Thornhill v. Aylor et al, No. 3:2015cv00024 - Document 114 (W.D. Va. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 5/25/17. (hnw)
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I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I I COU RT STR CT FO R TH E W ESTERN D I STRI OF VI I I CT RG N A CH ARLO TTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI SH ER RY LYN N TH ORNH I LL, f he s l a a Adm i sr t oft or r e f nd s ni ta or he Es a e ofhe s Shawn Clr s ophe Be r tt r on, z i t r r y, de ea e c s d, Pli if antf, CL ERK' OFFI U. Dt COURT S CE S. ST. AT G NOG , VA FIED L MAt 2 5 2 1 27 JL m B . D EM CLERK DEP 'Y CLERK r Ci lA cton N o.3: CV vi i 15- 00024 M EM O R AN D UM O PI I N ON By:Hon. l n E.Con a Ge rd Chi fU nied St t D it i tJ e t a es s rc udge F.G LEN N A YLOR,etal, . De knda s t nt . Pli ifSher LynnTho l(t r l') onbe l ofherefa a a nitao of antf ry mhil ;Tho nhil', haf s l nd s dmi srtr t esat ofhe s Sha Chrsophe Ber fld t sacin purua t 42 U. C.j 1 3 he t e r on, wn it r ry, ie hi to s nt o S. 98 a Vigi a Code j 8. - ç1sq, a i tt Centa Vigni Re onalJ i Aut iy (he nd r ni 0150, e , gans he rl r i a gi al hort t tAut iy') Su rntnda F.Glnn Ayl ,a s veale oyee a t Ce r lVigi a t hort ', pei e nt e or nd e r mpl s t he nta r ni Regi lJ l(( ona ai 1CVRJ',aii o o Bery' de t whie i c t y.The cae i pr s nl ' rsng ut f r s ah l n usod ) s s e e ty bef e t c ton de enda s m oton t c r iy t t Supr m e Cour ofV igi a t que ton or he our f nt ' i o e tf o he e t r ni he s i o wh t rr go a j i a to iisa t ere ly e aee tte t s v r ini nt u d r f ehe e in l al uh rte nd h i mp o e s r nild o o eeg mmu iy n e V igi a l . t r as s a e t m oton w ilbe de e r ni aw For he e ons t t d, he i l ni d. Factualand ProceduralBac roqnd v - The c ' ha pr vi l s m a i ed t f c s of t i t nt m a t r as a l ge i oul s e ousy um rz he a t t he ns a te , le d n Thornhill v. Aylor et al pl i t f ' a e d com pl i ,i ispr vi m e or ndum opi on.Se Thor l v. or N o. a n if s m nde a nt n t e ous m a ni e nhil Ayl , Doc. 114 3:5- 0002 201 U. Dit LEXI 20153,a * 1 ( . Va.Fe 1 201 .On Augus 1 CV- 4, 6 S. s. S t 2- 0 W D. b. 9, 6) t 2015, Thor l fl an am ended cl acton com pl nt agai t el nhil ied ass i ai ns even def endant s. Defnda st nfld spart motonst dimispurua t Rul l b)6)oft Fe r Rul e nt he ie e ae i o s s s nt o e 2( ( he deal es Dockets.Justia.com ofCi lPr e e,whi h t c tg a e i par a de e i pa t Onl Count I,as e tng a vi oc dur c he our r nt d n t nd nid n r. y s 1 s ri cai frda l m o mage under42U. C.j1 a Coun 11 algi wr ulde t i vi ai of s S. 983, nd t 1, le ng ongf ah n olton Vigi a Code j8. - rman agans t Aut iy,Aylr a t e oft e o e On r ni 0150, e i i t he hort o , nd hre he mplye s. Apr l4,20l7 t r m a ni de