Christmas v. The Arc of the Piedmont, Inc., No. 3:2012cv00008 - Document 13 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 7/16/12. (hnw)
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ct s OFFI U. . ST.' EM CE s DI COURT ATR- oc ,M xx Fj/ wyg I THE UM TED STA TES D I N STRI CO URT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI NI CT RGI A CH A RLOTTESV I LLE DI SI VI ON J L 1s2 1 22 JUL BK , D EM REGI GRADY CHRI NA STM AS, Ci lAc i No.3: 2CV0 08 vi ton 1 00 Pl i if a ntf , M EM ORANDUM O PI ON NI By:Hon. e E.Conr Gln ad ChifUnie St t Diti J e t d aes srct udge THE AR C OF THE PI M ON T, N C. ED l , De e nt f nda . Re na Gr dy Chrsm a , oc di pr K , ie t sa ton a ns he f me e pl r gi a it s pr ee ng o fld hi c i gai t r or r m oye , TheAr oft Pi dmont I ,a s ri cli sofdic i i ton a r t iton unde Til VI c he e , nc. s e t ng am s rm na i nd eala i r te I o t eCi l g t Ac o 1 6 (Til Vl', 2U.. j 2 0 et 2 0 e 1 ;h Ameia f h viRih s t f 9 4 % te I' 4 SC. j 0 0 o 0 0 - 7 te ) rc ns wihDia ii e Ac o 1 9 (ADA' , 2U. C. j1 01 1 1 t eAg Dici n to i t s blt s t f 9 0 ç i % ' 4 S. j 21 -21 7;h e s rmi ai n n ) Emp o me tAc o 1 6 (t ly n t f 9 7 t ADEA' , 9U. C. j6 - 3 ; n teFa l M e ia Le veAc ' 2 S. j 216 4 a d h mi dc l a ) y t o 1 9 ( LA', 9U. C. j2 012 4.Th p an ifas s e st i os la ii f r f 93ç TM ' 2 S. j 6 -65 ) e litf lo e k o mp e ib ly o t it ntonali lc i ofe i ldites a f pantnghe i af lelgh .The c ei ne i nfi ton motona sr s nd or i i r n as i t as s pr s l be or t c t t de e ntsmoton t dimis Fort r s t tf lw ,he e enty f e he our on he f nda ' i o s s. he ea ons ha olo t moton wilbe g a e i pa ta de ed i pa t i l z nt d n r nd ni n r. Background The f l w i f ct , a n fom t pl ntf spr K c pl i a he br e i olo ng a s t ke r he ai if o om a nt nd r i f n . opposton t t de e ii o he f ndan ' m oton t dim is a eac e e a tuef rpur esoft ts i o s s , r c pt d s r o pos he d fnd n ' moi n Se Erc s nv. rus 5 1U. 8 , 4( 0 7 (mp a iigt a t j d e e e a ts to . e ik o Pad , 5 S. 9 9 2 0 ) e h szn h tt u g a m us ac e a t u al oft f c ua a l ga i nsco a ne i t c pl i ' whe r i on a t c pt s r e l he a t l le to nt i d n he om a nt' n ulng m oton t dim i and t apr K co pl i C us be he d t l s sr nge s a r t n i o s ss, hat o m a nt ç t m l o es t i nt t nda ds ha . f malpl di d atdbylwyes' (nena cttona quottonmaksomitdl Da sv. or ea ngs r fe a r' itr l iai nd ai ) r te ; vi Ba i au i 71 F. u p 2 6 9 61 ( D. . 01 )( ntsigtes fiin yo t ep oK cg lp , 1 S p . d 0 , 5 E. Va 2 0 ç etn h u fce c f h r 7 Plitf Co an u e Rue1 ( )6 ,h Co r wi as c n i e tealg to ma ei anips mplit nd r l 2 b ( )t e u t l lo o sd r h l ains d n l e t ePlitf' me rn u fldi o p sto t t eDee d n ' mo int d s s . .' h anifs mo a d m ie n p o i n o h fn a ts to o imis . .) i ' (iigc ss. ctn a e ) Chrsma i a Afia Ame i a wom a ov t ag off t who s f r fom Ehl s it s s n rc n- rc n n er he e ory, ufe s r erDa osS nl yndr m e.The e n sgi ng rs t t i t nta i occ r e i AprlandM a of o ve t vi ie o he nsa cton u r d n i y 2009 whe Chrsma wa empl d b t de e ntasadiec s ppor pr e sona .The , n it s s oye y he f nda r tu t of s i l def nda ope aesas itd lvi f ciiisf ra t wih i el t a de l pme a e nt r t sse i ng a lte o duls t nt lecual nd ve o nt l diabiii i Cha l t vil Vigi a s ltes n rotes le, r ni . l Aprlof200 Chrsm a obs r eds n i 9, it s e v ome o t de e ntspai nt beng s xu l a f he f nda ' te s i e aly nd physcal a e by he Ca sa c wo ke s Chrsmasr pored he obs r atonst t i