Uretek, ICR Midatlantic, Inc. v. Adams Robinson Enterprises, Inc. et al, No. 3:2016cv00004 - Document 26 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 9/20/17. (jcj)
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CL ERK' OFFI U.S. SX COURT S CE DI AT ROANOKE, VA FIED L SEP 2 2 1 27 I TH E UN I N TED STATES D I I COU RT STR CT FOR TH E W ESTERN D I STRI OF VI GN A CT R CHARLOTTESVI LLE DI SI VI ON JUL C BY; LEY CLE W C U RETEK , CR M I I D ATLAN TI m C. C, , Pl i ifcot e c am De e ant antf/ mt r l i f nd , Ci lAc i No.3:6CV00004 vi ton 1 M EM O R AN D UM O PI I N N O A D AM S ROBW SON EN TER PRI SES, I C. N , Ho Gln E.Co a n. e nr d Unie St t sDititJ t d a e src udge De e n / unt r am Pli if f nda tco e cli antf , LI BERTY M UTUAL W SURAN CE COM PAN Y De e n . f nda t Urtk,1 M i- lni, l c ur tk' fld t i a to f r b e c o c nrc, ee CR d Ata tc n .Cû ee ' i hs cin o ra h f o ta t ) e qua um m e u t a pa e unde t t r s of a pa e bond i t Ci c t Cour f nt r i, nd ym nt r he e m ym nt n he r ui t or Ale reCo ny, r ii a an t a Ro is nEnep ie ,I .(Ad msRo i s n' a d b mal u t Vign a g is Ad ms bn o tr rs s nc l a ç bn o ' n ) Lie t M uu lI sza c Co a y (ta e t M u u l) Afe t ed fnd nsr mo e t ec s b ry t a n l n e mp n l i ry ta' . tr h ee a t e v d h a e r tb ' t t i c u to te b ss o d v ri jl s ito ,t e p risfld aj itmoin t sa t e o hs o r n h a i f i est t id ci n h a t ie on to o ty h y r e p o e dng p n i abi ain, u s a tt t Fe e a Ar i ain Ac ( .) 9U.. j3 r c e i s e dng r t to p ru n o he d r l bt to t ç ', SC. , r r TAA ' a t a bir ton c a e i t c tuc in s ontac bewee Adn sRobi on a Ur t k nd he r tai l us n he onsr to ubc r t t n m ns nd e e (s b o ta f Th abi ainp o e d di Da o Ohi, ss e iidi t eS b o ta t a d ç u c n rc ). e r t to r c e e n ytn, o a p cfe n h u c n rc, n ç r r s le i a a r f v rb et Urtk. Xd msRo i o mo e t v c t t ea r i t e e utd n n.wad a o a l o ee a bns n v d o a ae h wad n h Uretek, ICR Midatlantic, Inc. v. Adams Robinson Enterprises, Inc. et al Doc. 26 Unied Stt sDititCo tf t Sout r Diti tofOhi t ditite ompa sng Da on, t a e src ur or he he n src o, he src nc si yt a U r t k m oved i t sco tt lf t s a a e e an or rco i m i t a a d. nd e e n hi ur o i t he t y nd nt r de nfr ng he w r The ma tr i now be o e t c t o Ada s Robi on' m o i t srke Ur t k' te s f r he our n m ns s ton o ti ee s mo in t c n i t e abtal n a r ,o atr t l t ta se v n e t t S uhen to o o fnn h r irto wa d r l nai y, o r n fr e u o he o t r e ve Dockets.Justia.com Diti o Ohi a sa t pr e ngs i t sc lt The c tthel a hea i on t m o i srd f o nd ty he oc edi n hi otr. otr d rng he ton on Se e be 1 201 ptm r , 7.Fort r a onssae Ada sRo ns sm o i n wilbe de e he e s t td, m bi on' to l nid. Backeround Adn Ro ns a Ke u ky c por ton wih is prncpa pl e ofbusnes i Ohi ms bi on, nt c or a i t t i i l ac i s n o, e e e i o t Subco r c wih Ur t k, a Norh Ca oia c mo ain. Co .! 1 1 , nt r d nt he nta t t ee t r l o rto n mpl ! , 3. An we ! 2 1 P ls a tt t eS b o ta t Urtk a re t p rom c rane a ainwo k s r ! , 3. t u n o h u c n rc, ee g e d o e fr e ti xc v to r r f rac n tu to p o e ti Ch rots il, r ii. Co l! 1 8 Th S b o ta tc n ans o o sr cin rj c n alte v l Vigna mp . ! , . e u c n rc o ti e t f l i pr s o r qui mbir i he olow ng ovi i n e dng taton: Any co r r y orcl i a i i out o or r l i t t s c r c ,or t br c nt ove s a m t sng f e atng o hi ont a t he ea h t r of s l be s t l d i ac or nc wih t Cons r c i I usr A r ta i he e , hal e te n c da e t he t u ton nd t y bir ton Rul soft Am e i a Ar ta i As oca i t n i f ce and s lt pl e e he rc n bir ton s iton he n or , hal ake ac i Da tn Oh obeo etr eabi ao s a dj g n u n te a r rn r d n yo , i f r l e r t t r, n ud me t po h wad e dee a r b te abtao sma b e tr d i a y c u tha ig j rs ito t ee f I y h r irtr y e ne e n n o r vn u idcin h r o . n a dto ,t pat ss e i c lya r et tte giqc n e tt tejlidcin o d iin he ri p cf al g e ha h sc o s n o h t s ito f e i r t sa ea f de a c ut l td i Da on,Ohi he tt nd e r l ot' ocae n yt s o. M o.oCo fnn Ar irto Awad Ex. (su o ta f)!2 09. t t n i b tain r , A ç bc nr c ' 5 t Ad ms Ro is n as s cle a pa me t b n (ç Pa me tBo ' fo Lie t a bn o lo e t d r y n o d çhe y n nd' r m b ry t ) M u u l a M a s c u et c r o ain i a c r a c wi Va Co e j2. 4 3 . Co l ! 1 . t a, sa h s ts o p rto , n c o d n e t . d h 2- 3 7 mp . 