Thornhill v. Aylor et al, No. 3:2015cv00024 - Document 170 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 10/18/17. (jcj)
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I THE UN I N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A CH ARLOTTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI CLERKS OFFI ( 8 Df . COURT CF J ST AT ROANt tEi 3 (:VA 1) ïE :L . ) ï T 1s 2.7 0 , 1 JUL! C. U). k x-- K A , L ' ' )2R . SH ERR Y LY N N TH ORN HI LL, f he s l and a Ad i sr t oft or r e f s m nita or he Esa eofhe s Sha Chrsophe Be r tt r on, wn it r ry, d ea ed,i vi ly a on be fof ec s ndi dua l nd hal alot r sm ia l st t d, 1 he s i lry iua e Pl i if antf, 'V N ' gc ' ic((qj , - ')t J Ci lAc i No.3: 5CV0 vi ton 1 0024 M EM O RANDUM OPI ON NI By:Ho Gl nE.Conr d n. e a Unie Stt sDititJ td a e src udge F. LEN N A YLOR,e a . G t l, Def nda s e nt . Pli ifShe r Lynn Thor l,on be l ofhe s l a a ad i sr t oft esa e of antf ry nhil ha f r e f nd s m nitaor he tt hers Shawn Cl sophe Ber fl t sa i pu s ntt 42 U. C.j1 a Vigi a on, uit r ry, ied hi cton rua o S. 983 nd r ni Co e j8015 t s q,a an tt eCe ta Vigna Re in lJ i Auh rt (h i to iy' d . - 0 t e . g is h n rl r ii go a al t o iy te ' h rt ', Au ) S p rne a tF. em Ayo ,a dtr eme ia e ly e (d eM e ia Dee d ns' a t u eitnd n Glr lr n h e dc l mpo e s ih d c l f n a t' t he t ) Ce ta Vigna Re ina J i (' ' . Th a to a ie o t o Ber s d ah whl n rl r ii go l al $ CVRJ' ) e cin rs s u f ry' e t i e e rencng dr a aco wihdr li CVRJ cusody. The c e i pr s nty be or t xpe i i ug nd l hol t awa n t as s e e l f e he c u to t e d fn a t'moin f rs mmayj d me ta t Comt1 u d rj 1 8 a d t e o r n h e e d n s to o u r u g n s o t 1 n e 9 3 n h def nda s moton t dim isCo I1f wr ulde t unde Vig ni l Fort r a ons e nt ' i o s s unt I or ongf ah r r i a aw. he e s stf rhbeo b t t moi nf rs mmayj d me ta dt emoint d s s aed nid. e o t lw, oh he to o u r u g n n h to o imis r e e Thornhill v. Aylor et al Doc. 170 FactualB ackeround The f l i f d s a e e t r undiput d or pr s nt d i t lg m os f vor e t t olow ng a r ihe s e e e e n he i ht t a abl o he plitf.Se Andes v. b t LobbvsI , U. 242, ( 986) anif e ron Lierv nc.477 S. 255 1 . Dockets.Justia.com 1 CVRJ Polcison M e calCaret l at s . ie di o nm e Al CVRJi t sha Ant m me c li ur e.De ofTe es M il 1 1 Do t l nma e ve he di a ns anc p. r a ler 4- 5, cke No.1 Eac bilfom ahe t a epr de i ne it dwih Ant m do t ac r c ual 05. h l r alhc r ovi r s gota e t he wn o onta t ly al da nt 1 a 1 lowe mou . d. t 5.Ant m pa t bila t Aut iypaysAnt m.L. he ys he l, nd he hort he d a The Aut iy i tu r cevespa nt f r media e ns fom fve l ltes t t hort n tm e i yme s o c l xpe es r i oca ii ha us t f iiy t hous i aes De ofGl nn Ayl 59,Doc N o.1 4. The l aii spay e he ac lt o e nm t . p. e or ket 0 oc lte a a n nnualalocai n ba e on a f mul ,a whe t m e c e ns s f a c ran l alt l to s d or a nd n he dial xpe e or e ti oc iy e e t budgeed a l a i t Au hort pa t bila t l a iy r mbur e t xc ed he t loc ton, he t iy ys he l nd he oc lt ei s s he Aut iy. 1 a 78,80- 1 hort d. t 8. The me c lde rm e oft CVRJhasa wrte polc manua on pr di m e ca di a pa t nt he it n iy l ovi ng di l c r t i t s The m a l i l a e o nma e . nua ncudes a s cton on i t s unde goi dr a alohol e i nma e r ng ug nd c wihdr wa . I t t s to t manua lss s t a l n ha eci n, he l it ympt oms of a ut wihdr wa t i ude c e t a l o ncl r sl s nes , lt r e te s s e ha gy, vom ii s kes or te o s c tng, ha r m r , onvuli , me a c uso a sons nt l onf in nd diore ai pos i e bi r e be vi r or ps s int ton, sbl zar ha o ychoss a ma ked a e y. CVRJ M edial i , nd r nxit c Polc M anua a 48- Doc tN o.1 4. Ot r s iy l t 49, ke 23he ympt oms ofaloholwihdr la e lse c t awa r it d t oughoutt m a hr he nuala i ude a eevae bl pr s ur ee t d ora malpule r t nd ncl n l td ood e s e, lva e bnor s ae, te or,haluci ton,a dec e s d r s r t y r t a aler d sae of c cous s ,na ea r m s l na i r a e e pia or ae, n t e t t ons i ne s us , we kne s a e a a s tng. 1 a 92,98a s , nor xi , nd weai d. t 99. Fori aesdipl yi sgnsofi o cai t m e c sa fi i tu t d t pe f m a nm t s a ng i nt xi ton, he dial t f s nsr c e o ror Clni ll tt e W ihdr wa Ase s nt(i W A' s l cond tai o c c ' r or t i ca nsiut t a l s sme é Cl ' cae, uc t ) neur he k, ec d he ' i a e s via sgns i nm t ' t l i , s obt n a m ue i or a i as pos i e a t t dr nki ha t a and ai s h nf m ton sbl bou he i ng bi nd hi t 'of t i a e t i ude t i at s pr ous hi t y of det f caton and tm e ofhi s ory' he nm t o ncl he nm e' evi s or oxii i i s l tdrnk. See i a 92. The m a li t uc st m e c lde rm e t r as i d. t nua ns r t he di a pa t nt o epor t a phys c a i to i in f t i t s or mor t 20 on t CI A s al a a st have a pa tculry c he nma e c es e han he W c e, ppe r o ny ri a l once ni r ng s pt s s h a a i om pl t r pons t ca e or c i us a ym om uc s n nc e e es eo r ontnuo bnonna vials g ,bec es l t i ns om c us d, s f r fom pe ssen vomii or r c i s Phe r n f pe sse vomii onf e ufe s r r it t tng, e e ve ne ga or r itnt tng be aus of is potnta t de r s t s i e t e hol I a 92c e t e il o c ea e he ezur hr s d. d. t 93. The pr oc f ot ol or m oniorng via sgnsr quiesac c e r 1 mi e durng s r s t i tl i e r he k ve y 5 nuts i eve e ympt ,eve y 2 hour oms r s f rtefrt 4 h u s a de e y4h u sfrten x 2d y .Jza 9 .Laeo mao wi r wa o h is 2 o r , n v r o r o h e t a s #. t 3 t r j r t a l hd fom aco ,whih i ma ked by a i oudi ofco ci nes a de ii ' a k r l hol c s r t cl ng ns ous s nd lrum ' nd nown a s deii te ns (' ',us ly be ns a lrum rme k ' ual gi bout 48 hour afe t ls drnk a r uie DTs ) s tr he a t i nd eq rs çl os t lz tonl' I a 99. çl pia ia i ' d. t The i t c i f m a gi wihdr wa fom he oi a s t t t sgns and nsnltons or na ng t a l r r n dvie ha he i s ympt m s wilus ly occ r wihi 2 hour of t l t dos a i ude naus a di rhe o l ua l u t n 4 s he as e nd ncl e , a r a, te or ,a i r a e a tt a i r as d ordec e s d bl pr s ur ,a $ ale ed sa eof r m s n nc e s d ppe ie, n nc e e r a e ood e s e nd é tr tt an men a i ' l a t ton.' d. t The medialde rme i i tu t d t obs r i aes e r l5 c pa t nt s nsr c e o e ve nm t ve y mi t f r lvelofcons i nes ,r cor t i ae' via sg ,obt i deaied i onna i nu es o e cous s e d he nm t s t l i ns an t l nf ton r ga di t i ae' dr hit y,c e r ng he nm t s ug sor onduc a neur c c o a t o he k n nyone wih a at r d lvelof t n le e e c cous s ,r por a lfndi t a physca a s nd a i vi ua who a a s t be ons i ne s e t 1 i ngs o i in, nd e ny ndi d l ppe r o tunc eous,obt t ons i unded,non- mbul t y,orwho a a st be i a sa e ofe e ge y' t t a aor ppe r o n tt m r nc ' o he hos tle r nc r pia me ge y oom.J a 1 . t 4142. Z l1. Berry' Experi s ence att CV RJ he Afe beng a r t by d putes fo t Or nge Count She ifs De rme on tr i resed e i r m he a y rf' pa t nt out t ndi w a r n s Shawn Chr s ophe Be r ari d a t CV RJ f booki a a ound 4: s a ng r a t , it r r y rve t he or ng t r 27 p. .on A ug t7,201 A f .of Sh nno D i ks 1 3,D oc tN o.1 m us 4. f a n c on ke 06. On t booki i ake he ng nt f m , t a r tng ofi r not t t Be y a a e t be under t i l nce of dr a or he r es i tce ed ha n' ppe r d o he ntue ugs nd ac l ohol a t t Be r ha afim e t t he wa s f rng fom û ea ba . nd ha ry d fr d ha s ufe i r ' l d r Aresi - a pori Ofi r Quetonnar , Docke No. r tng/ ns tng fce rr si ie t . DTs' . ' (ntr l q tton maks i ena uoai r omit . Thebo ngofie as obs r dt tBer a ardt beunde t i l nceofa ted) oki fc r lo eve ha ry ppe e o r he ntue n i o c nta ç ski ofsa i of, nd ofsa me i altl bi. De ofCol M il r3nt xia nd t wa nd t rng f ki tm rng ite t' p. ' by le 4,Doc tNo.1 8. The booki o fc rr c de on t bo ng obs r a i f r t tBe r ke 23ng fi e e or d he oki e v ton o m ha ry i l be goi tuough wihdr wa DTs'fom he oi a a c d l wi ng l t a l ' r r n nd l oholus a i c t d Be r ha e nd ndia e ry d l tus d dr a 1 00 p. . Aug t6, 4.Booki Obs r to For , ke No.1 6. as e ugs t 0: m on us 201 ng e vai n m Doc t 23- Ber te u d r n ame ia itkep ro me b Lie e Prdia Nu s (LP ' ry h n n e we t dc l n a ef r d y c nsd a e l rt i N' û ) a s r s Am a Pit . Se Doc o ' Not ,Doc tNo.1 7,De of Chrsi Appl nd upe vior nda ts e t r s es ke 23- * p. ite e Fi ns62,Doc tNo.96. Pit r c ve t booki obs vai f m a co plt d he own ggi ke ts e ei d he ng er ton or nd m e e r i a f m . De of Ama Pit 68,75,Docke No.93. I hernot s Pit i c t d t t ntke or p. nda ts t n e , ts ndia e ha Be r ha a hit y of ashm a hype t i a dr a a c ry d sor t , renson, nd ug nd l oholabus whi h i ude e, c ncl d drnki a ffh oflquor a usng he oi e r da Docors Not . Be r c i ng it i nd i r n ve y y. t ' es ry ompl i of aned lwe a tro rbp i 1 .W h l Pi sd dn to ev a ysg o ij r i t eae , h n tc d o r n ei r i an. d ie t i o bsr e n in f nu y n h r a s e oie t t tBer waswhe zi J- Sheprs rbe Al e o f Ber sa t ,( ,a or rd ha ry e ng. g. e ci d butr l or ry' shma 4, nd dee c eksof Be r svia s g ,i l ng hi pule a bl pr s e,onee a da f t da , he ry' t l i ns nc udi s s nd ood es ur y or wo ys a i Bely a a ed unsa e,e r s h,De ofPit 35;M e ca l a Fo m,Doc tNo. nd f ' ppe r r t bl ve y hi p. ts di l nt ke r ke 1 9. Att ttme,Be r had a pule r t of93 a abl pr s ur r di of 1 o r94. 23ha i ry s ae nd ood e s e ea ng 28 ve M e c l a For . di al nt ke m Pit or r d t via s g c c t m onio Be r f a s g or s m pt s of ts de e he t l i ns he ks o t r r y or ny i ns y om wihdr wa . Doc ors No es Dep.ofPit 35. She lt rt tfed t ts bei ve Be r was t a l t ' t ; ts a e esii ha he le d ry under ng onl heroi and not al goi y n, cohol w ihdr al Dep. of Pit 36. She had pr ous y , t aw . ts evi l teat i at suf erng f al r ed nm es f i rom coholwihdr almz under ood t s e oft sym pt sof t aw d st hat om he om ac l ohol wihd a t r wal ove l p wih t s ra t he ympt s of he oi wihdr wal i l ng na e om r n t a , nc udi us a, vom ii a et a t ton,a s tng. 1 a 1 1 20. W hie Be r was notha l i i tng, nxi y, gia i nd wea i d. t 7, 9l ry luc natng ordiplyi ot rm or s rous sg ors s a ng he e ei i ns ympt oms o ac f loholwihdr wa whe Pit obs r d t a l n ts e ve Be r s unde sood t ta i t wa ç oba y notgoi t ha a sg a s ry, he rt ha n nma e s l pr bl ng o ve ny i ns nd ympt ' oms' d i t i a a s s e C a ei' ve y e xy a trt i l tus ' a i a e l tsa t urng he nt ke s es m nt ' us ts r a l fe her as e' nd nm t s i bec don' t r wihdrwi ii ltron.'J-a 1 29.Shea no edge t tanurec dpef aCI A t a ng tl ae ' Js t 8, ck wl d ha s oul ronn W s l o a i t i a numbe ofca esi udi one i whih t i a e diplyed sg a cae n n nma e n r s ncl ng n c he nm t s a i ns nd s omsofaloholwihdrwa orha ahit y ofaco us . L. a 2831 Pit ha be n ympt c t a l d sor l hol e d t - . ts d e a ta ne on t polcym a r i d he i nualwhen s sa td he poston a t CVRJ.I a 35, he t re r ii t he d. t Folowi t i a as e s e ,CVRJofii shous d Bery i JBl l ng he nt ke s s m nt fcal e r n ock. Shorl bef r ty o e 1 :0pm. nAu u t7 Ber v mie o hsj mps i.De o M . ro k 1 - 6 Do k t . 