Thornhill v. Aylor et al, No. 3:2015cv00024 - Document 172 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 10/19/17. (jcj)
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I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN D I STRI OF VI I I CT RG N A CHA RLO TTESV I LLE DI I ON V SI CLERK' oFpj .Eu s. s' coua' S z cf Dt r t r AT QtA&$ h()hA ' ,tw : o 7, 7 ! 7 . .' z , f)tI :L L ' 4 ) OCT 19 2 1 S7 SH ERRY LY' N TH O RNH I N LL, f her el a asA dm i s r t r oft or s f nd nit a o he Es a e ofhe s Shawn Chr s o tt r on, i t pherBen' y, de e ed,i vi lyand on be fof c as ndi dual hal al ot r smia l st t d, l he s i lry iua e Pl i if a ntf , t E7:J 1 (. ( 1J A 2 J : - , (tii@ ;-il( k CLERK Ci lA c i N o. l vi ton 3: 5CV00024 M E M O M N DU M O PI O N NI By:H on.G l n E. lad e Corr Unie Stt DititJ td a es src udge F.G LEN N A Y LO R,e al, t . D e e nt . f nda s Pl i i fShe r Lynn Thor l,on be l ofhe s fa asa i sr t oft es a e of a ntf ry nhil ha f r el nd dm ni t a or he t t he s Sha ChrsopherBer fl t saci purua t 42 U. C.j 1 a Vigi a r on, wn it ry, ied hi ton s nt o S. 983 nd r ni Co e j 801 5 ,t s q,a an tt eCe ta Vign aRe in lJ i Auhoiy (h S t o iy', d . - 0 t e . g i s h n rl r ii go a al t rt te d h rt ' Au ) Su rntnda F.Glr Ayl ,and s ve ale oye s a t Ce r lVig ni Re onalJ i pe i e nt em or e r mpl e t he nta r i a gi al (i ' CVRJ',aii ou ofBer sde t whiei cusod ') rsng t ry' ah l n t y.Thec ei pr e l bef et c t as s esnty or he our o def nda s moton f r c i r ton oft i moton t c riy t t Supr m e Co tof n e nt ' i or e onsde a i her i o e tf o he e ur Vig na t e q e to o wh t e r go a j i a to iisa d tere o e sa e e tte t r i i h u sin f eh r e in l al uh rte n h i mply e r n ild o s r gn i uniyunde Vigi a lw. Fort r a o sa e be o t moton wilbe de ed. ove ei mm t r r ni a he e s ns t t d l w, he i l ni Fact and ProceduralB ackqround ual The cou' pr vi l s m ma i e t f t i t s c s . See Thor l v.Ayl ,No. l e ousy u t rz d he acs n hi a e nhil or Thornhill v. Aylor et al Doc. 172 3:5 CV- 0 2 , 01 U.. s. 1 - 0 0 4 2 6 S Dit LEXI 2 5 , t* -0 ( . Va F b.1 , 01 ) Asr lva t S 01 3 a 2 1 W D. . e 9 2 6 . ee n her on Augus 27, 2015, Thor l f l an am ended cl acton com pl nt agai t el e, t nhil ied ass i ai ns even de e nt . D ef nt t n fl d s r t m oto t dim i s w hi h t co tgr nt d i pa t f nda s enda s he ie epa a e i ns o s s , c he ur a e n r a denid i pa t Onl Countl,ase tng acai f da nd e n r. y 1 s ri l m or mage unde 42 U. C.j1 a s r S. 983, nd Dockets.Justia.com Count11 algi wr ulde h i vi ai ofVigi a Code j8. - rman pe ng 1, le ng ongf at n olton r ni 0150, e i ndi a ns t Aut iy, yl , t e oft e pl yee . gai t he hort A or and hr e he m o s O n Apr l 4, 201 t r a ni def nda s fl d a m oton t c r iy t f l i i 7, he em i ng e nt ie i o e tf he olow ng que ton of s a e 1 w t t Supr m e Cour of V igi a: A r t