0 ThePa me tBo p r o t t ma Ad msRo is n a dLie t M uu l on l a d sveal y n nd u p rs o ke a bn o n b ry ta j ity n e rly la l f rtec s o lbo , tras a d e up n f r ih df rt ec nsn cin p oe t 1 , ibe o h o t f a r mae il, n q ime t un s e o h o t zto rj c. d. Ex. ! 1 A . l De e be 201 Ur e fld a co aiti t Cic tCour f Al m a l Coun y, n c m r 5, etk ie mpl n n he r ui t or be re t Vigi a, a s ri a c am f r br c of c r c ,or a tr i y, qua um me ui,ag ns r ni s e tng l i o ea h onta t le natvel nt r t ai t A d s R o ns n a a c a m f pa e unde t t r s oft Pa e Bo aga ns A da s am bi o nd l i or ym nt r he e m he ym nt nd i t m Robi on a Li ry M uma . Adn Robi o r m o d t a ton t t s c t whe e i fl d ns nd be t l ms ns n e ve he c i o hi our, r t ie a a s r wh c i cu e t afr tv d fn et a t ecamsi te c mp an wees b e t n n we, ih n ld d he fimai e ee s h t h li n h o lit r u j c t t Subco r c ' mbirto caus a a c e c am f rbr c ofc r c . Li ry M ut a o he nta ts tai n l e nd ount r l i o ea h onta t be t ul s pa ael fl d a a y e . e r t y e n nsv r On Fe u r 11,201 Ada sRobi on fl adema f a bir ton,a on Fe a y br a y 6, m ns ied nd or r ta i nd bnzr 29,201 t de e 6, he f ndan s fld a moton,wih Ur tk' c ent t say t pr e ngsi tls t ie i t ee s ons , o t he oce di n li co tpe ng a bir ton. On M a c 4,201 t co tg an e t moton a saye t aci n ur ndi r ta i rh 6, he ur r t d he i nd t d he to pe ng t c us on oft a bir ton. ndi he oncl i he r t a i I De e r201 ,hepa t sfld aj itsa'srpo t t tec u t whih sae t t n c mbe 6 t ri ie on tt e r wih h o r, c ttd ha e u Ada s Robi on a Ur tk ha pr e m ns nd ee d oce ded wih a bir ton,t tt y ha a he rng s f t r ta i ha he d a i et or Fe u r 21,201 i Da on,Ohi and t t pa teswoul u t t cou tatt co l i br a y 7 n yt o, hat he ri d pda e he r he ncuson o tea btain. J itStt sRe r ! 2 3 ECF No.1 Du t eh ai , h abi ain f h r i to on au po t ! - , r 4. dng h e rng t e r t to r pa r ceve e de nel e i d vi nce on whehe eiher Ada s Ro ns o Ur t k ha br c d t t r t m bi on r e e d ea he he Subc r ta wheherAda Ro ns n ha wr ul t mi t t Subc r c . Se M o ontac nd t ms bi o d ongf ly er naed he onta t e t t Conftn Ar tai Awa d, B a 5o in bir ton r Ex. t 9. On M ac 24,201 t abirtonpa lis a sa r a r i Ur tk' fvor JJ rh 7, he r tai ne sued tndad wad n ee s a . .. I The pa lnle t tAda Ro ns n hadpr pe l t nni t d t Subcontac ,bu ha vi a e ne l d ha ms bi o o ry e na e he r t t d olt d t i i c na ofgood f ih a f i de lng a ia e t al c r t unde Ohi lw . he mpled ove nt a t nd ar a i pplc bl o l ontacs r o a l a 5d. t 6. On M a 18 201 Ada s Robi o fl ala ton i t Sout l Ditit of 0li y , 7, m ns n ied ! c i n he he. src n l0, s e ng a or r vac tng t a bir ton a r Adnms Robi on Ent m rs s I v.Ur t k. e ki n de ai he z ta i wa d, ns e ie . nc. ee l M i At ni. n .No 3 1 -v 0 7 ( D.Oho, ACER No 1 .Li e t Mu u l sn ta CR d- l t I c, . :7 c - 01 8 S. i P a c . ) b ry t a i o pary t t acton. t o hat i Be or r s f e e pondi i t Sout r Dititof Ohi o J ng n he he n src o, n une 1 201 Ur t k moved i 4, 7, e e n ti c u' t lf t e sa ,c nim t e abtain a r ,a d e trj d me ta ans Ad ms h s o l o it h ty o fl h r irto wa d n n e u g n g i t n t ' Robi on a Li r y M um a pur ua t t a a d a t Pa e Bond. R e yi on t ns nd be t l s nt o he w r nd he ym nt l ng he 3 f r m s l ci n c a e c ai i t Subco r c ' a bir ton pr son a t tr tt fl o u e e to l us ont ned n he nta ts r ta i ovii nd he s s-o-ie nle Ada s Robi on m ove t srke Ur t k' m o i n t c im t a bir ton a r l, m ns d o ti e e s to o onfr he r ta i wa d. Ale na i l Ad t r tvey, ams Robi o moved t ta f r ve ns n o r ns e nue t t So he n Ditit of Ohi o he ut r src o pls a tt 2 U. C.j1 0 () On J l 5 2 7, ee fld a b ifi t sc u t whih i t u n o 8 S. r 4 4a. uy , 01 Urtk e re n hi o r, c t l be e as a r pl t Adn sRo ns n' moto t srke ort ta f r Adn s Robi on has a ld e y o m bi o s i n o ti o r nse . m ns fld no r s e e pons . e Afe c tr ompltng bre i i tls c t Ur tk m o d t dim is Adn s Ro ns s ei ifng n li our, ee ve o s s m bi on' aci n i t Sout r Ditit o Ohi unde t fr tt fl r e or at r tve y,t ta f r to n he he n src f o r he s -o-ie ul, le na i l o r ns e ve e t ti c u tp ru n t 2 U. C.j 1 0 () Ad ms Ro i o ,No.3 1 -v 0 78 nu o h s o r u s a t o 8 S. 4 4a. n bns n :4 c - 01 , PACER No.6 at4- 2. On Augus 29,201 t pa te c 1 t 7, he ri s omplt d bre e e isng o Ur tk' m o i n ee s ton pendi i t Sout r Diti tofOhi The pa te ha ad s d t sco tt tt Sout r ng n he he n src o. ris ve vie hi ur ha he he n DititofOhi wilis ar lng ont bre swihouthol ng ahea i