e nt f l d a m oto t c r iy a ques i of s a e l w t t i , he e i ng f nda s ie i n o e tf ton t t a o he Supr m e Cour of V i g ni The c thel a hea i on t m o i a t m a t i rpe f e t r i a. our d rng he ton, nd he ter s i or r ew . evi D i si scus on : f r c ts ce tfc ton of a qu ton of s a e 1 t t ts a e' hi tcoul i i ede al our ' ri i a i A es i t t aw o ha t t s ghes ' s t a r pr a e w he t f de alti pp o i t n he e r rbunali r quied t a es a nove i s of l all w w hi h i s e r o ddr s l s ue oc a c s de e m i tve i t ca e be or i.'Gr t n v.Bd. O Sc Com m ' s of Ba t C iy, 805 F. t r na i n he s f e t' ata f h. r l. t 2d 11 11 4 ( h Ci.1 6) i-l de iin whehe t c riy i,a i mus beswihi t 60, 6 4t r 98 . 'fhe cso g t r o e tf s s t t t n he di c e i oft c tf ng c t' W e tAm .I .CO. Ba ofl l ofW i ht 673 F.Supp.760 s r ton he eriyi our . ' s ns v. nk s e g , , 763 ( D.Va 1 .W he a esi sae-a camsa t r i no cae 1w fom t sae E, . 987) n ddr sng tt lw li nd hee s s a r he tt whi h i di e ty on po nt d he di ti tc ' ate pt t do t s m e ast sat c tw o d do c s r cl i ,i t sr c oul t m s o t he a he t e our ul i eo r e wih t s me f tpatr 'Roev.Doe 28 F. 404,407 ( h Ci.1 (ii f nfontd t he a ac ten. ' , 3d 4t r 994) ctng W is n v.Fo dMotrCo. 6 F. 960,961( h Ci.1 1) ' yi t a ia esaelw i lo r o , 56 2d 4t r 98 ).t onl f he valbl tt a s ceal i ufii ts dt co tc riyt is t t saecour.'-z(ii Smihv. l ry ns fcen houl he ur e tf he sue o he tt t'JJ.ctng t FCXS l 1 . 744 F. 1 ,1 ( h Ci.1 ) Rul 5: oft Rul oft Su e Cou tof ne, 2d 378 379 4t r 984). e 40 he es he prme r V igi a pr dest t Supr e Courtof Vi gi a çm ay i is di cre i answ er ques i of r ni ovi hat he em r ni û n t s t on tons 1 w c r is t i by ...a U nie St t di ti tco t Suc a w e m a be f ni hed ...i a a e tted o t t d a es sr c ur . h ns r y ur s f ques i of Vi ni l i det m i i i any pr ton rgi a aw s er natve n oceedi pendi bef e t ceri ng cour ng ng or he tfyi t a i a a st ei no co r lngprce nton poi i t decsonsoft g e Coul nd t ppe r her s ntoli e de nt n he ii he suprme ' t ofVigi ajort Cou'ofAppe sofVigi a. r ni he l t al r ni ' ' 2 D e e nt s e t c riy t t Supr m e Co tofV igi a t que to ofwhe he t f nda s e k o e tf o he e ur r ni he s i n t r he Aut iy a is e pl es a e e il d t s r i n i m uniy unde t l w s of t hort nd t m oye r ntte o ove e g m t r he a he Com m o ea t o V i g ni Afe r e i t a ia e c s l w a t i s i ve i t nw lh f r i a. l r evi w ng he va l bl a e a nd he s ues nvol d n he i t nt c e,t c tconc ude t tt quesi s ns a as he our l s ha he ton oughtt be c r ii i not c s - s ii o e tfed s a e di pos tve a t tt a ia e a hort i s fc e t de de t ques i A cc di y,t c tw il nd ha he va l bl ut iy s uf i i nt o ci he ton. or ngl he our l deny t m oton t c l iy. he