-BWC Cunningham v. Delhaize America, Inc., No. 3:2012cv00002 - Document 23 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 9/27/2012. (mab)
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CLERK' OF CEU. . ST. URT S FI S DI O AT RoANou , VA w ,o , L I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI CT RGW I A CH ARLO TTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI sEP 2 2 2 21 JULI C t L A ) EY BY; D PYW CL SY LV I CU N N I G HA M , A N Pl i if a ntf , Ci lA c i n N o.3: 2- v- 00 vi to 1 c 0 02 V. M EM O M N DU M O PI I N N O D ELH AI AM ER I , N C, ZE CA I By: Ho Gl n E. n. e Com ad Chi fUnie Stt sDititJ e t d a e src udge D e e nt f nda . 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S efrtsae t a s e u h i t e t c ue h a o o k d o J t 7) h is ttd h t h #. t hts woul ha s e t paltha s l d d houg he d ve e n he le d he ooke own a t bo t m oft ca dboa d bi t he to he r r n, t n lt rc im e t ts wa s es woul ha be n a et s e i had s be n l ng. he a e onfr d ha he s ur he d ve e bl o e t he e ooki (d.a 1 22. Ct ng m tsii t tt r wa a las af tofpaltvii ealt wa l t 6, ) mni ha etfed ha he e s t e t oo le sbl lhe y ao n tep rmee o t ec r b a dbi.(d a 2 . Ad iin ly Cu nn h m tsiidt a r u d h e i tr f h a d o r n L= t 2) dto al, n ig a etfe h t s wasnotdita t d orsa te by a hi att m o e s f l,a t t a e oft he sr c e t rld nyt ng he m nt he e l nd hat he r a he soewheet ki kwasl aedhadt l oflghta glr.'(d. t23- ) tr r he os oc t $ ot i nd ae' 1 a 24. a The pl ntf t s ii d t a t s f ls s w lghtco i f om be w e n a t de t ai i f e tfe hat fer he el he a i m ng r t e nd m r he pale pice ,i cai t paltwasee t of t gounda las s wha.(d. t20- . lt e s ndi tng he le lvaed f he r t e t ome t 1 a 21) Shet sii t ts ha s e smia diplysa t sor i t pa t butt ts wa c rai e tfed ha he d e n i lr s a t he t e n he s, ha he s e t n t eds a we eno r tngonpales (d. t1 1 ) hos iplys r t esi lt. l a 6-7. Th p an ifalg sta, e a eo h rfl, h s tie s ro sijtisa dh s e litf le e h t b c us f e als e usan d eiu nt e n a r ic re o g i gme ia e p n e a ar s to t o eij re . n u r d n o n dc l x e s s s eul f h s nu is I I. Di cussi s on 1. Le St gal andard At h s mmayj d me tsa e tec u t s ve tefcsi t elg tmo t a o a l t e u r u g n tg ,h o r mu t iw h a t n h ih s fv rb e t t n n vngp ry P she v. tr, 7 F.d5 , 6 (t Ci. 0 9 .Then n vn o he o mo i a t. uec l Pee s 5 7 3 58 5 3 4h r 2 0 ) o mo ig pa t i e ild t ha t û r biiy ofhi e de e a f ec s a s d,hi ve so ofal ry s ntte o ve he t edi lt c s vi nc s or a t s ume s r i n l t ti i diput a c pt g a1itr lc lcsi ir ol f r bl t hi ' ha s n s e c e ed,andl l nena onfit n t es ved avo a y o m.' Ch z oma e d F a c v. mih 5 7F.d4 6 41 ( t Ci.1 7 ) S mmayj d me ti ab r c s e rn e S t , 9 2 0 , 4 4h r 9 9 . u r u g n s a opra e onl whe t he m o nts w s t tt r i no ge ne di put ast any m a e i lf c ppr i t y nç t va ho ha he e s nui s e o tra a t ' Fe R.Ci Pr 56.A ge neis ofm ae i lf te ssSi t e de e i s h t ta ' d. v. o. nui s ue tra ac xit df he vi nc s uc ha . . . . r a o a