ly bus d r uca in o- r r . it e t r e v i o he de e ntshum a r s lr e die t a t t lca de rme ofs i ls r i e . f nda ' n e ozc s r c or nd o he o l pa t nt oc a e v c s I me ael a trChrsm a r po td t a e,he de e ntr m ove he fom wor ng m dit y fe it s e re he bus t f nda e d rr ki t over gh s f, c r quie l sphysca a tviy a i t a l or edhe t wo k da he ni t hitwhih e r d es i l c i t , nd nse d ç c f ro r y s it i o d rt ke ph r o ' ( .nOp ' a 2) Ch it salg sta t ed fn a ts h fs n r e o e e j b. Br i p n t . rsma le e h t h e e d n ' ' a to sweetk n< t t esng lr ne t od ieh ro fo t ej b i rt l to f rh r cin r a e f h h i ua i tn t rv e f f h o n eai in o e wi a r pori t a eofpaint. (d.a 4. e tng he bus te s' I t ) ' Alhoug t c et da i holstriaed)he me c lco to 'Chrsmas t h he hang o ytme tr i rttl r dia ndiin, it i ' c niu dt wok.( .n Op na 5) I M a o 2 0 , h wa ga tdtr ewe k o FMLA o tn e o r Br i p' t . n y f 0 9 s e s rn e h e e s f l a t asiti ca i f he il ba W hen s r t r fo la ,Chrsmasl r d e ve o ss n rng or r 1 hus nd. he e u ned r m e ve it ea ne t ts ha bee tr nae Chrsmasc e t tt dee n G ve i or d ( r i ha he d n emi td. it ontnds ha he fnda t s r nf me he ) n ne m i i o ve ba l t the e pl e ... a t r i t d a alow e he t s f rt tng r r ly ha r m oym nt w s e m na e nd l d r o uf e he hum iiton ofr t ni t af ciiywih t i e ofr s i he dutespos a u la i eur ng o a lt t he ntnt e um ng r i t n nknown tnni i ' t e naton. Compla 1 ) Shef t ralgest tt dee ntne rdicplnedt ' . t 2. urhe le ha he fnda ve si i he Ca asa wo ke sr s msbl f a i t de e ntspa int,a t çcau sa uc in r r e pc i e or busng he f nda ' te s nd hat t ca in e o e swhoq e to e o o p s dwr n d igta t e win se o t j bween t mply e u sin d r p o e o g on h t h y t e s d n he o r o s b e t otesmete t n a t eAfia - rc ne ly e whoddtesme' ( .n u j c t h a rame t s h rc n Ameia mp o e s i h a . Br i ' Opp' a 3. nt ) Chrsmasûl d t i t ntaci on De e it e he nsa ton c mber28, 2011i t Cic tCour f t Ciy n he r ui t or he t ofCharote vil. Afe r movi t a ton t t sc tt de e ntmove t dim ist l ts le tr e ng he c i o hi our, he f nda d o s s he p an ifscamsp ru n t Ru e1 ()6 o teFe ea Rue o CiiPr c d r.Th t t n litf' li u s a t o l 2 b( ) f h d rl ls f vl o e ue a moi o ha be n f ly bre e a i rpe f rr vi w. s e u l i f d nd s i o e e * St andar ofR e e d vi w tf ep r o eo aRu e1 ( ()mo ini t ts tes fi in yo ac mpan . t' u p s f l 2b)6 to s o e th u tce c f o lit' -h ' Ed r sv. t o Go d b r 1 8F.d2 , 4 (t Ci. 9 9 .W h nrv e n acam wad Ci f l s o o, 7 3 31 2 3 4h r 1 9 ) e e iwig li y unde t sr l ,t c tmus a e al oft al tonsi t compl n a tu a d a al r hi u e he our t cc pt l he legai n he ait s r e nd r w l r as bl i e enc si f voroft pli if l a 244.t'' s vve amoton t dim is a e ona e nf r e n a he antf d. t t o ur i f i o s s, c ompl i mus c an s fc e f ct lm a tr ac e e a tue t ttt ac am t r le t i ant t ont i ufii nt a ua te , c pt d s r , o sa e l i o e if hat s plu i eo isfc .'As co t Ib l5 6U.. 6 , 7 (0 9 ( u t gBel l Co p. a sbl n t a e' h r f v.q a, 5 S 6 2 6 8 2 0 ) q oi lAt. r v. ' n Two l, 5 U. 5 4, 7 ( 0 7 ) tnohe wo d ,hefcu l l g to s(a e a tu ) mby 5 0 S. 4 5 0 2 0 ). ç t r r s t a t a al ain tk n s r e l e mus û r tt c t o i e m o et n t m e epos i lt ofmic t pe mi he our t nf r r ha he r sbiiy s onduc .'A Soc' W ihout t'' y t a N nm ç. f Pvopl wihoutaHome. ilnni Fut e- m s ntv. igi a 655 F. d 342,346 or e t M le um ur p e V r ni , 3 - - (t Ci. 1 ( i l l 556U. a 678) 4h r 201 ) quotng qba, S. t . *The pari ha advi t cour t tt do notwih t be he d on t m oton t dim is. tes ve sed he t ha hey s o ar he i o s s W he adocl e i fld pr K ,i mus beçlbe aly c tue ' Erc o 551U. a n lm nt s ie o t t ti r l onsr d. i ks n, ' S. t 9 (nen l iaina dq oainmakso te ) Ac o dn l,t p oK c mplit h we r 4 itr a ctto n u tto r mitd . c r igy I r o an , o ve a i rf l plade mus behel t l ssrnge sa r t n f malpl di d afe by na tuly e d, t d o es ti nt tnda ds ha or ea ngs r td lwyer . 