i o e- f t I t i t ntca e pl i ifa l gesbo h s a e a f de alcl i s A st t f de a cl i , n he ns a s , a ntf le t t t nd e r a m . o he e r l a m i i wel-eted t l a goveni bodismay be s diecl u rj l f moneay, t s lstl hat oc l r ng e ued r ty nde 983 or tr d ca ao y,o ijmcie rle wh n a u c n ttto a a tCmp e n so e e ue a p lc e lr tr r nt tv eif e n n o siuin l c d lme t r x c ts oiy i sa e tt ment or na e r a i orde ii ofii l a e a pr , di nc , egulton, c son fcaly dopt d nd omul t by t tbody' gaed ha s ofi r. M onelv.De tofSoc.Se vs ofN. ,436 U. 658,690 ( 978) The c thas fces' ' l p' r . Y. S. 1 . our a r a de e m i d t pl i ifha s a e a M onel cl i a i tt A ut iy,a whet rt l e dy t r ne hat a ntf s t t d l a m ga ns he hort nd he he Auhort a ise oye ha sae s r i i t iy nd t mpl es ve tt ove egn mmuniy wilnoti c t scai Seeta t l mpa t hi l m. t l (d C congrs di i e mu cpalte a ot r l a govemne unis t be i l d a e s d ntnd nii iis nd he oc l r nt t o ncude mong t epes nst whom j 1 a is' (mpha i i orgi l.Furhemor i i blc lte hos ro o 983 pple .) e ' ss n i na) t r e, t s a k-etr V i g ni 1 w t t s a e of i i l a e no e il t s r i n i m t t whe t y c m i a r i a a ha t t f c a s r t ntted o ove e g m miy n he om t n ie i nt ntonalt to ac s c tt i gr s neg i nce.See e. ,Coppag v.M a 906 F.Supp. or r t onsiutng os lge , g. e nn, 1 25,l ( D.Va.1 ) Tomlnv. c nze 468S. 2d882,884( 1 ) Byplusbl 0 047 E. 995 ; i M Ke i, E. Va. 996 . a iy aleg ng de i r t i f e e e a pa tof he M o l c a m ,Thor l ha a s r e m or t n l i lbe a e ndif r nc s r r ne l l i nhil s s e t d e ha meen gie c b t eAuh rt . ee o e a t ij n t r, te t eAuh rt i e tte t r e l n e y h to iy Th r f r, t h s u cu e wheh r h to iy s n ild o g s r i n i m uniy unde t l w s of t Com m o ea t of V i g ni i no c e di pos tve. ove e g m t r he a he nw lh r i a s t as - s ii Thi al s d couns agai tcertfcaton. s one houl el ns ii i 3 Howe r t c ta s bele t tt a lbl a hort on t is de o taes ve , he our lo ives ha he vaia e ut iy he s ue m nsr t t t ce tf c ton i unnec s a y a i ppr i t l i t ue t t t r i a s i be w e n t ha ri i a i s e s r nd na opr a e. t s r ha he e s plt t e he dititc t i t sCic ta t whehe r gi lj la hortesaee ildt saes ei src ours n hi rui s o t r e ona ai ut ii r ntte o tt over gn i uniy.Com pre Ha h v.So he se n Ti wae Oppo t t Pr ec ,l ,420 F.Supp. mm t ut ut a tr de tr runiv oi t nc. l ( D.Va 1 6 (o dn t t rg o lj i a t o i e ae no e tte t s v r in 71 E. . 