a 1 ) S e ii unde s hat or i no ns 3d t quoi l 24 2d t 389 . ç valng pr r uc he y s e y t s ' I A s t Fourh Ci c t ex ai d i Ow e , t pl i i f G us poi t a as a k. d. ' he t r ui pl ne n ns he a ntf s ç t nt o m t esse ta d wie p e d p a tc l o mt cp lo fcas't (t ain a d fe ue c o p ritn n d s r a r cie) f miia fiil, he dl to n r q n y' f r whihid c t t a poiy k r ( ) da t a o c n tu tv k wld eo t c n u t a d() c n iae h t lc ma e s 1 ha cu l r o sr cie no e g f he o d c, n 2 fie t c re ttd t t i E ei eaeidfe e c .' J . t 2- 3( u tn S el8 4F.da ald o or c i ue o her d lb rt n ifr n e' d a 40 0 q o ig n l, 2 2 t ' 1 8 - )( l rto i Owe ) Alh u hk o e g a i ifrnc c n b ifre fo te 3 6 91 at ain n e ns. t o g n wld e nd ndfee e a e n er d ' m h r e e ofe oye ' s nd tçgj r di oriolt viltonsofc tt i rg swilnot xtnt mpl es mico uc,tspo a c s aed oai onsi onal iht l m gv rs t M o l la iiy o ywi ep e d o fa rn v oain wi1' I (n en lctto s ie ie o nel ib l ; nl d s r a r lg a t ilto s l. d. itr a iain t ' a d q oain mak o te ) se as S t v Ra 4 9 F.Ap x 6 ,6 0 ( t Ci.2 1 n u tto r s mitd ; e lo mi . y, 0 h p' 41 5 4h r 01 ) (mpha ii t tCt r mus benume o pa c a i tnc oft onsiutona c e szng ha t he e t ç r us diulr nsa es mc tt i l onduc i tn o d rt e tbls ac so o p a tc y'snc (a mu ii l y i n tla l f rme e(s ltd r e o sa ih u tm r r cie' i e G ) ncpai s o ib e o r io ae ' ( t icd n so u o si to a c n u tb s bo dn t e l y e ')( u tn Ly l v Do l,3 n ie t f nc n tt in l o d c y u r iae mp o e s' q o ig te . v e 26 u ' F.d46 , 7 (t Ci. 0 3 ) 3 3 4 3 4 h r 2 0 ). l add t o t pr ng t t a unl w f l c t or polcy e s e t pl n i f m us n ii n o ovi ha n a u us om i xi t d, he ai t f s t e t bls t e s e e of a l r t c us l lnk be we a m uni pa polc or c t a t s a i h he xi t nc s ec a a i di t en ci l i y us om nd he a lged co tt i l de i ton. Civ of Ca o 489 U . a 38 St td dif r nty,t le nsiutona prva i ' t ' nt n, S. t 4. ae fe e l he pl n i f m us pr ve t t t c t or polc was t he m o ng f r e of t c ns iutonal ai tf s t o ha he us om iy & t vi o c he o tt i vo ain s cfc ly c r e . M llc n v Civ o Ne r Ne , 4 F. 2 7 23 (t Ci. ilto pe iial hag d' lia . t f wpo t ws 7 3 2d 2 , 0 4h r ' 1 (ntr lcttona quotto makso te . t ,mt cpalla lt wilatc o y 984) i ena iai nd ain r mitd) Thus mii ibiiy l ta h nl f t e polc esorc t m sha ng a C pec f c de i i nc orde k i nc es ...s h a t m a t or hos ii us o vi s ii f c e y t e i uc s o ke he s c t c vi a i a m os bo pe ii ol ton l t und t ha n,s o ppe oone orl t r r t rt n m e el lke y t ha n i r a e , a he ha r y i l o ppe n teln nm.' Catr 1 4F.da 21 (uoig S el 8 4F.da 1 9 )(mp a i o te ) h og ' ' re , 6 3 t 8 q tn p l, 2 2 t 3 0 e h ss mitd . 16 I s n uppol oft i M onel cai , hepli if prm a iy r l o t eepi c o e de e. ' her t llm t antf s i rl ey n hr e es f vi nc Fis ,t pl ntf s c t t Pa e a Gr nw ood' de ii n t tm o t s r t he ai i f ie o m l ee s post o es i ny o uppor t noto t ta t he i n ha t t e ofr im' e se wihi t ACPD. Howe r Gr nwood sopped wor ng f r t t ur cul acs ' xit d t n he ve , ee t ki o he polce de rm e i 201 and c l no r c l whe s hea d ot r o fc r us r c a str or i pa t nt n 2 ou d t e a l n he r he fi e s e a i l lls tr Afian- e i n drve s M or ove ,Gr nwood a knowl dge t ts di no r po t a get rc Am rca i r . e r ee c e d ha he d t e r t ofier'be