src o l s ue ui he i f t di rng. On Se e pt mber 1,201 t pa tes a ar d be or t s co tf a he rng on Ada 7, he ri ppe e f e hi ur or ai ms Robi on' m oton t srke ort tans e . The m a t ri now rpe f r r vi . ns s i o ti o r fr te s i o e ew D i cussi s on Asat ehodmatr t c u to s r e t a iha $ ni d p nd n j s ito a bai hrs l te ,he o r b e v s h t t d : n e e e t mi dcin l ss a ove t pari ' diput ' whe i e r ie is a hort t de t FAA a sa r he tes s e' n t xe c s d t ut iy m r he nd tyed t he pr e ngs pe ng a bir ton. Hal St As ocs.L. C.v.M a tl I ,552 U. 5 58 oce di ndi r tai l . s . L. te s nc. S. 76, 2 ( 0 ) Thematrc meb f r t ec u t nt eb sso d v ri j rs ito a iv k db t e 2 08. te a eo e h o r o h a i f i est u idcin, s n o e y h y d fnd n s a d v n e wa p o e be a e t e d s u e ao e fo a .o sr cin p oe t e e a t, n e u s r p r c us h ip t r s r m c n tu to rj c o c ni wihnt sj dca dsrc. S e28U. C. 1 91b ( ) c u ng ti hi u iil itit e S. j 3 ( )2 . H o e r A da s Robi on a gue t t t w ve , m ns r s ha wo f c o s c a t r ouns l a i t c i ng e ga ns ontnui pr ee ngsi t sc t ( )t f um slci ca econane i t abirtonpr so of oc di n hi our: 1 he or ee ton lus ti d n he r tai oviin 4 t S b o ta t a d () t frtt- e r l. Up n weg i g t o e c nsd r to s Ad ms he u c nr c, n 2 he is-o fl ue o ih n h s o ie ai n , a Robi on co e t tt sc ts d srkeUr t k' m oton t c ns nt nds ha hi our houl ti e e s i o onfr t a bir to a r m he r tai n wa d. Ale ai l A d tm tvey, amsRobi o r quesst tt scour ta f rUr t sm o i t t Sou he n ns n e t ha hi t r nse eek' ton o he t r Ditito Ohop rua tt 2 U. C. 1 0 () src f i u s n o 8 S. j 4 4 a . Fo rum Se e t on C l e lci aus The FA A pe m is pa te t a a bir ton a e e t nego i t a f tm s e ton cl us r t r i s o n r t a i gr em nt o ta e orz el c i a e s cfi g ac u tf rt ee ty o j d me to a a btain a r . 9U. C.j9 W h n t e pe iyn o r o h n r f u g n n n r i to wad r S. . e h pa te ha i l d s h aclus i t i a e m e ,çhe a a tm ewihi oneyea afe t ris ve ncude uc a e n her gr e nt i n t ny i t t n r tr he a r i ma e, a y pat t t e abtain ma a pl t t e c u's s e iid f ra ode wad s d g n ry o h r irto y p y o h o l o p cfe o n r r q t c imi t a r ' 1 onfr ng he wa d. d. ' The Unie St t Com' o Appea s f r t Fourh Cic t has he d t t s h f r m t d aes t f l o he t r ui l ha uc o u s l to clus s ar pr e la ma tr gove e by f de a lw . Al m a l Com . v. eeci n a e e oc dtr l te s m d e rl a be re Asr e e a UK Lt . 6 F.d 6 3 65 (t Ci.201 ) ç h n c nsnl g fnz slcin tc n c d, 28 3 4 , 0 4h r 0 . ç e o t i o m ee to W n c a e ,f de alc t ha f l us s e r ours ve ound dipostvet pa tc a l ngua oft c a ea whe he i s ii he riul r a ge he l us nd t rt a ho i es a he f um as a ale natve t t f m oft ltga i orw he he i m ake t ut r z not r or n t r i o he onz he ii ton t rt s he de i na e f u e usve' I A f u s e ton clus t tc t i ( pe fc l nguage of s g t d or m xcl i . d. or m elc i ' a e ha on a ns l cii a s e l i 'wil be i e pr t d a m a t r and e l ng ve xcuson' l nt r e e s nda o y xcudi nue e s whe e. 1 a 650le r d. t 51 (n en lq oain maks o te ) t nn sie f r m s lcin ca s s o tn d s rb d a itr a u tto r mitd . ç isv o u ee to lu e , fe e cie s pe So s n t j s ito ca s s a to iejlidcin a d v n i ad sg tdf pl b td c n e t o midcin' lu e , uh rz t s ito n e ue n e inae o m, u o r not pr hi t ltga i e s w he e ' 1 Cha l s Al n W r gh & Ar hlr R . M il r Fe r o bi ii ton l e r .' 4D re a i t tz le , de al Prciea dPr c d r j3 0 . ( t e 20 7 ; e Ita mm v. ii49 F.d28 , 0(t a tc n o e u e 8 3 1 4h d. 1 ) s e nr co Baa, 2 3 5 29 4h Ci.2007)(e rng Gpe ii lng ge ofe uson,'whih whe r d i c e ,e l r rquii û cfc a ua s xcl i ' c n ea n ontxt xcudes j rs ito i oh rfnz l Gu F.At is n Co s. aDi o Gu F.At i o Co v Ohi u idci n n t e o ms; y kn o n t. v. f y kns n . . o Mu Elc Ge eain Ag n y J it Ve t r 5 9 F.S p.6 ,6 ( D. .Va 1 96 n. e . n rto e c on n u e , 43 up 26 28 S. W .9 ) (d niyngpa t s f nz s lcin ca s a ape misv ç o e tt -u id cin ca s ' i e t i ri ' o m ee to lu e s r si e l ns n-oj rs ito lu e). f e c I t i c s ,hef r m s lcin ca s c n ane i Su o ta t!25b i u e uio al n hs a e t o u ee to lu e o ti d n bc nr c () s n q v c l y pe misve. As s f t a r si et orh bove,t clus pr de t tthe pa te s c fc l a e t tt he a e ovi s ha ç t ris pe i aly gr e ha he (i) c nsn t te j rs ito o t e sae a d fd r lc u t lc td i Da tn,0hi. sc o e t o h u id ci n f h tt n e ea o rs o ae n yo 0' ' S b o ta t!2 ( ) Theca s c nan teS o