97 ) h l ig ha e ina al u h rt s r t n i d o o eeg i l i niyl He kenli ev.Va.Re lPeni ul J lAu- ,2006 U. Dit LEXI 7 9 ( D. mmu t ; c abl g' ns a ai- t h. S. s. S 971 E. Va.Nov.l 200 (ame ;Born v.Norhwe tr Re lJ lAut ,201 U. Dit LEXI , 6) s l e t sen c' ai h. 3 S. s. S 1 69 ( . Va.Se .Se .30,201 )(a ) He 401 W D. pt pt 3 s me ; ywood v.Va.Pe ns a Reg' J lAut , ni ul l ai h. 201 U. Dit LEXI 11 7 ( D.Va.J y 21 201 (a ) rpor a rc 5 S. s. S 251 E. ul , 5) sme, e t nd e omme ton ndai a ptd,201 U. Dit LEXI l11 ( D.Va.Aug.21 201 ) wih Dowdy v.Pamunke do e 5 S. s. S 249 E. , 5, t y Reg' J i Aut ,201 U. Dit LEXI 671 ( D.Va.May 1 201 (i ng t tt l al h. 4 S. s. S 27 E. 5, 4) fndi ha he rg c lj i a to iy wa s ile by s v r in i nt ) Ad iimal,n ih rt e Fo rh e ima al uh rt s h ed d o eeg mmu iy . d t l ete h u t c y Cic t t Supr me Co tof Vigni,nor a Co tof Appe s of Vigi a ha ha t r ui, he e ur ri a ny ur al r ni ve d he oppor u t t a w e t s que ton.Neve t e s t e f de a di ti tcours a one V igi a t niy o ns r hi si rhel s , hz e e r l sr c t nd r ni Cic t Co r ha e d tr n d t a r go a j i a t o iis ae no e tte t s v r in rui u t v eemie h t e in l al uh rte r t n i d o o eeg l i mmuniy unde t lwsofVigi a Se Fi t r he a r ni. e namor v.Trnt No.CL1 000881 a * ( Ci. e e, 5, t 2 Va. r Ct Od. 20l (ummarzngt c ehit y) . 27, 6) s ii he as sor . To be e il d t s r in i mt t t Au hort mus et rbean la m oft St e' ntte o ove eg m miy, he t iy t ihe dr he at' or be c i r d a m uni i lc por ton pe f m i a gove muen a f ton.Bor n,201 U . ons de e c pa or a i r or ng r t l unc i e 3 S. D i t LEX I 1 69,a *10;s e a s V EPCO v.Ha p on Rede & H o i Aut ,225 S. 2d s. S 401 t e lo m t v. usng h. E. 364,364- ( 1 65 Va. 976)(nayzi whehe t Hampt Re veopme tHousngAut iywa a l ng t r he on de l n i hort s an ar of t s at and af or sover gn i m uniy,or a m t i pal cor aton ald af orded m he t e, f ded ei m t m ci por i l f s ri i ove egn mmuniy fr is goven nt f tons.ts a t ehol matr Iti cla t t t o t rme al unci ) l. hr s d te , i s e r ha ys 4 Vignar go a j isa en ta a' o a e c o tesae' Fia r, C11 - 0 8 1 a 3 r ii e i n l al r o n l r g n y f h tt.' n mo e No. ,5 0 0 8 , t m ' (iigBo e 2 3U. Dit LEXI 1 01 9 . rgo a j i a to iyr q rsl c la tv to ctn rn, 01 S. s. S 4 6 ) A e in l al uh rt e uie o a ciain t c i oe se e,a s ha i ton ' gae gheAut iy'jsausasasaea ncyor o ome nt xitnc nd uc ctvai t ts t ne hort s tt tt ge an t nu'of t Co m onw e t ' Ct of Yor v.Pe ns a A ipor Com m ' 369 S. 2d 665, a he m alh. y. ' k ni ul r t n, E. 666n. ( 1 ( tngPrndecas v.Pak Aut ,31 S. 2d 399,401( 1 4:.Thus t 1 Va. 988) cii e r t r h. 3 E. Va. 98 ,o be s el d by s ve e g i m uniy,t Aut iy m us be c i r d a m uni i l c por ton hi de o rin m t he hort t ons de e c pa or a i per onui a gover ent f i f ng nm al uncton. The Supr m e Coul ha e e a e s x f c or t t a e t e e e s nta ' t t e ' s num r t d i a t s ha r i m d s e i l' o he t de de e na i ofwhe he a e iy s d be c i r d a m uni i lco po a i n: t nni ton t r n ntt houl ons de e c pa r r to ( )Cr ton a abody