Whalen v. Rutherford et al, No. 3:2012cv00032 - Document 49 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 12/13/12. (jcj)
Download PDF
CL S OFFI U. :l O URT ERK' CE :, s; AT RQANQKQ, VA ' Fr/'/ , ' c Dg. 3 ' I ' L . . I TH E UN I N TED STA TES D I STRI CO URT CT FO R THE W ESTERN DI STRI O F V I N I CT RGI A CHA RLO TTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI J ACQUELI M W H ALEN , NE 2 13 2 2 0 JULA C DR I k. . Ci lA c i n N o. 1 vi to 3: 2CV 00032 Pl i t f , a n if M EM O R AND U M O PINIO N By: Hon.Gl n E. e Conr d a Chi fUnie St t Diti tJ e t d aes src udge J ESLARRY RUTHERFORD,t K , AM l D ef endant s. J c i M . hal n fl d t sdi st a ton a i tJ m esLa r Ru he f d a quelne W e ie hi ver iy c i ga ns a r y t r or (t ut ror ',ShelyDa elRuhef d(t nil', See Fi nc L. (ç lne', t hef d' R ) le ni t ror t e' 1 lne na e, P.ksee ' and Da ) ) oh r n no d fn a t.Th c s i p e e tyb f r t c u t ntef lo n moin : 1 te u k wn e e d n s e a e s r s nl eo e he o r o h olwig to s ( ) Rut ro d' moi t dimisCountloft a nde c ant ( Dani ' moi t he fr s ton o s s he me d ompli ; 2) els ton o ds s Co n I o t ea n e c mplito ,nteatr aie moinf rs mmayj d me t imis u t V f h me d d o an r i h l n tv , to o u r u g n ; e a d( )S lnesmoi nt d s s t ea n e c mpan .Fo t era o s t o t b lw,h n 3 ee ' to o imis h me d d o lit r h e s ns e f rh eo t e m otons tl d by Rut r or a Dani lw ilbe de e a Sel ne' m oton w ilbe g a e i ie he f d nd e l ni d, nd e s i l r nt d. Sum m arv oft Facts he Thef l ng f c s t ke fom t pli ifsa e d c olowi a t, a n r he antf m nde ompli ,a e a c pt d astu ant r c e e re f rpur esoft de e a s m o i t di m i s Se Erc on v.Par us 551 U . 89,9 o pos he f nd nt ' tons o s s . e i ks d , S. 4 ( ) 2007 . W hae r i onahorefr i NelonCount Vigi a(lhePr ry' She ln esdes s am n s y, r ni t t ope t ). pu c s d t Pr t i 1 r ha e he opery n 978. 1Da eli i ore l na ni s nc r cty med i t compl ntasisheley Be t Da e .' Alhought docketwilbe n he ai t l ckwih nil ' t he l amended t r l the core name t cour wilcontnuet r ert he asS nil'i t sopi on. o efec r rct , he t l i o ef o r û e' n hi ni Da W haln m e Rut f d i t 1 e t heror n he 980s a t y be a er ntc l i vol d.The , nd he c m oma ialy n ve c e a s be n doi busne st t r On J nua y 1 1 oupl lo ga ng i s oge he . a r , 985,W ha e a Rut ror f m e l n nd he f d or d W &R Pa t rhi whi h wa ba e a t Pr ry.l a ton t co uctng t busne sof rne s p, c s s d t he ope t n ddii o nd i he i s m a ng a hor e f r a br ed ng o a i n, he s pe oft pa t r hi c m e t i ude r l nagi s a m nd e i per to t co he r ne s p a o ncl ea e t t m a t r ,asw e la c s a e te s l s ouns i a c uli s r i e . W ha en a l ge t tt pa t r hi elng nd ons tng e v c s l le s ha he r ne s p a e m e w asve baly am e d t pr de f m on hl pa en st W ha e whi h w e e gr e nt r l nde o ovi or t y ym t o l n, c r i e d t co pe ae he f ma i t pa t s p' dal a f isa f pr di nt nde o m ns t r or nagng he rnerhi s iy far nd or ovi ng couns i s r i e t Rut r o d. elng e v c s o he f r Ther ale tt c e sa e ompo ntofW &R Pa t r hi i ude t c t c i ofahomei ne rne s p ncl d he onsnlton n Boc Ra on,Fl i i 1985, hi h w a s e nty oc upi by W ha e a Rut r or Tha a t orda n w c s ubs que l c ed l n nd he f d. t hom ewa s d i 1 ,a isf r t ewass ppe t Vigi a wih t unde sa ng t ti s ol n 991 nd t u niur hi d o r ni t he r t ndi ha t woul beplce i ahous t bebuitby W &R Pa t s p,i whi h bo h W haln a d a dn eo l rnerhi n c t e nd Rut r or woul r s de. he f d d ei l 2002, her or a s d W ha e t the wi he t pr e w ih t l pl nne n Rut f d dvi e l n ha s d o oce d t he ong- a d consnzto ofalr ehome(çheHo ' ont Pr ryf t t t s r.Ruhef r t cin ag i t me' he ope t or he wo o hae t rod ) r pe t dl r pr s n e t the i e e a e y e e e t d ha ntndedt m a t Homehi prm a y r i enc upon is o ke he s i r esd e t c mpein.l Aug t f20 3 a Ruh ro d' r q e t W h lnc n y daj it e a c i t e o lto n us o 0 , t t ef r s e u s, ae o ve e on tn n y n h Pr pe t t Rut r or o ry o he f d. Prort t c tuc i oft H o e W hal n i it t tt e s i hous w a i o he onsr ton he m , e ns s ed ha he xi tng e s s f i i ,a t ts di notbe i ve t tt c tuc i oft H o e w a ne es a y. W hal n u fc ent nd ha he d le ha he onsr ton he m s c sr e alegest she coul notaf or t pay f t H om e hers f and t s w oul nothave agr l hat d f do or he el , hat he d eed f c t c i t beg n wihoutRut f d' r pe t d a s a e t the woul pa f t or ons nl ton o i t heror s e a e s ur nc s ha d y or he Home, a t Hom ehi prm a y r sde e,a pari paem or f l i t da t da m ke he s i r e i nc nd tci t e uly n he y-o- y bus nes ofW & R Pa t s p. i s rner hi Asars t frp ae o j cin b W h ln tesz o teHo wa rd c dfo eulo e e td b e to s y ae ,h ie f h me s e u e r m ove 1 000 s r f tt a oxi a e y 4, s ua e f e . Be w e n 2007 a 2009,t H om e r 3, qua e ee o ppr m t l 800 q r e t t e nd he waspl nne and c tuc e i a o d nc wih Ruhe f r splnsa desr . a d onsr t d n cc r a e t t r o d' a nd ies Unbe nowns t W haen, he f r m a re de e ntDa eli M a c of2007 wih k to l Rut ro d rid f nda ni n r h t t i