00 . o g s , ry o td n i u ut p. f Hor c s 5 1 , c e No 94;VogtAug.7,201 l de Re r,Doc tNo.1 1 Two ofi r a a EM T e c t 4 nci nt po t ke 24- . fce s nd n s ored Be r who wa a e t wal wihoutas itnce t t me c lde rm e . Dep.ofHoroc ry, s bl o k t ssa , o he dia pa t nt r ks 1 Vog Aug.7,201 I de Re '.The EM T de e mi d t tBe r wa wihd awi fom 7; t 4 nci nt pol t t r ne ha ry s t r ng r he oi a ga Ber y Phene ga f na e a l odi f di r hea D e of Thom as V ogt r n nd ve r r n or us a nd m um or a r . p. 1 1 Doc tN o.95. I a i e vi wih Vig ni Stt Polce l si a or ,Vogts i t t 2- 3, ke n n nt r ew t r i a a e i nve tg t s ad ha Be r S ooke lke he ha t s kes lk t s ke and ha te s' l er e ofThoma ry s l d i d he ha , i e he ha s nd r mor .' nt viw s Vog 8,Doc tNo.1 1 W hie t tf ng i t sc e,Vog asere t tBe r di no s t ke 23- 3. l esiyi n hi as t s td ha ry d t how sg ofac wihdrwa,Si te so deusons halci tons s tng,a ey,g j ins lohol t a l ike rmor r l i , lu nai , weai nxit or l a t ton. D e ofV og 1 1 1 gia i ' p. ' t 2, 7- 8. The ofi e s t n ta f r e Be r t b ng,wher a boo ng of i r c d m onior fc r he r ns e r d r y o ooki e ki fce oul t hi . D e of Hor oc 24;De of M il r 5- The CV RJ di nots a ft m e c lde r m e m p. r ks p. le 6. d t f he di a pa t nt f om l1. p. .untl 5: a. . bu r le on a on- a lphys c a f r e e ge i s I a 3 r 00 m i 30 m , t e i d n cl i i n o m r nc e . d. t 4. Thebooki ofi ron dut obs r d t tBe r r e a las onc durng t ni tt vomi,but ng fce y e ve ha ry os t e t e i he gh o t ot r ie a a e t s e p t ough t ni t D e ofHor oc 24; e ofM il r 5 6. he w s ppe r d o l e hr he gh . p, r ks D p. le - Thenextm or ng,on Augus 8,201 Bery viie t m e ca de rm e ,whe e LPN ni t 4, r st d he di l pa t nt r Chrsi Appl - ggi c ke hi via sg asPit ha die t d a de e m i d t theha a ite e Fi ns hec d s t l i ns ts d r c e nd t r ne ha d pul e r t of 11 a bl pr s ur of 1 over 90. De of A p e- ggi 31 3 M e ca s ae 6 nd ood e s e 32 p. pl Fi ns , 4; di l I a Fonn. Appl- ggi ha a c st t boo ng i a f m a Pit 'nots buts di ntke e Fi ns d c es o he ki nt ke or nd ts e , he d notl a t m whie e ua i Be r De ofAppl Fi gi 47- 58. She as Be r ook t he l val tng ry. p. e- g ns 48, ked ry why s ne de t c k hi via sg ,a Ber rs ded t heus heoi J .a 3 he e d o hec s tl ins nd ry epon hat ed r n. #= t 6. Appl- ggi t sii d t ts doe notr c lBe r m e toni aco .I Appl- ggi ha e Fi ns e tfe ha he s e al ry n i ng l hol d. e Fi ns d be n s e hownt me ca depa t ntspolciswhe s sa tdwor nga t CVRJ Jza 1 he di l rme ' i e n he tre ki t he . #.t 4. Be r r t ne t hi ce l whe e ofi e s a rve t e c tBe r t t Or nge Coun y ry e ur d o s l, r fc r r i d o s or ry o he a t courhous f a s hedul a pe r nce. Dep. of M i ha l Fr i r 1 Doc t N o. 97. Be r t e or c ed p a a c e az e 5, ke ry a a ed del i la had l tta k oftme. I Ofie sdr Be r t t c t e,but ppe r usona nd os r c i d. fc r ove ry o he ourhous upon obs r ng Be r t be l sbl il'a l r l a e t hol hi hea up, t co ts nt e vi ry o k i y l' nd t e y bl o d s d ' he ur e vi ba ' Be r ba k t t CVRJuntlhe be a ewele ry c o he i cm l nough f a he rng. Vigi a Stt Polc Not s or a i r ni a e ie e , Aug t11 201 Doc tNo.1 8. Be r r t ned t t booki a e oft CVRJ whe e he us , 4, ke 25ry eur o he ng r a he , r r f e t e t br a a t l h,or di r J i tviy Log, Doc No. 1 1 Se urt e us d o a e kf s, unc nne . alAc i t ket 24- 2. c iy ofi r wo d notf t m e ca pa t e i a i t r f ed muli e m e l . De of tce s ul iy he di lde rm nt f n nma e eus tpl as p. Appl - ggi 1 e Fi ns 43. Tha ni ,Be r c pli d t t booki ofi r a t ght ry om a ne o he ng fce bout difculy br t ng. VSP fi t eahi l s i ton N ot s Docke N o. 1 7. The of i e no i d t Ber y w a s atng,but a s nve tga i e, t 24fc r tce hat r s we i lo t t he w a m ovi a ound e s l a t t hi br a hi was i pr vi ha s ng r a iy nd ha s e t ng m o ng. I Ben- l t r d. y ae confnne t thefl fne.J a i d ha et i k Thene mor ng,on Aug t9, 4,hene booki ofi e on dut r ulry c c xt ni us 201 t w ng fc r y eg a l he ked on Be r D e ofErn La nt 36- D oc tN o.1 r y. p. i pa a 39, ke 07. Appl - gg ns l r d t tBe r ha e Fi i ea ne ha r y d r us d t go t t me c lde rm e f a vialsgns c k a unde sood t the wa i ef e o o he dia pa t nt or t i hec nd rt ha sn booki bec us her quied moniorng.De ofAppl- ggi 96ng a e e r t i p. e Fi ns 97. Shorl be or 9:0 am . Be r r quese a s we bec us he ha vomie a ty f e 3 . , ry e t d ho r a e d t d nd de ec t d on hi s l. De ofLapa a56- The bo ng ofi e c le f as itnc ,a t f ae m ef p. nt 60. oki fc r a ld or s sa e nd wo ofs er arve t ta por Ber on awhe c i t t s tc s ri d o rns t ry elhar o he hower L. The plc ac i i t . ds y a ed har n he a s wersalf Be r t sto and lf Bery a o i t salt i one oft ofi e s he r ho t l or ry o i n, e t r l ne n he t l mtl he tc r a d wae hitng t toor i ea i t tBe r wasno sa ng die y be t t s tr ti he l , ndi tng ha ry t t ndi r dl neah he howe he d. r a Boson l de Re tAug.8,201 Doc tNo.1 3;De ofJ r m y Boson 25,Doc tNo. t nci nt por 4, ke 24p. e e t ke 99. Theofi e en e edt sal a f fc r t r he t l nd ound Be r l ng on t toor hafdr s d.De ofBoson ry yi he l , l es e p. t 26.Beryha vomiedont to a wasdr he vi Jz r d t he l or nd y a ng. #. J lpe s ai r onnelae td Appl- gg nst Be r sf l,a s r s lre e Fi i o ry' a l nd he e ponde t t s d o he howe t ro pr vi mediala ssa e. De ofAppl- ggi 78. Appl- ggi lt rt tte t s o de c s it nc p. e Fi ns e Fi ns a e esis d hat he ne s w t vom i. I a 85. W he Appl Fi ns as e s Be r he r po td t the had ver a he t d. t n e- ggi s s ed ry, e re ha be come di z a f le 1 a 80. Ap e Fi ns lf r y t r ti ve m e c tons a z y nd a ln. d. t pl- ggi e tBe r o e re di a i nd e pme t c ckBe svia sgnsa or r Gaordet bedelve e t Be y.Jl a 90qui nt o he ny' tl i nd deed t a o i r d o n- -s t t 91. W hens rt ne t t boo ngae Appl Fi nsf he eur d o he ki ra, e- ggi oundBer l ngi hi bunk.Jry yi n s #s a 11 Afe a ofi ras itd Be r wih sti up,Appl- ggi c ke Bery' via sg , t 0. tr n fce sse ry t itng e Fi ns hec d r s t l i ns no i hi pul e a 1 a hi bl pr s e a 1 over62. 1 a 111 CV RJ N ur e' N ot s tng s s s 08 nd s ood es ur s 04 d. t ; s s e A ug.9,201 D oèketN o.124- Ber y s at t he onl w ant t r ,and Appl Fi ns 4, 6. r t ed hat y ed o est e- ggi gave hi Phene ga a I of bef e l avi hi i hi c l. CVRJ N ur e' N ot Aug.9, m r n nd bupr en or e ng m n s e l s s es 201 4. Ar ound t tm e of t s i de ,Appl Fi ns a s s he i hi nci nt e- ggi l o poke w ih t bo ng of i er on t he oki fc d y. De ofLa n a 60. The boo ng ofi e cai t ts i or d Appl Fi nst t ut p. pa t ki fc r l ms ha he nf me e- ggi ha Bery' vom i t r s t ' lke c f e gr was i ofe ounds' whi h Appl Fi ns i ntfe as dr bl i t ,' c e- ggi de iid y ood n he vom i. I a 60- . The booki ofi e t si t tAppl- ggns is eme t t nk i wa t d. t 61 ng fc r e tfed ha e Fi i se d o hi t s oka ' 1 Ap e- ggi doe notr ca le r s i vom i wih a c f e- r y. d. pl Fi ns s ' e l ve eeng t t ofe g ound txt e but e ur , r al s ei ç tl d lke s body s to t to ' a t tt boo ng ofi e as d ec ls e ng t wha ooke i ome pi n he l or' nd ha he ki fc r ke he t de c i t a a a eofvom i wih bl i i.De ofAppl- ggi 1 r o s rbe he ppe r nc t t ood n t p. e Fi ns 23, Appl- gg ns a s rs t t s r ue t d t t t ofi e i o m he i Be r vomie e Fi i s e t ha he eq se ha he fc r nf r r f ry td a n a t notf media pe s gai nd o iy c l ronneli Be r di note thi l nc o d i hi Gaor de. 1 ; f ry d a s u h r rnk s t a d. CVRJNur e' Not Aug.9,201 Ap e Fi nsha pr vi l gi n Be r a bi a d ba s s es 4. pl- ggi d e ousy ve ry ohaz r g t c lc hi vomi f e m i ton. De of Appl- ggi 1 24. Appl - ggi di no o ole t s t or xa na i p. e Fi ns 23e Fi ns d t r c vea f t rrpo t a Ber J. e ei ny urhe e rs bout ry. /S Be or s l ta t e of he s f a 4: p. . s i o m e t i om i on- y f e he ef t he nd r hi t t 00 m , he nf r d he nc ng dut nur e,N ur i A s i t n J s i Buc r l nes t t Be r w a w ihdr w i f om he oi t t s s ng s s a t a m ne kne - o , ha r y s t a ng r r n, ha he ha r c ve Ga or de,a t t t booki de rme ha bee a s d t c a t t d e ei d t a nd ha he ng pa t nt d n dvie o ontc he m e ca de r m e s d Be r ne a hi di l pa t nt houl r y ed nyt ng. D e of J m i Buc r l s 50,D oc t p. as ne kne - one ke No.l 00. Buc -one ha s e t CVRJ' me c lm a l whi i ude t polc e on knerl s d e n he S di a nua , ch ncl d he ii s dr a al ohol w ihdr w a . I a 1 She l t r t s ii d t t t s pt s of al ohol ug nd c t a l d. t 9. a e e tf e ha he ym om c w ihd a i ude t e o s e e t d bl pr s ur e e t d pul e, w e tng,a haluci tons t r wal ncl r m r , l va e ood e s e, l va e s s a i nd l na i a t tt s nd ha he ympt s of he oi wihdr l r e bl t s om r n t awa es m e he ympt oms of t tu a i ude he l nd ncl na e vo ii a di rhe J=a 5 us a, m tng, nd a r a. l . t 4. M eanwhie,t booki ofi checked on Ber y atl tt ent tm es. D ep.ofLapant l he ng tcer r eas w y i a 8 71 72. l he i i r por,s not t tBe r contnue t bec n r ncdent e t he ed ha ry i d o ome sc t oughoutt day, ik hr he a hi s ool a vom i c i d t ha t a nd s t nd t ontnue o ve he ppea a e ofcof e gr r nc f e ounds La nt I i nt . pa a nc de Re r A ug.9,201 D oc tN o.1 2. The booki of i ral o r pored t tBe r dr nk one po t 4, ke 24ng fce s e t ha r y a lr pic r of Gaor de but no t s c pic r s ha or r a ge t he t a t he e ond the he d de ed. Se VSP I e viw of e ntr e Lapana,Doc tNo.1 - Ber di no e tl h ordimer J=;De ofLa nt 7172.As t ke 284. ry d t a unc r . #. p. pa a Be r ss ry' ympt spr r s ed,a ofie move Be r smates ont t foort gua d a i t om og e s n fc r d ry' tr s o he l o r gans f li De ofChad Lee 1 22,Doc tNo.1 De ofRobe tCount 28- Do tNo.98. a lng. p. 9ke 01; p. r s 29, cke Atar ound 5: p. . i r s ns t Be r sr ques f ras it ncewih usngt t lt a 20 m , n e po e o ry' e t o ssa t i he oie , m ae of e ari d a Be r sc la f und Be r c us d a diore ed. De ofCo s l fc r rve t ry' el nd o ry onf e nd s i nt p. unt 28- The ofie ' at mptt as itBe r wih wal ng t t t l tf t rdiore e Be r 29. fc r s te o ss ry t ki o he oie urhe s int d ry, wh patal cosdhi e e , d j r n mo in , n b c meu r s o ief raf w miue o rily l e s y s ma e ekig to s a d e a n e p nsv o e n ts i a i i'ork pa ms' I a 29- *La nt I i ntRe tAug.9,201 n i t' ' s .' d. t 30, pa a ncde f s por 4. At a oxi a el 5: p. . t of i erca l d Buc r l ppr m t y 29 m , he fc le kne - ones t Be r s ce l Buckne o r y' l. r J ones I de Repor,Doc tNo.1 1 W he Buc rl s a rve a t c l s f nci nt t ke 23- 2. n kne - one ri d t he el, he ound Bery l ng o t toor a ai we a c ani t thene d t us t t lt JL r yi n he l , ppe rng ak nd ompli ng ha ede o e he oie. I . Buck rl s c c ne - one he ked Bery' via sg a f r s t l ins nd ound t t he ha a pule of 89 a bl ha d s nd ood pr s e of1 ove 7 L. Buck rl nest n lf t c lPit a tt rquie nt f esur 30 r 4. ds , ne-o he e t o al ts bou he e rme s or s ndi a i t t t hos t . L- Pl ntf not t t befr Buc rl slf t rtive e ng n nmae o he pial d ai if es ha, o e kne-one et o ere a t pa r k,s E t i y i t boo ng de rm e tf r ne ry t m i es .... P1' he pewor he d ood dl n he ki s pa t n o a l wo nut ' ,s ' Op Br l Sur ilncevi o s p. . 