virt he s r s s a t ts neve wine s d Hol se he fc s ha o o r upeyior, nd ha he r t se me ngagei s h n uc c onduc . Thecour a e wiht Co mt t tGr e t t gr es t he t y ha e nwood' t s i ony,e n whe vi we i t s e tm ve n e d n he lgh m os fvo a et t pl i if ,doe nots ppo'ar s na ei e e t tt Count a t d i t t a r bl o he antfs s u l ea o bl nf r nce ha he t y ce w ih de i r t i f e e t a w i pr d pr c i e of unc tt i na c t lbe a e ndi f r nce o des ea a tc ons iuto l onduc , o t t s h t r ha uc pr tc w a t m ovi f c be nd t equa pr ec i vi a i a l ge i t sc s See e :. ac i e s he ng or e hi he l ot ton ol ton le d n hi a e. .., W a s v.A bi t n Tw p, 78F.d 1 4,1 7 ( d Ci. 0 7 ( li t te d n eo tiet t on nz o .4 3 4 5 3 r 2 0 ) hodng ha vie c u sd he . r e nttmefa t ta s m epoi ofi e se gedi r i pr ii a us dr c a sur wa elva i r me ha t o nt fc r nga n acal oflng nd e a i l l s s i ufi e t s ti acai t rM onel) ns fcint o usan l m mde l. Se ond,t pl i if t is wih t wor ngoft Cot y' polc o r i l bi s d c he antfs ake s ue t he di he mt s i y n acaly- a e polcng. Thepl ntfsa guet ti misa e a i bl l w by de ngçbi e ba e polcng' ii ai if r ha t s tt s pplca e a fni i as d- s d i i ' a t di pa a et ea m e ofany pe s on t S ol ba i ' oft pe s n' r i lore hni als a us s he s r t r t nt r on he t e s s' he r o s ac a s t c tt . ACP Rue 10 a 1 s eas Pl' Br i Op n 1 ,Do k tNo. 9 (mp szn t tt lw D l - 5 t , e lo .s . n p' 7 c e ' 4 e ha ii g ha he a û y r quie t tt c s onl e r s ha he onduc oft o fc rw a m otvae (tl as i pa t by c nsde a i of t he fi e s i t d a e t n r ' o i r tons rc ' (iaino te ) W h l t epli t f aec re t h thepoiyu e t etr ç oeba i' a e' ctto mitd . ie h ani s r o rc t a t l s s h e m G l ss' ) f c s i isde i t o ofbi ed- s polc ng, hepolcy goeson t m a cl art ta 1c tz nsha t n t fnii n as ba ed i i t i o ke e ha 1 ii e ve he rg t e i ht o qualpr t c i unde t 1 w a t r g t be f e f om unr a ona e s a c s a o e ton r he a nd he i ht o re ' r e s bl e r he nd s i e ,and t tt A CPD i c r d w ih pr ec i t s r ght S or a l r ga dl s ofr e. e zur s ha he s ha ge t ot tng he e i s E l, e r es f ac ' ' A CPD Rul 1 05 a 1 2. Cons d r d i is e ie y,t cou ti c nce t tt polc c e r y e - t i e e n t ntr t he r s onvi d ha he i y l a l 17 a o s s a i ts l c i e o c m e toft 1w a doesnots dm nihe gans e e tve nf r e n he a nd uppo ta fndi ofla lt r i ng ibiiy unde M o l. r ne l Fi ly,t pl i if e nal he antfs mpha ie t tt ACPD r c i d at t lof18 cvii n co pli s sz ha he e eve o a i la m a nt aga ns H ol e i 201 a 201 a t tt r i no e de t tH ol e w a a o s d f i t m sn 4 nd 5, nd ha he e s vi nce ha m s s dm nihe or t num be of c pl i s Thi a gum e a s m i s s t m a k. l e l tng c a m s unde he r om a nt . s r nt l o s e he r n va ua i l i r M onel c t ha ma cea t tç r r iain o t numbe ofc ansfld g snoj l, ours ve de l r ha i e ectto f he me r omplit ie doe t s fc t pr ve a polc orc t . A pli ifnm s s ufie o o iy usom antf t how why t e prori i nt des l d hos i ncde s ewe dici i a how t m ico uc i t eca e i sm ia t t ti ve i t pr s ntaci n. s plne nd he s nd t n hos s s s i l r o ha nvol d n he e e to ' ' M ain v.Ci o Pi s u g 6 4 F.S p 5 6 5 ( . Pa 98 ) s e as M et r v ra i t f t b rh, 2 v t u p. 0 , 11 W D. .1 6 ; e lo tl . e W h te c ,1 5F.d 1 9 ,1 5( t Ci.1 9 )( b evngta Eh me ee itn