t ntt r m a n i Fl r da. N o t l s t oughou t tyea ,Rut r o d c tnued t he n e o e i n o i ne he es , hr t ha r he f r on i o r pr e t W hal n t the i t nde t m a t H om e hi prm a y r s de e upon is e es nt o e ha n e d o ke he s i r e i nc t c omplton,a be m emor i ve i W &R Parne s p. Rut ror a s m a f le e i nd co e nvol d n t rhi he f d lo de as r pr s nt tonson l n doc e st the w a notm a red, ha he i e e e e ai oa um nt ha s r i t t nt nded t oc upy t Hom e o c he , a t ti w oul be hi prm a y r i e e w ihi 6 da ofc osng. nd ha t d s i r es d nc t n 0 ys l i On Nove r1 2007, he f r bonowe $1467,25. a e c e anot a mbe 9, Rut ro d d , 7 00, nd xe ut d e nd de d oft s on t Pr pe t t s c et l n.Alho h W haln wa no abonowe on t e nlt he o ry o e ur he oa t ug e s t r he no e s e c e t dee oftus wihou knowl dgeofRu he f d' m a ra t Da el t , he xe ut d he d r t t t e t ror s ri ge o ni . W ha e a lgest ts woul no ha e c edt de d oftus i s hadkno a l n le ha he d t ve xe ut he e r t f he wn bout Ru he f d' m a r a ort f c t the di noti e t us t Hom e a hi prm a y r s de e. t r or s r i ge he a t ha d nt nd o e he s s i r e i nc Tha s m e m o h, ihoutdi c osng hi m a ag Ru he f d pr vi d W ha e w ih a ta nt w t sl i s ni e, t r or o de ln t c ofa agee ntr adi t Pr pery(k Fis Agre n ) whih dei ae opy n r me eg r ng he o t ihe rt e me f', c lne td t r ponsbiii f morga pa e t ,i ur nc ,t s m ant na e, nd o he ma tr . es i ltes or t ge ym n s ns a e axe , i e nc a t r te s W h lnsg dteFrt re n o No mb r2 , 0 7 s b e t ot ed lt n o o e ae ine h is Ag e me t n ve e 7 2 0 , u j c t h eei f n o paragr aph,w hi alegedl f l t refecta ver agr entt r r Rut f d t pay ch l y aied o l bal eem hat equied her or o f m ai enance and i ur or nt ns ance. 3 On De mbe 3, ce r 2007,Rut f r t ough c hero d,hr ouns l pr e e W haln wih a s co e , es nt d e t e nd a e nt(çheSec Agee nf',a e greme ' t ond r me ) nd mphasz dt tW hae ha t sgni i ditl ie ha ln d o i t mme aey ç t whol de woul fl t ough. ( Compl!48. W hae algest tRut ror % he or e al d al hr ' Am. ' . ) ln le ha hef d kne t tt t r soft Se w ha he e m he condAgr e e we es t n i ly c nge fom t Fis e m nt r ubsa tal ha d r he r t Agr me ,a t tt we emuc l sf vor bl t W ha e t n t ve bala e m e upon ee nt nd ha hey r h es a a e o l n ha he r gr e nt whi h t Fis Agr eme wasbas d.2 w haln f t ra lgest tRut r o d co e l d t c he r t e nt e e urhe le ha he f r nc a e he m a e i dif r esfom he ,a t thedi notal he t r ad t Se ondAgr e e beor t ral fe enc ' r r nd ha d low r o e he c e m nt f e s gni i. i ng t Fr D ec m bero 2007 t t s i of2009,Rut r or ha t H o e co tuc e on om e f o he prng he f d d he m nsr t d t Pr pe t l Se e be of2009,W ha e fna l la nedt tRut f d ha ma re Da e he o ry. n ptm r l n i ly e r ha heror d ri d nil i M a c of2007,a t thewoul no beusng t Homeashi prma y r sde o mor n rh nd ha d t i he s i r e i nce r e a tve y pa tci tng i W & R Pa t r hi c i l r i pa i n r ne s p. W ha e a lge t tRu he f d ma pay e sont not pur ua t t t nusoft l n le s ha t ror de m nt he e s nt o he e he Fis Agr me untlM a c of201 Att tpoi , he f d soppe m a ng pa e t , r t ee nt i r h 0. ha nt Rut ror t d ki ym n s puti t H o e a Pr ry i f e l ur Rut r or a s s oppe m a ng pa e s t tng he m nd ope t n or c os e. he f d l o t d ki ym nt o W ha e t c pe aehe f s r i e r nde edi f t r nc oft pa t s p. l n o om ns t r or e v c s e r n urhe a e he rnerhi W ha e cai st tDa e ha a r ei t pa nt be ng c as d.W hae al st t l n l m ha nil d ol n he yme s i e e ln lege ha Da e di no a oveofRut ro dusng mart a s t t m a pa e son t not f t ni l d t ppr he f r i ial s e s o ke ym nt he e or he H om e ort W hal n i ac or nce w ih t e s i c r t ,a t tDa e i e tona l o e n c da t he xitng ontac s nd ha ni l nt n i ly i e f r wih t e c r c sf he own pe s nt r e ed t hos ont a t or r r onal bene i. ft 2Fori t nsance,W haln as erst tt Se e s t ha he condAgr eme t hfgd r s n iiiyfrpa ngt mo t ge e nt ç it l epo sblt o yi he rga , s e t ,and i ur nceont Pr ryfom Rut f dt W hal pr de f a r nt pr ist go s el t axes ns a he ope t r heror o en, ovi d or ny e al oft o ol y o Rut ror and ot r s s ftd labiii a benett undert agr ementt Rut f d' benefta he f d, he wie hi e i ltes nd is he e o heror s i nd W h ln' d ti n. ( Co , 51) ae s erme t' Am. mpl! . ' W haen al ge t ts hasbe d m ag d asar ul ofRu he f d a Da els l le s ha he en a e es t t ror nd ni ' cond t W ha e f rhera l ges upon i or a i a be i , ha Se e dha t ke se t uc . l n ' t le , u nf m ton nd lef t t l ne ' s a n t ps o f ecos ont Pr rya s l smebe a eoft u a ula t ofRut ro da'( or l e he ope t nd el a c us he nlwf cs hefr ' Am. Com pl !58 . . )3 ProceduralH it s ory W hal n f l d t i t ntac i n a i tRut r or D a e ,a Sel ne o J 29,201 e ie he ns a to ga ns he f d, ni l nd e n une 2. I he ame d c n r nde ompl nt s as e t t f l wi c am sunde Vigi al w:fa by ai , he s rs he olo ng l i r r ni a r ud Ruhef r a t teS c n Ag e me t Co n I; r a ho q s-o ta t yRuh ro dt u t t ro d s o h e o d re n ( u t ) b e c f ua ic nr c b te fr co n 