A ut r t a is e pl es si t t a o he e t r ni e he ho iy nd t m oye e ild t s r i or gove nmen a i uniy unde t l ntte o ove e gn r t l mm t r he aws of t Comm onweat of he lh V igi a? O n M a 25,201 t co tde e t m oton. r ni y 7, he ur ni d he i On Se e r 30,201 a de ii wa is i Ha e m v.Oui pt mbe 7, c son s s ued n l e nones No.5: 7- v, 1 c 00003,201 U. DitLEXI 1 38( . Va.Se .30, 7 ,ga i s r gni 7 S. s. S 61 W D. pt 201 ) rntng oveei mmuniyt t o a Vign a r go a j i a to iy a d g a tn te d fn a tsmoi n t d s s fr lc o r ii e in l al uh rt n rn ig h ee d n ' to o imis o a k f j rs ito l lg to t d cso i Hae m,te d fn a t fld te i sa tmoi n f r u idcin. n ih f he e iin n le h ee d n s ie h n tn to o r c i r ton oft c r ' M a 25, 7 opi on a or rde ng t rc r ii a i m oton. e ons de a i he ou ts y 201 ni nd de nyi hei e tf c ton i O n Oc obe l 201 t pa tes a a e be o e t c r f a he r ng o t m o i a t t r 7, 7, he r i ppe r d f r he ou t or a i n he ton, nd he m a t ri n0w rpe f r vi w . te s i 0r e e Di cuss on s i Rul 5: oft Rul s oft Supr m e Cour ofV igi a pr dest tt Supr m e Cour e 40 he e he e t r ni ovi ha he e t of V igi a C ay i is di c e i a we ques i of l w c tf e t i by ...a Unie St t r ni t m n t s r ton ns r tons a erii d o t t d a es di ti tc r . Suc a w e m ay be f i he ...i a que ton ofV igi a 1 w i de e m i tve i sr c ou t h ns r um s d f si r ni a s t r na i n a pr ce ng pendi be o e t c ri yi cou ' a i a ar t e i no contoli ny o edi ng f r he e tf ng l nd t ppe s her s t r lng pr c dentonpoi i t de sonsoft ( e Cour ofVigi a o t Cour ofAppeasof ee ntn he cii he Suprme t r niq r he t l V i g ni ' I denyi t def nda s m oton t ce tf t c tf r i a. n ' ng he e nt ' i o riy, he our ound t t t quesi n t ha he to he def nda s s e nt oughtt c r iy was no de e m i tve a t tt e s i pr e tw as s tci nt o e tf t t r na i nd ha he xi tng ec den ufi e t deci t ques i o de he ton. U nder t frs ratonal t courtobs he i t i e, he erved t i had aleady r ed t t pl ntf hat t r ul hat he ai if saed a pl i e c am unde M o lv.De rme ofSoc a Se vies ofNe Yor 436 U . tt ausbl l i r nel na t nt il r c . w k, S. 658,690 ( 978 . W het rt Aut rt a ise oye ha sat s ri i 1 ) he he ho iy nd t mpl es ve t e oveegn mmuniy wil t l no i pa t t M one l cl i , whi h pe m is s t a i t l al govemm e unis lke t t m c he l am c r t uis ga ns oc l nt t i he A ut iy a r quies a s i of de i r t i fe e e, m e ng m or t n m e e hor t nd e r how ng lbe a e ndi f r nc ani e ha r neg i nce. Vigi a l do not g a s r i n i lge r ni aw es r nt ove e g mmuniy t sa e ofi a s ac us d of an t o t t fcil c e i e i lt 4 orac s c tt tng gr s neglg e Se e. ,Conpac v.M a 906 F.Supp. nt ntona ol t ons iu i os i enc . es g. e nn, 1 025, 1 ( D. Va. 1 ; Tomln v. M c nze, 468 S. 2d 882, 88 ( l 6) 047 E. 995) i Ke i E. 4 Va. 99 . A c or ngl t cou t f c di y, he r ound t t by pl us bl s a i a M onel c a m , t s a e s ve e g ha , a i y t tng l l i he t t o r i n i m uniy i s wasnotc e di pos tve m t s ue as - s ii . Unde t s c r he e ond r tonal, t co tr c ze t t des t a co r r de son i ai e he ur e ogni d ha pie nta y cii n Dowdy v.Pa munke Rec' J i Aut ,21 U. Dit LEXI 671 ( D.Va May 1 201 , y l al h. 04 S. s. S 27 E. . 