3. ve la de howsBuc rl ne ne rBe r sc lfom a kne - o s a ry' el r bout5: 17untl 35: i a bout5: 1 bef e s l f t r ti ve pa r or 37: 7 or he e t o e r e pe w k. Durng Buc rl ne abs e t o fc r at mpt d t lf Be r i o a sandi i kne - o s' enc , wo f ie s te e o it ry nt t ng posii D ep.of Count 36. They pl ton. s aced Bery on t t l ,and he i m edi el l r he oiet m at y eaned agai t ns t wal J. Theofiest npl e Ber ba k ont mate sa plc d as c mate s he l. .s 1 fc r he ac d ry c he trs nd a e e ond trs ne t hi L. Bery co xt o m. ds r ughed u a s l a u p mal mountofbl ood. Jl a 37. The ofie smove -s t d fc r d Be r ont hi sde a i o t é e r y o s i nd nt he i eove y' posto a whe Be r s c r r ' ii n, nd n ry' oughi s e e t ng e m d o c as ,t move hi ba k ono t mates J . W ihi a mi t ort Ber e te a e e hey d m c t he tr s. #z t n nue wo, ry mitd lr s age poutofbl fom hi mout J- The ofies a i pl e Bery i o t rcovey ood r s h. #. fc r gan ac d r nt he e r poston,a Ber a rdt sopbr t ng.J= ii nd ry ppeae o t eahi /. At5: p. . one oft ofi r c le Buc rl st t l he Be r wa t r wi up 36 m , he tce s a ld kne - one o el r ry s h o ng ç a svea o t ofbl ' Buc rl é s i m un s m ood. ' kne -onesI i en Re ' At5: p. .t ofi r c l a nc d t pol. t 38 m , he fce s aled c bl f acadi monayar t Ja ode ue or r opul r res. #. Buc rl kne - onesr t ne t booki a s Be r l ng on hi ba k,bl e ng fo hi eur d o ng nd aw ry yi s c e di r m s m out e r ,a nos L. She a one oft ofi r at mpt d t l a e a pule butf h, a s nd e. ds , nd he fce s te e o oc t s, ound none. J . The ofi r a Buc rl s rpore t t t y us d a omai e enal Jfces nd kne-one e td ha he e ut tc xtr defbrlaorequi nta pe f m e CPR o Be r i a at mptt r vi hi . 1 ;De of i ilt pme nd ror d n ry n n te o e ve m d. p. Buc - one 79. At5: p. . a ofie ca ld 911 Dods I i ntRe t Aug.9,201 knerl s 45 m , n fc r le . on ncde por, 4, Doc tNo.1 - 911CalLog,Doc tNo.1 3. Or nge Count EM S r ponded i l st n ke 28 8; l ke 25a y es n es ha fvemi e .EM SRe tDoc tNo.1 1 At6:7p. ,Ber wasde lrdde J. i nuts por, ke 28- 0. 1 m. ry cae ad. Js 11 1. Exper O pi ons on Ber y' D e h t ni r s at Pl ntf o f st opi on ofLPN Ki ai if fer he ni mbery Ha ve on t sa r ofc r a i a e t l r y he t nda d a e pplc bl o t de e he f ndan sa t o ni ofDr Rus elSur ky on bot t sanda d ofc r a t ca e t nd he pi on . s l as h he t r a e nd he us ofBe r s de t Def nda sofert opi o o Dr Ti ot A le on bo h t s a r ofca e r y' a h. e nt f he ni n f . m hy l n t he t nda d r a t c us ofdea h. nd he a e t A. LPN H arvey H a ve w ho pr ous y pr d nur i ca e i a pr s f iiy,de c i s t s a r r y, evi l ovi ed s ng r n i on ac lt s rbe he t nda d 10 ofca e f lc ns d pr c ialnur e . Re tofKi ry Hawe 2,Doc tNo.1 11 She r or i e e a tc ss por mbe l l y ke 25- . a s rst tsa r pr c i f lc edpr c ialn s i l s e t ha t nda d a tce or iens a tc ur es ncudesdoc ntng c r c ume i a e omplt l e ey a ac ur t l m onio i vial s gns co m uni a i a pa i nt s com pl nt t a nur e or nd c a e y, t r ng t i , m c tng te ' ai s o s physcan t as itwih f ur team e t a e urng c i t o ca e.1 a 3i i o ss t ut e r t n , nd ns i ontnuiy f r d. t 5, Ha ey opi t tt M e c Def nda s c n' nes ha he dial e nt ' onduc f l bel t sa r ofc r i t t el ow he t nda d a e n he f l wi wa . She a s t t t Pit s d ha i r d a olo ng ys s ers ha ts houl ve nquie bout Be r s ac r y' lohol us a e nd wihdr wals t a ympt sdurng t i ta a s s e i lghtoft a r si a i a ofi e s om i he niil s esm nt n i he r e tng nd nt ke fc r ' r pors 1 at4- Ast Appl - ggi ,Ha ve a s rst tbasc nur i c r r quie Appl e t. d. 5. o e Fi ns r y s e t ha i sng a e e r d e Fi i t evaua e t booki ofie ' r por of c fe- ou l ng vom i,r por t t gg ns o l t he ng fc r s e t ofe gr nd ooki t e t ha s pt t a phys c a a r f a n f om a i s e i I pr e t Be r whe s h vom i ym om o i i n, nd e r i r dm nit rng bu of n o r y n uc t i c t d pos i e ga toi e tna bl e ng,f whi h I of n i c r i c t d. I a 7,1 ndia e sbl sr nt si l e di or c bupr e s ontandi a e d. t 2- A c or ng t Har y, ba i nur i c r a s r uie t M e c l Def nt t c di o ve sc s ng a e l o eq r d he di a enda s o c i t a s sBe r a r a tt hi wo s ni c ton r t rt n t delga e s h t s t ontnue o s es r y nd e c o s r e ng ondii ahe ha o e t uc a ks o t n n me ia j i saf 1 a 8 1 ,1 .l p riua , r e a srst t ra o a elc nsd he o - d c lal tf. d. t - 2 4 n atc lr Hav y se t ha a e s n bl ie e pr c i lnur e w oul have notfe a phys ci n of Be r s wor e ng c ton afe obs r ng a tca s d iid ia r y' s ni ondii t r e vi hi c i d vom ii a di r , pe s s e r us l t e t or t ke m edi a i i e s d s ontnue tng nd arhea r it nt ef a o a a c ton, ncr a e wea s ,f l i t s kne s al n he howe ,c f e gr r ofe - ound vomi,lt r i ntne ofbowes di i s t e ha gy, nco i nce l, zznes , i biiyt sti pende l ora na lt o i nde nty mbult ,a l bl pr s ur a trf li i t s we . 1 a e nd ow ood e s e fe a lng n he ho r d. at11-12. B. D r Sur ky . as D r Russ l Sur ky, a boar ceri ed neur ogi , opi t t CV RJ s af f l t . el as d- tfi ol st nes hat he t f aied o r cogni e a t e tBe r s a c e z nd r a r y' l oholw ihdr l r uli i Be r sdea h. Repor ofD r Rus e l t awa , es tng n r y' t t . sl 11 Sur ky 3,Doc tNo.1 1 He e anst tBery had t rs f c or f DTs i udi a as ke 25- 0. xpli ha r he ik a t s or , ncl ng hit y ofpe sse d i ng a pr ousDTs a a ofove 30,a aconc r ntil s. l sor r itnt rnki nd evi , n ge r nd ure lnes d. He f t r not t t t CV RJ w a a a e of Be r s hi t y of a c ur he es ha he s w r r y' s or l ohol us a lkel e nd i y wihdr w a be us Be r i or ed t a r s i of i e s t he w a e r e i DTs a t a l ca e r y nf m he r e tng f c r hat s xpe i nc ng nd doc nttonc ime t tBer drnkhea l e r da J=a 2ume ai ontr d ha ry a viy vey y. # .t 3. Dr Sur s expl nst te ry ma ge nto t s . a ky ai ha a l na me f he ympt sofacoholwihdr wa ca om l t a l n prve de t fo DTs J sa 3.Ac r i y,Dr Surs c l st tt CVRJc dha e nt ah rm . J- t co dngl . a ky oncude ha he oul ve a de Be r s de t ha t de e nt r cognie a a opra ey teae Be r s acohol voi d ry' a h d he f nda s e z d nd ppr it l r td ry' l wihdr wa s t a l ympt sr t rt n c m plce l ati i s s m pt st Bery' c ure om ahe ha o a nty trbutng uch y om o r s onc r nt he oi wihdr r n t awal I I s ,Dr Su a ky co l s t tha t def nda sr cogni d t t . d. n um . rs ncude ha d he e nt e ze ha Be r ' hso ya d s mptmsr q rdl ne ryta s o toa a u ec r h s ia s tigg . . ry s itr n y o e uie d al r n p r t n c t ae o ptl etn , . a ) (e wo dh v b e a c rtl da n e a dte tda dh wo l n t a de . J. h j ul a e e n c u aey ig osd n rae n e ud o h ve id' -S 'I J . C . D r.A len l De e f ndant ofe t e r r por ofDr Alen,a ph i in c rii i ps hity a s f r he xpe t e t . l ysca e tfed n yc a r nd ne ol ur ogy. Dr Ale c ude t tt CVRJsa fa t d wihi t a i bl sa r ofca e . ln oncl s ha he tf c e t n he pplca e t nda d r a di no c us Ber y' de t nd d t a e r s a h.Re ' ofD r Ti ot A le D oc tN o.1 1 pol t . m hy l n, ke 28- 2. I opi ng on t a i a e s a r of ca e D r A le r ut s s r l s c f c n ni he pplc bl t nda d r , . l n ef e eve a pe i i a l ga i ofbel - t nda d c r m ade i t c pl i . He not t tm uli e s a fm e be s le tons ow s a r a e n he om a nt es ha tpl t f m r a t d pr l i r ogni ng t tBe r a e d ugsa i at ndi t t e ry s c e opery n ec zi ha ry bus d r nd n te ng o he a l ympt sof om dug wihdrwal i l ng na e a vomii J- a 1, He c tndst ta nitrng r t a , ncudi us a nd tng. -s t p one ha dmi sei m e ca i ns t Be r or l w a noti pr di to o r y aly s m operbe us Be r e pe i e l pe i i w hi h ca e r y x renc d ong r ods n c he wa notvomii a c d c ume me c ton a fui or l Ll a 12. Morove , s tng nd oul ons diai nd l ds aly. ts t e r adm i s erng I of was pr ni t i bupr en oper because Ber y di not have any cl sym pt s of r d ear om g toi esi l bledi a c i d b t lck of sgniia ga toi e tnal bl di asr nt tna e ng, s onfnne y he a i fc nt sr nt si ee ng i c t d i t au ops r por.I a 2. ndia e n he t y e t d. t Dr Ale f t as e t t tt sa r ofc r di no r quie t CVRJm e ca sa f . ln urher s rs ha he tnda d a e d t e r he di l t f t know Be r s bas i bl pr s e w hi h was hi her t nor al bec us of Be r s o r y' elne ood es ur , c g han m a e r y' hi t r of hypere i a t r ac t de r as fom t t bas lne t l vel w ihi a nor a so y t nson, nd o e t o c e es r ha ei o e s t n m l r . 1 Nor ac or ng t Dr Ale di t CVRJ saf f i t r ognie t sg a ange d. , c di o . ln, d he t f al o ec z he i ns nd s ympt oms of de i i n fui volm e a hy volmi s k. l Alhough Be r s bl d fc e t l d u nd po e c hoc d. t ry' oo pr s e dr ppe 20 poi sfom Augus 8 t Augus 9,Dr Ale co e t t dr di not es ur o d nt r t o t . ln nt nds hat he op d nec s a iy i caehy e s rl ndi t povolm i s k, ri ulrywhe Ber a a e a e ta wa drnki e c hoc pa tc a l n ry ppe r d l r nd s i ng Gaor de a hi l s bl prsur radi on t mor ng ofAugus 9. Jl Fi l Dr t a t s owe t ood e s e e ng he ni t .s naly, . t Ale r f est s ln e ut he ugge ton t tt CVRJ sa fundul de a d s e ng e e ge y as it e. si ha he tf y l ye e ki m r nc s sanc Heopi t tcalng EM S a nes ha li bout27 mi e afe Be r s i e f l wihi t sa r ofca e nut s tr ry e z d e l t n he tnda d r be aus s s z esdo notpos u c e uch eiur e ndueda eron t i own.Lng he r d a W ih r pe t t ca a i D r Ale opi t t Be r s dea h fom dnl a a co t es c o us ton, . l n nes ha r y' t r g nd l hol wihdr wa wa u xpe t d a unf r e a e. Ls a 4. Dr Ale c le t a l s ne c e nd o es e bl ds t . l n ha lngest co e i i he nt nton n pl i ifs opposto bre t tt de e nt s d ha be n a r ofBe r s lkei od t antf iin if ha he f nda s houl ve e wa e ry' i lho o e re e aloholwihdr wa . Dr Ale as e t t tBer ssa e nt a be vi wih t xpe i nc c t a l . ln s rs ha ry' t t me s nd ha or t he are tng ofi r a t i talbooki ofie di no sr y s ges t tBe r woul s fr r si fce s nd he nii ng fc r d t tongl ug t ha ry d ufe fom s ve e a c r e r l oholwihdr wa o di fom s h wihdr wa ,pa te a l whe s h de t a e t a l r e r uc t a l riul ry n uc ahs r e e ngl rr J sa 3. Ac r ngt Dr Ale Bery' ac wihdrwa di notbec xc edi y ae. #- t codi o . ln, r s lohol t a l d ome a ppar nt un i 5: p. . on A ugus 9, when Be r bega t dec i a t CV RJ s af e t l 20 m t ry n o lne nd he tf a opr a el c l d a code bl a 911 1 N e t ra s s ng Be r o t C I A s al ,w hi h ppr i t y ale ue nd . d. ihe s es i r y n he W c e c g ' Dr.A len adm isi s andar pr i f eval i wihdr al norcali a doct at5: p. . l t st d actce or uatng t aw , lng or 20 m woul ha pr nt Be r s de t a t t poi . 