1 M i uloft sprncpl ,t c twilc i rbot t pli ifsc a s' d. ndf ' hi i i e he our l onsde h he a ntf ompl i and ant he r s e t t defnda ' mott i dee mi ng whet rt pl i ifsaleg i a e r e pons o he e nts im n tr ni he he antf' l atons r s fkin t r l 1 ( )6 .Se Da i, 1F. u p. da 61 ; e as Gr yv. ama t u f e t mde Rue 2 b ( ) e vs 71 S p 2 t 5 se lo a W l r S o e .n .No. 1 CV- 71 2 1U. DitLEXI 51 5 a * ( D. C. y 1 , 01 ) t rs I c, 7:0- 1 , 01 S. s. S 1 , t 8 E. N. Ma 2 2 1 (onsdei t pr K plitf' bre i opposto whe r i ont dee ntsmotont c i rng he o anifs if n iin n ulng he fnda ' i o dimis (ii c es. s s) ctng as ) D i c s on s us i 1 . Til VII Cl m s te ai A. R e alaton t i i Cot Oneoft pli ifsc mpli a s rsacli ofr a iton t rTil VI. mt he antf o ant s e t am etla i mde te 1 l addii t pr bii dic i na i ont ba i ofa e oye sr ce c or r lgi s x, n ton o ohi tng s rmi ton he ss n mpl e' a , ol , e i on, e o nai lorg n,Til Vl make i t a ulf a e o rt r tla ea i ta e o r tona i i te 1 s t mlwf or n mplye o ea it ga ns n mpl yee f re g gn i a t t pr tce b t esau e S e4 U.. j2 0 e3 a.Toma o ta o n a ig n ci y oe td y h ttt . e 2 SC. 0 0 - () vi ke u p i fcec s o rtlain, p an if s s o ( )ta s ee a e i ap o e tda tvt; rma a i a e f eaito a litf mu t h w: 1 h t h ng g d n r tce ci i y ( t a ted fn a to amaeil a v rea t na ans h r a d( )ta ac u a 2) h th ee d nto k tral d e s ci g i t e ; n 3 h t a s l y o c onnec i e se be we n t pr t c e a tviya t m aera l a ve s a ton. EEOC v. ton xit d t e he o e t d c i t nd he t ily d r e c i Na Fed.Crdi Unin, F. 397, - ( hCi. vy e t o 424 3d 405406 4t r 2005) . H a ng r vi w e t pl i i psc pl i a he br e i oppos ton t t d e nt s vi e e d he a ntf om a nt nd r i f n ii o he ef nda ' m oton, he c tc ude t tt pl n ifs a l ga i a e i uf i e t s ts y t r qui e i t our oncl s ha he ai tf le tons r ns fci nt o a i f he e r d ee l mentofpr e t d aci t Unde Til VI, ot ce aci tesf li t t c t go is: otc e tviy. r te I pr e td tvii al n o wo a e re r rs h. pa tci to a tviisa opposto aci te . Se La i v. er W a h.Aipo t Aut , ri pai n ci te nd ii n tviis e uchln M to. s - 1 9F.d2 3 2 9(t Ci.1 98 (iig4 U.. j20 0 -().Thet p o i o ca e' 4 3 5 , 5 4h r 9 ) ctn 2 SC. 0 e 3a) ç p st n lus'of o i Til Vl' a ir t iton pr son ma i a unlwf f a e oy rt dic i i t a i t te ls nt-eala i ovii kes t n a ul or n mpl e o s rm na e gans a e oy be aus t e oye op e a pr c iem a unlwf lby Til VI.42 U. C. n mpl ee c e he mpl e pos d ny a tc de a u te I S. j20 0 - () Th l riiai nca s'ma e iu lwf l o a e ly rt d srmi t 0 e 3a . e d t p to lu e' k s t na u f r n mpo e o ici nae pa c ag ns a e oye bec us t e oye m a ac r t sii a ssed,orpa tcpa e i ai t n mpl e a e he mpl e de ha ge, e tfed, s it ri i t d n a mn ri a i si to pr e ng,o he rngunderTil VI.L. ny nne n n nve tgain, oc edi r ai te I ds u I t i t ntca e t pli ifsr t lai c am i bas d s el o t a s ri n t ts n he nsa s , he antf e ai ton l i s e ol y n he s e to ha he wa te e unf ryçorrpori t a eoft paint t rhe c r ' ( mpla 3. s ratd