1) br c ofconrc byRut ror ( mt11;a t tousitree ewih c ta tby 1; ea h ta t hef d Cot 1) nd ori nefrnc t onrc Dani ( t1 .W hae s ksco ns t yda sfom Rut ror a W halnttlng el Coun V) ln ee mpe aor mage r hef d nd e oai mo et a $ 5 ,0 .0 W h lnas s e so d r e j iigSee efo f rco i o t e r h n 3 00 00 . ae lo e k r e s n onn ln rm o e l sng n h Pr pe t a s ti asdet de oftus a o he l n doc e se u e by W haln, o ry, nd e tng i he ed r t nd t r oa um nt xec t d e Thi c e i no t fr tci la tont tW hae hasfl d i c me ton wiht s as s t he is vi c i ha ln ie n ol c i t he unde l ng f c s I 2011 W haln fl d s ta i tRut ror Se e ,a ot r i t Cic t ryi a t . n , e ie ui gans he f d, l ne nd he s n he r ui Cour ofN e s Count as e tng cl i sofa ua fa co t u tve faud,s a ut r t l on y, s ri am ct l r ud, nsr c i ' r tt o y c pia c m o l w c pia y, nt nto i lc i w ih busnes e ons r cy, om n a ons r c i e i nal nf i ton t i s xpec a t ncy, ea h of br c c r t br c ofquas- on r c , b e c offducir du y.On M a 4,201 t Cic t ontac, ea h ic ta t and r a h i a y t y 2, he r ui Cour e e e a or s t ni i pa ta o rulng i pa tRut ror sde r r a t nt r d n der usai ng n r nd ve r i n r he f d' mure , nd s t i ng de ur e s fl by ot rde e nt .I t s m e or r t Ci c tCo tgr nt i us a ni m r r ied he f nda s n he a de , he r ui ur a ed n pa ta de e i pa tW hal n' m o i f l a t fl a a e d c pl i . On J 1 r nd ni d n r e s ton or e ve o ie n m nde om a nt une 8, 201 W hal m oved f ent ofçan or ofnons tast al ofPl ntf scl m s ... agai t 2, en or ry k der ui o l ai i f ai ns 3Selne e ai i t brefi s e xpl ns n he i n uppor ofismoton t dimist i i t s er cera a horze age t t i o s s hat t s he ubs vi nd ut i d nt ofDLJM o t geCa tll .û ' .Th d e o tus sg e b Ru h ror a Whae , n ten e rga pia,nc (û ' e e d f r t in d y t ef d nd ln a d h ot DLJ) s c rdb tede do tu tweea sgn dt DLJbyBrnc Ba ig& Trs Co a yCç e u e y h e f r s, r si e o a h nkn u t mp n BB&T',h b n ' te a k ) t tf nihed t l n t Rut f d. ha ur s he oa o heror 5 e h a e r de e n be us t Pli tf de iest brng aca ei Fe r lCour t t ac nd ve y f nda t ca e he a n if sr o i s n de a tha c omprs scamspe ngi t sa ton.'( ke No.37- )Themotonwasgrntdbyt ie li ndi n hi ci ' Doc t 7. i a e he Cicui Co ton J y 3, 2. r t ur ul 201 Thi c s i pr s ntybe or t c ur on motonst dimi stl d byRut ror a s a e s e e l f e he o t i o s s ie he f d nd S lne a dDa ilsmoin t ds s a ,nteatr aie mo infrs mmayj dg n , ee , n ne ' to o imis nd i h l n tv , to o u r u me t e The c thel a he i on t def n s m o i on N ove be 1 2012. our d arng he enda t ' tons m r 6, St andards ofR e ew vi Thedefnda s moi t dimisaefl purua t Rul 1 b)6)oft Fe r e nt' tons o s s r ied s nt o e 2( ( he deal Rue of vl o e u e t 'ep r o eo aRue1 ()6 moi ni t ts t es fce c o a ls Ci iPr c d r . ç h u p s f l 2b ( ) to s o e t h ufiin y f l c mp an . Ed r sv. t o God b r 1 F.d2 , 4 (t Ci. 9 9 .W h nrviwig o lit' wad Ci f ls o o, 78 3 31 2 3 4h r 1 9 ) e e e n ' v a cl i unde t sr e, he co tm us a ce a 1oft a l a i i t c pl ntastue a am r hi ul t ur t c pt l he leg tons n he om ai r nd dr w a lr a ona e i e enc s i f voroft pl i i f l a 24 çlo s vi a m o i n t a l e s bl nf r e n a he a ntf . d. t 4. i - ur ve ' to o dimi s acompl n mus c an s fce f cua m a tr ac e e a tue, o it t acai f s s, ait t ont i ufi int a t l te , c pt d s r t sae l m or rle ta i pa i eo isfc .'As r t . q a, 5 U.. 6 , 7 ( 0 9 (u tn Bel eif h t s lusbl n t a e' hcof v l b l5 6 S 6 2 6 8 2 0 ) q o ig l ' At. Two l , 5 U. 5 4 5 0(0 7 ) dnoh rwo d ,h fcua alg to s(a na lv. mb y 5 0 S. 4 , 7 2 0 ). û te r s te a t l l ain tke s l e tue mus i nni t cour t i e mor t nt meepos i lt ofmico uc .' A Soc' r ) t pe t he to nfr e ha he r sbiiy s nd t'' v W ihouta N a e f Pe e w iho a H o e M il nni Fut e- es ntv.V ici a,655 F. t m , or opl t ut m . le um ur pr e r ni 3d 342,346(t Ci. 1 ( i I l 556U. a 678) 4h r 201 ) quotng qba, S. t . Rul 56 oft Fede a Rul s ofCi lPr e e pe t a pa t t m ove f s m a y e he rl e vi oc dur nuis ry o or um r j d me t çf ec u t h l g a ts mmayj g n i temo n s o ta te ei n u g n . d' o r s al r n u r ud me t f h va t h ws h t h r s o -h g nui diput a t a mae ilf ta t mova i e ildt j e ne s e s o ny tra ac nd he nt s ntte o udgme asamatrof nt te lw.'Fe R.Ci P.56() s ealoCeotx Co . Cart,477U. 31 322( 986)(i ng a ' d. v. a ; e s l e p v. tet S. 7, 1 fndi s ummayj r udgme a opraek fe ade t tmefrds veya uponmoton,a i ta nt ppr it s tr quae i o ico r nd a i gans 6 pary whof ist m a a s t al o ke howi s fce t e tbls t e se eofa elme e s ntalt ng ufi int o sa ih he xit nc n e nt s e i o t tpa t sca e). ha ry' s ' D i si scus on 1. R utherf sM ot on t Di i s ord' i o sm s Rut f r ha m ove t di m i s CountIoft a e her o d s do s s he m nded c pl nt i whi h W hal n om ai , n c e ale t tRut ro d fa e l i edhe t sg t Sec Ag ee t To s lges ha he f r r udulnty nduc r o i n he ond r men . uppo tt s r hi cl i ,W hal n a l gest t prort diec i c ns t ob ai W ha en' s gna ur on t Se nd am e le ha , i o r tng ou el o t n l s i t e he co Ag e m e , he f d f ley r pr s t d