1 Dr Ale co udes t t Be r s d ve eve ed ry' a h t ha nt d. . l n ncl ha ry' pr e a i di not i ca e a lke y s r o w ihdr wal a t r or Ber y' de t w a es nt ton d ndi t i l e i us t a , nd he ef e r s ah s unf es a e I or ee bl . d. I V. Ot rl t he ns ance att C VR J s he Pl ntf ofe st ac ount o t f m e CVRJEM TSa e de e ofot ri t nc of ai if f r he c s f wo or r s vi nc he nsa es delbe ae i fe e e t i t s nee f me ca c e a t CVRJ The EM TS ae Lia i r t ndif r ne o nma e ' ds or di l ar t he . r s M a son a J f rLew i . r t nd ennie s A . Li a M ar t s s on Lia M a son t sii d t tt CVRJl c d pr oc sf ca i f i t swihdr wi s r t e tfe ha he a ke ot ol or rng or nma e t a ng fom dr gs oracohol a i t a a de s ndi i aest t hos tlbe a e s h a ti r u l , nd nse d, voi d e ng nm t o he pia c us uc rp c t$2, os 000. De ofLia Mason 44- Doc tNo.1 9 (ç- r wee no pr oc sf p. s rt 45, ke 25- 'lhee r ot ol or pe e who wer w ihdr ng f om a c . The e we e no pr ocol f pe e who w e e opl e t awi r l ohol r r ot s or opl r wi d a ngfo d u s ... Th r weep o l t a weeb o g tit t eji ta ... ho d t rwi r m r g . h ee r e p e h t r r u h n o h al h t s ul ha bee tke t t eme g ncy r ' . As a e ve n a n o he r e oom.) ' n xmnpl Ma son e ane t on one e, rt xpli d hat oc as o an i a e had a ga h o r hi e f l w i a fgh wih a he i a e a r quie c in nm t s ve s ye olo ng i t t not r nm t nd e r d e r enc siche ,a x-a a a e mi to L. a 4849. Appl- ggi and Pit t d me g y tt s n ry, nd n xa nain. d t a eFi ns ts ol M a son t tt i t coul no got t hos t be a et ti woul c t$2, rt ha he mnae d t o he pial c us he rp d os 000.J .A #z CVRJ saf me be lt odged a c t f m r aerl ompl ntagans M a son f s ng t i ae t a ai i t r t or endi wo nm t s o hos t l I a 65. pia . d. t W he M a s on r s gne s co pl i d a n r t e i d, he m a ne bout t m e c l saf t Supe i e nt F. he di a t f o rnt nda G l nn A yl . Spe ii aly,s e ai d t Ayl t tot r m e ca s af i tuc e herno t e or c fc l he xpl ne o or ha he di l t f ns r t d to s nd i a est t hos t be us oft cos ;t ts m e i a es woul notr e ve m e c ton e nm t o he pial ca e he t ha o nm t d ec i di a i s h a Tye f hour orda ;a t tt doco rrl pr de c r a t j i. I a 45, uc s lnol or s ys nd ha he tr aey ovi d ae t he al d. t 64. Ac or ng t M a son,Ayl t d he t ti s sa d i he poston,s l c di o rt or ol r ha f he t ye n r ii he t d t n out woul ur t b j s l et r s o t e .. wh r i wo l n tb te ge j' l M aso tsi e ta o e u t i he et f h m . ee t ud o oh r h r. d. rt n e tf d h t k ' i Ayl di no r pond t he co pli ofbe ng r prma d f s ndi i t st t hos t . or d t es o r m ant i e i nde or e ng nma e o he pial l a 65. d. t B. Jennier Le i f w s J nnie Le s s e f r wi ubmit a afi vi de c i ng he s ve m ont t nur a a EM T a ted n fda t s rbi r e nh e e s n t teCVRJ De lo J n ie Le s!2 Do ke No 1 5 1 .Sh d srbe h rdrc s pevs r h . c. f e n fr wi g , c t . 2 - 2 e e ci d e ie t u r io , Pit,a ddimisvea me c c r f prs r. l !3. On oneoc son,s obsr ed ts s k s si bout dial ae or iones' d. ' ca i he e v a i t r que tme ca i whih t CVRJ di notha 1 Pit i tuc e Appl Fi ns n nma e e s di ton, c he d ve. d. ts nsr t d ' e- ggi t mak down t tt i t ha rf e t me c ton. L- Le sas desrbed a i t o r ha he nmae d eus d he diai ds wi lo ci n nmae u who ha abr n ha whih Lewi s i e onl t l am t ne mor ng t tt s i had d oke nd, c s plntd y o e l he xt ni ha he plnt b e rmo e L !7 Le sa esta Pi st l Le st tt b o e h n wa ap ee it g e n e v d. ês . wi v r h t t od wi ha he r k n a d s r -xsi t n c ondii n t tt CV RJdi no ne d t t e t 1 to ha he d t e o r a . d. As t t medial de rm e i ge r l Le s at se t t s neve me t t o he c pa t nt n ne a , wi te t d ha he r t he wo p y iin f rt eCVRJa dt a s er c ie mii ltann . I .!4. l mae whod d n t h sca s o h n h t h e ev d nma r iig d n ts i o h a aç d c ls wo l n trc ieteme iain r g r ls o hso h rc ndto 1 . 5 er i me al' ud o e ev h d c to , e ade s f i r e o i n. d ! . ' i l t i t mis d 5ve med c l,t CVRJdic i ed t me c lsf t tmedii . 1 f he nma e s e als he s ontnu he d a l or ha cne d. The CVRJa s c r i t sf a va it ofme c lads i udi l of n a ba ge , l o ha ged nma e or rey di a i , ncl ng bupr e nd nda s ca i i Le s opi on,s m e i t st occ sona l r f e s h adst avoi c r es J= usng, n wi ' ni o nma e o a i ly e us uc i o d ha g . 4. . !6. W he Le sr sgne s s bm it d a lte t t Ca ansa t CVRJ e ai ng t n wi e i d, he u te et r o he pt i t he , xpl ni he pr e s ha obs r d. 1 !9. Thelte e ane t te r tmeLe stid t f l oblms he d eve d. etr xpli d ha vey i wi re o olow t CVRJSmedialpr ocol,s i t d no t 'a t ûus do wha t d t does' he ' c ot s he d ol t o' nd o j t was t he ocor .' 15 Lewi Let r t Ca ans of J l Doc tNo.125- 3. Afe he r sgna i n,a woma cal d s te o pt i ai, ke 1 tr r e i to n le Le son be l ofAyl rt r ques t tLe sr t r t wor a t CVRJand t advie Le s wi haf o o e t ha wi e u n o k t he o s wi ta fiigt rt r c u dj o ad z Le s c re .De l o Le s! 1 h t al o eu n o l e p r ie wi' ae r c. f wi 0. n Pr dur H i t y oce al s or On J 2,201 Thor l fl t i t nta ton a ns eeve de e an s Bef r une 5, nhil ied he nsa c i gai t l n f nd t . oe flng t c pli t Thor l ob aned a wrte o ni fom a r git r d nur e M eg ii he om a n , nhil t i it n pi on r e se e s, han D' l I he rpor,D' l saed t tûrl my pr e sona o ni wih 1 yeasof Angeo. n r e t Angeo tt ha tin ofsi l pi on t 7 r n s ng e r e , t he t c r pr de s na ed i t com pl nt f l d t e r s a ur i xpe i nce he alh a e ovi r m n he ai aie o xe ci e r s bl s a ea ona e t ndar of c r i t e tng Sha Bery. Re tof M eg d ae n rai wn r ' ' por han D ' Ange o 2,D oc t l ke No. 1 1 She i ntfe ni de ai fom t sa a d of ca e i l i f ii t 43- . de ii d ne vi tons r he tnd r r , ncudng alng o r c ze t rs r a e t t i mi ntlke i e ogni he iks elt d o he m ne i lhood ofwihd a ;f ii t pr pe l m onio t r wal a lng o o ry tr Bery' via sgns sa lt a s r s t l i , t biiy, nd ympt oms of va i heat pr ems a f lng t te t rous lh obl ; nd aii o r a s ve a sgns a s e rl i nd ympt oms of wihdr wa . 1 a 2- She opi d t t t s t a l d. t 3. ne ha he ympt m s of o ga toi e tnalble ng ts d ha m e ied a e r e tanse t a hos t lf te t nt sr nt si e di ûhoul ve rt n me g nt r f r o pia or r a me t c d ha s ved M r Be r slf .' I a 3. hat oul ve a . r y' i e ' d. t On Augus 27,2015,Thor l fl d a a nde c a sa ton c pl nt The de enda s t nhil ie n me d l s c i om ai . f nt flds paaemoi t dimist a nd c antplrua t Rul 1 b)6 oft Fe rl ie e rt tons o s s he me ed ompli zs nt o e 2( ( ) he dea Rul ofCi lPr e e,whih t c tgr nt i pa ta de e i pa t Onl Cot 1, es vi oc dur c he our a ed n r nd nid n r. y mt 1 a s ri acai f da sunde 42U. C.j1 a Co 11 al i wr ulde t i s etng l m or mage r S. 983, nd unt 1, legng ongf ah n vi ai ofVigi a Code j8. - rman pe ng a i tt Aut iy,Aylr a t olton r ni 0150, e i ndi gans he hort o , nd he M ed c lD e e nt . i a f nda s D urng di c r t de e nt r que t d a l doc e s t t Thom hilr ce ved f om i s ove y, he f nda s e s e l um nt ha l e i r an m e c pr es i y di al of s onalr gar ng Be y. Thonz l pr e di n' hil oduc d t a ops r por ,da e Oct r e he ut y e t t d obe 7, 4,a D' 201 nd Angel sr por,da e J 1 201 Thea ops r por wa sgne by am e ca o' e t t d une , 5. ut y e t s i d di l docor J el Poshumus a lsedBer sca eofd t a 'll reefcsofheoi a t , oc yn t , nd it ry' us eah s tadves fe t r n nd eh n l' n r fre t t emame o d ah a a kac i e t'Au o y Re o t t8 ECF No. t a o 'a d eer d o h l r f e t s n k lcd n . tps p r a , g ' 1422. O n Fe ua y 1 201 t de e nt m o d f l ve t fl a a e d a w e ,whi h br r 7, 7, he f nda s ve or ea o ie n m nde ns r c pr opos d t a a s xt a f nna i def ns t t Thonz l ha f ie t c pl wih t e o dd i h f i tve e e ha hil d a l d o om y t he pr dur lr quie t f m e c lmal a tc c am si Vigi a i l ng bu notlm ie t oce a e r men s or di a pr c ie l i n r ni, nc udi t i td o t r quie e ofo a ni a ce tf ng e he e r m nt bt i ng riyi xper w ines . The co tg a ed t m o i t t s ur r nt he ton. The pa tes t n f l d s ve a di c r m otons a t r m a ni def nda s fl d a r i he ie e r l s ove y i , nd he e i ng e nt ie mo in frs mmayj d me ta t Co n l. l rs o d n t te s mmayj d me tmo in to o u r u g n s o u t l n ep n i g o h u r u g n to , t pl ntf a t c d a r por f o D r Rus e l Su as D . . da e J ne l 201 and a r por he ai i f ta he e t r m . s l r ky, O , t d u 4, 7, e t fom Ki be l Ha vey,LPN,da e J 23,201 The pa tesa r m ry r t d une 7. ri ppea e be or t c tf a r d f e he our or h aig o t e s mmay j g n moin a ds o ey is e o Au u t 1 ,2 7. S o t e rn n h u r ud me t to nd ic v r su s n g s 0 01 h rl y t r afe ,t c t s ue a o de r s vi t dicove y diput s he e tr he our i s d n r r e ol ng he s r s e . O n A ugus 3, 20 1 t de e ant t l d a m o i t dim i s Count 1 1 The pa tes t 7, he f nd s i e ton o s s 1. ri a e d t s i t m oton t t c t w ihout a hea i gr e o ubm t he i o he our t rng. Bo h t m o i f r s m a y t he ton o um r j dg n a dt emo int ds s aen w rpef r e iw. u me t n h to o imis r o i o r ve D ef endants'M ot on f Sum m arv Judzm ent i or St andard ofR evi ew Purs uantt Rul 56 oft Feder Rul ofCi lPr o e he al es vi ocedtre,a tcour s lgr sum m ar z t t hal ant y j udgme i t mova s nt f he nt howst tt r i no ge nediput a t a maeilfc a t ha hee s nui s e s o ny tra a t nd he mova i e il t j me asamatroflw. Fed.R.Ci P.56() I decdi whehe t nt s ntted o udg nt te a ' ' v. a. n i ng t r o g a ts mma yj d me t t c u tmus ve te rc r i t lg tmo tfvoa e t t e rn u r u g n , he o r t iw h e o d n he ih s a rbl o h nonm ovi pa t a dr a1 r as bl i e e e i hi f vor Ande s 477 U . a 255. ng r y nd aw 1 e ona e nf r nc s n s a . r on, S. t D i si scus on Se ton 1 ci 983 i mpos cvi labiiy on a pe s aci under c o of sae l t es i l i lt ny r on tng ol r t t aw o de i a he pe s n of t r g s a pr vie s s ur d by t Co tt i a t l of prve not r r o he i ht nd i l ge ec e he ns iuton nd he aws t Unied Stts 42U. C.j 1 he t ae . S. 983.Plitf ag t tt dee