ail ç e tng he bus he te s mde r ae.' Co . t ) f W hiephysca a s xua a ei i edunl wf l i doe no c tt t a ç a ul l i l nd e l bus s nde a u ,t s t onsiu e n s wf unl e o me t r cie'md rTil V1.Se 4 U.. j2 0 e2 Cl s al ea u lwf l mply n p a tc 'l e te 1 e 2 SC. 0 0 - ç h lb n n a u t e pl m e pr tc f a e pl r... o dic i nat ag ns a i vi ua wih r pe tt m oy nt ac ie or n m oye t s rmi e ai t ny ndi d l t es c o g r c nston,tr , he ) ompe ai e ms condiins orprvie so e oy ntbec us ofs h i viua' to , i lge f mpl me , a e uc ndi d ls r c , oo ,eii n sx, rnain l rgn' Co s q e ty teplitf sc mpanso a u e a e c lr r lgo , e o to a o ii. ). n e u nl,h an if o lit f b s d n tc n ttt t r tce a tvt u d rt saue a h rcam o rtl to mus be o o o si e ç o e td ciif' n e he tt t, nd e li f eai in t u p a dimi s d. s se B. Di cri i i s m naton Cli t alo a s rsacli ofr edic i nai t e Til VI.To esa ih a u smas s s e t am ac s rmi ton md r te I t bls prmaf i c eofdici nai t pli ifmus s ( )t ts i ame rofacas i ace as srmi ton,he antf t how: 1 ha he s mbe ls p o e tdb Ti eVI; 2 t t e j bp ro ma c wa stsa tr ; 3 t a s ewa s b e t o r tce y t 1 ( ) ha h r o ef r n e s aif co y ( ) h t h s u j c t l a a ves e o ntacin;a ( t tsmial st tde o souti t pr tce n d re mplyme to nd 4) ha i lry iuae mplyee sde he oe td ca sweete tddifrnty.Colma v. d. r ofAppeas 626F. 1 1 (t Ci. ls r rae fee l e n M Cou t l, 3d 87, 90 4h r 201 . 0) Appli t eelm e t , hec t sco ta ne t c l t tt pl i ifha al ge y ng hes e n s t our i nsr i d o onc ude ha he antf s le d s fc e tf t t sa eacli ofr c dic i i to t d rTil VI. l i undipu e t t ufii n acs o t t am a e s rm na in m e te l t s s t d ha Chrsm a i ame be ofapr e td cls a t ,t the c it s s m r ot ce a s nd,hus ha r ompl nts ts ist frt ai a ife he is ee n .Ad iin l ,h c mplitid c tsta tep anirsj bp ro ma c wa lme t d t al te o an n iae h t h lit o ef r n e s o y f s tsacor a a1 tmesr l va t t defnda ' e oy e de sons I t sr r aif t y t 1 i e e nt o he e nts mpl m nt cii . n hi ega d, Chrsm a al ge t ts ç ve r c ve a wrte orve ba wa ni no i o dici i or it s le s ha he t r e ei d ny il n ne r l r ng, tce f s plne a yc mplitfo ma a e n ta h rwo kf r h Dee d n wa u stsa t r ' ( mpl n o an r m n g me t h t e r o t e fn a t s n aifcoy. Co . ' a 1 . Ch it sas alg st a h re o me t sulmaeytr nae a dt a s ewa t 1) rsma lo l e h t e mply n wa t tl emi td n h t h s e i teaed d fe e l t n sm ia l st t d e oy sfom outi t pr ecedcl s l he bre r t if r nty ha i lry iua e mpl ee r sde he ot t as . n r i f i opposton,Chrsm a saest tt uc i n e oye who quesi d oro n ii it s t t ha û asa mpl es ca tone ppos d e wr ng o n t a t e win s e o t ej bween t u j c t tesmete t n . .' ( .n o d i g h t h y t e s d n h o r o s b e t o h a rame t . . Br i ' Opp' a 3. Li wie, it snoe t tt Ca asa e oye rs i ef a i t n t ) ke s Chrsma ts ha he uc in mpl es e ponsbl or busng he de e a ' pai nt wer noti tgae ordicplne f nd nts te s e nvesi t d s i i d. As l i t t t oft pli ifsaleg tons t c tco ude t the c am ofr e sl ng he nzh he antf m l a i , he our ncl s ha r l i ac dic i i ton i s fcentt wihsandt de e ntsmoton t dimis Acc di y, he s rm na i s ufi i o t t he f nda ' i o s s. or ngl t de e ntsm o i wilbede e wih r s tt t scai . f nda ' ton l ni d t e pec o hi l m l. l ADA Cli am Chrsma ne m s rst tt def da dic i i t a i the by f ii t pr de a it , xt s e t ha he en nt s rm naed gans r a lng o ovi s r as nabl ac omm odai n t e t ADA. TheADA pr bisdic i i to ç ga ns a e o e c to md r he ohi t s rm nai n ç i t a qualfe i vi lon t bassofdia lt i r ga dt . .t hii a va eme ,o ii d ndi dua he i s biiy n e r o . he rng, d nc nt r di c r ofe pl yee ,...a o he t r s co tons a prvie sofe pl e . 