sn t j rs ito 'ln ua eie tfe a t e u c nr c 5 b . lu e o tis h ç n e t o u idcin' a g g d n i d s h c h l r o p nnisv f nz s lcin ca s s s e Fe ea Prcie a Pr c d r j3 0 .; al k f e si e o m ee to lu e , e d rl a tc nd o e u e 8 3 1 ma Guy F.At ns n,9 F.Supp.a 628,a om is l pectc lng ge ofe usony'whih whe ki o 43 t nd t ç is a ua s xcl i ' c n ra i c n e t c n y e lsv jlidcin t a p riulrf r m,I ta mm,49 F.d a e d n o tx , o ve s xcu ie t s ito o a t a o u n rco r c 2 3 t 290. At t he rng on t pe ng m o i n,Ada s Robi on c ede t t t f u he a i he ndi to m ns onc d ha he or m s l ton c a e i pe misve on is own,but a gue t t whe viwe wih t pr c di e ec i l us s r s i t r d ha , n e d t he e e ng . s ne c i Su o ta t!25b ,heca s i ma d tr . Thep e e ig s ne ep o ie ta e tn e n bc nr c () t lu e s n ao y r c dn e tnc r vd s h t a a bir ton unde t Subco r c ç halt ke pl c i Dayt Ohi be or t e a bir t s ny r ta i r he nta t l l a s ae n on, o f e hr e r ta or, a j d me tu n t a r r n ee by t abtaosma be e tr d i a y c u tha ig nd u g n po he wad e d rd he r irtr y ne e n n o r vn j s ito te e f' S b o ta t!2 ( ) ep anr a i o t a ln ua ed e no ma d t mid cin h ro . u c nr c 5 b .Th li e dng f h t a g g o s t n ae ' jzid ci n i a y pat ua c u t b tpe uisa y c u th vngj rs ito t e tra o d r l s ito n n ri lr o r, u n t n o r a i u idcin o ne n r e r c c i ng al a bir ton awar The Unie St t Supr m e Cour ha he d t sm iar onfnni z r ta i d. t d aes e t s l hat i l lng a ei FAA j9 wh c ra st ta a piain t c nqm a abtain a r G y be a ug n , ih e d ha n p lc to o o tr n r irto wad t ma m ade t t U nie St t s c ti and f r t di ti tw ihi whi h s h a a d w as m a ' 9 o he t d a e our n o he sr c t n c uc w r de, ' U. C.j9,i pe si ,no ma tr i lghtoft lbealve polc i fdealco t fr S. s nnisve t ndaoy,n i he i r nue iy n e r urs o a tons t e or e a bir ton a a ds Cor e Byr Chi .l v.BilH a ber Cons .Co. 529 ci o nf c r t a i w r . tz d ps nc. l r t t , U. 1 1 204 ( S. 93, 97- 2000) Ape Pll ng Suppl l v.U. Suppl Co. 1 F. 188( h ; x tmbi y. nc. S. y , 42 3d 4t Ci. 9 ) Ac o dn l t ec u tc ncud st a teS bc nr c' f rl s lci nca s , v n r 1 98 . c r igy,h o r o l e h t h u o ta ts o t ee to lu e e e m whe viwe i t c e oft e tr a birto pr vii does not de i t c tof n e d n he ont xt he n ie r tai n o son, prve he our j rs ito o ve u o oh r s c mp lhec u t osrk t epli tf smoi nt c n i t e u idcin r n e r t e wie o e t o r t tie h anif to o o fnn h a bir ton a a d. r ta i w r II. Fi - o- l R ul rst t Fie e çlhe frtt fl l l pr de t t t t- is-o-ie ' e ovi s ha when muli e s t a e fld i dif e Fede a u tpl uis r ie n fer nt rl c t upon t s me f c ua is s t srt or pro a ton i pe mit t pr e t t ours he a a t l s ue , he s i r c i s r ted o oce d o he e l i n o a he s e nty fl d.' M oo e' El c & M e h.Co t.I v.SI LLC, xcuso f not r ubs que l Ee '' r s e. c ns. nc. S. No. 6 1 - 0 0 ,2 5 W L 61 9 7 ,a * ( . Va Oc .2 201 ) (u tn Alid Ge . :5 CV- 0 21 01 5 4 3 t 2 W D. . t 0, 5 q o ig le - n Nu la S r s v Co n at Ed s n Co. 6 F.d 61 ,61 n. (t Ci.1 8 ). Th ce r e v . . mmo we 1h io , 75 2 0 1 1 4h r 9 2 ) e de ii t a y t s r e i a m at rwihi a diti tc ts di c ei n. Nutii n & Fine s cson o ppl hi ul s te t n src our' s r to rto t s. I c v. ueS t l I c, 4F. u p. d3 7 3 0( . N. 20 3 . n . Bl tl l n .26 S p 2 5 , 6 W D. C. 0 ) f I t s c s ,t diput i no ove whe he t a y t fr tt fl r e,butove whi h n hi a e he s e s t r t r o ppl he is-o-ie ul r c a to w a sr tdl d. Ur tk a guest tis orgi la ton,fl d i Al mare Co y Cic t ci n s s- e ee r ha t i na ci ie n be l unt r ui Cour i Dec mber201 bef r beng r m o d t t s c ti J nua y 201 pr t Adn s tn e 5 o e i e ve o hi our n a r 6, edaes m Robi on' i ta i of a bir ton i Fe a y 201 a is moton t va a e t a bir ton ns s niiton r ta i n bnlr 6 nd t i o c t he r ta i a r i M a 201 Adn sRo ns n r pondst tUr t k' orgi lco pl i c nnotbet wa d n y 7. m bi o es ha e e s i na m ant a he fr tfld a i be us i wa i pr ry fld. The Subcmta tr r d a bir ton oft is- e cton ca e t s m ope l ie t r c equie r ta i he cli sr ie i Ur tk' c am as d n ee s ompl i ,a t r f e,t c ts d tnd t tt fr tpr pe l ant nd he e or he our houl i ha he is o ry fl d ac i n w a A dn s Robi on' pos - r taton m o i n. ie t o s m ns s t a bir i to The c t vi our ews wih s ptcim t i t ke i s he mpora e Ada s Ro ns pl c o t tnc m bi on a es n he Subc r tsa bir ton c a e i t c e o t fr tt fl nze a i i lne t fnd t t ontac ' r ta i l us n he ontxt f he is-o-ie l nd s nci d o i ha, on t r c d i t s c e,U r t k w a t f r tt fl . The c ttnds i t uc i t r i i he e or n hi as ee s he i s o ie our s ns r tve he ulng n No l v. td S ae Fo d . n .No.1 -v-7 3 1 , 4 W L 6 0 41 ( . N. No .1 , b e Uni tts o s I c, e 4 c 7 4 -G 201 6 3 8 SD. Y. v 9 2 4 .I t a c s , nt es med yUntd Sae Fo d ,n . ç S. o ds' fldad ma df r 01 ) n h t a e o h a a ie tts o s l c (' F o ' ie e n o U. ) abir i i fl d a c l taton, t ie ompl i ag ns N o e r ii t is si t mbir to de a 1 a ant ai t bl asng he sue n he tai n m nd. d. t The c ompli wa tl i t Unie St t s Ditit Co tf t Norhe n Ditit of ant s ied n he t d a e src ur or he t r src Ilnoi. 