l j r c u dr tr av r it o ten n vn pat ' An es nv. b ryLo b a e s n b e u y o l eu n ed c f r h o mo ig ry. d ro Lie t b y ' l .4 7U. 2 2 2 8( 9 6 . nc, 7 S. 4 , 4 1 8 ) 2. A nal s ysi W h nafd rlc u tsjlidcinrsso dvest o ctz ns i t ec u t s a py e e ea o r' t s ito e t n i riy f iie hp,h o r mu t p l r t s t ntve1w oft f m sae,i l ngt f u sae' c c oflw r e . Se Ere he ubsa i a he onz t t ncudi he or m t t s hoie a uls e i R. Co v To kns 3 4U. 6 ( 9 8 ; e e sv J h De r Co.4 4U. 5 6 5 9 5 R. . . mp i , 0 S. 4 1 3 ) F rn . o n ee , 9 S. 1 , 1 , 31 ( ) Vigi af l t 1x l ic c oflw docrne whiha ist s tntve1 of 1990 . r ni olows he e oc hoie a ti , c pple he ubsa i aw t pa eo t wr n Fr ev. mmo we lh 2 Va 3 0 3 5( 9 6 .Th ij r hee he lc f he o g. y Co n at , 31 . 7 , 7 1 8 ) e nu y r ha ne i V i g ni ,and s a pot ntalla lt i go r d by Vi gi a l w . ppe d n r i a o ny e i i biiy s ve ne r ni a Thelw gove ni pr s sla lt i si a f l c esi wels tl i Vigi a a r ng emie i biiy n lp nd a l as s l-e ted n r ni . W i xi St es l v. r r 240Va.1 1 2(1 .Busne spar aei tesoft mwDi e or .nc. Pake , 80, 8 990) i s tons r nvie he s or ow ner. l A s oreow neri notan i erofal i t s s et G r Atantc & Pacii t e d. t s nsur z nviee' af y, eat l i fc Te Cosnc v Ro e beg r 2 3Va 3 8 3 1( 9 2 , o ve,to sivi e ad t t tk a I . . sn r e , 0 . 7 , 8 1 6 ) h we r i we n t s u y o a e e or na y ca ei ke pi ispr miess f Col alSt e I v. lv,203 Va 535,537 di r z n e ng t e s a e. oni or s nc. Pule . ( 962)(iainsomit .Busne si te i t nha aduyt bea eofope a obvi 1 ctto ted) i s nvie s n ur ve t o war n nd ous d n es O' inv Ev ra t Ic, 5 Va 3 6 3 ( 9 7 . a g r. Bre . e fs,n .2 4 . 2 , 31 1 9 ) V igi a a he est t docrneofc rbut r neg i nce ee. , ar v. br r ni d r o he ti onti o y lge .Se g.Ye v Hol ook, 1 Va,266, ( 938 .ç-heese i c ptofc rbutr neglg ncei c eesne s' 71 285 1 ) ç- s ntal once l onti o y ie s arl s s . ' Fulzv.Del i Ameia I , Va 84,89( 09) W he aplitf fist a ta a t haze rc s nc.278 . 20 . n anif al o c s r as bl pe s s ul i agi n st to s m a a ol t o he pa t ofla lt Esa e e ona e r on ho d n ve iuai n, he y bs ve he t r ry ibiiy. t t ofM os e r . os v.Sout e t r Va.Tr s tM a ge e Co. I , V a. es x el M es hw s e n mz i na m nt . nc, 273 672,677 ( 0 7 (iai n o te ) Al o g c nrb t r n gie c c n s mei sbed tr n da a 2 0 ) ctto s mitd . t u h o tiu o y e lg n e a o tme h ee mie s matro lw,t so d n rl aq sinf r h j l J n i v P ls 2 9Va 28 , 9( 0 5 ; te f a ii r i ai ueto o t e uy. e kns . y e , 6 . 3 28 2 0 ) y Anti v.E. BeryEqui Co.240Va 354,357( 990) Si lry,whehe ac ton rp E. r p. , . 1 . mial t r ondii pr s n sa ope and o oushaz r i ge r ly aquesi n off t Evera k l ,254 Va a eet n n bvi a d s ne a l to ac . f s nc. .t 3 (iigS fe'v. . mb ra e lc, 5Va 4 6 41 ( 9 4 ) eS p e Co r o 31 ctn hilt M Ti elk .n .20 . 0 , 1 1 6 ).Th u r me u t f t V igi aha s cii al de lne t hol t taf l et l k d r ni s pe tc ly c i d o d ha aiur o oo own whie se pi f wa d wil l t p ng or r l consiut co rbut ynegi nc i e r ca e Fulz, Va a 90(ii LiteCre I tt e nti or lge e n vey s . t 278 . t ctng tl e k nv. Co pv. b ad, 4 Va 25 , 61( 9 5 (( h cru tn e o e c c s mu tb r Hu b r 2 9 . 