5, 4) trefd r l ititc u t a do eVignaCic i Co r h v r e ta rgo a j ia t o iis h e e e a d src o rs n n r ii rut u t a e uld h t e in l al uh rte a e note il d t s r gn i m uniy unde t l ofV igi a. Fi m o e v.Tr nt N o.CL1 r ntte o ove ei m t r he aws r ni na r e , 5- 000881 a * ( .Ci.Ct Oc.27,201 (ummaii c chit y) Thec tc uredi , t 2 Va r . t 6) s rzng as sor . our onc r n t er igo t emao iyo c u t t h v a d e s dt eis e fn igt a t eAuh rt ddn t h ul f h j rt f o rs o a e d rs e h su ,i dn h t h to iy i o n s ts yt r quie e f s r gn i uniy unde Vigi a1w t ti beeihe a ç l oft a if he e r m nt or ove ei mm t r r ni a ha t t r n t' am he St t ' or a m uni i l c por ton per o ng a g ae' c pa or a i f nni over m e f ton. The c t f n nt unc i our ound t he A ut iy t be ne t r l pa tc a ,t co tr e t t t A u hort w a no a m uni pa hort o ihe . n ri ul r he ur ul d ha he t iy s t ci l co po a i bec us i wa not c e t d a a body c por t or poltca s vii of t r r ton a e t s rae s or a e ii l ubdi s on he Com m onw e lh a i l ke t pow e ofe i ntdom a n. a t nd t ac d he r m ne i l por a l t co tr c ni e t t i 201 a aga n i 201 a bilw a i r m t nty, he ur e og z d ha , n 4 nd i n 5, l s ntoduc i ed n t Vigi aGe rlAse y wiht pur eofgrntngs rin i he r ni nea smbl t he pos a i oveeg mmuniyt r ina ji t o ego l al a hortes SeeH. 1 Ge Ase ,Reg.Ses.( 201 .H. 1 3,Gen.Ase ,Reg. ut ii . B. 50, n. s mb, s Va. 4) B. 51 , s mb. Ses.( 201 . I bot yeas t Vigi a Ge rlAsembl di no pa st bil. The s Va. 5) n h r, he r ni nea s y d t s he ls ir ntoduc i of t e bil cl a l i c t s t t t V igi a Ge r l A s e bl i a a e t t ton hos ls e ry ndi a e ha he r ni ne a s m y s w r ha r ona j la hoii do notpose s s fce ati e ofa munii lc porton t be egi l ai ut rtes ss ufiint trbuts cpa or ai o ves e w ih s r i i m uniy unde Vi gi a l w ,or a e ot m i e not a a m of t s a e. t d t ove e gn m t r r ni a r he s n r he t t The lgil t e' decson nott ex e s h pr t c i ort a nd t sa u e gr ntng t e saur s ii o t nd uc o e ton, o me he t t t a i he e s n ilatiue o a mu iia c r o ain t r go a j i a to iis c nfr ta te e se ta t b ts f r ncp l o p rto o e in l al uh rte , o ims h t h s e iis d notha s h i uniy. Sho tPump Town Ct.Cmt De Aut v.Ha 554 ntte o ve uc mm t r r y. v. h. hn, S. 2d 44l,447 ( 2001 k(1 t a e e o a saut y desgnai of c E. Va. )(ûIn he bs nc f ny tt or i ton ommuniy t de lpme aut ii a k ii ls bdi sons'gheSu e Cour ofVigi ajc udegj veo nt hortes s poltca u vii , t prme t r ni oncl s t tt gntt i nots h.) ha he e iyj s uc ' . ' Fial,t e c u trj ce t d fn a t'ag me tta te sae s v rin i n t n ly h o r ee td he ee d n s r u n h t h tt o eeg mmu iy g a e t Vig ni s rfs when pe f ng dic ei r a t tows fo t s rf s t r ntd o r i a he if ronni s r tona y c s l r m he he if o r go a j i a t oiisa t ere ly e b c u e t s rfs sto a b ad t a o e s e e in l al u h rte nd h i mpo e s e a s he heif i n o r h t v re s t e a hortes A lhough a pos i y nove a g e , t co t r c ze t t t m e e hos ut ii . t s bl l r um nt he ur e ogni d ha he r exi t e of a no lt or do no co pe c r ii a i senc ve he y es t m l e tfc ton. l e c r ii to i unne s a y nde d, e tfca i n s ce s r w he e s i c e 1 w pe t t c tt r c a S ea one a prnc pl d co l i ' Se n xitng as a nnis he our o ea h ' s d nd i i e nc us on. r ' e Lynn v.M onac Rec r M g . l ,953 F.Supp.2( 61 622 ( M d.2013 (ii rh ovev mt. nc. 1 2, D. ) ctng Si on v.DukeEne Cor ,No.98- 90 1 U. App.LEXI 21 ( h Ci.Se .8 mps my p. 1 6, 999 S. S 553 4t r pt , 1 ) Thec trcog ze t thee t e si c elw a e s swhe a e oye ofa 999). our e ni d ha r, he xitng as a ddrs e n n mpl e sae a nc i e ild t s rin i tt ge y s ntte o oveeg mmuniy,s e,e. ,J mesv.J ne 282 S. 2d 86 ( t e c. a a , E. 4 Va. 1 ) a whehe ane iyori vi li anage oft Co 980 , nd t r ntt ndi dua s nt he mmonwe t e ildt s ri alh ntte o oveegn i mmuniy f dicei r a t,seAt ns v.Sa no,5 S. 2d 902,9 ( 2001. The t or s rtonay cs e ki on ch 41 E. 05 Va. ) cour f t r not d t tt s a gum e pr e s a f c ua i r a no a C s i n ofV i gi a t ur he e ha hi r nt es nt a t l nquiy, nd t û to que r ni lw' f whi h Rul 5: o t Rul oft Su e e Co tofVigi a pr de a ba i f a ' or c e 40 f he es he pr m ur r ni ovi s ss or c riiai See W hily v.Commo alh,538 S. 2d 296,302 ( 2000 (lsl ri e tfc ton. te nwe t E. Va. ) çg oveegn i uniy i a de e i pl pr e i ditnc is soff twhi h,i pr ve c e t a ba t a mm t s f nsve ea es ntng si t s ue ac c f o d, r a e ro pl nifs rgh of rcovey. At ns 541 S. 2d a 905 ( i t t t saus as a aitf i t e r ' ki on, ); E. t notng ha he tt n e oye ori tume aiyoft saei us lyaquetonoffc) mpl e nsr ntlt he tt s ual si a t. The c tc i s t fnd ispror a l i pe s sve. The de son i Hale doe our ontnue o i t i nayss r ua i cii n em s not c ng t c ts fndi t tt quesi s htt be c rii i notca e dipostve ha e he our' i ng ha he ton oug o e tfed s s - s ii . W hie Haee does a tr t balnc ofdec sons a e sng t quesi t wei t of t l l m le he a e ii ddr s i he ton, he gh he aut iy r m a ns c it ntwih t sc tsr i hort e i ons s e t hi our ' ulng. C oncl i us on Fort f e ng r as ns t c r wilde t moton f r c i r to TheCl r he or goi e o ,he ou t l ny he i or e onsde ai n. ek i die t d t s nd ce tfe c e oft sm e o andu opi o a t a ompa ng or rt s rce o e riid opi s hi m r m ni n nd he cc nyi de o al c 1 ouns lofr c d. e e or DATED: i I d yo Oco e, 2017. Ths Q# a f tb r Unie St t s D it i tJ t d a e s rc udge