1 Nobl m o d t dimis t c li s d. e ve o s s he ompli o t sa t a ton pe i m a t r ant r o ty he c i nd ng nda o y a bir i n. 1 The llno sc twilhed a r i untla trt c r tato d. li i our tl l ulng i fe he ompl ton o t a bir i n, ei f he r tato whih r ule i an a r i U. Foods fvo . Ji a *2. No et n moved t va aet c es td n wad n S. ' a r .s t t bl he o c t he a bir ton a r i t Unied Stt s Ditit Cour f t Sout n Diti t of Ne Yo k r ta i wa d n he t a e src t or he her src w r pu s ntt adiputd f u s l tonclus . & *3n. A da ltr U. Foodsmove t rua o s e or m eeci a e.JL. 1 3. y ae , S. do c i m t a d i t Ilnoi c t 1 Asi t sc e,imi o -mage motonst ta f r' onfr he war n he li s om' d. . n hi as l n-r i i o r ns e ' we efld i ea h c ts h t tN o e s r ie n c our uc ha bl oughtta f rofU . Foods m o i n t c im t t r nse S. ' to o onfr o he Ne Yo k c ta U . Foodss w r our, nd S. oughtta f rofN obl sm o i t va at t t Ilnoi c ut r ns e e' ton o c e o he li s ot'. J a * 3. . t 2Z TheNe Yor co tnze t tU. Foodswa t frtt fl i t m a trbe us U . w k ur l d ha S. s he is o ie n he te ca e S. Fo had fld isc ods ie t ompli i t Ilnoi cou tbe or Nob e sl d ism oton t va a e. 1 a ant n he li s r f e l e t i o c t d. t * .Th Ne Yok c u t pe i l rj ce No l ' ag me tt a,n ds tsivovn sa s 4 e w r o r s ct l ee td b es r u n h t i ipue n lig ty ka y pe ng a bir ton,t fr tpos- r tai n moton fld i t frtflng. 1 Nordi t c t ndi r ta i he is ta bir to i ie s he is i d. d he our gv a y weg t t te f c t t U. Fo d ' o ii l c mplit rie cams s b e t t ie n ih o h a t ha S. o s rgna o an as d li u j c o ma tr abirton. Se i. Ot rc t ha as te e t orgna a ton upon whih a ndaoy r tai e ys he ours ve lo ratd he ii l ci c say w a e e e pe ng a bir ton as t fr t sl a i n e il d t de e e t s nt r d ndi r tai he i s - ed cto ntte o f r nce w he n de e mi ng t pr rve f apos- r tai m o i De r& Ri Gr nde W . R.Co. t r ni he ope nue or ta bir ton ton. nve o a R. v. o Pa . R. .8 8F. u p.1 4 ,1 51( Ka .1 9 ) afd,1 9F.d 8 7( 0h Ci. Unin c R. Co, 6 S p 2 4 2 D. n 9 4 , f 1 3 4 1t r 1 9 ) s eas To dShp adsCo p v. n r Li Lt , 0 F.S pp 1 4 ,1 4748( N.. 9 7 ; e lo d iy r r . Cu ad ne d.7 8 u . 4 0 4 - D. J 8 1 8 )(o d cig frtt -iea ay i i c n e to ta frmoi n a d ta se ngmoin t 9 9 c n u tn is-o fl n lss n o tx f rnse to n rn fni to o va t a bir ton a r t ve cae r ta i wa d o nue wher orgi c e i nal ompli t whi h ove lpped wih d s e an, c ra t iput s b e t oabtain wa fld . u j c t r irto , s ie l Und rt a oac i t ec e , ee wast fr tt tl be us i fl d isodgi l e he ppr h n hos as s Ur tk he is o ie ca e t ie t na c ompl i i De e be 2015 t m ont be or Adn s Robi on fl d is de nd f r ant n c m r , wo hs f e m ns ie t ma o a bir to a ove a ye r be or Ada s Robi on fl is moton t va a e t a bir ton r tai n nd r a f e m ns ied t i o c t he r ta i a r Appl ng t r tonal i Nobl whehe Adn Robi on fl t fr tpos- r tai wa d. yi he a i e n e, t r ms ns ied he is ta bir ton moton or whehe t pa te a e t a bir t c ran c am s r s d i Ur t k' o nal i t r he ri s gr ed o r tae e ti l i aie n e e s dgi c ompl i i notsgni a . Alhoug t Subc r tsa bir ton clus r quied a bir to of ant s i ûc nt t h he ontac ' r ta i a e e r r tai n dipu esa ii outoft Subc r t t Supr s t rsng he ontac , he eme Cour ha m a ce t tt FAA m a s t s de lar ha he ke c r t t a bir t e o c a e i a pa iul rco tonl a trt co tfndst tt ca ef ls ontac s o r ta e nf r e bl n rtc a ur y fe he ur i ha he s a l wihn tec u tsj rs ito . HalS . s c . 