c port a poltca asapoltc ls vii oft 1 eai s or ae nd ii nd iia ubdi son he Com m onw ealh' t, ( Crai t sl eapublcpur e; 2) e ton o e' v i pos ( Powe t ha a c 3) r o ve ommon s l t s a bes d,t e e i o c r t t ea, o ue nd ue o ntr nt ontacs o a qui e hol a dipos ofisr ve ,pe s land r a pr pe t c r , d nd s e t e nue r ona e l o ry; ( Posesi oft po rofe ne d i , 4) s son he we mi nt oman' ( Powe t bon- mo y a is bo whih aetx e mpt wih i ees 5) r o ow ne nd sue nds c r a xe , t ntr t o s c b n se j yn t es mesau u d rtxlwsa teitr s o b n s n u h o d no ig h a tt s n e a a s h ne et n o d ofot poltc s di s onsoft s a e; her ii al ub vi i he t t ( M a e nt of t c porton vetd i a boad of die t s 6) nag me he or ai se n r rcor c m i s on. om s i Rihmondv.Ril c cunond Meto.Aut ,1 S. 2d 83l 832 ( l .Hee,t r i no de t r h. 72 E. , Va. 970) r hee s bae t tt Aut iylc t oft sx ati es ( )ce ton a abody c port andpoltca ha he hort a ks wo he i trbut : 1 rai s or ae ii nd a apoltca s vii oft Commo lh, nd ( t po rofemi domai s ii l ubdi son he nweat a 2) he we nent n. The c t r ogni e t t t r s e s t be s e co us o a t w he he a l s x our ec z s ha he e e m o om nf i n s o t r l i atri es are necessar t be cons der a m uni pal cor aton.W hen t V igi a Supr e t but y o i ed ci por i he r ni em C o ' ha vi ie t i s i has de e m i d t t t e iy i que ton pos e s a l sx ul s s t d he s ue, t t t r ne ha he ntt n si s s ed l i atr but and w as, t ti es, heret e, a m uni pal cor aton. See H am pt Roads Saniaton D i . br ci por i qn t i st Comm ' v.Smih,68 S. 2d 497,500 ( . n t E. Va (itng t t ti e of a munii l lsi he û rbuts at cpa c porton' a fndi t e iy ha t m al;Rihmo M er Aut ,1 S. 2d a 647 or ai ' nd i ng he ntt d he l) c nd to. h. 72 E. t (a ) VEPCO, 225 S. 2d at 364 (t munii l housng a ho iy poseses al t e s me ; E. $ A cpa i ut rt s s 1 hos ati es'l Ct ofYor 369S. 2d a 667 ( tng t tt e iy pos e sd çalt e s nil trbut . ; y. ' k, E. t noi ha he ntt s se ûl he s e ta ati es of a munii l c porto ).Howe r bot t Supr Co tof Vigi a and trbut cpa or ain' ve , h he eme ur r ni f de aldititcours have i c t d t tal sx ati es ma no be r quie Se Ha on e r src t ndia e ha l i trbut y t e r d. e mpt Roa ,68 S. 2d a 5 (;lti tue t tt mor ati e ofa munii c porton a ds E. t 01 d(1 s r ha he e trbuts cpal or ai n age yha t mor lkey i i t b te td asamunii lc portonx';He nc s he e i l t s o e r ae cpa or ai ' ywood,201 U. ) 5 S. Dit LEXI 11 7,a *11 1 (klti nota c ton pr e ntt tal sx be pr e t s. S 251 t - 2 4g1 s ondii ec de ha l i esnt o c ude t ta eniy i a muni pa c porton. W heheri i nec s ay t tt e iy oncl ha n tt s ci l or ai ' ). t t s e s r ha he ntt pos e s a lsx a t i e i oflt l i po ti t i t ntc e, s s l i trbut s s ite m r n he nsa as howe r ast A u hort l c t ve , he t iy a ks he t a ti est os i rnsc t m t cpa c r a i .'l a *12.C) con r s,m os oft wo trbut t t nti i o mii l o por tons' d. t m t y ta t l t he atiue wh c g eAuh rtqd e e j yaef u i p iaec mo ain a wel'd. trb ts ih t h to i o s no r o nd n rv t o rto s s 1. 