nt vi ae Ber srghs anif rues ha he fnda s oltd ry' i t unde t Due Pr es Cl us o t Fo t e h Am e e by a tng wih de i a e r he oc s a e f he ur e nt ndm nt ci t lber t i fe e et hi s i me c lne ds ndif r nc o s erous dia e . The de e nt a s r t t no ge ne di put of m a e i l f c r m a n r ga di t f nda s s e t ha nui s es t r a a t e i e r ng he M edia Def nda s la lt munii iy la lt ors pe vior la lt a t ,t tt c l e nt ' ibiiy, cpalt ibiiy, u r s y i biiy, nd hus ha hey ae e tte t s mmay j d me t Th idviu ld fn a t f rh ra s r te a fr tv r n i d o u r u g n . e n i d a ee d n s u te se t h fimaie l def ns ofqua ii i uniy. e e lfed mm t 1. M edi D efendants'Li lt cal abiiy Pr til deai es ha a kce l e t bls d' rght ' o med c l a t nton, and pr s era t ne ve slary sa ihe ' i ç t i a te i i on of i a s vi a e de a ne 'rght t due pr es w he t y ar delbe a el i f e e t s rous fci l ol t t i es i s o oc s n he e i r t y ndif r nt o e i medialnee .'Gor v. dd,971F. 1 ,1 4( h Ci.1 92) l lbeaei fee c ds' don Ki 2d 087 09 4t r 9 . i i rt ndifrnce De i a ve y hi sa d - a s s r gh t ndm' howi of me e ne i nce wilnotmee i. You v.Ciy of ng r glge l t t' ' ng t M ou Ra e,238F. 567,575( hCi.2001 (ntma quottonmaksomit . nt nir 3d 4t r ) i e l ai r ted) Deie aeidifrn eha b t a o jdiea d as be tv c mp n n .Th o jdie l rt n fee c s oh n be v n u jcie o o e t e be v b c pone r r s a s w i ofa : uf i i nty s rous'm e ca ne d. Far e v.Br nna 511 om nt equie ho ng l fc e l e i ' di l e s m r e n, U. 825,834 ( 994)(ntr lq ai mar omitd) Thes j ci c S. 1 i ena uotton ks te . ube tve ompone r quiesa nt e r pl n if t s aitf o how t t t ofi i lknew of a dir ga de a e es i rs t a de anee' ha he tc a nd se r d n xc sve ik o ti s healh. 1 at837. t d. Un e te o j cie c mp ne t te c u' p e i u l r c g ie t a te s mp o o d r h b e tv o o n, h o l rv o sy e o nz d h t h y t ms f t ac l ohol a dr wihdr w a m a a ount t a s r ous m e ca ne d. Tho n l v.A yl ,N o. nd ug t a l y m o ei di l e r hil or 3:5- 00024,201 W L 8 1 CV6 737358,a *9 ( . Va Fe 1 201 (ole tngca e ) Att s t W D. . b. 9, 6) c lci s s. hi sage oft pr ee ngs t c t t he oc di , he our conc udest tt pl i ifhasm ade a s fc en s l ha he a ntf ufi i t howi ofa ng s rousm e ca nee ba e on t pr es i ofBe r ss ei di l d s d he ogr son ry' ympt . oms Ast t e s be t e c mp n n,a o fca mu th v b e l wa eo fcsfo whc o h u jci o o e t n fiil s a e e n s r f a t rm ih v a te if rn e c u d b d a ta a s b tn ilrs o s ro h r e sgd 'a d t eo fca h n e e c o l e rwn h t u sa ta ik f eius a m xite l' n h fiil m us ha al o dr w n t i e e e Fa m e , 511 U . a 8 t ve s a he nf r nc . r r S. t 37. A pl ntf m a s ts y t s ai i f y a i f hi sa d r wih e i e c t a a o fca l u j cieyr c g ie as bsa ta rs o h nn'a d tn ad t v d n e h t n fiilt be tv l e o nz d u tnil ik f a ' n s k u j ci ey r c g z d ta hs a to swee ia p o rae i lg to ta rs . Pars v. s be tv l e o nie h t i cin r n p r p it n ih f h t ik' rih s ' Cl lnd,372 F.d 294,303 ( h Ci.20 (ntnzlquoai maks o te . W hie a evea 3 4t r 04) i e a tton r mitd) l n ofiilc nnotbela ei hek w t unde l ng f t butbeive (l tuns fca a ibl f ' kne he ryi acs le d abei oundl t tt y) ha he r s t w hi h t f c s ga rs w a i ubs a i l o none s e ,'Fa ik o c he a t ve i e s ns t nta r xi t nt' nner 511 U . a 844,a , S. t fcf e ma ifrt a a o fca s be t eya p e itdas ro srs t a imaeb s do a ti r y n e h t n fiil u j ci l p rcae eiu ik o n n t a e n nd v çcr licumsa ile de e' ha t ofi a kne t ers ofha orby t o o nes oft rs tnta vi nc 't t he fcil w h ik nu he bvius s he ik is l,i a 8 t ef d. t 42. M e c l pr e s ona s r c i def r nc how e r i d t r i ng a pr pe co s of di a of s i l e e ve e e e, ve , n e e m ni o r ur e t e t e . M e e di a e m e wih a m e ca pr es i l s s l c e co s of te t e does r a m nt r s gr e nt t di l of s ona ' e e t d ur e r a m nt not s tce t s ufi o how a i ppr i e r s n na oprat e pons t a s rous m e ca r s Se W r gh v.Coli , e o ei di l i k. e i t lns 766F. 8 ,8 ( hCi.1 .'mplcti t sdefrnc t prs me ca auhorte i t 2d 41 49 4t r 985) t ii n hi ee e o ion di l t iis s he l a s i t t...a i or dj s umpton ha n nf me udgme has i f t be n mad ' I t ofAle ny Ct nt , n ac, e e. nmaes ' lghe y, J i v. e c 61 F. 754,762( Ci.1 ;seas Coli v.M iwa al Pir e, 2 2d 3d r 979) e lo lcnon l ukeeCt ,1 F. v. 63 3d 982,989( h Ci.1 )(' pli ifc n s t tt pr e sona dir r dt ne onl i 7t r 998 kA antf a how ha he ofsi l segade he ed y f t e p o e so ls s be t r s o s wa s i d q ae ta i de n tae a a e e o h r f sina' u j ci e p n e s o na e u t h t t mo srtd n bsnc f ve p of so a j d me t ta i, t a no mii ly c mp tn p o e so l wo l h v s r ksin l u g n , h t s h t nmal o ee t r fsina u d a e o rs epondedunde t ecic tnc s' . r hos rumsa e .' ) Th c u tspaaey a p ist e sa d r f rte s be tv c mp n n t e c o te e o r e rtl p le h tn ad o h u j cie o o e t o a h f h t e M e ia Dee da t : ( )LP Pts ( )LPN Ap l- g i ,a d ( )Nt sn Asitn hre de l fn ns 1 N it, 2 peFi gns n 3 l i g ssa t r Buc r l s kne - one . A . LPN Pit ts On t sr cor t c tfndst tt pl i ifha pr duce s fcente de e t s tsy hi e d, he our i ha he antf s o d ufi i vi nc o a if b t p o g o t e s b e tv c mp n n o d l eae id fe e c , Frt t r c r c n an oh r n s f h u jcie o o e t f ei rt n if rn e is, he e o d o tis b s fcint e denc t t Pit wa a r of f c s fom whi h s c d i er t t Be r was ufi e vi e ha ts s wa e at r c he oul nf ha ry i i nty lkey t wihdr w fom drl a acohola t tPit dr t i e enc Be r mm ne l i l o t a r t nd l gs nd ha ts ew he nf r e. ry r pore t he t the dr nk a ffh of lquor a us d he oi e r day. Pit ad it d s e td o r ha a it i nd e r n ve y ts m te he r c ve t booki o e vai n r por,whi h i c t d t Be y woul bewihdr wi fom e ei d he ng bs r to e t c ndia e hat n' d t a ng r dr a a c . Be r a s a a ed it cae and unwel t t a r si ofi e a t ugs nd l ohol ry lo ppe r n oxi td l o he r e tng fc r nd he bo ng ofieri t mome sbe o e Pit e l td Bery. Pit a l as obs r ed t Be r oki fc n he nt f r ts va uae r ts t e t e v hat ry ha difc t br a hi whi s de c i d aswhe zi Asalc ns d pr ci a nure f miir d fi uly e t ng, ch he s rbe e ng. ie e a tc l s a la w ih t CV RJ' polc m a l on dr a al ohol w ihdr w a , Pit knew t t unte t d t he S i y nua ug nd c t a l ts ha rae wihdr wa coul p og e s i o s rous s t a l d r r s nt e i ympt . Thes f c s i c t t t Pit obs r d oms e a t ndi ae ha ts e ve s pt s of dr a a c ym om ug nd l ohol wihdr w a f om w hi h s coul i e t t Be r f ce a t a l r c he d nf r ha ry a d s t nta rs of s rous ha m . A r a ona e f c t nde c d c l t t Pit dr w t ubs a i l i k ei r e s bl a ti r oul onc ude ha ts e he r quie i e enc whe s or r d c cks ofBe r s via s gns f t pum os ofm oniorng e r d nf r e n he de e he r y' t l i or he e t i hi f t s gnsand sym pt s ofw ihdrawal m or he i om t . W hie Pi's now cl m s t t s beleved Ber y was at a r s f onl her n, and not l t t ai ha he i r i k or y oi 20 aco , wihdr wa , De of Pit 36,t cic tnta evi nc pr de a ba i f a l hol t a l p. ts he r umsa il de e ovi s ss or r a ona e f c fndert conc ude o he w ie. Se M . .v.Ct ofA l m e 62 F.Supp.3c 1 49, e s bl a t i o l t r s e H y. a da, 1 0 1 7 - 8( D. l 2 4 (idn s fiin cru tnil vie c f rafcfn e t c n ld 0 7 7 N. Ca, 01 ) fn ig u fce t ic msa ta e d n e o a tid r o o cu e t ta nur e dr w t i e e e t ta i t f c a s rousrs ofal holwihdr wa whe ha s e he nf r nc ha n nma e a ed e i ik co t a l n t i t ha i or t nuret the drrk daiy a a ae i oxi td upon i a ) he nmae d nf med he s ha al l nd ppe rd nt cae ntke . Ther or s ec d howst tPit wasataned lc ns d pr c ialnur ewih knowl dgeoft CVRJ' ha ts r i i e e a tc s t e he S m e ca polc e a t sgnsa s di l ii s nd he i nd ympt sofac om lohola her n wihdr wa . She kne t t nd oi t a l w ha Be r had a hit y of alohola e a t tt sgns of aco wihdr wa woul de l ry sor c bus nd ha he i l hol t a l d veop l t ,bu s di not ng t a ountf Be r ss tnta rs ofaloholw ihdr wa . aer t he d hi o cc or ry' ubsa il ik c t a l A t t ve y l a t Pit has a m it d t a e he r e s , t s d te o ppr hendi Be r s lke y w ihdr w al f om ng r y' i l t a r her n. Pr di m i m a te t e t an i t t ta nur e knows i lke y t s f r he oi oi ovi ng ni l r am nt o nma e ha s s i l o ufe r n wihd a alo s ve asaba i f rade i r t i fe e e cai . SeeGonz l zv.Ce i Ct , t r wal s er s ss o lbe a e ndif r nc l m ae c l y. 2 F. u p. d61 , 6( M d 2 0 ) 21 S p 2 1 6l D. . 0 2 . Se o d,t rc r c n anss fiin e ie c t pemi a j r t c n ld ta P ts c n he e o d o ti u fce t vd n e o r t u y o o cu e h t it dir a de t known s i rs of bo h acohola he oi wihdr . Alhough Be r seg r d he erous iks t l nd r n t awal t ry i notye ma f sed t mos pr i had t nie t he t onounc d sgnsofwihdr wa , Pit wasnotr ived fo e i t a l' ts ' ele rm t ot ti hi fom known s tnta rs .' Stfn v.Olon,497 F.App' 568,579 (t s ecgngj m r pr ubsa il iks' ea s x 6h Ci. 2) A ras bl f ti e c ddee net tPit'a da eoft veyi o ton r 201 . e ona e acfnd r oul tnui ha ts voi nc he r nfnnai t twoul ha a l d he t a opra ey r c ni e a te tBe r f i i ntalohol a ha d ve lowe r o ppr it l e og z nd r a ry or mm ne c , s wel a he oi wihdr w a a o e t d i r t i f e enc Sçç M . . 6 F. Su 3d a l s r n, t a l m unt d o elbe a e ndi f r e. H, 2 pp. t 1077 ( ai ng t tt lal e t me cal sr n ne i t ma consiue delbeae expl ni ha he s iur o di ly cee w nmaes y f ttt i rt i f e e e t m edi alne ' whe t m e ca pr es i lk w s t ta i t has a hi t y ndif r nc o c eds' n he di l of s ona no ha n mua e sor ofaco a e ;c.Fame,511U. a 842 (ee tngt arume t tt t tfrdelbeae l hol bus) f r r S. t rj ci he g nt ha he es o i rt i ifrnc i rs n glp io o fcaswi a y s ro smo iain t tk rf ei te z n ndfee e s e e ts rs n fiil t n eiu tv to o a e eug n h o e p h bewe n i a e ofobvi rs a a t lknowldge ofrs ' (ntr quoai ma ks t e gnornc ous iks nd cua e iks' i enal tton r omitdl. te ) Pit di no obt n t t i o ton bec us s di no f l t CVRJ S polc ts d t ai ha nf nnai a e he d t olow he ' iy m a l r r ng acoholwihdr wa . Alho h t CVRJ polcy m a l ad s t m e c nua s egadi l t a l t ug he i nua s vie he dial s a f t pe f m t CI A s l whe a i m a e a ar i oxi a ed or des r be a hit y of t f o r or he W ca e n n n t ppe s nt c t ci s s or al ohola e,Pit di notpe f m t t t The f iur t i tat CI A pr t olf a i a e c bus ts d r or he es . a l e o nii e W o oc or n nm t who des i a hit y of ac crbes sor lohol a us and a b e ppea s i oxi t d may consiut dei r t r nt cae tt e lbe a e i fe e . M . ,62 F.Supp.3 a 1 78. Pit as di notob an a muc i or ton ndif r nce H. d t 077ts lo d ti s h nf ma i a boutBe r s me c lhit y a s c d,s h a t tme ofBe r sl s a c i be r ry' di a sor s he oul uc s he i r y' a t l oholc ve age a hi hit y ofwihdr wa .N o di s or rt tBe r be monio ed i a co da e wih t nd s sor t a l r d he de ha ry t r n c r nc t he polcy ma ,whi h i tuc smedia saf t pe f nn via sgns c c e r 15 m iut f i nual c nsr t c l t f o ro tl i he ks ve y n es or c e of her n wihdr wala eve y 2 hour durng t frt 24 hour f c es of ac as s oi t a nd r s i he is s or as lohol wihdr wa . CVRJ M e c lPolc M a t a l di a iy nuala 93, l . Pit onl c c Be r s via sgns t 41 ts y he ked ry' t l i onc a o y or e c cks o e pe s f s Com pla e w ih t CV RJ S pr t ol w o d e nd nl der d he nc r hit . i nc t he ' o oc s ul ha i c t a opra e c r M o com e y v.Comne l ,N o.CV ELH-1 ve ndi a ed ppr i t a e. nt r d. nc. 3 00930,201 6 W L 241 a #1 ( M d. a 1 201 , fd,678F.App' 95( hCi.201 . 