5 2U. a 5 2.Th S bc nr c' abtai n ti h o r' u id ci n l t Aso s, 5 S. t 8 e u o ta ts r i to r ca e t rf r d d n t a Ab ms Ro is n a p a s t s g s, dv s t i c u t o is lus heeo e i o , s n bn o p e r o ug e t ie t hs o r f t id p nd n j rs ito a b ss o ma e ve ue i r p r fr te e f r e n o te p ris n e e e t u idcin l a i r k n mp o e o h n o c me t f h a t ' e abtain a re n .Th c u t a d v riyjzidcino e t ematr a dve ewa p o r r irto g e me t e o r h d i est l s ito v r h te, n nu s r pe r t r28U. C.j1 mde S. 391. Ada sRobi on' r m e wast e t rmove f ta f rofve a t n,i t ne m ns s e dy o ihe or r ns e nue nd he n he w f r m ,m ove f ral or e or i t pari 'a bir ton agr e e ort s e e or e ntof ou o z der nf cng he tes r ta i e m nt o e k nf c me t a bir to c a e i t s c t Ada s Robi o c e t l te o i whe i fl d t he r tai n l us n hi our. m ns n hos he a tr pton n t ie he p ris j it to t sa t p o e dn si ti c u t e dngabtain a t ' on moin o ty he r c e ig n h s o r p n i r irto . e The Supr m e Cour ha t l t t t c tw ih t pow e t s a t a ton unde e t s d d ha he our t he he r o t y he c i r ( FAA)j3hast f rhe po t c i a e ui abirtonawa d.'Core Byr Chi , he u t r wer o onfnu ny ns ng r tai r ' tz d ps 529 U. a 202. Ot r c ut ha as r ogni d t ta co tt tsa a a ton pe ng S. t he ot ' ve lo ec ze ha s ur ha tys n c i ndi 9 a bir ton r t ns t powe t e or e any awa d t t r uls fom t t abir ton. Todd r ta i eai he r o nf c r ha es t r ha r ta i S iy r s 7 F.Su .a 1 48 No l 20 4 W L 6 0 41 a * - (ç j t t sa dng t e hp a d , 08 pp t 4 ; be, 1 6 3 8 t 5 6 ç owih tn i h l abi ain t e Iln i Co r n ve r l q ihe j rs ito o rt e ma tro te p risb t r t to , h l os u t e r ei u s d u idcin ve h te f h a t u r i n e r t rsaye t pr ee ngs pe ng t c l i n oft a bir ton i c e a i oft a he t d he oc di ndi he oncuso he r tai n ontmplton he f d ta i ma beak dt En e j g n o t abtain a r '...' . Th s i lcti a h t t y s e o e tr ud me t n he r i to wa d r .) u , mp ii n ' t sc tssa pe i a bir i n wa t powe t co s m a r uli abir to awa d. hi our' t y ndng r tato s he r o ntr ny es tng r tai n r I lghtoft f egoi t co t i isdic e i deci st a y t fr tt fl nze n i he or ng, he ur, n t s r ton, lne o ppl he is-o-ie l t srkeUr tk' m o i t c im t a bir ton a r o ti ee s ton o onfr he r ta i wa d. 11 1. T r f r ofV e ans e nue Re yi on t f um s l to clus ,Adn s Ro ns s m o i n t ta fr ve ue i l ng he or eeci n a e m bi on' to o r ns e n s b o g tp ru n t 28 U. C.j 1 0 () whc p o i s ta ç fo t c n e inc o t ru h usa t o S. 4 4 a, ih r vde h t ç j r he o v ne e f he g p risa dwi e s sgn )i t itr s o j tc , dsrc c u t yta fra y cv la to a t n t se a d n he n ee t f usie a itit o r ma rnse n ii cin e n t a y ohe dsrc o dv so wh r i mih h veb e b o g t' 28U. C.j 1 0 () l o n t r itit r iii n ee t g t a e n r u h . ' S. 4 4 a. n a plig j1 0 () te d cso t ta f ra c s r ss s u dy wihn te ds rto o t p yn 4 4 a , h e iin o rnse a e e t o n l t i h icein f he dsrc c m' Se Br c v Enr Coi trCts.n .9 3F.d 1 5 ,1 57(t Ci. 9 1 . itit o t e o k . te z e r.I c, 3 2 2 3 2 4 h r 1 9 ) . mu l decdi whe he t e r iet sdic ei n,dititc t t cal c i ranlmbe n i ng t r o xe c s hi s r to src ours ypi ly onsde l r o fco s i cu i g : 1 t weg t a c r e t p an ifs c oc o v n e ( ) win s f a t r, n ld n ' 6 ) he ih c o d d o litf h ie f e u ; 2 t e s . ( c n ne c a d a c s ;( )c n e in e o t ep ris a d ()t eitr s o j sie' Tr . f o ve in e n c e s 3 o v n e c f h a t ; n 4 h n ee t f u tc . s o e ' tePlmbes& Pieitr Na' Pe so Fmd v Plmbn Sev .I c, 91F.d4 6, 4 (t h u r p tte s tl n ip t . u i: r s. n .7 3 3 4 4 4h Ci.201 ) Thepa t s e ngta frbe st ç vy bur n ofs ng t tt baa e of r 5. ry e ki rnse ar he t hea de howi ha he lnc i eet weg sr y i gtjfvori a moi t ta fr' Ar bi v.Bowe 966 F. ntrss ihs tongl n is a n ton o rnse . a an ' n, 2d 1 ,1 W L 15 26,a *1( h Ci.J y7,1 )( 441 992 40 t 4t r ul 992 unpubls dtbl opi o ;Smihfed ihe a e nin) t il Pa kngCo. V. uae & Co, 5 F. u p 2 58 , 5( D. . 01 ) ci v. S rz .8 7 S p . d 1 58 E. Va 2 2 . 10 Gfhe c l ul c ng ,howe r whe t pa tes c r c c t i a vai f nz ç' a c us ha es ve , n he ri ' onta t on a ns ld o m s l ci c a e whih çe e e s t pa te 'a ee nt a t t m os pr e e ton l us , c rpr s nt he ri s gr me s o he t operf t .' At. orz '' l m M aieCo sr Co. U. Dit Ct frt W . s. fTx. 1 4 S. . 