1 y ' The Supr m e Co t of V igi a ha s i t t e i n dom a n ti a hi y pr r tve e ur r ni s a d ha m ne t i cs ghl e oga i rght a t r i no do t abo t powe of t sa e t e r ie i, o t dee t i t i , nd he e s ub ut he r he tt o xe cs t r o lga e t o s di t a ncest bee r s d.... Lihtv. nvil,1 S. 276,28 ( 1 .tl e ubor nae ge i o xecie ' c Da le 90 E. ' 7 Va. 937) t-h s a ut s confr i t po e ar t be sr c l c tued. I l Ham pt Roa ,t Su e e tt e im ng he w r e o ti ty onsr ' d. n ' on ds he pr m Cou tofVigi ar i ona ho iyfom difrntj idito i atc ai t ati e ofa r r ni eled ut rt r fee urs cins n riultng he trbuts muncp lc r o ain.6 S. 2 a 5 .M a y o t e ejlidcin n td t e i ra c o ii a o p rto 8 E.d t 01 n f h s k s ito s o e h mpo tn e f r e ne do i Se W elsv.Housng Aut ofW imi t 1 S. 693,697 ( C.1 ) mi nt man. e l i h. l ngon, 97 E. N. 938 (k housng a ho iy ...i f apublc g $ A i ut rt s or i ovemme a pur e,and i gi n powesg e ty i ntl pos s ve r r al n e s of t e w hi h m i be gi n a pr va e e er i e i l ng m a po er no xce s hos c ght ve ny i t nt pr s , nc udi ny w s t di si iar t t e exer s by cii and t s m l o hos ci ed tes owns i r d t zoni sr t and s dew al and n egar o ng, tee s i ks, e ne doman ....) N-ue c nde v.W as l on S ba Sa tr Co n,48A. mi nt i ' ; ç ns hwa r ' hîmt ubur n niay mm' 2d 5 3 5 7 ( d.1 4 )(kTh S n tr Co sin c np rh s ln a de ecs tep we of 9 , 9 M 9 5 ( e a iay mmiso q a u c a e a d n x rie h o r ( e ne t doman.) l s ms t tt powe of e ne domai i a hal r f t e of a mi n i ' . t ee ha he ' r mi nt n s lmak eaur m uni pa co po a i n. ci l r r to Furhe t nuor ,S he Ge r lAs e bl c e ry know s how t denom i t a a hort as a e t t ne a s m y l a l o na e n ut iy û ii a s vi i w he i w ihe t do s ' Shor Pum p To n Ct. Cm t D e Aut v. poltc l ubdi s on' n t s s o o. ' t w r v. v. h. Ha 554 S. 2d 441 4 ( . 2001. l d, doc nt fom t Vigi a lgilt e hn, E. , 46 Va ) ndee ume s r he r ni e saur de o t a e t t t G e r l As e bl of Vi gi a has add e s d t i s of t s r i m nsr t ha he ne a sm y r ni r s e he s ue he ove e gn i nt o rgo a j i a to iisa dh sd ci e t g a ts c p oe t n.n 2 4 a da an mmu iy f e in l al uh rt n a e ln d o rn u h r tci l 01 n g i e o i 201 a bilw as i r n 5, l ntoduc i t Vigi a Ge r lA s em bl wih t pur e of gr ntng ed n he r ni ne a s y t he pos a i s veeg i nt t r go a j i a t rte .Se H. 5 ,Ge Ase . Re .Se s ( . o rin mmu iy o e in l al uho i s e B.1 0 n. s mb, g s . Va i 20l *H. 1 1 Ge Ase ,Re Se s Va 20l .l boh ye r,t bil wee not 4) B. 5 3, n. s mb. g. s .