738, t 2 D. J n. 9, 6)af' x 4t r 7) I a ton t Pit 'f iu e t a r t CVRJ' polc manua ,t r cor c anso he n ddii o ts al r o dhe e o S iy l he e d ont i t r e de e t t c d i c t t t Pit di not c vi nc ha oul ndia e ha ts d ompl w ih t basc sa d of ca e. y t he i tndar r D e e nt 'ex r ,D r A len,conc de t ta i s e i t CI A s l i s a r pr ocol f nda s pe t . l e s ha dm ni t r ng he W ca e s t nda d ot f pa i nt a rs f a c lw ihdr wal Re tofD r A len 2. A s D r Sur ky opi s e r y or te s t i k or l oho t a . por . l . as ne , a l t eat ent of t s gns of al r m he i cohol w ihdr t awal can pr event t pr essi t m or s i he ogr on o e erous s pt s and even deat Repor of Dr.Sur ky 3. Thus,const i t r d i t lght ym om h. t as nlng he ecor n he i 22 mos fv rbe t t pli tf, a te c u t mus, te c u t fn s mmay j d me t t a o a l o he anif s h o r t h o r ids u r u g n i ppr it o t j1 3cl m a i tPit. na oprae n he 98 ai gans ts B. LPN A ppl Fi ns e- ggi Th c u tas fnd s fiin e d n e t p e ld s mmay j d me t o Co n e o r lo i s u fce t vie c o rcu e u r u g n n u t a an t Ap l- i gn . Un e te frt p o g o t e s b e tv c mpo n f r d l rt g i s p eF g is d r h is r n f h u j cie o ne t o ei ae be i fe e e,t cou tobs r t tBe r i o m e Appl Fi ns a ndifr nc he r e ves ha ry nf r d e- ggi bouthi wihd a fom s t r wal r he oi r n. Addii l t c ttnds s fci nt e de t t Appl - ggi w as a r of f c s tonaly, he our s uf i e vi nce ha e Fi ns wa e at fom w hi h s c d dr w t i e e e t tBe r w asal o w ihd awi f om al ohol A f c r c he oul a he nf r nc ha r y s t r ng r c . at is e ss overwhehert ni t be or Appl- ggi me Be y he e re e s ke or s ue xit t he gh f e e Fi ns t n' xpe i nc d ha s temor . Thes sgns ma ha pe sse when Appl Fi nsobs r d hi ove t co s of r s e i y ve r it d e- ggi e ve m r he ure t ne t da . Be r ha a s be n r f i m e l t a , a f c t t s c iy woul ha he xt wo ys r y d l o e e us ng a r ys a t ha e ur t d ve r po t d t t m e ca de r m e . Sho ty a t Appl - ggi m e Ber y, non- e c e r e o he di l pa t nt r l fer e Fi ns t r m di al peronne r pored t the a a e c us a diore e t sbl il' a t r y a e t s l e t ha ppe r d onf ed nd s int d, t i y 1,' nd ç el bl o vi ba hol hi he up. De ofFr z e 1 Vigni St t Polc Not s Aug t 11 201 The ne d s ad ' p. ' a i r 5; r i a ae i e e , us , 4. xt tme Appl- ggi obs l d Be r he ha f le i t s i e Fi ns ewe ry, d a ln n he howe . Alhough Appl- ggi r t e Fi ns t tted t ts di nots e a vom i ne r Be r a of i e t tfe t t Be r ha vom ie i es i s ha he d e ny t a r y, n fc r es ii d ha r y d td n t s he hower sal Appl - ggi di obs l t tBe r a a e unabl t stu on hi own t l. e Fi ns d e' ha ry ppe r d ve e o i p s whe s as e s d hi via s gns Be r t n s a ed t the onl w a e t r s . M or over pr or n he s s e s t l i . r y he t t ha y nt d o e t e , i t t s e , Be r ha b n obs r o he how r r y d ee e ved s tng a e pe i i difc t br a hi wea i nd x renc ng f i uly e t ng. A r a ona e f c fnde c d conc ude t tw he A ppl Fi nsobs r d Be r he w a e bii e s bl a t i r oul l ha n e- ggi e ve r y, s xhi tng t f l i si ofal he olow ng gns coholorher n wihdr oi t awal s : hakesort em or conf on,an i lt t r s, usi nabiiy o wal w ihout as sance, vom ii k t si t tng, sw eatng, dif culy breat ng, l hargy, and sem i i fi t hi et - c c ous s ons i nes . A di put of f c e s s ove whet r Appl - gg ns lne t tBe r w a e re i a s e a t xi t r he e Fi i c w ha r y s xpe i nc ng m or s ve e s e e r ympt ofaco wihdr wa,ga toi e tna ble ng,orwa ha ng difc t om l hol t a l sr nt si l e di s vi fi uly r ti ng tui orme c tonsa nit r d o aly.Oneoft booki ofi e st tfe t ts ea ni l ds di a i dmi se e r l he ng fc r esiid ha he r po td t Appl Fi nst tBe r wasr ulry vo ii a e ti c f - r e re o e- ggi ha ry eg a l m tng nd mitng ofee g ound l ng ooki vom i,but Appl - ggi t tfe t t t ofi e me ey as d f a de c i i of vo i t e Fi ns esii d ha he fc r r l ke or s rpton m t co ani bl nt i ng ood. l lgh of t s cic sa i e d e a t a r nt obvi ne s of t rs t n i t hi r um t ntal vi enc nd he ppa e ous s he ik o i vi l wihoutm e ca tai ng s h as t ofi r a t c t e,a f c fnde coul ndi dua s t di l r ni uc he fce s t he ourhous a ti r d c ude t tAppl - ggi acua l dr w t i e e e t tBe r f e a s t talrs of oncl ha e Fi ns t ly e he nf r nc ha ry ac d ubsan i ik s rous ha ei nn. Se Fa m e ,511 U. a 8 e r r S. t 42. Ad tona l as wih Pit,Appl Fi gi kne dii ly, t ts e- g ns w Be r wa wihdr wi fom he oi a t thi wihdr wa s ry s t a ng r r n nd ha s t a l ympt swe ewor e ng. om r s ni Un e te s c n p o g t c u tc n ld st a h s mmay j g n rc r as d r h e o d r n , he o r o cu e h tte u r ud me t e o d lo c nan e o g e i n et alw ar a o a l j l t c n ld t a Ap e Fg i sdse ad d o tis n u h vde c o lo e s n be u' o o cu e h t pl- ig n irg r e y t known s t tal rs t Bery. W he e nur e or ot r m e c l saf ha c aced he ubsan i iks o r r ss he di a t f ve ont t physcins a f l d t physca ' i tu tons ou t ha bee r tee t hol t i a nd olowe he i ins nsr c i ,c rs ve n e i nt o d he m e ca saf la e. Com pa ePa a v. u di l t f ibl r dul Tr mbul Ct , 4: 0CV2876,201 W L 3 231,a l y.No. 1 2 260 t * - ( D. i Au 8 2 2 ( rn igs mmayj d me tt me ia a ssa t wh f lwe 7 9 N. Oho g. , 01 ) g a tn u r u g n o d c l s itn s o ol d o doco ' or r) wih Redv.Ro nsi ,No.3: CV- 26RM ,20 W L 952007,a * ( D. trs des, t i ve tne 05- 1 07 t 4 N. l d Ma .2 ,2 0 )( e yn s mmayj d me tt anu s wh dd n trf ra imae f r n . r 6 0 7 d n ig u r u g n o re o i o e e n n t o me c lte t nta appe rd t ha dir r d t docors or r) Howe r whe a dia rame nd ae o ve segade he t ' des. ve, n nurs f l t seek f her m edi atenton f an i at w ho w as def i on hi sel and e aied o urt cal t i or nm e ecatng m f a aed c usd,a c tf ppe r onf e our ound fc is s prcl ng s a t sue e udi ummay j r udgmenton a delbeat ire 24 i ifrnc cam. F ek rv.Oua a e Ct. 3 4 F.d 51 ,51 - 4 ( t Ci. 05 . l ti ndfee e li o le tg mi y, 9 3 0 2 1 7h r 20 ) n h s ca e Appl Fi ns ne r s s, e- ggi ve oughtt a ee of a p i i n des t r ogni ng t t Be r was he dvi hysc a pie ec zi ha r y unde g ng wihdr r oi t awaland t thi s ha s ympt swe e pr r s i t i ude pe sse vomii om r og e sng o ncl r itnt tng a def ca i w e nd e tng, akne s a di zi s . s , nd z ne s De e nt a gue t tc a tng aphysca wasunne s ar be us a loft M e c f nda s r ha ont c i i in ce s y ca e l he dial Def nda s a Appl Fi ns i pa tculr pr ded a quat te t ntby c c ng Be r s e nt , nd e- ggi n ri a , ovi de e r a me he ki ry' via sg ,ad i se i m e cai t te thi s mpt ,a pr vi ng hi wih Gaor de. t l i ns m nit rng di ton o r a s y oms nd o di m t t a How e r Appl - ggi di noti tga e t c us of Be r s f l i t s ve , e Fi ns d nves i t he a e r y' a l n he hower t ale , he l ged r por of c f - ot d l ng vom i, or w he he Be r w a i pr ng i r s e t ofee gr m ooki t t r ry s m ovi n e pons t e o m e c ton a fui he ha be r c i ng. The pli if ha t r or pr e e e de e di ai nd l ds d en e e vi antf s he ef e es nt d vi nc upo whih a r as n c e onabl f c fnde c d co ude t tAppl- ggi di no te tBery bas e at r oul ncl ha e Fi ns d t r a r ed on a i or d m e c o ni n nf me dial pi on. Se l aes of Aleg ny Ct J i, 61 F. a 762; e nm t l he y. a l 2 2d t Coli non, l F. a 98 Addiinal smpl be us t M edialDe e nt pr de lc 63 3d t 9. to ly, i y ca e he c f nda s ovi d Ber i t s te t tco itntwiht Lalspolcis,i doe notf l t tt y ha ry ' h ome ramen nsse t he ii' i e l t s olow ha he ve wi n c sa i p o ie ( i wi c n ttto al a e u t te t n . De' o t v. o ns n 7 e e s rl r vd d hmj t o si in ly d q ae rame t' l na J h o , 08 y h u ' w 5 5 ( h Ci.201 . çA ttld prvai ofcae i nota nec s r c ton f 20, 26 4t r 3) i oa e i ton r s esay ondii or fndi a c tt i l vi a i n' Gr s y i om pe e or i de t c r c a s co tt e i ng onsiutona ol to . os l nc t nt na qua e a e an l o ns iut dei rt i fernc .... I (leai a i ena quotton maks omitd) On t s lbeae ndif e e ' d. atrtons nd ntr l ai ' r te . hi rc r t e c u tfn s ta a ra o a l j r r c u d c n lde t a Ap eFigns p o ie e o d, h o r id h t e s n b e u o o l o cu h t pl- g i r vd d g os l i om pe e ca e i f ii t m or t o hl a s s Be r s c ton orc m uni t r s y nc t nt r n a lng o e hor ug y s e s r y' ondii om ca e wih aphysc a a hi s pt spe sse a wore d f at r day. t ii n s s ym om r itd nd s ne or hid C . N ursi A ssi antBucl ng st tnerlones Alhough acos cal t cour fndss tce e de t pr cud s t l e l, he t i ufi int vi nce o e l e ummayj r udgme nt on t Fouree h Am e he t nt ndme cli a i tBuc ne - o s Appl Fi nst d Buc rlo nt am ga ns k rl ne . e- ggi ol kne - nes t tBe r w a s f rng f om he oi w ihdr w a ,a Buc r l ha r y s uf e i r r n t a l nd kne - onesw a a a e t the had be n s w r ha e vom ii f a pr onge pe i ha bec tng or ol d rod, d ome unr s i a a e ponsve, nd ppea e t e e i o a ftor r d o nt r nt i s s t i c t as i e.A r s pa ms hat ndi aed ezur ea onabl f ti rcou d c udet Buc rl e acfnde l oncl hat kne - onesdr w e t i e e e t Be r ha a s rous m e ca ne bec us s s he nf r nc hat r y d e i di l ed a e he ought t s nd Be r t t o e r y o he hos t l Thers mi hta s ha be ome o o a t ttm e Se Fa mer 511U. a 8 pia . ik g lo ve c bvius t ha i . e r , S. t 42. H ow e r Buc r l s di not c l a phys c a o 911 i m edi t l a t r l a ni of ve , kne - one d al ii n r m a e y f e e r ng Be r s s m s a w e knes . A s veil nc vi o s s he s a ng ne r Be r s c l f r y' pas nd a s ur la e de how r t ndi a r y' e l or abo t m i es bef e s l f t s k die i on ho t s nd Be r t t hos t l ut wo nut or he e t o ee r cton w o e ry o he pia . Evi nc t ta medialpr es i de e ha c of sonalf ie t r por t a doc o whe t ne f team e al d o e t o tr n he ed or r t nt be me obvi , Pad a 201 W L 3260 1 a *9- 0,or t t t pr es i ca ous ul, 2 23 , t 1 ha he of sonal i e i ly ntntona l de a d