t W hae t tt Se ond Agr e e wa r e nt Rut ror a s l e e en e o ln ha he c e m nt s s t nta l sm ia t t Fis Agr e e ,e ptf t f tt ti i or a e t c nge ubsa ily i l r o he rt e m nt xce or he ac ha t nc por t d he ha t tW haln ha m a t t Fis Ag e nt W hae alo aleg t tRut f r f s l ha e d de o he rt r eme . ln s l es ha hero d aley r pr e e t W ha e t the wass ils ngl ,t the i e d t m a t H om e hi pr m a y e es nt d o l n ha tl i e ha nt nde o ke he s i r r s de ,a t he i e e i nce nd hat nt nded t m or a tve y pa t pa e i W & R Pa t s p. W ha en a l ge o e c i l ri t n ci rner hi l le s t tRut ror m a t f ler pr e ai nswih t i e t mil d W haln,a t ts ha he f d de he a s e es nt to t he ntnt o sea e nd ha he r le upon t f ler pr s nt tonswhe s sg t Se ond Ag e ment W hae aleg e id he as e e e ai n he i ned he c re . ln l es t t fom De e be 3,2007 t ough J 2011, t rRut ror norhi as oca e pr de ha , r cm r hr une neihe he f d s s it s ovi d he w ih a c oft Sec Agr m e ora opporuniy t r ad t a ee e . W ha en r t opy he ond ee nt n t t o e he gr m nt l c endst ts tused t tt Se ond A g e m en wasw ha Rut f r pur r e i t be ont ha he r t ha he c re t t her o d po t d t o , ba e on t rl t ndi r l tons p. W ha e a l ge t ts di notdi c ve t f aud untl sd hei ongsa ng e a i hi l n le s ha he d s o r he r i a t rflng s ti sa e c t whe s obt ne a co oft Se nd A gr m e t oug f e ii ui n t t our , n he ai d py he co ee nt hr h di c r W hal n f t r a l ge t ts w a da ag asa r ul ofRut r or s f l e s ove y. e urhe le s ha he s m ed es t he f d' a s r epresent t onsi r aton t t Second A gr ent a i n el i o he eem . l mo ngt dimisCoun 1 Ruhef dma t eeprmar agu nt:( )t tt n vi o s s t , t ror kes hr i y r me s 1 ha he cli i bardbyt docrneofrsj caa;( t tt tt cli i bardbyt e onomi am s re he ti e udi t 2) ha ha he am s re he c c 7 l sr e;a ( t tt cli i untmey.Fo t f l ngras ,heco tfndse c o os ul nd 3) ha he am s i l r he olowi e ons t ur i a h f t s a gum en sl pe s s ve.4 he e r t m r ua i A. ResJudi a cat Ruhef r frtag e ta tefa dcam i b re b t ed crn o r s u c t,n t ro d is r u s h t h ru li s ar d y h o ti e f e j diaa i lg oft Cic tCour' r lngsi t pr vi a ton. Be aus t pr vi aci n t fl d i ht he r ui ts u i n he e ous c i c e he e ous to t was ie a dd s osdo i Vigni saec u tg sc u t slmu tlo t Vign asr s u iaa n ip e f n r i a tt o r,t o r mu t s o k o r ii ' e j dc t hi docrne'i c i rngt sagume .Ari v. f k& W e tr Ry.20 F. 1 ,1 ( h ti ' n onsdei hi r nt ts Norol sen , 4 3d 41 47 4t Ci. 0 0 ; e as La g i v. o a e, 49F.d 1 2 1 6(t Ci.1 8 )(() adv riy r 2 0 ) s e lo u hl M r u r 8 2 2 , 2 4 h r 9 8 ç ln ie st n $ c s Vigna1w g v r st ep e l sv efc gv nt tej d me t faVignac u t'. a e r i i a o e n h rcu ie fe t ie o h u g n o r ii o r.) ' I Vigna t ed crn o rs u iaai d fne i Rue 16o t eRue o teS p e n r ii,h o tie f e j dc t s ei d n l : f h ls f h u rme Cour ofV igi a Rul 1 6 pr vi s a f l s t r ni . e : o de s olow : A pa t whos ca m f r le a ii fom i e ii c ry e li or ei f rsng r d ntfed onduc , ta a ton,ora t a r ns c i n o c re c , sd cd do t meisb afna j d me t s al efr v rb re c u r n e i e ie n he rt y i lu g n , h lb o e e ard f om pr e utng a s c ors e ntci la ton a i tt s m e oppos ng r os c i ny e ond ubs que vi c i ga ns he a i pa t orpa teson a cl i o ca e ofa ton t ta i e fom t ts m e c ry ri ny a m r us c i ha r s s r ha a onduc , t ta a ton,oroc r e e, he he ornott l alt r orr g sas e t i t r ns c i cu r nc w t r he eg heo y i ht s red n he s ond ors e nta ton w e e r i e i t prorl w s t and r r es oft ec ubs que c i r a s d n he i a ui, ega dl s he l gale em e sort e denc u e l nt he vi e pon whi h a c ai s i t pr o pr e di c ny l m n he i r oc e ngs de nde ort pa tc a r e e s pe d, he r i ul r em di s ough . t Va S p. . 16 a .Th r f r, o r s u iaat a pl a p e n t i tn fa dcam . u Ct R. :() ee o e f r e j dc t o p y nd rve the nsa t ru li fo g igf r r ,h cam ( )mu th v b e d cd do teme i b afn l u g n i r m on o wad te li l s a e e n e ie n h rt y ia j d me t n s saec tor( aiefo t smec tt our, 2) rs r m he a onduc,ta aci oroc urenc asa he cam t rns ton, c r e not r li decdedo t mert byatnal u nti saec t i n he is i j dgme n tt our. Appl ngt sa r stfrhi Rul 1: t c tco ude t trsj caadoesnot yi he tnda d e o t n e 6,he our ncl s ha e udi t appl t W hal s cl m t Rut f f audul l i yo en' ai hat her ord r enty nduced hert s gn t Second A gr ent. o i he eem 4Tot e e Rut ror as c l he xt nt he f d lo halengest s tci he ufi ency ofW hal sale i ,t cour concl t ther en' lgatons he t udes ha cl m offa i t i ai r ud n he nduce mentoft SecondAgr menti ç a bl on isf ce.'l ,556 U. at678. he ee s l usi e t a ' qbal pl S. 8 Thi cai wa no a s redi t orgi lc s l m s t s e t n he i na ompl i fld i sa ec t W he Rut ror ant ie n tt our. n he f d moved f rla t a e he c o e ve o m nd r ompli t i l et c am ,hesae c t nid t m oton ant o nc ud he l i t t t our de e he i on t ba i t tt a e he s s ha he m ndm e tr i e a ne s t ntve ca e ofa ton pe t ni t t n asd w ubsa i us ci rai ng o he Se ond A gr em e . W ha e v. he f r