( . 5) n t a s he ls r , e ce na t d. Th ito u to o a bi ta wo l s il rgo a j i a t o iis wi s v r in e nr d cin f l h t u d hed e in l al u h rte t o eeg l h i mmunt i a ce r idc to ta te Vigni Ge ea Ase l i a r t a r go a j i i s la n iain h t h r i a n rl s mby s wae h t e in l al y aut ii do not pos e s s fc e atr b e Of a m uni i l c por tc t be ves e wih hortes s s uf i i nt ti ut s c pa or a im o td t s r i i m uniy unde Vi gi a l w , o a e ot r s not a a m of t s a e Tha t ove e gn m t r r ni a r r he wi e n r he t t . t he l gi l t e has de de not t e e s h pr t c i o t a e t s a ut gr ntng t e s a ur ci d o xt nd uc o e ton, r o m nd he t t e a i he e s nilat b tso amu ii a c r o ain t rgo a j i a t rte ,f rh rd mo tae se ta tl u e f i ncp l o p rto o e in l al uho i s ' te e nsr ts i u t tt ee iisdono ha s hi ha hes ntte t ve uc mmuniy.Sho tPu 55 S. 2da 447 (:Int a e t r mp, 4 E. t tr) he bsnee of a s a ut r de i na i of co m uniy de opm e a hortes as ç ii al s vi i ns ' ny t t o y s g ton m t vel nt ut ii poltc ubdi s o , ghe SuprmeCour ofVigi a c udegjt tt gntt i nots h.) Theei smpl no t e t r ni) oncl s ha he e iyj s uc ' . r s i y ' need t i ve t Supre e Court of V igi a w hen t l sl ure has dem onsr ed is o nvol he m r ni he egi at tat t know l edge oft i sue and pass on i .See V ili a Tr i Co.v.Ti 73 S. 2d 405,409 he s ed t r ni anst dd, E. ( .l 2)(kti nott f ton oft cour t lgilt o t us t ofieofc tuci t Va 95 tl s he unci he t o e sae r o e he fc onsr ton o a ndpl nsaues' . me ai ttt .' ) Fi ly, de e nt a g t t bec us V igi a s r f s a e e il d t s a e s r i na l f nda s r ue ha a e r ni he i f r ntte o t t ove e gn i m uniy w he pe f m i di c e i r ac s a be a e t s r f s st on a boa d t t m t n r or ng s r tona y t , nd c us he he if i r ha o es e te rg o l ala t rtent e s eifsi nt to tr u h t t e rg o a j i v re s h e ina j i uhoiis h h rf mmu i l ws h o g o h e in l al y a ho iy s r nt nde t a e pl ye .The c tco t u t s as e ton t be a a gum en ut r t upe i e n s nd m o es our nsr es hi s ri o n r t t tt Aut iy i a a ntof t s rf.To t e e t tt s a s ri may be a novel ha he hort s n ge he he if he xt nt ha hi s e ton a gum e , t c t do no be i ve t t t m e e exi t nce of a ne l ga t r w a r nt he our es t le ha he r se w e l heo y nunt s c ri c to kcjriiai i ne rc e tt ain.t e tfc ton s ve ompeld,a t sco 'rmansunde a d y t decde i g le nd hi ul e i t r ut o i q tons of sae lw,eve i difc tand unc ran .... Lega d v.EOT Pr Co. 771 F. uesi tt a n f fiul e ti ' ' r od. , Supp.2d 607,609 ( . Va.2011 (one ,J) M orove,e tfc ton i unne say whe W D. ) J s .. e r eriiai s ce sr n e s i c s l w pe m ist c r t r a h a k e one a prnc pl d c l i n. Se Lynn v. xi tng a e a r t he ou t o e c ' as d nd i i e onc us o ' e r ' M onac Re ovey M gmt.l ,953 F.Supp.2d 61 6 ( M d.201 )(ii Si on v. rh c r . nc. 2, 22 D. 3 ctng mps DukeEnegyCpr , 98- 06,1 U. App.LEXI 21 ( hCi.Sep . 