t a nita i ofme c lca e t a i t m a a ou t delbe a e i fe e , l ye he dmi sr ton dia r o n nma e y m nt o i r t ndif r nce s e Esel v.Ga e 429 U. 97, 1 4- ( 97 . Thus a ra onabl f ti r co d e tle mbl, S. 0 05 1 6) , es e acfnde ul de e m i t Buc r l s di r a de a s t nta r s ofs rous ha m ori ed a s rous t r ne hat kne - one s eg r d ubs a i l i k ei r gnor ei ne d f addii lm e c te t e t e or tona dial r am n . I M uni palLi lt 1. ci abiiy A panifma d rcl s ealc lg v r i gb d ,l eteAuh rt , n e j1 8 fr lit f y ie ty u o a o en n o y i h t o iy u d r 9 3 o k mo eay d caao y o ij n tv r l f M o el . p' o S c S r . fN. , 3 U. 6 8 n tr , e lrt r , r nu cie ei . n l v De t f o . evs o Y.4 6 S. 5 , e 690 ( 978) I t sca e t pli ifi s ng t Auho iy a Ayl unde t t re of 1 . n hi s , he antf s ui he t rt nd or r wo heo is muni pa la lt ( ) a polc or c t of dei rt i fee e and ( a fiu e t ci l ibiiy: 1 iy usom lbeae ndifrnc , 2) alr o ade ua el tai e pl es q t y r n m oye . A . Polcy or Cust of Delberat lndif i om i e f erence To e t i h m uni pa la lt ba e on a polc o c t m ofdelbe a e i f e e ,a s abls ci l i biiy s d i y r us o i r t ndif r nce 26 pl i ifmus s antf t how t exit nc ofa ofii lpolc orc t t ti f il ali t bl t t he se e n fc a i y usom ha s ary trbu a e o he m u c pa e iy a t tpr m a e y ca e t unde l ng co tt i lvi a i ni i l ntt nd ha oxi t l us d he ryi nsiutona ol ton. J da e or n x r .J da v.J c on,1 F.d 33 338( hCi.1 . el or n a ks 5 3 3, 4t r 994) A pli ifm a e t bls a ofi i polc t ti f ry ati abl t am uni pa e iy antf y sa ih n fcal iy ha s ail trbut e o ci l ntt by i ntf ng c r a n a fr a i de s ons orom i sonson t pa tofa polc a . Ca t r v. de iyi e t i f im tve ci i si he r i ym ker re M ori, 1 F.d 21 21 ( h Ci.1 . Unde s h cic t es t polc ke ' rs 64 3 5, 8 4t r 999) r uc rumsanc , he iyma rs de sonsoromisonst ta cii s i ha mountt dei r t i fe e eS a r nde la ebot t ofii l o lbe ae ndif r nc i y e r ibl h he fc a, m i hi i vi lc pa iy,a t muni pa e iy. Newbr n s ndi dua a ct nd he ci l ntt ' ' ouah v.Pi dmontReg' J lAut , e l ai h. 822 F.Supp.2d 558 585 ( D.Va 201l, A polc , E. . ) iymake r e st a i vi lwih t r efr o n ndi dua t he t ut rt t s t a i e t ge r l goal a pr a s of muni i l gove nm e , a ç ho iy o e nd mpl men ne a a s nd ogr m cpa r nt s o ppos t di c e i na y a ho iy i pur l ope a i ed o s r to r ut r t n ey r tonal as c s of gove nm ent' Spel v. pe t r . ' l M c nil 8 F. 1 138 ( h Ci.1 ) i mos ciia fcori no t pr tca Da e, 24 2d 380, 6 4t r 987 . ' The t rtc l a t s t he aci l tnaiyofa ofii ' icsa e cs'butt i k iy'naur ' #.(uoi Pe urv.Ciy s lt n fcals a t nd dit, her polc t e. 'J q tng mba t ofCicn ai47 U. 4 9 4 0(98 ). n in t, 5 S. 6 , 8 1 6 ) Ho v r iiti no e o g t ie tf ap lc o c so o deie ae i dfee c ; we e , i l s t n u h o d n iy o iy r u t m f l rt n ifrn e l b Pl ntf m us al o a l ge t tt polcy or c t pr m a e y c e t i t ntc tt i na ai i f t s le ha he i us om oxi t l aus d he ns a ons iuto l ij r . Ne r u h 8 2F.S p .2 a 5 4 ep lc o c so mu tb th mo ig fr e n u y' wb o g , 2 ' u p d t 8 .Th oiy r u t m s e d e vn o c t of t c tt i l vi a i s cii aly c ge ' M ilg n v.Civ of N e por N e s 743 he ons iutona ol ton pe tc l har d.' li a t w t w , F. 227,230 ( h Ci.1 2d 4t r 984)(ntl lq ain maks omitd) Thi rltons p ma be i ema uotto r te . s eai hi y s ts i d by e de e of d l ca a na ur l c aife vi nc i ogi l nd t a onne ton be w e n a polc or c t of a ci t e iy usom defc e t m e ca ca e a a i t nce of i de t m e c c e ' Ne ouch,8 F.Supp. iin di l r nd n ns a na qua e di al ar .' wbr 22 2d.at585. l t s ca e,t pl i if has f e s e de e of a ofk i polc t dir ga d t n hi s he antf or ca t vi nc n t al iy o s e r he 27 CVRJ' wrte me c l pr ocol a t c S it n di a ot s nd o ondone i onna pr c ies of de ng ad uae nf l a tc nyi eq t m e c l c r Pl i i f a l ge t t t s polc r ule f om A yl ' a i as a polcy a r di a a e. a ntf le s ha hi i y es t d r or s ctons i m ke . Pl i if s e de e ofA yl ' polc a ng a ho iy i l a ntf ' vi nc or s i ym ki ut r t nc udest tAyl r s r e a t hi t ha o e v d s he ghes - r nki ofi r a t CVRJ a wa t peron who u tmat y r ceve a addr s ed a ng fce t he nd s he s li el e i d nd es co pl i s a m ant boutt CVRJ' m e c saf fom t EM TS M a son a Le s Fr t e he S dial t f r wO , r t nd wi. om hes fcs ara o a l j r c udc n ld t t lrh dt ea t rt t drc teg asO CVRJS a t, e s n be u y o l o cu e ha Ayo a h uho i o ie th o l f y ' me c lde rm e . De e nt ha nots tf t e de e t t Ay or lc polcy a ng di a pa t nt f nda s ve e orh vi nc ha l a ked i m ki aut iy. hort As um i Ayl he d s h a ho iy,t pli ifha i ntfe e de t s s ng or l uc ut rt he antf s de iid vi nce o uppor he t r cli t tAyl ' i c i c e t a ofii lpolc of dei r t i fe e t twa f il am ha ors na ton r aed n fc a iy lbe a e ndif r nce ha s a ry a ti a e t t Aut iy. M a son a Le s c trbut bl o he hort r t nd wi ' ompl nt a ai s boutt te t ntofi t s a he r a me nma e t t CVRJwer m a kno t Ayl r a a r a ona e f c fnde co d fnd t tAyl f l t he e de wn o o , nd e s bl a ti r ul i ha or aied o r ut M a son a Le s al gai ort a ton t r m e t pr e st y i ntfe ef e r t nd wi' le tons ake c i o e dy he obl m he de iid. Fi l i a naly, t ppea s t t cour a t stme t tt pli ifm a be a e t e t bls at r o he t t hi i ha he antf y bl o sa ih ti la l ca a naur c ra ogi l nd t al onne ton bet e M a son a Le s'sa e e s and t alege ci we n r t nd wi tt m nt he l d vi ai ofBe r sc tt i lrg s M a son a Le sat t d t CVRJ Sm e c lsaf: olton ry' onsiutona iht . rt nd wi tese hat ' di a t f dirgaded t wrte CVRJ polcesf pr di media c r t i t ;( di not se r he itn ii or ovi ng c l ae o mnaes 2) d f l w i pr c i a pr ed es f te tng i a e und goi dnz or a c olo n a tce ny oc ur or r a i nm t s er ng g l oholw ihdr w a ; t a l ( a de sndi imae t t hos tlbe aus oft cos ofs h ti ;a ( de i t 3) voi d e ng n ts o he pia c e he t uc rps nd 4) clned o p o d ad t i mae f rij re o ile s sie tte a p e xsi c n iin . I Be r ' r vie i o n ts o n u is r l se d n i d s re it o dto s n ry s n s ng ca e t pl ntf ha f ec s e de e t tt M edi alDef nda s di notf l t CVRJ S s , he ai if s or a t vi nc ha he c e nt d olow he ' wr ten polei for teatng i at undergoi drug or al it i es r i nm es ng coholw ihdra alorcons der s ng t w i endi Ber y t t hos t untlBer y' deat becam e i m i . A ccor ngl t courtfnds t a r o he pial i r s h m nent di y, he i hat r a o a l j r c ud fn t a Ber s d ah fo i d q aey te td d u a d ac h l e s n b c u y o l id h t ry' e t r m na e u tl r ae r g n lo o w ihdr w a w a a Sna ur and f es ea e c e nc ' of A yl ' i ton i r s t a l s k t al or e bl ons que e' or s nac i n e pons t e o c ompli sofdefcen m e c c e a t CVRJ.Ne ough,822 F.Supp. a 587. ant ii t dial ar t he wbr 2d t Def nda s do nOt c es t sae e s of M a son o Le s but r t as e tt t e nt ont t he t tm nt r t r wi, aher s r ha Ayl coul no havecr a e apolc o cuso wih r s c t i aes me c ca e ba e on or d t e td iy r t m t e pe t o nm t ' dial r s d media cossbe us heha no c r ove t Au hort s e ndiur s f ri aes me c l c l t ca e d ontol r he t iy' xpe t e o nm t ' di a c r Defnda sr y on t Auho iy' budge i ag e me wih t fve l altest tho e a e. e nt el he t rt s tng r e nt t he i oc ii ha us i t att CVRJ Thi a gume pr nma es he . s r nt ovesunavalng whe et pli ifha elc td e de e ii r he antf s iie vi nc t tA yl kne t thi m e ca saf ha a di f r i pr s i n oft c t as oc a e w ih c r ha or w ha s di l t f d f e ent m e s o he os s s i t d t a e a h d cie t c re tt a i rsi n Th ,te s mmay j d me t rc r d e n t nd e e l d o o rc h t mp e so . us h u r u g n e o d o s o n elm i t a lgen ne diputs of m ae i l f c o i c t t tt de e i na e l ui s e tra a t r ndia e ha he f ndan s a e e il t t r ntted o s mma y j d me ta a matro lw u d rte te r o a p lc o c so o d lb rt u r ug n s te f a n e h h o y f o iy r u t m f eieae i fe e ndif r nce. B. Polcy ofFaiure t Trai i l o n A munii le iy ma 'bela eunde j1 f i quaetani ofise oye s cpa ntt y i ibl r 983 or nade t r i ng t mpl e . . . onl w he e t f iu e t t a n a ount t d i r t i f e e y r he a l r o r i m s o elbe a e ndif r nce ....' Civ of Ca on v. ' t nt Ha rs 489U. 3 388( 989 .Unde s heie tnee ,hefiur t tane nc sapole ri, S. 78, 1 ) r uc rumsa s t al e o r i vi e iy orc t ofdei rt i fee acina eunderj 1 usom lbeae ndifrnce to bl 983.1 a 38 Munii la lt c n d. t 9. cpal ibiiy a be esa ihe i a s r s y powe ha r eeve notc ofa pat r ofde i r t i fe e e, t bls d f upe vior r s e i d ie te n lbe a e ndif r nc buthasc e nott x pond wih ade uae tani Br hos n o es t q t r i ng. own v.M ic l,308 F.Supp.2d 68 t hel 2, 703 ( D.Va.2004) A pl ntf may as s kha i lg oft d i a sgne t s ii E. . ai if lo how k t n iht he utes s i d o pecfc t ofi orem pl fcers oyeest need f m or ordif he or e f erenttai ng i s obvi and t i r ni s o ous, he nadequacy so lkel t res t i t vi aton of cons iutonalrght t t polcym akers ...can r onabl i y o ul n he ol i tt i i s, hat he i eas y 29 be s i t ha be dei r t l i fe e t t nee ' Ciy of Ca on,489 U . a 390. a d o ve en lbe a ey ndif r nt o he d.' t nt S. t ç or over f la lt t atac i t scr m smz e t i ntte defc e y i a ...ta ni t e , or ibiiy o t h n hi icu t c he de ii d ii nc n M r i ng p o rm mu t eco eyr ltdt teulmaeij r . l . t3 . rga s b ls l eae o h t t nu y' d a 91 i ' I t i c s ,t c t tc n l d sta ara o bej l c ud fn te Auh rt l be n hs a e he ot o cu e h t e s na l u' o l id h to i i l r y y a unde a t or off iur t tan. As s tf t above t pl ntf haspr r he y al e o ri e orh , he ai if oduce e de e upon d vi nc whc a ra o a l j l c u d fn ta Ayo a td a a s p r io y p we a t e CVRJ a d ih e s n be u' o l id h t lr ce s u e vs r o r t h y n r ceved notc of a pate n i c tng dei er t i fe e e. Ne t r M a son nor Le s e i ie tr ndia i lb ae ndif r nc ihe rt wi as e t t tAyl r s s red ha or e ponde t t i com pl n sby s d o he r ai t ugge tng t a ni a t de e nt have s i r i ngs nd he f nda s notco e d ot r i e. Be us t M e c l De e nt c r l d t da t day p o s on nt nde he w s ca e he di a f nda s ontole he y-or vi i o me ia c r t i mae , r a o a l j r ma fn ta ten e fra dto a tann wa f d c l ae o n ts a e s n be u y y i d h t h e d o d iin l riig s o iu a d tel eio dt a tefiu et s n asro l ij r dimaet t eh s ia o t bvo s n h i l o h t h alr o e d eiusy nu e n t o h o ptl r o k h pr de ot rte t e coul r s ti a c tt tona vi a i washi See Ciy ofCa on, ovi he r am nt d e ul n onsiu i l olton gh. t nt 4 9U. a 3 0 Thepanifh stee o ep oe td e ie c o acos r lto s p b t e 8 S. t 9 . litf a h rf r rj ce vd n e f l e eain hi ewe n evi nc of a f iur