Cas N o. c e nt l n Rut r o d, e CL11 0001 4- 201 V a. r LEX I 42, 8 00, 2 Ci . S a*2( te Op.M a.1 201 )( tngVi v.Brnc 41 S. 2d8 ( 1 f çlj t Letr r 6, 2 cii nes a h, 8 E. 90 Va. 992) or sthe ge r lr e . . ha a end e st pl a ngs wilonl be pe m it d whe e t s k a ne a ul . t t m m nt o e di l y r te r hey ee d tn naino t es mes be t te o tec nr v ryoi ial pe d d'.T us ti ee mi to f h a u jc matr f h o to es rgn ly la e ' h ,h s ) pa tc a cai wa no i i dont meis'i saec t Va.Sup. .R.16() riulr l m s t d de dec he rt' n tt our. Ct ' a . . The c ta s c ude t tCo 1 doesnota i e fom t s m e c our l o oncl s ha unt 1 r s r he a onduc , r ns c i t t a a ton, o o c re c a a o h rcam d cd do temeisk yafn l u g n'i saec u t Va r c u r n e s n t e li e ie n h rt ' i a j d me t n tt o r. . b ' Sup.Ct R.16() I a g ngt t co r r Ruhefr e sze t tt saec t . : a . n r ui o he ntay, t ro d mpha i s ha he tt our s t i d hi de ure t Count1oft o i na compli t whih a s td a ca m f a t l usane s m r r o he rgi l a n , c s ere li or c ua f a a i ude s e oft s m e a l ga i i t i t n c e. W hie t c ta e s w ih r ud nd ncl d om he a le tons n he ns a t as l he our gr e t Ru he f d t tt o de s t i ng t d m tr e w a a dec s on on t m e is o t tcl i , he t r or ha he r r us a ni he e lr r s ii he rt f ha a m t o d rwa n ta(i l u g n 'frp r o e o Ru el6. r e s o dna j d me t o u p s s f l : f ' TheSupr me Co tofVigi ahask a i cla 't ta or rs t ni ade r ri e ur r ni d de t e r' ha n de usai ng m mure s n tn c saiyafn l r e .M ilrv. e n Co nySc . .7 Va Ci.1 8( . r Ct o e e srl i a o d r le Gr e e u t h Bd, 7 . r 4 Va Ci. . 2 0 )(i n No rsv. ic el 4 5S. 2 8 9 81 ( . 9 8 ) l teo d rS r l s tis' 0 8 ct g ri M th l, 9 E.d 0 , 1 Va 1 9 ). f h r e ç ey usan ' i me t de rr i i no fna.Nori,495S. 2 a 811 ûg obetna,i mus gof t ra he mure,t s t i l rs E.d t . ;T1 i l t t urhe nd dimist ca e' I (mphassadd ) seas Bi rv.M c e r 73 S. 2d382,383( s s he s , d. e ' i ed ; e lo bbe crav, E. Va. 1 2)(i- sc t sconsse l hel t ta o d rmeey s ti ngoro 95 ûlhi our ha itnty d ha n r e rl usani vemzi ade rr lng mure t ad caaino mo inf r u g n i no fn l Ano d rs sann s c ad mur r i o e lrto r to o j d me t s t ia. r e u tiig u h e re,n or rt befna wihi t me ni ofgheCo , tg f rhe a dimist cae.) de o i l t n he a ng t delmus o u t r nd s s he s '' ', 9 Gils i v. lma ,3 S. 3 7( .1 0 )(( es tiig. . fad murrt ad caain lep e Coe n 6 E. 7 Va 9 0 i usann . o e re o e lrto Th i notfna.Toma i fnal...,heemus beaj s i l ke t i t r t udgme ofdimisl' nt s sa.). l t sc e, he s a e c tsM a 4,201 or rs t i d i pa ta ovem ze i pa4 n hi as t t t our ' y 2 de us a ne n r nd ld n 1 Rut ror sde r t W haln' o i na c he f d' murer o e s rgi l ompl nt a g a e i pa t nd de edi pa t ai , nd r ntd n r a ni n r W h ln' moi nfrla et fl a a n e c mpan .Th o d rwa n tatia j d me t' ae s to o e v o ie n me d d o lit e r e s o i n l u g n ' f a r quie byRul 1: and, hus W hae sc r ntcli f fa ulnti uc me i not s e rd e 6 t , ln' ure am or r ud e nd e nt s os b re b ted crneo rsj d c t. See Cl ev Ciyof rok 2 1Va Ci. ard y h o ti f e u iaa5 t No f l, 01 . r LEXI 1 , S 01 . a *1 ( Ci.Ct Apr 1 2011 ( di t t'heCour' r i s ti ngi pa theCiy' t 0 Va. r . . 2, ) hol ng ha t t ts ulng usani n r t t s De rrwa no afnaldece a t patesa eno bardbyr j caafo a esi mure s t i re, nd he ri r t re es udi t rm ddr sng a p c so tec u eo a to r ldu nb teCo r i isDe e e 2 , 0 9o i in ; re s e t f h a s f cin u e po y h u tn t c mb r 3 2 0 p no ) Ca tr v. ooks 77Va. r 3 367( Ci.Ct2009)( di t tanor rs ti ngade rr Br , Ci. 63, Va. r . hol ng ha de usani mure wa n t fn l u g n , ic iddn t o ti a ylng a eds sigtec s , n ,h , s o a ia j d me t sn e t i o c n an n a u g imisn h a e a d tus t a r s u iaaddno a py ; e as P sh lv. Co .No 3:1 h t e j dc t i t p l) s e lo a c al CBS p , . 1 CV431 2 1U. Dit , 01 S. s. LEXI 1 S 04725 a *1 ( D.Va.Se .1 2011 ( di t tade r ror r whihonl , t 2 E. pt 5, ) hol ng ha mure de, c y add e s apori oft pl ntf' cai a l t her mai ng c am si a t wasnotafnal r s ed ton he ai ifs l ms nd ef t e ni l i ntc , i or runde Vigi alw) de r r ni a . B. Econom i LossR ul c e Rut r or ne con e t tW ha e s c a m off a e i e e i bared by t he f d xt t nds ha l n' l i r udul nt nduc m nt s r he ec onom i l sr e unde w hi h dl s s s f r d a a r s toft br c ofa d y a s e onl c os ul , r c 'os e uf e e s e ul he ea h ut s um d y 5Ass tf t above, t Cic tCour uli t y gr ed pli ipsmoton f e r oflanor rofnons tas e orh he r ui t tmael ant antf i or nty d de ui t al fPlitf' cams. . g n te c a de eyd f n a . .' ( c e No. 77, )Alh u ht o lo anifs li . a ais a h n v r ee d nt . . Do k t 3 - 8. t o g he ' or gr ntng t nons tand srki t ma t fom t Cicui Cour' doc twasafnalor i t c e, der a i he ui ti ng he ter r he r t ts ke i der n he as i wa no aiia j g n ont meis' Va S . . 16; e as Ca trv Br o s 7 Va Ci. 6 t s t t n lud me t he rt. . up CtR. : se lo re . o k , 7 . r 3 3, f ' 36 - ( . r Ct20 9 (çns mmay t eo d rs sann ted mu rro te et c nswa ad cso 768 Va Ci. . 