42 s ha ge m o s nd t r e m , ndii , nd i l ge m oym nt' ' U. C.j1 1 a .Gd srmi ton'a us i t ADA pr bisno onl dipraeteame t S. 21 2() iDici nai s ed n he ohi t t y s t r t n be us ofa e o sdia lt se% ,b as t f l et ma te ona e ca e n mplyee' s biiy, e ut lo he aiur o ke ras bl 6 a commoda i t t kno physc lorm e t llmiai ofa ot r s q lte i vi l c tons o he wn ia n a i t tons n he wie uaii d ndi dua wihads blt wh i a a plc n o e ly e i. 1 1 ( )5 ( . .' S i v. i o t ia i y o s n p ia t r mp o e ,d j 21 2 b ( )A) . . hn Unv. f i ' M d. e S s Co .3 9F. p' 4 2 4 9(t Ci. 01 ) M d. y . p , 6 Ap x 7 , 7 4 h r 2 0 . To esa ih aprm af ci c eofdic i i toni ac eoff iur t ac omm odae,a tbls i a e as s rm nai n as al e o c t plitf mu ts o ç 1 t t(h jwa a idvd a wh h dad s bl ywihnteme nngo an if s h w:ç ) ha s e s n n iiu l o a ia it t i h a i f ( i t esaue ( ) h t h e ly rh dn t eo ( r ds bl y ( ) h t t ra o a l h tt t; 2 t a t e mpo e a oi f he) ia it ; 3 t a wih e s n be c i a c mmo ain (h )c ul pefnut ee s nil u cinso tep iin . . a d( )ta te c o d to s e o d ro h se t f n to f h osto . ; n 4 h t h a (mplyelr usdt ma s hac ommodai . Rhoa v. C,257F.d373,387n. e o r ef e o ke uc c tons' ' ds FDI 3 11 (t Ci. 0 )(n en l iaina dq oainmakso te ) Th ADA d fn sç ia ii 'a 4 h r 2 01 itr a ctto n u tto r mi d . e t ei e i s b ly' s d t t p y ia o me tlmpar n ta s b tn ilylmiso eo mo emao l ea t t so t h sc l r na i ime t h t u sa tal i t n r r j r i ci i f a f vie s c i dvd a. 4 U. C. 1 0 ( )A) ao lf a t te i cu e b taen tl t dt , u h n iiu l' 2 S. j 21 2 1( .M j r ie ci is n ld , u r o i e o ' vi mi Sc rng f ones f pe f mi m a lt ks s i he rng, a i se pi wal ng,sa ng, sa i or el, ror ng nua as , eeng, a i e tng, le ng, ki t ndi lfi be ng gndlwor ng. 42U. C.j1 02()A) itng, ndi , a ki ' ' S. 21 2( . Li r ly c t i t pli ifsc be a l onsnzng he antf ompli a he bre i opposton, heco t ant nd r if n ii t ur c udest tt pli ifhasofe e s fce f cua al to t s ts ye h oft oncl ha he antf f r d ufi int a t l legai ns o a if ac he elment ne es a y t sa eac am unde t ADA.W ih r s c t t frtee e , it a e s c s r o tt li r he t e pe t o he is lm nt Chrsm s a lgest ts s f r fom ac ne tvetsuedior e known a Ehlr - nl Syndr le ha he ufe s r on c i is s dr s e sDa os ome, whihi t r e b e te l los j itgjh p reatcs i ta b us se sl a de sl c s t k d y xrmey o e on s, y e- lsi kn h t r ie a i n a i ma y y da edbl ve s s. ( .i Opp' a 2. Chrsma frhe alge t tt smpomsoft mag ood sel ' Br n ' n t ) it s u t r le s ha he y t he diod r icu igto n p i s i taig ta fe, t .'e tit e a it t lf, e d so p, s r e ,n l dn j i t an, kn e rn ,lt e tecy rsrc h r bl y o itb n , to ' i a wak.(d. t ) Ath ssa eo tel iai n tec u t o cu e ta t ep an ifs nd l 1 a 4. ti tg f h i g to ,h o r c n ld s h t h litf t a l a i ofdia lt a e s t intt wihsa t de e ntsm oton t dim is leg tons s biiy r ufk e o t t nd he f nda ' i o s s. W ih r pec t t s c ee e - t tt de e ntha notc ofhe diabiiyt es t o he e ond lm nt ha he f nda d ie r s lt . Cl sm asa lgest ts wi i tal a sg d t wo k t o r ghts f a oneoft ui t le ha he s nii ly s i ne o r he ve ni hit t he def nda ' f ciii i o dert a o modae he dia lt As um i t tu h oft s e nts a ltes n r o cc m t r s biiy. s ng he r t hi al to t de e n wa onnotc ofhe aleg d dia lt a t ,hepli ifhas