t t a n a t CVRJ a t m e c c e t t Be r r c ve Thus de e a l e o r i t he nd he di al ar ha r y e ei d. , s ummayj gme i nota opraeunde t fiur t tant or r ud nt s ppr it r he al e-o-ri he y. 111. Supervi sory L i lt abiiy I a ton t s ki la lt agans Ayl r as t Aut rt s polcy a r pli if n ddii o ee ng i biiy i t o he ho iy' i m ke , a ntfs ase tt Ayl i la eunde jl i hi i vi lc pa iy a a s r ior A s r s s r hat or s ibl r 983 n s ndi dua a ct s upe vs . upevior ma b l b e fr i o si to a ij re ititd b (il s od n ts' i c ran y e i l o ' n tt in l nu is nlce y h s ub r i ae ' n eti a c u crtmsa s Slka v.Pore,737F. 368 37 ( h Ci.1 .tg ontnue i toni t icl tnce . a n tr 2d , 2 4t r 984) icj i d naci n he fc ofwi s e d a es...pr de a i pe n ba i f tndi t t( s r io)wa ae depr a bus ovi s n nde nde t ss or i ng ha a upe vs r s de i r t l i f e e or a ui s e i t c ns iutona l of e i c lbe a e y ndi f r nt cq e c d n he o tt i ly f ns ve onduc of hi t s s di ts' l a 373.A pli ifesa ihe s r ior la lt by s ng:i( )t tt ubor nae . d. t ' antf tbls s upe vs y ibiiy howi k1 ha he 30 s r s ha acualo consr tve knowldge t t hi s di t was e age i c upe vior d t r tuci e ha s ubor na e ng d n onduc t t tpos apevasvea un e s bl rs ofc tt i lij yt cii nsIket pli if ha ed r i nd r a ona e ik onsiutona nur o tze i he antf; ()t tt s peviorsrs ewa s i de east s dei rt i fee et o t i 2 ha he u r s ' e pons s o na quat o how lbeae ndifrnc o r act aut i tonoft algedofe i prcies a ( t t r wasa afr i c a lnk horzai he le fnsve a tc ; nd 3) hathee n fimatve aus l i b t e t e spev s rs ia t n a d t e p riu a c n ttto a ij r s fee b t e ewe n h u r io ' n ci n h a t lr o si in l nu y u fr d y h o c u pli if' Sha v.Shr 1 F. 79l 799( hCi.1 (ntl quotto makso te . antf. w ' oud, 3 3d , 4t r 994) i emal ain r mitd) He e,t co t frt fnds t t t pl ntf has i ntfe s fcint evi nc a t r he ur is i ha he ai if de iid ufi e de e t he sl r j d me tsa eo Ayo ' k o e g t a h ss b r iae weee a ig i c n u t t mma y u g n tg f lrs n wld e h t i u o dn ts r ng gn n o d c posng a per a i and unr as bl rs of c tt i lvi a i t de anee lke Be r i v sve e ona e ik onsiutona oltons o t i s i ry. M a son a Le s a re t tAyl r c ve c m pl nt a rt nd wi ve r d ha or e ei d o ai s boutde i e medialc r a t fcint c a e t he CV RJ i l ng co pl nt t tt m e ca s a ff ie t f l CV RJ S wr te polc e ort , nc udi m ai s ha he di l t f a l d o olow ' it n i i s o s i aest t hos t whe a oprae. Se ond,ast whe he Ayl t il a horz a end nm t o he pial n ppr it c o t r or acty ut ied pa t r of de i r t i f e e e, t pl i tf has s i d M a s on a Lewi ' s a e e t te n lbe a e ndi f r nc he a n if upple rt nd s ttm ns i e rng t tAyl di notr pond t t rc nf ri ha or d es o hei ompl i sa ant boutdefc e medi lc ea t CVRJ ii nt ca ar t he , and t r cor does not c an e de e ot r s Thid,a r as bl tir of f c c d he e d ont i vi nc he wie. r e ona e re a t oul concude t tAyl ' i c i wa c us ly lnke t pl ntf scli ofdelbe a e i fe enc l ha ors na ton s a a l i d o ai if a ms i r t ndif r e aga ns t M e ca D e e i t he di l f ndant f t s m e r s s t f t a s or he a ea ons e orh bove r gar ng c a i f e di aus ton or m uni i la lt pr m i e on a polc ofde i r t i f e e e. c pal i biiy e s d iy lbe a e ndif r nc l Qualfedl V. ii mmuniy t The i vi l def nda s i t s c e,Ayl r a t M e ca D ef nt ,c i t ndi dua e nt n hi as o nd he di l enda s ontnue o s k qualte i ee ii d mmuniy fom cvi da es und Count l. Qualfe i t r i l mag er 1 iid mmuniy s el t hi ds (govemm e of i i l pe f m i di c etona y f tons . ..f om la lt f r ci l da ag i l nt fc a s r or ng s r i r unc i r i biiy o vi m es i of r a t r c ns a s hei onduc doe notvi a e c e ry es a i he s a ut y or cons iutonalrght of t s ol t l a l t bls d t t or tt i i s whc ara o a l p ro wo l h v k o ' Hal w v. tg rl , 5 U. 8 0 81 ( 9 2 . ih e s n be e s n ud a e n wn. ro Fi ead 4 7 S. 0 , 8 1 8 ) ' z To d t nni whehe a gove nme ofii i e il t q i d i uniy,t c twil e e ne t r r nt fcal s ntted o ualEe mm t he our l: k()i ntf t rg alge y vi aed,( dee newhehe t co tt i lrg vi ae $1 de iy he iht le dl olt 2) tnni t r he nsiutona iht oltd wa ce ryesabls d a t tmeoft i ientan ( e l t whehe aras eofi il s lal t ihe t he i he ncd , d 3) vauae t r e onabl tca w oul have unde s ood t t t co d rt ha he nduc a i s vi at t c ea l e t bls d rght' t t s ue ol ed he l ry s a ihe i .' He ronv.Si , F. 267,271( h Ci.2000 . ndes mms 223 3d 4t r ) I t s c s ,t co tha r c ni e t tpr t i lde ai e ha a cl a l esa i he d n hi a e he ur s e og z d ha e ra t ne s ve e r y t bls d ue pr e srg t medialat nton u rt Foure nt Ame e . Gor oc s i ht o c te i nde he te h ndm nt don,971F. a 1 2d t 094. Thc i vi lde e ndi dua f ndan st r f e s e qualfe i t he e or e k iid mmuniy by a gui t tt y di no vi ae t r ng ha he d t olt Be r sc tt i lrght i t fr ti tnce Be us t c thasf ry' onsiutona i s n he is nsa . ca e he our ound ge ne d s e nui iput s of ma e i l f c r ga di whe he t M e ca De e n s or Ayl vi a e Be r s t ra a t e r ng t r he di l f nda t or olt d ry' c tt i ons iutonalrght ,t c tde e t i r ques sf qua ii d i m uniy. i s he our ni s he r e t or lfe m t l s , t c t fnds t t t r m ani de e nt a e not e ild t s n um he our i ha he e i ng f nda s r ntte o umma y r j dg n o Co n I. Ac od n l,te c u twild n t e d fn a t'mo in f rs mmay u me t n u t I c r i gy h o r l e y h ee d n s to o u r j udgme . nt D ef endant M oton t D i m i CountI1l s' i o s ss Standard ofR evi ew Un rVign a lw,te c u' ma dimis a c s wi p eu ie i,p ir t sr i de r ii a h o l y s s ae t rj d c f ro o evng t h pr s o t de e nt t pl i if f ie t o a n a s gnt w rte opi on f o a pe s n oee s n he f nda , he a ntf a l d o bt i i d, it n ni r m ro k i whom t pl i if r s bl be i s woul qua iy as a ex r w ine s' V a.Code A nn. he a ntf ea ona y leve d lf n pe t t s . ' j8. - 1.Theopi onmus a sr t t t s uponar s bl undesa ngoft fcs' 0150. ni t se tha ,d ed ba ea ona e rtndi he a t,' t deenda ()' vitdfo t a iabl sa r ofcae'a ( t tihede ai wa he f nt 1 ç ae rm he pplc e tndad de r' nd 2) ha l t viton s a pr mae ca e oft ij is cai d. I A wine swho i no a le e physcan oxi t us he nure l me ' d. ' t s s t iensd ii qualfe as a e r on t a i a e sa r of c e i t wine s de o taes e r iis n xpe t he pplc bl t nda d ar f he t s m nsr t xpe t knowl edgeon t sa r gove i t def nda ' media s c at a m ant i a a tve he tnda ds m ng he e nts c l pe i ly nd i ans n c i clnia prcie i t dee ntss cily orar aedme c lfed. Va.Code Ann.j8. i c l a tc n he fnda ' pe at elt dia il 01 581. A)Cr kmor v.M ayviw Hos ,66 F. 686,691( h Ci.2011. Asf pr mae 20 ee e r e p. 2 3d 4t r ) or oxi t c u e s be tt a e c p in n ta l a l h r,S nl a me ia d co i q ai e t gv a s , u j c o n x e to o ppi be ee k y c o dc l o t r s u lt d o ie i f k e p r tsi n a o tt c u eo ah ma p sc lij r ' Holi wort v.Norol S.Ry. x e t e tmo y b u he a s f u n hy ia nu y. ' lngs h Co.689 S. 2d651 653( .201 ) , E. , Va 0 . Howe ,a pl n ifnee no obti a c riyi e r wines i the al d a t of ver aitf d t a n e tf ng xpe t t s f t lege c t n g ie c ce ry le wihn tern eo tej r sc mmo k o e g a e pein e' Va e lg n e lal is t i h a g f h u y' o n n wld e nd x re c . . ' Code Ann.j8. - 1 The Suprme Cou tof Vigi a ha rcog z t t s exc pton 0150.. e r r ni s e nied hat hi e i a iso yi iaecr tnc . Be ryEntr .va v. c s 441S, 2d 1 3( 1 4) pple nl n t r icumsa es' vel e s- . Nihol, r ' E. , Va. 99 (i ng e r t tmony unnec sar r gadi whehe t dee nts e oye wee fndi xpe t esi e s y e r ng t r he fnda ' mpl es r neglgenti l vi a ta of f wih a pa int who was una e t f d he s l a who i n ea ng r y ood t te bl o ee r e f nd pr vi l hadsrousc ngi de s. e ousy ei hoki nci nt) D icussi s on De e nt a g t tt pli iff ie t o an t r quie c riyi e r o ni f nda s r ue ha he antf al d o bt i he e r d e tf ng xpe t pi on be or s r i pr e son t d e nt. I pa tc a ,de e nt a g t tpl i iff ied t f e e v ng oc s he ef nda s n riul r f nda s r ue ha antf al o s c e a doc o ' opi on on t a i a e s an r of ca e or on whe he t de e nt e ur t r s ni he pplc bl t da d r t r he f nda s' de a i f om t ts a r ofe r c us d Be r sdea h. vi tons r ha t nda d ae a e r y' t The c t fr t obs r t t t def nda s di not r i e t s a g e i t i fr t our i s e ves ha he e nt d a s hi r um nt n he r is m oto t di m i s Count 1 1 l e t de e nt f ie t m ove t dim i s Count1 1 on t in o s s 1 . nde ds he f nda s a l d o o s s I he bas s of t c r ii a i r qui e e untl t ee ye s a t r t pl i i f tl t orgi l i he e tf c ton e r m nt i hr ar fe he a ntf ied he i na com pl ntand afert pl ntf s it t addii ai t he ai if ubm ted wo tonalexpertopi ons. ni Now t tt def nda sha belt y r s t sis i am oton t dim is t c t ha he e nt ve aedl aied hi s ue n i o s s , he our fndst t pl i ifco d ha r a ona y bei ve s s tsi d t c tfc ton r quie e i hat he antf ul ve e s bl le d he a ite he erii a i e r m nt t ough t o r por s s had obt i d by t tm e of s r c D ' nge o' r pol ad es e t hr w e t he a ne he i e vi e. A l s e ' dr s d he t a i bl sa d ofc r a Dr Poshumus a o y r po tpr de an opi on o ca e of pplca e t ndar a e, nd . t ' ut ps e r ovi d ni n us de t The de e nt c t no c s l w r quii a doc or t o ne on t s a r of c r a h. f nda s ie a e a e rng t o pi he t nda d ae a ia e t nur i de e nt . Addii ly,D ' pplc bl o sng f nda s tona l Angeo o ne t tt de e n s de a i l pi d ha he f nda t ' viton fo t a iabl sa r ofc r i pa tc a t rf iur t s nd Be r t t hos t li r m he pplc e t nda d a e, n riul r hei a l e o e r y o he pia n tm e ca ed Be r s de t Dr Pos h us r por a s s tsi d t r quie entt t a doc o i , us r y' a h. . t um ' e t l o a i te he e r m ha tr o n o t c u eo h ma ij r i t sc s .T ec u ti dsta t e et rp rsc ae c pie n he a s f u n n u y n hi a e h o r tn h t h s wo e o t o ls e t s ts y t c r iyi e r r qui e e . To t e e t pl i if no r le on t s or o a i f he e tf ng xpe t e r m nt he xt nt he a ntf w e i s he e ot r e rs t pr he c am f r wr ulde t t c twilen e ti s pa a e motons he xpe t o ove r l i o ongf ah, he our l t ran e r t i r a di t s t c enc oft e pe t o ni . eg r ng he ufi i y he x rs' pi ons Conc us on l i For t f e ng r s ,t c r wil de t def nda s moton f s he or goi ea ons he ou t l ny he e nt ' i or umm a y r j d me t st Co n 1 a dted fn a t' to t ds s Co n 11 u g n a o u t 1 n h ee d n s moin o imis u t 1. The Cl k i die t d t s nd ce tfe c es of t s m e a um o ni a t er s r c e o e rii d opi hi mor nd pi on nd he a co pa ng o de t al c c m nyi r r o l ouns lofr or e ec d. DATED: i f d y ofOct r 2017. Ths q# a obe , rc r * Unie St t D it i tJ e t d a es s rc udg