0 ) i u r, h r e u tiig h e re n h s wo ou t s e iin l o temeis b twa n tafn lu gme t Th o d r a igt en ns ic n tttsafn lu me wih n h rt, u s o ia j d n . e r e grntn h o ut o siue ia j dg nt t r s c t te et c u t, uti n tad cso o teme i .Ab e tafn lu gme to temeis rs epe to h s wo o ns b s o e iin n h rt sn ia j d n n h rt,e s j diaaa dRue16d no a pl t t isa tc s .) u c t n l : o t p y o he n tn a e'. ' 10 by a e m e , a he t n a d y i pos by l w , em a n t s e pr nc ofc r t .' Fia gr e nt r t r ha ut m ed a r i he ol ovi e ontac s ' l k v.Geor ,594S. 2d61 61 ( 2004) TheSuprmeCour ofVigi aha rc ze t t ce E. 0, 3 Va. . e t r ni s e ogni d ha t sngl a toroc ure eca i c ran cic t nc ,s po tc us sofa ton bot f br a t i e c a c r nc n, n e ti r umsa es up r a e ci h or e ch ofc r ta f br c ofadut a ii i t t' AugusaM ut I . v. a on,645 S. 2 ontac nd or ea h y rsng n or. ' t . ns Co. M s E.d 290,295( 2007 .iloa dtr nge r bra hofc rc it atr,howe r (heCour Va. ) k- voi u ni vey e c ' onta t no o t ve, t t ha )e itdt r et ti o d rt rc ri t tt dut t tousyorne i nty s nuncae he ul ha,n r e o e ove n or,he y ori l glge l b e c d m us be a c m on l w dut noto e si be wee t pa tess el by vi t of r a he t om a y, ne xi tng t n he r i ol y rue t c r c .'1 ;s e as Rihm o M er Au h. M c vitSt Bovi,507 S. 2d 3 3 he onta t' d. e lo c nd to. t v. De t . s E. 44, 47 ( . 9 )( o dn ta, eeç a hpatc lrmirp e e tto b (h d fn a t rltdt a Va 1 98 h l ig h t wh r d c riua se r sn ain y t e ee d n ) eae o e dut ora oblgai t twa s cii lyr uie byt g ris' c tac'a t ls ceof y n i ton ha s pe fcal eq rd he pa te l onr t' nd he tour a dut bra hed g s s ey (ha c rcl't pli ifscamss ny y e c wa) oll t t onta tr'he antf li ounde onl i co rc) d y n nta t. Ap yi t eprncpls t c t ncudest tRu he f d' r inc on t e onomi pl ng hes i i e , he our co l ha t ror s ela e he c c l snzei m iplce W ha e al ge t tRut f d madesaeme st thekne we ef s os l s s a d. l n le s ha heror t t nt ha w r ale i or rt i ehe t sgn t Sec ndAgr e e .W hieW haln a Rut ror we epa te n de o nduc r o i he o e m nt l e nd he f d r ri s t a pa t r hi ag e m enta pos i y o he c r c s a t tm e t Se o rne s p r e nd s bl t r ont a t t he i he cond Agr m e w as ee nt s gne k hi i no a ca e i w hi h no c us ofa ton w o d e s butf rt e vi a i of i d, t s s t s n t c a e ci ul xi t o h ol ton c r t dute bet e n t pa te . Benne tv. nk ofA m . N . . N o.3: 2CV 3 201 ontac ual i s w e he ri s ' ' t Ba . A, 1 4, 2 U. Dit LEXI 5 7 5 a * 7( D. . r 1 , 01 )( odi t a t epanifsfa dcam S. s. S 4 2 , t 2 E. Va Ap . 8 2 2 h l ng h t h litf' ru li wasnotbare byt e onomi l snle.I t d,W hae sca eofa tonf fa i rd he c c os ll nsea ln' us ci or r ud n r a i t t Se ond A gr e e ts e sf om a dut i pos d by t r l w ,na e y t he dut not el ton o he c e m n tm r ym e o ta m l ç t y tc o ommi faud. Rihmondv. a s M g . o l ,91 F. 438, ( h Ci.1 , tr ' c ' M dion mt Gr up.nc. 8 2d 447 4t r 990) . seas AbiNam v.Concor Condomi um. e lo - i d ni LLC, S. 2d483,489- ( 201 699 E. 90 Va. 0) ( empha i ngt t$ f s rpr e ai ofamaeilfc,c tt i i eme t t szi ha ; ale e esntton a tra a t onsiutng nduc nt o he 11 c nr c, nwhc t ega tlh darg t orl, sawa g o n frr s iso o t ec nr c' o ta to ih h p ry a ih t ey i l ys r u d o e cs in f h o ta t ' a Cas gr md f ra a ton f da es' a t tt pli ifscai f fa en nd ilo ot o n c i or mag ,' nd ha he antf l m or r udul t i eme wasnotbare byt ec nduc nt rd he onomi l sr e ; r tev.Br kRd.nc.4 F.Supp. c os ul) Banet oo I , 29 2 7 , 5 ( D. 0 )(g sae n , n wnt b flewh nutrd,ha i ma ewi te d 41 7 0 E. 20 6 6 A1 ttme t k o o e as e tee t t s d t h ; h i e tt i uc s nt n o nd e omeo t e e ac r t c n s ne o nt r ontac, a uppor ac am offaudt ti i pe ntofa t li r ha s nde nde bra hofc ta t' Ac r ngl Co li no bardbyt e no cl sr l. ec onrc . ). codi y, unt s t re he co mi os ue St ute ofLi iatons at m t i Forhi fnala gum e ,Rut ror c e t tCoun 1i ba r d by t t yea saut si r nt he f d ont nds ha t s re he wo- r t t e oflmiai s tf t i Vigi aCodej8. -43 W hieRut ror a i ttons e orh n r ni 012 A. l he f d cknowldge t tt e s ha he saut oflm ia i i t ld untls h fa ( sdic r d orby t e r i eofduedii nce t t e i tton s ole i uc r ud i s ove e i he xe c s lge r s na ys dha be ndic r dy' .Cod j8. - 1,Rut rod ag st t ea o bl houl ve e sove e 'Va e 01249( ) he fr rue ha W ha e f ie t a twih due dii nc a t ,t tt t lng saut doe no s vehe cl m . l n al d o c t lge e nd, hus ha he oli t t e s t a r ai TheSupr meCour ofVigi aha hedt tdgl lngua ( t e r s ofdue e t r ni s l ha 'the a ge by he xecie dii nceras bl s dha be ndico rd, a usdi Co j8. 