legai n, he f nda t s ie r l e s biiy nd,hus t a ntf s ts i t s c el m e . a i ted he e ond e nt Thet r elm e ofhe ac ommoda i c am r quie Chrsm a t s hid e nt r c ton l i e r s it s o how t t wih a ha, t r s na eac omm oda i s coul pe f r t es e i f nci o he poston.I t s ea o bl c ton, he d ro m he s ntal u tons f r ii n hi r ga d, hepl i ifsal tonss ges t tt d e n i taly ma a r a ona e e r t antf legai ug t ha he ef nda t nii l de e s bl ac omm odai f rt pl i ifi s he i he t wor t ove i s f snc t s f c ton o he antf n c dulng r o k he m ght hit i e he hit r r s g tca l l s phys c lac i t o t pa tofe pl ye as i tng t de e equies i nii nty e s i a tviy n he r m o es s s i he f ndan ' ts p te t.S e4 U. C. 1 1 ( )B)( eii gç e s n bl a c mmo ain'oicu e ain s e 2 S. j 21 19 ( d fn n t a o a e c o d to 't n l d r û dfe wo ksh d ls).Th p anifsalg to sf rh rs g etta s h dn dfiu t t iid r c e ue ' e litf l ai n u te u g s h t he a o ifc ly mo e f l lng t r q r m e sofhe poston whiewor ng t tpariul rs f.Ac e e a tu u fli he e uie nt r ii l ki ha tc a hit c pt d s r e, t s a lga i a es fc e tt esabls a t ssa e o t ltga i t tt pl i ifwas he e le tons r ufi i n o t ih, t hi t g f he ii ton, ha he antf a l t p ro m tefn to o h r o wihar ao a l a c mmo ai n b e o e fr h u cins f e j b t e s n b e c o d to . Fi ly, hepl i ifmus s w t tt de e ntr f e t ma a r a ona e na l t antf t ho ha he f nda e us d o ke e s bl a omm odai n. Thepli ifhass tsi t see e by al i t t a trorgi ly cc to a ntf aifed hi lm nt leg ng ha , fe i nal pe m itng he t w or t ove ni hts f, he de e ntl e r ti ro k he r g hi t t f nda ç voke ' hi a c m oda i a r d' t s c om ton nd i se drq r dh rt wo kted yt s i whc fri tl )h rme c lc n iin' ( .n n ta e ui e o r h a i hh, ih irt ed e dia o dto . Br i e me i a ' Opp' a 5. nt ) Gi n t sc tsoblgaton t a c ptt pl ntf al gai nsast e, hec t ve hi our' i i o c e he ai ifs le to nz t our co l ncudest the ADA cli i S a i e o isf c ' gba ,55 U. a 678. Acc di y, ha r am s ç usbl n t a e. pl 'l l 6 S. t or ngl t de e ntsmoto m us bede edwih r s c t t scli he f nda ' in t ni t e pe t o hi a m. 11 1. A DEA C l m ai Cl sm a as a lge t tt de e a vi a e t ADEA by ç s rm i tng a i ta ui t s lo le s ha he f nd nt olt d he t c i na i gans di wo k ro e t ea eo f ry( 0 . ( mp . t3) Toe tbihap i fcec s o r e v r h g f o t 4 )' Co la . ' sa ls rma a i a e f d srmi to u d rt i sau e apanif s s o ()t a s eame e o ap o e td ic i nain n e hs ttt, litf mu t h w: 1 h t h mb r f r tce ca s ( )ta s es fee a a v ree ly n a to ; 3 t a s ewa p dbr n h r o ls ; 2 h t h u frd n d es mp o me t ci n ( ) h t h s e mi g e j b s tsacoiya t tmeoft a to a ( t ts wa rplce bys me o sdet aif trl the i he cin; nd 4) ha he s e a d o one uti he pr ec e cas orte t d mor harhl t n sm ia l st t d yot e e o es Se Hilv. ot t d l s r a e e s y ha i lry iuae mg r mpl ye . e l Lo k e M a t Lo it sM g .I c, 5 F.d2 7 2 5(t Ci. 0 4 . c he d ri gsi n c mt.n .3 4 3 7 , 8 4h r 2 0 ) Ha ngr vi we t r c d, hec ta r swih t de e ntt tt pl ntf ha vi e e d he e or t our g ee t he f nda ha he ai if s f ld t a lges fc e f ct t sae aca m ofa dic i i ton.Asdefom t c us y aie o le ufii nt a s o t t li ge s rm nai i r he oncl or as e ton quo e a s ri t d bove, ihe he c net r r ompl ntnorhe bre i opposton ma a a tonal ai r if n ii kes ny ddii r f r nc t t scai . Cons que l i t a e eofa a lga inswhih woul esa ih e e e e o hi l m e nty, n he bs nc ny le to c d t bls t tt pli ifwa r plce b ayounge e o e, t tsmia l st t d