8 2 1 9 ) t T) e ic msa c s f a h a e s e $ co i r d t de em i whe he ape ti n who f ld t l ne rhees pr uc d s fcent nsde e o t r ne t r desra aie o ook ve t l s od e ufi i e de et s vi nc o uppor a fndi t tt pe sra e r ie r a ona ec r f rhi o hers ey t i ng ha he de tin xe cs d e s bl a e o s r af t u e t ecru tn e .l s he ie ei p o u e , u yq e to i p e e td') nd r h ic msa c s f uc vd nc s r d c d aj r u sin s r s ne .l. ' I s ppor ofismoto f s n u t t in or ummayj me t t dee ntctsan r udg n,he fnda ie umbe ofc es r as w her pl ntf s w er f e ai if e ound cont but iy neglgentasa m aterofl f f lng t avoi open ri orl i t aw or aii o d a o ousha a ds nd bvi zr . 4 l S o t Ci o Lv c bu t ep anifwa ij r dwh n s ef lfo ac r a act n c t v t f n h tx,h litf s nu e e h el r m u b t iy y make.241Va. 4 ( 991.TheCour f t tt plitf ha noe us f fii t s e r t 26 1 ) t ound ha he anif d xc e or alng o e t c u butsmpl ' o g i wa t r ' L. Thede ii r t d ont f c t tt pl ntf he t b, i y t r ot t s he e. d f ' . a c son ese he a t ha he ai if wasf m ii rwih t c b andhad s f l na ga e i ma tm e i t pas .La a 67n la t he ur a ey vi t d t ny i s n he t ds t 68 (tW l n apl ntf kno oft e se eofaco tonbutwiho a ras bl e us çg he ai if ws he xitnc ndii , t ut ny e ona e xc e, f gesa or t boutt c to a f l i of,o o ri, i guit ofc rbut y ne i nc a a he ondii n nd als n, f r ve t he s ly onti or glge e s matro lw.) te f a '. 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Tu n r 21 Va 9 (9 2 ,h plitf wa ij r dwh ns e n z wel u py v. r e, 3 . 3 1 7 ) te an if s nu e e h ti d o rac r r boxt tha be nnegi ntyplc di asor ase.L. a 93.The e rppe ve adboad ha d e lge l a e n t e il d t . a r wasno diput t ts woul ha s e t box ha s l d down a t gr s e ha he d ve e n he d he ooke t he ound,a t ts nd ha he c ul ha a deda da rbysmpl waki ao t box.J TheCo tfundt t o d ve voi ny nge i y l ng rund he Z ur o ha bec us t box wa i pli viw, hepl ntf co dno dçn t e r s ofor na y c z ,c os a e he s n an e t ai if ul t ii he xe cie di r a e l e he e s whi h wa t equi l n ofwha s s d s di a wa k down t sase wihou r ye , c s he va e t t he ai he d, nd l hi il t t r r t ope a obvi a tcesi i whi h woul ha be n a r ntt he ha s l d ega d o n nd ous ri l n t c d ve e ppa e o r d he ooke e nc s al o e trn t easeo a a ytmeb f r s ef l ' I ( u tn Go te v ve a u ly n n eig h il r t n i eo e h e1 ' d.q oi g tl b . ,' i Andrz, Va.11 118( 958:. t 200 s 4, 1 Fo t s m epr ii t de e ntciesEng a v.Food Li LLC, r he n oposton,he f nda t l nd on. No. 6:5 v 0 2 2 0 W L 8 3 3 ( . Va M a . 