2 me nstsuc lge e ona y houl ve e s vee ' s e n de 01-49, a gl h mea ur ofpr nc a tviy, as i t a i pr ryt bee c e fom , nd o di rl s e ude e, c i t or sduiy, s s ope l o xpe t d r a r na iy e c s d by, r a o bl a pr n m a unde t pa tc a cic s a e .... STB xer i e a e s na e nd ude t n r he ri ul r r um t nc s ' ' M ak tn Co p v Zof g r, 9 S. 2 3 4, 9 ( .1 9 )( u t Blc sLa Dito ay r eic r . . la hai3 3 E.d 9 3 7 Va 9 0 q o i a k' w cin r ng 411(e 5t ed.1 ) ç hehe s hduediie eha be ne rie mus bea c rai dby rv. h 979). û t r uc W lg nc s e xecsd t s e t ne a e mi to oft fcsa crumsa e uni t e hc s ' Ln xa nain he a t nd ic tnc s que o ac a e. ps ' l t sca e,a s tf t a n hi s s e orh bove, haln aleg t tRu he f d net rpr de he w ih W e l es ha t ror ihe ovi d r t a copy oft Second A greem entnorper it hert read i,a t s di notdi covert he m ted o t nd hat he d s he f a untla t rflng s ti sat c t w he s ob a ne a c oft Sec A gr e e r ud i f e ii ui n t e our , n he t i d opy he ond e m nt t ough di c r A s um i t t u h ofW ha e sa l ga i , nd ha ng c i r d t hr s ove y. s ng he r t l n' le tons a vi ons de e he 12 pa tc arcr m sa sd t ie i W hae sc riul icu t nce e a ld n ln' ompl i ,ncl ng t pa te 'l ngsa ng ant i udi he ri s o t ndi r l tons p a Ru he f d' al ge mic e ai hi nd t ror s le d s onduc ,t c t suna et co l a t ssa o t he our i bl o ncude, t hi t ge f t pr e ngs t tW ha en' cl i off a i ba r d by t s a ut oflm ia i . See G I . he oc edi , ha l s am r ud s r e he t t e i t tons V LLC v.I ,No.3: BM 07CV067, 07U. DitLEXI 3 68,a *1 ( D. Apr 24,2007) 20 S. s. S 01 t 6 E. Va. . (i ngt ti woul beprmaur t dimist pli ifscli ba e ont saut of tndi ha t d e t e o s s he antf am s d he tt e l tto , ic çh q sino . . u dlg n ed p n u o t ef cso e c c s ' i ains sn e t e ueto f . d e i e c e e ds p n h a t f a h a el; mi t i Penns va aLiel . v. yl ni f ns Co. Bumbrv,665F.Supp.11 0,1 ( D.Va 1 ( i t t e 9 202 E. . 987) notng ha E s ue ofwhe a f a s d r a ona y ha bee di c r d, w ih m os i s s of ds s i n r ud houl e s bl ve n s ove e as t t s ue di y, o l he e ons t e r s bl s , r t c lybetlf t t j y') Accor ngl f ral oft r as satd, ea ona ene s a e ypial s e to he ur '. R u he f d' m oto t di m i s Co mtlw ilbe de e t r or s i n o s s t l ni d. I. I D ani l sM ot o t Di m i s or i t A ler tve f Sum m ar Judzm e e' i n o s s . n he t na i . or v nt D a e i na e i Cot tI oft a e d c pl nt i w hi h W ha e a s t a c ai ni l s m d n m V he m nde om ai , n c l n s ers l m oft r i i e f r nce w ih c r c . D a elha m ove t di m i st cl m unde Rul o tous nt r e e t ont a t ni s d o s s he ai r e l b)6)ont ba i t tt pl ntf salgainsaei ufiintunde Twombl a l .I 2( ( he ss ha he ai if le to r ns fce r v nd gbal n teatr aie Da il a mo e frs mmayj d me t h len tv , n e h s v d o u r u g n . Topr valon ac am f rt ri i e f r nc wih a c ta torbusnes e e i l i o o tous ntre e e t on r c i s xpeca i tncy n Vigi a apli ifmus s r ni , antf t how: ( )t e senc ofavaldc r t rltons porbusnes e ca ( 1 he xit e i ontacual eai hi i s xpe tncy; 2) knowldgeoft rlto hi ore tncyont patoft i e f o ;( e he eains p xpeca he r he ntrerr 3) i e i li e f r nc i nt ntona nt r e e e nduci orca i a br a h o t r i i oft ng us ng e c r e m naton he rlto hi orexpe tnc a ( r ulan da et t pat whos eains p ca y; nd 4) es t t mag o he ry e r l to hi ore c a y ha be n di r t d. e a i ns p xpe t nc s e s up e Duqai v.Ada ,360S. 2d832,835( 1 )( i Cha sv. ohns n,335S. 2d97, n ms E. Va. 987 quotng ve J o E. 1 ( 1 ) 02 Va. 985). 13 Upo r vi w oft a e ed co pl i t t co ti c t a ne t c l t t n e e he m nd m a n , he ur s ons r i d o onc ude ha W ha e sa l a i oft to i e f r nc a e s fc e t w ihs a D a e ' m oton t l n' leg tons or i us nt r e e e r uf i i nt o t t nd ni ls i o dimi s To s s s. uppor he t tousi ere e ecli ,W hae al est ts a Rut ror wer t r ori nt fr nc am ln leg ha he nd he f d e pa te t c r c sr a i t W &R Pa t r hi a t Hom e;ha t r wasa r a ona e ris o onta t eltng o rne s p nd he t t hee e s bl pr biiy off ur e ono i be i t W hae fom t ec r c s t tDa e be meawa e oba lt ut e c m c neft o ln r hos onta t ; ha ni l ca r oft c tnui pe s he on i ng r onala co r c ua r l tons p be w e n Rut r or a W hal n,a nd nt a t l e a i hi t e he f d nd e nd be a e ups tt tRut r or wasus ng m a ia a s t t m a pa e t i a or nc w ih t cm e ha he f d i r t l s e s o ke ym n s n cc da e t he c r t t tDa eli e i naly i ontacs;ha ni nt nto l nduce Ru he f dt br a h t c r c sby dieci d t ror o e c he onta t r tng Ru he f d' a ntt c s a 1pa nt t W &R Pa t rhi a ont not f t Home; ha t ror s ge o ea e l yme s o rne s p nd he e or he t t Da e i e ni l nt nded t i e f r w ih t c r t f r he pe s o nt r e e t he ontac s o r r onalbe ft t ti i r as bl ne i ; ha t s e ona y c rai t tRut r or w oul notha br a he t c r t i t abs e ofD a e ' e t n ha he f d d ve e c d he ontac s n he enc ni ls co nduc ;a t tW ha e ha be n da a d a a pr m a e r s tofD a e ' a tons W hie t nd ha l n s e m ge s oxi t e ul ni ls c i . l s ome o t s pa tc a a lga i a ea gua y co us r t c ti oft o ni t tt f he e riul r le tons r r bl ncl o y, he our s he pi on ha he s c ame e ond nded c ompl nt i ise iey,c ai s fc e f c ua c t ntt sa eapl i e ai , n t ntrt ont ns ufii nt a t l on e o t t ausbl c a m f rr le a i tD a e . A c or ng y,Da e ' m oton w ilbe de e t t e e t ti l i o e i f ga ns ni l c di l ni l s i l ni d o he xt nt ha t c l ng t s fci nc oft a l ga i nsas e t d w ih r pe tt Countl . hale es he uf i e y he le to s re t es c o V Tot e tn W h ln' moin atr aieyse ss mmayj d me tt ec u t he x e t ae s to l n tv l