6 , 1( 01 )( u tng rn n t. v. S. s. . o he Dit o , 3 Ct 5 8 58 2 3 q oi Se r Or .I c v li o Co p, 8 U. 2 , (98 (.I s c ac s ,h c u t eest t twa t :. n . .tc h r .4 7 S. 2 31 1 8 n u h a e te o r d fr o he 9 pa te 'c c ofve a e es e i t f r s l ci n ca e t es t pl ntf e t bls s ris hoi e nue s xpr s d n he o um e e to lus ml s he ai if sa ihe abassf de i ngt ta frt ca et t pa te 'a e upo f am.I a 182. i or clni o rnse he s o he ris gred n or d. t Alhoug t Subc tac c a ns a f u s l to c a e a e ai d a t h he on r t onti or m eeci n l us , s xpl ne bove,t he c a e i pe s i . The caus t r f e does note es a pr f r e f t m os pr r l us s nnisve l e he e or xpr s e e enc or he t ope fr m, u p r t v n ei a y c u t t j rs ito o e t matr S eSu c nr c !2 () o u b t e mis e u n n o r wi u idcin v r he te . e b o ta t 5 b . h M or over t i t i t nt c e,Ata i M a i i ve a m a t r c a e,a e , mlke he nsa as lntc rne nvol d nda o y l us nd ed he l i i i o s ve ith F t' Cic tha no y t address whet r Atantc M arne apples t a pennisi ç l e o uh rui s t e g t f r m -elc i o u s e ton c a e' l us .' Se v c M a t r r i e se of Far u s if I . v. nc Se vi M a t r r ce se Re ie ta/ mmeca S r s,L. , .CV PX 1 - 2 8 ,2 7 W L 3 2 3 2 a * ( Md. sd n ilco ril e v . P.No 6 0 5 9 01 0 3 4 , t 3 D. J y 1 ,2 7 . I c s siv l n s c p r si ca s s amao iy offd r lc u t ç a e ul 7 01 ) n a e n ovig u h e misve lu e , j rt e ea o rs s v h rj ce t a l i e l y d b t S p e Co r i Ata tc M aie a h ve ise d ee td he nayss mp o e y he u rme u t n ln i rn , nd a n ta a pid t ta iin la lss'f rmo in t ta fr u d r 2 U.. j 1 4() Fomd. p le he rdto a nay i' o to s o rnse n e 8 SC. 40 a . l Ft e sP o .LLC v. e M oinFin s ,1 F. u p. d 1 3 ,1 4 ( Or 2 5 ( olci in s r d. Fre to t e s 21 S p 3 0 8 0 3 D. . 01 ) c l t e ng c s s;s eas S r ie a tr 2 7 W L 3 2 3 2 a * . l ke p n wih ti te d te c u t a e ) e lo e vc M se, 01 0 3 4 , t 3 n e i g t h s rn , h o r de lne t a y t a oa f om A ta i M a i i t s c e,a i t ad,fnds i a o i t c i s o ppl he ppr ch r l ntc r ne n hi as nd ns e i t ppr pra e t a y t tadii na ana ys s f m otonst ta f rve o ppl he r to l l i or i o r ns e nue. Unde t f z f t stadii nal co i r d i decdi m otonst ta f r t c ur r he olr acor r to ly nsde e n i ng i o r ns e , he o t c l oncudest tAdn sRobi on ha no me isblr n ofs wi t tt Sout r Dititof ha m ns s t t t zde ho ng ha he he n src Ohi w oul be a m or conve e f m . o d e ni nt onl 11 A . Pl i i rs Choi ofV e a nt f ce nue The frtf c o i t ta f ra l i i t pli ifs c c ofve . tl tc cei s a t r n he r ns e nayss s he antf hoie nue s- hoi s -ha t c ly e il t lubsa il we ght'es ily whe e t c e f u i t pl i ifs ypi al ntted o s t nta i , peca l r he hos n or m s he antf home f nz orbe r a s tntalr l to t t c us ofaci n. HenzKe te Gmbl & Co. o m a s ubsa i e ai n o he a e to ' i ' tlr ' l v. Ra o USA, zr LLC, 5 F. p 2 6 0 6 7( D. . 01 )( u tn Ko v M ir tkl tll c, 7 0 Su p. d 6 , 6 E. Va 2 0 q oi g h . c oe n ' n . 2 0F. u p 2 6 7 6 3( D. . 0 3) Hee t e abi ain r s le alg to t a 5 S p . d 2 , 3 E. Va 2 0 ). r , h r t to e ov d l ains h t r e Ur tk and Adn s Ro ns n e c br a hed a c tu ton s onta tpe f me wihi t s ee m bi o a h e c onsr c i ubc r c ror d t n hi ditit i Cha l tes le Vigi a Thus t pli if s c c of ve ç a s a s bsan i l src n ro t vil, r ni . , he a ntf hoi e nue s r be u t ta rlto t t e c us o a to ' a d i e tte t çu tnilweg t' I (n e lq o ain eain o h a e f cin' n s n ild o t bsa ta ih . d. itma u tto s ' maksomitd) Acc di y,hec tco l st tt sfco weg agans ta fri t r te . or ngl t our ncude ha hi a tr ihs i t rnserng he c s t t Sou he Diti tofOhi a e o he t m src o. B. Conve ence oft Parte ni he is The s c f t i t c e ond acor s he onve e e oft pm i s Tr ns e i nota opra e whe i ni nc he e . a fr s ppr it n t wilme el s r t s f t balnceofi onvenince fom one sde t a t r Henz Ke te , l r y e ve o hit he a nc e r i o nohe . i tlr 7 0F.S p 2 a 6 8(iig J Ta I . Le , 8 F.S p 2 7 , 38( D. . 0 7 ) 5 up . d t 6 ctn TH x.nc v. e 4 2 u p. d 31 7 E. Va 2 0 ). I t s c s ,t So he n Ditito Ohi woul notbe a c n hi a e he ut r src f o d onvenintf r f Ur t k,aNorh e o um or e e t Ca olnac por ton,butwoul bea c ni ntf m f rAdnmsRobl on,whih m anti is r i or a i d onve e onl o ns c i ans t prncpa plc ofbusnes i 01i Alhought ja te abirtdi Ohi t weepr e i i i l ae i s n '0. t 1 he ris r tae n o,hey r esnt n t sdititt pe f m t co tuci n c tac a f r e rirpr e di i t s c t Thi hi src o ror he nsr to on r t nd o a le oc e ngs n hi our. s f r m i t r f e notove l i onve e f e t rpa t Be us t a f r w o d m e e y s f o u s he e or ry nc ni nt or ihe r y. ca e r ns e ul r l hi t t balnc of i onve e i Adn s Robi on' f vor t c tfnds t t t s f c o alo he a e nc nince n m ns s a , he our i ha hi a t r s wei a i tta f ni t c et t Sout r DititofOhi ghs gans r ns e ng he as o he he n src o. 12 C. Conve e oft W ine s ni nce he t s es Co t ha r cogni d t t t s t r f c or wines conve e e a a e s has urs ve e ze ha hi hid a t , t s ni nc nd cc s , ç onsde a e i ç i r bl mporanc 'i t ta f ranays s Sn s El s Co. Lt v.Rn c t e' n he r ns e l i . m ung ec . . d. mbus I , s nc. 3 6F. u p. ( 7 8 71 ( D. . 