yo mg r ha he antf s e a d y r mpl ye or ha i lry iua e t e e pl ee we e ot nvi e tea e m o e f vor y, he c ti c tai d t c ude t tt m oy s r he s r t d r a abl t our s onsr ne o oncl ha he de e f ndan ' m oto m us be gr nt d w ih r s c t t scl i . ts i n t a e t e pe t o hi a m I . V FM LA C l i am I he fnalc am t rf r ll w,Cl sm a ale est t de e ntvi a e t n r i l i mde ede a a ui t s l g hat he f nda olt d he FM LA t n t y tr naedhe e o ntwhies wa onpr pe l a i d f ra f whe he e mi t r mpl yme l he s o ry pple o nd ga td ( rn e FMLA)la e' ( mpla 3) I mo igt d s s ti cam,h d fnd n agu s e v . Co . t . n vn o imis h s li t e ee a t r e ' t tt cli i ba r d byt a ia esaut oflm ia i ,sncei a c u d m o et n t ha he am s re he pplc bl t t e i ttons i t c r e r ha wo yea sbe o e t pl i iffl t i tnta ton. Thede e nta s a gue t tt pl i ifs r f r he antf ied he nsa c i f nda lo r s ha he antf alegai nsa ei ufk i ntt sa eapl usb ecli f r le l to r ns t e o tt a i l am or e if Unde t FM LA,i i C a ulf ra e o rt it re ewih,r sr i o de y t r he t s t wf o ny mplye o n e f r t e ta n, r n he unl e rieo o t atmp t e rie a yrg t r vd dt e ( esa ue . 2 U. C. xecs f r he te t o xecs, n ih p o ie md r t tt tq' 9 S. j h ' 261 a.tlhi pr bii i l sr tlaoydic r f tki la ' W ys v. w 5() t- s ohi ton ncude eaitr s hage or a ng e ve. ' ong Do Ch m. .5 3F.d4 , 4 ( t Ci. 0 7 .W hl F LA camsa eg n r l s be t oa e Co, 0 3 41 4 7 6h r 2 0 ) i M e li r e eal u j c t y t - e rlmiain peid camsb s do ç lfl mic n u t r s b e t oatr ey a wo y a i tto s ro , li a e n t lu' so d c a e u j c t h e -e r wi ' lmi to sp ro S e29U.. j26 7 c( )a d( ) $ w11 volto i s o wh n a i t in eid. e a SC. 1 ()1 n 2 . ç 1 i ai n s h wn e n A 11 e pl rkne ors m oye w howe r c e sd seg r r a di whehe isc d e kls ir a d eg r ng t r t onduc waspr bie ' t ohi t d.' Setev.S. .Ro er Co.No.98tl W dc s , 2313,1 U. App. 999 S. LEXI 157 a *9(t Ci. ul 1 S 45, t 4h r J y 2, 1 9 )( ingM c ug lnv. c ln S o Co.48 U. 1 8 1 2 1 5( 9 8 M ee 9 9 ct i La h i Rih a d h e , 6 S. 2 , 3 - 3 1 8 :. r ne i nce i i ufi i nt I glge s ns fc e . d. l t sc e, it sa lge t tt de e ntag ee t pe mi he t tket e we ks n hi as Chrsma le s ha he f nda r d o r t r o a hr e e o F LA la et c r f rh ril u b nd y t emiae h re o me t to t u tkain fM e v o ae o e 1 h s a , e tr n td e mply n wi u j si to h t whie s w ason l ve. A s um i t t t oft pl ntf sa l ga i , he c tconc ude t t l he ea s ng he nzh he ai i f le tons t our l s ha t pl i ifhassa e s fce f cst pl i ys he antf t t d ufi int a t o ausbl ugge tt tt de e nts s ha he f nda howe r c e s d e kl s dir r a t whehe isc sega d s o t < t onduc wa pr bie byt FM LA .Acc di y,t i s of t s ohi td he or ngl he s ue 10 wh te tealg dc n u t ss lfl'a d tu , u j c t at e -e rsaueo l tto , eh r h le e o d c wa é lt ' n ,h s s be t o hrey a tt t f i ains wi l mi mu t ede ie o s mmayj d me ti t eei n g n ieis eo maeilfc, rb aj r , s b cd d n u l u g n ,f h r s o e un s u f tra a t o y uy i t pli ifi r e e de es fce t s ppo t lndi ofwilune s f he a ntf ntoduc s vi nc ufi int o u r a i ng lf l s . Se tng a i t saut oflm ia i is t c r a s c ude t tt pl ntf ti sde he t t e i ttons s ue,he ou t lo oncl s ha he ai ifs al ga i i s le tons n uppor ofhe FM LA cam a es fce t wihsa t de e ntsmoton. I t r li r ufi int o t tnd he f nda ' i n or rt m a outaprm af ce c s ofrt la i t de o ke i a i a e ea iton mdert FM LA,apli ifmus esa ih ht a ntf t t bls tha gh )e a e i p oe tda tvt ,h ttee ly rto a v rea to a an t(e) a t t s e ng g d n r tce ciiy t a h mpo e o k d e s cin g is h r, nd t t tt ad r ea ton wa ca al c ha he ve s c i s us ly onne t dt t pl i ifspr e td a tviy. Ya he v. c e o he antf ot ce ci t ' s nko ' Har h' NC Ca io Co.LLC, 4 F.d5 , 5 ( t Ci. 0 6 (ne n l iaina dq oain ra s sn . 