1 2 0 ) I t t a e t ep an if rp e o e 0 c0 0 , 0 6 9 8 9 W D. . r 3 , 0 6 . n ha c s ,h litf tip d v r t pr r ng l gsofa s de - i dipl y ba ke i a g oc y sor 1 a *1 2.The he otudi e houl rheght s a s t n r er t e. d. t pl i ift tfe t ts wa f la wih t st peofba ke a kne t ti r t d on s antf esii d ha he s amiir t hi y s t nd w ha t ese uppor t l .J.a 2.Sheas t tfe t tt lgsweeceal vii e,a t tha s bee loki egs ., t / lo esiid ha he e r l ry sbl nd ha d he n o ng ng he ai i f a m s w o d ha s e t m a m a ge t a d ti ng.L a I denyi t pl ntf scl i , he ul ve e n he nd na d o voi rppi d n . . t cour f he t ound t tt ba ke ' l spr s n e a obvi usha r t tt pl ntf c d ha ha he s ts eg e e t d n o za d ha he ai if oul ve a de by se ng ove ora ou Englnd,2006 W L a * voi d t ppi r r nd. a t 2. Eac oft e c s sct d by t de e h hes a e ie he f ndant howe r hassg fc tditng s ng , ve , i niian si uihi c r c e itc fom t one a ha l Sc tt c t e id on t pli ifspr - xitng ha a t rsi s r he t nd. n ot, he our r le he a ntf e e si knowl edgeoft da rpr e edbyt c b i de e mi ngt tt pl ntf was he nge es nt he ur n t r ni ha he ai if conti or l neg i nt l c r s , rbut iy lge . n onta t Cunni m ' f m ii iy w ih t s t ngha s a lart t he e ypesofdi pl ys w a s a s s h t ts woul ha t uc ha he d ve houghtt r wasno da e ofge tng he f c ughtunde ne t he e ng r ti r oot a r ah anyt ng. Shet sii t ts wasc ran t tnoneoft sm iardipl yss had pr vi l hi e tfed ha he e ti ha he i l s a he e ousy s e i t s o e i ved pa l t . e n n he t r nvol le s I bot Ta ewel and Englnd,t da rpr s ntd by t ha ar woul ha be n n h z l a he nge e e e he z ds d ve e ea iy dice sl s nwd ha t pl ntfsbe n l ki whe et y we egoi l ea h ca e, he d he ai if e oo ng r he r ng. n c s t p an ifce rywo l h v rc g ie ta teo j c is l s ul b a o d d I litf lal ud a e e o n z d h t h b e ttef ho d e v i e . n Cunni hn ' c s how e ,i i nots c rai s w oul ha r c ze t da r ng m s a e, ver t s o e t n he d ve e ogni d he nge pr e e by t pal te n i s ha s e i. Ba ed o he prore renc s ha no r s es nt d he le ve f he d e n t s n r i xpe i e, he d ea on t t nk i wa pos i et c t h he f on a hi unde t c d r bi N o ca i bes d, o hi t s sbl o a c r oot nyt ng r he ar boa d n. r n t ai asam a trofl w, ha t da rofe anglng a f o t unde sdeofadipl y bi i te a t t he nge nt i oot n he ri s a n s nec s a iy open a obvi t a pe s e r s ng d c r By t ve' na ur ofm e c e s rl nd ous o r on xe ci i ue a e. he l t e y r handi e s dipl ys c t r a e e our edt sa cos t t c a ne t alow t m t r tivet s a , usome s r nc ag o t nd l e o he onti r o l he o ere he goods.Eve i apa r wasa r t tad s a bi wa s n f ton wa e ha iply n s uppore by apalt a or na y td le , n di r peron m i notconsde i lkel s woul ha he f otc ughton t unde sde oft pa lt s ght i r t i y he d ve r o a he ri he le sm pl on a cot ofa oac ng t bi a r movi ie sf s e. i y c mt ppr hi he n nd e ng t m or al V igi a c e 1 w s r ni as a uppo t s h a r ul. The Supr m e Cour ofV igi a hass i t ti r s uc es t e t r ni a d ha t i n te o g t a a o j c b plil vii et c nsi t a o e a do vo sh z r ,h s o n u h h t n be t e any sbl o o t ue n p n n b iu a ad t e t pli ifmus alohaveras t a e it t natr oft hann pos dbyt ob e t I antf t s e on o ppr cae he tle he e he j c. n 6 Cr c rv W TAR Ra i Co .1 4Va 5 2 5 5(95 ) teCo r f t ta adfee c i t e o ke . do p , 9 . 