1 ) r. p,No. 19 999 S. S 553 4t r t 8, 999). H e e,t e i am pl c s l w addr s i w he an e pl r her s e ae a e sng n m oyee ofa sat a nc i e il d t e ge y s ntte t s rin i o oveeg mmuniy.Se e. ,J mesv.Jne 28 S. 2d 864 ( 1 (riultng f t e, c. a a , 2 E. Va. 980) a tc ai our f c or t be c i r d i de e m i ng whe he t a nt or of i e of t Com m onwea t i at s o ons de e n t r ni t r he ge fc r he 1h s e edi adicetonar a ts ed bys rin i ngag n sr i y c hiled oveeg mmuniy) Si lry,t Su e Cour of t . mial he prme t V igi a has a s add e s t pr di t que ton'whe he a e tt or i vi uali a a ntof r ni l o r s ed he e ca e s i . t r n n iy ndi d s n ge t Co m onw e lh, e il d t s ve ei i m uniy f di cr tona y a t , o a i pe nt he m a t ntte o o r gn m t or s e i r c s r n nde nde conrcora notg a ed s h i ta t nd r nt uc mmuniy.Se At ns v.Sa l 541S. 2d 902,905 ( t e ki on cmo, E. Va. 2001.W hatvert meisofdee nt'a sri t r i s fce auhort f t c tt ) e he rt fnda s s eton, hee s ufiint t iy or he our o m ake a tr oned and prnci ed concl on' ast t m ater.Lvnn,953 F.Supp.2d a 622. keas i pl usi ' o he t t Furhe t nnor t s a g e pr e s a f t ,notl gal i uiy.So r i i m uniy f e, hi r um nt es nt ac ual e , nq r ve e gn m t or go r en a e pl es i a afim a i de e e r quii t t t de e nt pr ce t n ve nm t l m oye s n f r tve f ns e rng ha he f nda ove rai is soffc.Sç W hily v.Co sue a t e te mmonwe lh,538 S. 2d 296,302 ( .2000)(dsj r g at E. Va ig oveein i m uniy i a de ensve pl a pr s ntng di tnc i s o f c w hi i pr d,c ea e a ba t a m t s f i e ee i s i t s ues f a t ch, f ove r t ro pli ifs rghto rc r '.W hehe one i a e oye ormor aki t a i pe nt antf i f e ove y.) ' tr s n mpl e e n o n nde nde co rcori as a i ens yf t lquesin.Se At ns 541S. 2d a 905( i t tt nta t s lo n nt el acua to e ki on, E. t notng ha he sat asa e oyeeori tume aiy oft sae i us ly aque ton off t.Rul 52 of t us n mpl nsr ntlt he tt s ual si ac) e 40 t Rul of t Su em e Cour of V igi a pr d t t t Cou tm a a w e tqu tons of he es he pr t r ni ovi es ha he r y ns r t es i l w . A c or ngl c r i i a i i not a opra e i t s m a t r a t cou t w il de a ' c di y, e tf c ton s ' ppr i t n hi te nd he r l ny de e f ndant 'm oton. s i Concl i us on Fort f e ng r a ons t c t ilde t m oton t c r iy.The Cl r i diec e he or goi e s , he our w l ny he i o e tf ek s r td t s nd ce tfe co e oft sm e or ndum opi o a t a om pa ng or rt al c uns o e rii d pi s hi m a ni n nd he cc nyi de o l o el ofr c d. e or D A TED : s X Thi d yo- y, 2017. a tMa Chi fU nie St t s D it i tJ e e t d a e s rc udg 9