eo p e iu ild e 6 3 1 7 ,20 8h r 9 9 o s r i h t s e r x se c f r vo s t c tze ' c pl i s does not s f c t s w a m t i i lcus om of per itng o e our i ii ns om a nt uf i e o ho m c pa t m ti r nc ag ng e c si f re'; o ksv. h i 81 F. 1 91 1 9 ( 1h Ci.1 8 )(mp szn t tt x e sve o c ' Br o ) Sc eb, 3 2d 1 , 1 3 1 t r 9 7 e ha ii g ha he pl i ifç ve de o t a e t tpa t c pl i s ofpo i m i c a ntf l r m nsr t d ha s om a nt ne lce s onduc ha a m e i' a t t t d ny rt' nd ha Eh nz e o c mpansb a sn rlto t t ervai i ' ;Sr u sv.Ci o Chc g ,7 0 s e l r f o lit e r o eain o h i ldt ' ta s t mb yl t f ia o 6 v F. 765,7 8 6 (t Ci.1 5 ( tngt tçh n mbe o c mpansfld wi u mo e 2d r 98 ) noi ha t e u r f o li t ie , t t r, t ho . 6 - 9 7h i iae nohn ' . ndc ts t ig' ) l t i c s ,h mao i o t ecvi a c mp an s r r c i e a tr h s b e ticd n , n hs a e t e j rt f h i l n o lit we e e ev d fe t e u j c n i e t y i a t r o d i de z of a de al r ga di t f cua ba kg ound oft e compl nt nd he ec r s voi ny t is e r ng he a t l c r hos ai s. M o e v r t ep an if h veno o frd a y e i e c fo wh c ara o a l j r c ul fn r o e, h litfs a t fee n v d n e r m ih e s n b e u y o d id t tt co pl i sha m e i a w e e ba e o sm ia f c s Se Spa o v.Ciy ofAnnapols ha he m a nt d rt nd r s d n i l r a t . e n'w t i, No. MN- 6- 39 201 U. Dit LEXI 1 W 1 1 4, 7 S. s. S 25796,a *38( M d. t D. Aug.9, 7)( e vngt t 201 obs r i ha C m pl i s m us be s n bot t ha m erta t be ba e on sm ia f t ' i or r ç o gi ç co a nt t how h o ve i nd o sd i l r ac s' n de s ve t notc t amunii lt oft nee t tano s pewiei apatc a aea'. Tot c rr t ie o cpaiy he d o ri r u l s n riulr r ' ) he onta y,he 18 pl i if t m s l se antfs he e ve mpha i t tHol 'e f rst ob a n awa r ntt s a c t i r sde sze ha mes fo t o t i ra o e r h her e i nce J f aDM V noi weed g yunus l'a rpr s nt aS i fc ntde rur lfom nonnal or tce r l hl hi ua' nd e e e ed E gniia pa t eg r s pr d e .' P1' Br i Opp' a 1 1 Ass h,t s ii c oce ur s' .s .n n t 5- 6. uc he pecfc onduc a is i t a ihess t t sue s he ntt i of c uc f r whi h a m uni i lt m a be he d la e unde M o l. Se A da s v.Or l e ond t o c c pa iy y l i bl r ne l e m aw Comt No 1 CV 8 4 ,2 4 U. Dit LEXI 1 5 20 a *1 ( D. Y.No 1 ,2 4 t v, . 3 5 9 01 S. s. S 6 6 , t 1 S. N. v. 3 01 ) (t te ta alg apoiyo c tm, litf camstepoieo-cr c n u tn tesac E h r h n le e lc r uso panif li h lc iies o d cig h e rh Ra f ? o hi r sd n eç n be o d an r lp ten o s a c a d (ez r)rg lto s' Thi i t e f s e ie c we t y n o ma atr f e rh n siu e e u aih . ss h a tt sso aMo el li ' (iaiho te ) ni i f he n lcam.) ctto mitd . ' For a 1of t s r a o ,t c t c ncudes t tt pli tf s ha f ied t a uc 1 he e e s ns he our o l ha he a n if ve a l o dd e s fiin e d n e fo whc a r a o bej r c ud fnd t e Co ny l bl u d r j 1 8 u fce t vie c r m ih e s na l u y o l i h u t i e n e 9 3. a Ac o dn l,h Co n yi e tte t s mmayj d me t c r igy te u t s n ild o u r u g n . C onc us on l i Fo t er a o sae ,ùed fnd ns moi nfrsz r u g n wi b g a tdi r h e s ns ttd t ee a t' tö o l mma yj d me t l e rn e n l pa ta de e i pa t TheClr i die t d t s nd c esoft sm e or ndum opi on a t r nd nid n r. e k s r c e o e opi hi m a ni nd he ac c ompa ng or rt alc nyi de o l ouns lofr or e ec d. DATED : ns I- & d yo Oco e 2017. Tl R a f t b r i , U nie St t s D it i tJ t a e s rc udge 19