7 , 7 1 3 ,h u t omd h t ifr n e n h he ghtoft o f o s wasno a ope a obvi ha a d e n t i w l or t n n nd ous z r ve hough t r wasnot ng he e hi obsnztng t pli if svi w oft a e The Co tsaed,t l t st ton wast pe t t c i he antf ' e he r a. ur tt ç e he iua i whi o n' o t pl i if i t s ns t tt r wa no obsr c i bewe n he andt se i wa not he antf, n he e e ha he e s t u ton t e r he tp, t s n c s ai Sb o s t h r' I Fidn ta t efcsCu p rld a ifr n e'h t h e e s rl o viu ' o e . d. n ig h t h a t d p o te ) n n ee c 'ta t e y ' s haz r wasnotope andobvi ,heCour rf s dt de det is asamatrofl J= ad n ous t t e u e o ci he sue te aw. #. Li e s ,n O' inv. efs. n .2 4Va 3 6, 31( 9 7 ,h S p e Co r o k wie i Bre Ev rat l c, 5 . 2 3 1 9 ) te u rme u t f Vigi af r ni ound t tt da rc eaedby he vybolsoff i l ni ag ns at bl wa not ha he nge r t a t abrc ea ng ai t a e s o e a do vo sa amatro lw.Theplitf wa ij rdwhe asxyi c b l o fb i p n n b iu s t f a e an if s n u e n it n h ot f a rc f lfom isposto r tnga ns atbl.L. a 328.TheCour sae t twhiet r wasno el r t iin esi gai t a e d t . a t ttd ha l hee quesi t pli ifc d ha s e t bo t t r wasnots fc e r s f rhe t be ivei ton he antf oul ve e n he l, he e ufii nt ea on o r o le t woul fl a ij ehe i t tma r I a 331.TheCo tra o d,tllverlhe vybols d al nd nur r n ha nne . d. t ur e s ne tse a a t off brc l ni agans aObl i nots r ma ka eorpa e ada ert n a i t et a iir a i ea ng i t es o e r bl t nt ng ha n nvie mf m la wiht naur oft dange pos t rbywoul naualys e t a di. L- Si lry,a t he t e he r ed hee d tr l e k o voi t' d mial ' a r as bl pe s i Cunni hnm ' c s ,e n onewho ha s n t palt m ihtha f l t e ona e r on n ng s a e ve d ee he le , g ve aied o r cog z t na ur oft dange pos d by an or na y m e c e ni e he t e he r e di r r handi e di pl y t tc t m e s a e s s a ha us o r r e our ge t ap oa h.Se as Fre nv.Ca eCop. 11 F. 1 1 1 4- 5( hCi. nc a d o pr c e lo e ma s , 8 3d 01 , 01 1 4t r 1 ( di i t c ntxtofapr ucsla lt ca et tunde Vigni lw,her e nt 997) hol ng n he o e od t ibiiy s ha, r r i a a t elva que ton i whe he t pli ifr c ni st t ofhaz r pos byt de ec , sm pl t si s t r he antf e og ze he ype a d ed he f t not i y he d fc is l ee t teg. 1 11. C oncl on usi A tt s poi i t pr hi nt n he oceedi any doubtaboutw het a r ngs, her easonabl per w oul e son d ha r ogni d t na ur oft hn m m us be r o ve i t pl i if sf vo . The de enda ve ec ze he t e he r t es l d n he a ntf ' a r f nt h sfie t o ec met g n r l rs mpinu d rVigni lw i fvo o h vn aj r a ald o v r o he e ea p e u t n e r i a a n a r f a ig u y o deer newhe he ahaz r i ope a obvi .Fort r as t c t i t e se eof t mi t r a d s n nd ous hat e on, he our fnds he xit nc ag n i is eo maeil a ta dwi d n t ed fn a tsmoinf rs e une s u f tra fc n l e y h ee d n ' to o umma yj g n . l r ud me t TheCl r i diece t s nd c rii d co e o t sm e a e k s r td o e e tfe pis f hi mor ndum o ni a t pi on nd he a co pa ng o dert a lco e o r or c m nyi r o 1 uns l f ec d. ENTER:Ths V' &N1a o Se tmb r2 2. i 3 d y f pe e, 01 ((' - i t *'-t) . ttt Z,- ë 1 i . , . . Chi U nie St t sD i ti tJ ef t d a e src udge