0 ) G-h p rya s rigwin s i o v n e c h st e 8 S p 21 0 , 8 E. Va 20 5 . ll e a t se t çn t e s nc n e in e a h bur n t pr f r by a sdavi o ot r s ,s fce de al r pe tng t wi e s a t i de o ofe , f t r he wie ufi int t is es c i he m s es nd her po e ilt tmony t e bl t c tt a s s t m a e i iy of e de e a t de e of t nta esi o na e he our o s e s he t ralt vi nc nd he gr e ic n e e c .' D2 Lt .v.Blc b a d I c,6 F.S p 2 7 8 7 0 ( M d 20 9 n o v nin e' ' L d a k o r . n . 71 u p. d 6 , 8 D. . 0 ) (uoigKo 25 F. u p 2 a 6 6 . q tn h, 0 S p . d t 3 ) Adn sRobi o ha no m a a pr f rofs cii de al o wines i on ninc m ns n s t de ny ofe pe fc t is f t s nc ve e e t twoul r s tfom pr e ng i t sco t l i t a r i on t ge r lz s ntm e t t ha d e ul r oce di n hi ur . t nse d eles he ne a ied e i nt ha t abir ton wa hel be o e t ee Ohi a bir t s a t r o e a a ton r r ng t he r ta i s d f r hr o r ta or nd he ef r ny c i ega di he abir to woul be mor c r ta i n d e onve e 'n Ohi On t sr cor a i t a e e ofs fc e ni nti o. hi e d nd n he bs nc ufi i nt dea l,t c tc l t is he our oncudes t t t co nince oft wines e doe no wegh i f vor of ha he nve e he t s s s t i n a t a f rt t Sout r D i ti tofO hi r ns e o he he n s r c o. D . I e es ofJus i e nt r t tc Th fn lfco i te ta se a lssi t e itr s o j sie whih ç n o se e i a a t r n h rn fr nay i s h n ee t f u tc , c G c mpa s s e publc i e es f c or am e a s t ma i i e iy a f r s .' Bye s n v.Eq f x l o. i ntr t a t s i d t yse tc nt grt nd aine s' ro uia nf S r s.LLC,4 7 F.S p 2 6 7,6 5 ( D.Va 2 0 )(nena ctto a d q o ai n maks ev. 6 u p. d 2 3 E. . 0 6 itr l i in n u tto r a o te ) Fe ea Prcie a Pr c d r j38 . Ree a t c n ieains icud ' j dca mitd ; d rl a tc nd o e u e 47 lv n o sd rto n l e u iil . e o o t a od n e o i o itn j g n s te c u s fmiirt wi t e a p ia e c n my, he v ia c f nc nsse t ud me t, h o /' n lai t h p lc bl y h lw, o ke c n iin ,hea it t j i oh rpa t s t pe d n y o arltd a to ,a dt e a d c t o dto s t bl y o on t e ri ,he n e c f eae cin n h i e it r ti ha ng l alco r r i decde a hom e. Henz Ke te ,750 F.Supp.2d a 670; n e es n vi oc ntove ses i d t i tlr t 13 Bd o Tr.v.Ba lrHe tng & Ai Co i o n .I c,7 2 F.S p 1 5 ,1 6 ( D.Va .f s yo ai r ndt nig n . 0 i u p. 2 3 2 0 E. . 1 . 988) I isb if Ad msRo n o a s rst tn ge tij tc wo l r s l 9o ta serng n t re, a bis n s et ha o r a nusie u d e ut m rn fri t sm a trt Ohi Durng t hea i Ada s Robi o a hi te o o. i he rng, m ns n dded t tt Sout r Ditit of ha he he n src Ohi woul ha gr a e f la iy wih t 1w a i i t a bir ton diput whi h wa o d ve e t r amiirt t he a ppled n he r ta i s e, c s Ohi lw. The c rtfnds t s lte a gum e unpe s sve bec us f de a c t a e ofe o a ou i hi a tr r nt r ua i a e e r l ours r tn c ld upon t a y t l w ofot rsa e . M AK M kt .l .v.Kalpos 620 F.Supp. 295, ale o ppl he a he tt s c. nc a , 2d 31 ( Com. 0 )(i n Hl na idUS l c v. x. L Cop.No. 6 Ci . 6 2 2 0 1 D. r 20 9 ct g l i mmi br A. n . Te GS r , 0 v 7 7 , 0 7 W L 1 31 ( D. Y. a . 2 2 0 ). 6 11 S. N. J n 2 , 0 7 ) Theco ta s obs r st tt sf m i l sa1pa te ,i udi Li ryM ut l a ur lo e ve ha hi ont nvove l ri s ncl ng be t ua , nd i r lt d t t pe ng a ton a i tAda sRobi on a Li ry M ut lt rt t nnsof s ea e o he ndi ci gans m ns nd be t ua mde he e t Pa nt Bo he yme nd. The co tt r f e fnds t t Ada Robi on ha not s ur he e or i ha ms ns s hown t t t ha he itrs o j sies p o th r q se ta se . n ee t f u tc u p r t e e uetd r n f r Fo t r a ons saed a r he e s t t bove,t cour c udest tAdnms Robi on ha notm e is he t oncl ha ns s tt he b de ofpr ng t t sa ton s d beta f n'd t t Sou he Diti tof0hi avy ur n ovi hat hi ci houl r nse e o he t nz src 0. Concl on usi Fo t f e ng r a ons t c r c l s t tt W e tz Diti to Vig ni i a r he or goi e s , he ou t onc ude ha he se. src f r i a s n pr r f u f rr viwi Ur t k' moton t co im t a bir ton a r a i de lne t ope or m o e e ng e e s i o nfr he r ta i wa d nd t ci s o ta f rve t t So he n Diti tofOhi r nse nue o he ut r src o. The Cl r i die t t s nd ce tf e c es of t s m e or nd e k s r c ed o e rii d opi hi m a um o ni n a t pi o nd he a c pa ng or rt a 1c c om nyi de o l ouns lo r or e f ec d. EN TER : Thi # * s da ofse t m be , 2017. y pe r Unied St t sD i t i tJ t a e sr c udge 14