e k u r u g n ,h o r e c n ld ss c moi nmu tb d ne a p e tr .Asag n rlr e ç u r j d me t o cu e u h to s e e id s rmau e e ea ul,t mmay u g n s g t b r f s dwh r t en n vigp ryh sn th dteo p ru t t d s o r mus) e e u e e e h o mo n a t a o a h p o tni o ic ve y i or to t ti ese ilt ( r o ii ' And ronv.Li t Lobby.nc.47 U. 242, nf main ha s s nta o hel pposton. ' es berv l , 7 S. 250n. ( 986 .l apa t bele t tmor dico r i ne sa yf hert de 5 1 ) f ry ives ha e s vey s ce sr or o monsrt a tae ge neis ofmaera fc,heC ope c s'i t fl a afi vipu s n t Rul 56( nui sue t il a tt d r oure's o ie n fda t rua t o e d) pr (or ryRul 56( ,e ani whys ca tpr ryoppos amotonf sl r f mel e 9) xpli ng he nno opel e i or lmmay 14 j d me twi o tac a et c nd c ds o ey Ha rd Lt v. it ltr e Do i Na s u g n t u h nc o o u t ic v r . ro s d. Sx v n en t man me , h 302F. 21 244 ( hCi.2002)( s sngatda trquie nt ofRul 564 . 3d 4, 4t r dicusi fi vi e rme s e 9) d v rh ls,n s mec s sc u t ha eh l t a s mmayj dg n wa p e t r e e wh n t e tee s i o a e o rs v ed h t u r u me t s rmau e v n e Ne t opposngpa t fie t fl fnjafi vi. 1 he i ry ald o ie a fda t' d. ' l t sc e pur ua t t c r' Se e be 11 201 s he i or r t pa te ha n hi as , s nt o he ou ts ptm r , 2 c dulng de , he ri s ve u tl ac 2 , 01 t c mpeeds o ey Da il ie h rmo inf rs mmayj d me t n ni M rh 9 2 3 o o lt ic v r . ne fld e to o u r u g n o Oct r l 201 onl f urw e ksa t rt c te t r d t s hedulng or r a o rfve obe 2, 2, y o e f e he our n e e he c i de , nd ve i mont bef r dic r wa s heduld t e Alh hs o e s ove y s c e o nd. t ough W haln ha notfl d a afi vi e s ie n fda t p ru n t Ru e5 ( ) s eh sfldab ifo po i t moino teb sst a s eh sn t a u s a t o l 6 d , h a ie re p sng he to n h a i h t h a o h d a a ua e o r uniy t c n deq t ppo t t o onduc di c r r e ntt he t to i e f r nce c ai . A s t s ove y el va o r ori us nt r e e lm s h,heco ti oft opi ont tW haen' breftsr el)t smepur e'asaRul 56() uc t ur s he ni ha l s i se v s he a pos ' e d afda tl t sTil l . v.Bar 232F. D.254,257( S. 2005 , ndt ts fi vi,nvesor te ns Co. i, R. D. C. ) a ha ummay r j d me two l bep e tr a ti tme Se Ha od , 0 F.d a 2 4( od n t a t u g n u d rmau e th s i . e n s 3 2 3 t 4 h li g h the dititc tsgrntofs src our' a ummayj r udgme wasprmaur not t tndi t o i pa t s nt e t e wihsa ng he pposng ry' f l et fl aRul 56( afda twheedic r wa ongoi a t nonmovi pa t aiur o ie e 9 fi vi, r s ovey s ng nd he ng ry i or t dititc tofisne dt c eedic r .Ac or ngl Da elsmoto t nf med he src our t e o omplt s ovey) c di y, ni ' in o ds s o ,nteatr aie moinf rsl r j d me twil ed ne imis r i h l n tv , to o t e mmay u g n lb e id. 1 11. Sel s M oton to D i i ene' i sm ss Fi l f t r a ons di c s d durng t m o i he rng t c t ilgr nt naly, or he e s s us e i he tons a i , he our w l a Se e sm oton t di m i s hal n' a e d c pl i a s r sno ca esofa ton aga ns l ne' i o s s .W e s m nde om a nt s e t us ci i t Sel and s acknow l ene, he edgesi herbri i opposii t Sel s m oton t ti doesnot n ef n ton o ene' i hat dt a a l ga l pos i e f Se e t be he d la e f rt wr ngst Pl i ifha s f r a t ppe r e ly sbl or l ne o l i bl o he o he a ntf s uf e ed t he ha ofRut ror a Da e . ( ke No.38a 5. W hieW hae nonehels cone nds hef d nd nil' Doc t ' t ) l ln t e s tnds 15 t a s ec r t ema eç l'wi o tS ln b ige j ie fo f r co igo te h t h amo b d d e' t u ee e en non d r m o e lsn n h who h Pr r y,s ha c t d no a hort t s ope t he s ie ut iy o uppor t pr ii t ts i e il obt i r le t he oposton ha he s ntted a n e i f fom a pa t a ns w hi h s ha no vi bl c a m . H a ng as e t no vi bl c ai ag ns r r y gai t c he s a e li vi s red a e l m ai t Sel ne, he c ti c vi ed t tt a e ed c pl n m us be di m i s d ast t s e t our s on nc ha he m nd om ai t t s se o hi d fn a t S e ec.Klvv. i dHe lh r u .nc, 7 F.d 1 9 ,1 9 ( 1h Ci. 0 4 e e d n . e , . , a Unt atc o p l .3 6 3 0 2 0 8 1 t r 2 0 ) e (tAq moi ors tf rata tona ijmci mus bepr diae uponaca eofa ton..., 1( ny ton ui o rdii ln t ton t e c td us ci r r ng whi h a pl i ifm us s ega di c a nt f t how a lkelhood o a t iy ofs c s on t m e is The e i i i r c ualt uc es he rt . r s n s c t iga as t o ata i o a ij n to i t ea src.F rata iin lij n to t o u h hn s uif r r dt n ln u cin n h b ta t o rdto a nu cin o i be e n t r tc ly a ia e a pl i tf m us be a e t a tc a e a ba i f rr le t twoul ve heo e i a l va l bl , a n if t bl o r i ul t s s o e i f ha d wihsa sr i unde Fe R. v. 1 b)6)(al et saeacli .) t tnd cutny r d. Ci P. 2( ( fiur o tt am)'. ' C oncl on usi Fort r a onssae Rut ro d' moto t dim iswilbede e Da e ' m o i t he e s tt d, hef r s i n o s s l ni d; nils ton o ds s o ,nteatr tv , to f rs mmayj d me twil ed ne a dSee ' mo in imis r i h l naie moin o u r u g n lb e id; n lnes to e t di m i sw ilbe g a e o s s l r nt d. TheClr i dr c e t s nd c rii d co e o t sm e a lm o ni a t e k s ie t d o e e tfe pi s f hi mor nd' pi on nd he ac om pa ng or rt a 1c c nyi de o l ouns ofr c d. el e or EN TER :Thi Z s d yo Dee e, 201 a f cmb r 2. / Chi fUnie St t s Di t i tJ e t d a e s rc udge 1 6