4 6 3 41 5 1 4h r 2 0 ) itr a ctto n u tto maksomit . r ted) I t sc s ,t pli tf a lge t ts eng ed i apr t c e a tviyby t ng FM LA n hi a e he a n if le s ha he ag n o e t d c i t aki la t ts wa t nni td a t ,s f r d a a r ee oy e a to a t tt e ve; ha he s e nae nd, hus ufe e n dve s mpl m nt ci n; nd ha he t r i ton oc ur e dzi t pe i t ts wason t r uese l ve.G hiee de e a e m na i c r d trng he rod ha he he eq t d ea t l vi nc s W t teco e e so tme(ewe n a e ly e sa s n ea dh rtr n to lta fo o h ls n s f i b t e n mpo e ' b e c n e emiain fr r m conc usve y e t bls st r qui ie c us lco l i l s a i he he e st a a nnec i i c r a nl s tsi st l s one ous ton, t e t i y a i t e he es r bzd no ma i ap i fcec s o c u aiy' l ( u tn W ila v. r eo is I c, t e f kng rma a i a e f a s l .'d.q oig l ms Ceb r nc .n . r t ' i 8 1F.d4 2 4 7( t Ci. 98 ) Fo t s r a o ,h d fn a tsmo inmu tb d nid 7 2 5 , 5 4h r 1 9 . r he e e s ns te e e d n ' to s e e e w ih r s c t t pl i if sFM LA c a m . t e pe t o he a ntf ' li St e Law C l m s at ai I a ton t he cai unde f de a lw,Chrsm a a s rst c am sunde sael w: n ddii o r l ms r e rl a it s s e t wo l i r tt a a c ai f i e i li lc i ofe otona di tes a a c a m t tt de e ntç i t d he l m or nt ntona nfi ton m i l sr s nd l i ha he f nda ç n e r pa 11 i flelg t'( mpla 4. Fo tef lo n ra o s t ec u t g e swihtedee d n t t n as ih . Co . t ) r h olwig e s n ,h o r a r e t h fn a t ha ' b t o t e ecamsaes b e t ods s a. o h f h s li r u j c t imis l Un e Vign alw, cam fritni n ln lcino e t n l ite si s b e t oa d r r ii a a li o n e to a ifito f moi a d sr s s u j c t o t - e rsaueo l tto s eVa Co ej8012 3 A) Th cam t c r e a dtetme wo y a tt t f i ain .Se . d . - 4 ( . e li ç c u s n h i mi a lm ia i be nst 1 w he t t ti c m it d.' M a ny v.Be ke , i t ton gi o Mn n he or s om te ' ho c r 435 S. 2d 139 1 E. , 41 ( . 9 3 .l t i c s ,h p anifscam o itnin lnlcino e to l ite s Va 1 9 ) n h s a e t e litf' li f n e to a itit f moina d sr s o ac nld i M a of2009,whe s wa tr naedby t d e nt Be aus t i t a ton c e n y n he s e mi t he efnda . c e he nsant c i wa notfl d untlDe e be of201 t cai i ba r d byt sa u eoflm iai . s ie i cm r 1, he l m s re he t t t i t tons Ac or ng y, hede e ntsm oto wilbegr t d wih r s c t t pl i ifscam f r c di l t f nda ' in l an e t e pe t o he antf' li o i e i li lc i ofe o i naldit e s nt ntona nfi ton m to sr s . The pl i ifa s ale t s wa pa nt d i a f l e lghtby t de e nt A st a ntf l o l ges hat he s i e n a s i he f nda . he de e an e pha ies howe r t spa tc a c us ofa to i notr c ze i Vigi a. See f nd t m sz , ve , hi riul r a e ci n s e ogni d n r ni W J TV v Le i 5 4S. 2 3 3 3 5n5( . 0 2 .Co e u n l,h scam i as LA- . vn, 6 E.d 8 , 9 . Va 2 0 ) nsq e ty ti li s lo s be tt d s sa . u jc o imis l Conc us on l i Fo t r as saed, hede e ntsm o i t dimiswilbe g a e i par a r he e ons t t t f nda ' ton o s s l r nt d n t nd de e i pa t TheCl k i die t d t s nd c rii d c esoft sm e a ni d n r. er s r c e o e e tfe opi hi mor ndum o ni a pi on nd t ac ompa yi o de t t pli ifa a1c elofr c d. he c n ng r r o he antf nd l ouns e or y ul 01 . ENTER: i IyW da ofJ y, 2 2 Ths ? +2 Chi fUnie St t s D it i tJ e t d a e s rc udge 12