Ashbury International Group, Inc. v. Cadex Defence, Inc. et al, No. 3:2011cv00079 - Document 51 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 9/20/2012. (ssm)
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CLERK' OFFI U , DI COURT S CE S. ST. AT ROM OKE, VA F Dsé tvt 'à l. L j I THE U N I N TED STATES D I STRI COU RT CT FOR TH E W ESTERN D I I OF VI GN A STR CT R CH AR LOTTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI A SHBU RY I TERN A TI N AL N O GROUP,l , NC. Pl ntf , ai i f SE 22 2 1 22 J A C. D - , ULI CL K BY; DE C Ci lAc i No.3: CV00079 vi ton 11 M EM O R AN D UM O PI O N M By:Hon.Gl E.Conr d en a Chi U nie St t D i ti tJ ef t d a es s r c udge CADEX DEFENCE,I ,ç g , NC. 1 1, Dee f ndan s t. As yI e tona Gr I tç hbtr 'fldt spae i rnge hbur ntmai l oup, nc.i As ty' ie hi tnt nfi mentacin, l to algngt a d fn a t Ca e Dee c ,n . ç d x'a dDrk Aso its I c Co rk ' le i h t ee d n s d x fn e Ic (Ca e ' n a e s cae , n . a e' 4 ) l i lme tdt etc n l ycame b As b r i U. 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' 201 ) Cons se w ih t pa te 's pl m e t lb i f , he c t ilf usisa l i o i t nt t he ri s up e n a r e s t our w l oc t na ys s n wh te Ca e sc n a t wihVign aaes fiin t c nfrg n r lu id cin.Th eh r d x' o tcs t r ii r u fce t o o e e ea j rs it o e sa r f esa ihi ge r j iditoni Gail hi ' Auoce c .l ,566F.d tnda d or tbls ng nealurs ci s û ry gh.' t nomis nc. f 3 1 2,1 8( Ci. 01 01 Fed. r 2009) Thec ur mus e oet natr ofCa x' c ci wih . o t t xplr he tte de s onne tons t V igi at de e m i whe he t y c tt e t t pe ofSs ontnuousa s t m a i ge r l r ni o t r ne t r he ons iut he y <c i nd yse tc ne a busne sc t t''ne sa yt e i s onacs' ce sr o mpowert sc ttoe e ti s ta i tghec hi our t ntran ui gans t ompa on t ny) camsu rltdt a yhngt a c n cs( ec mp n )t teS ae' Go y a,1 S. . t li n eae o n ti h t o ne t t o a y o h tt. od e r 31 Ct a h ' 2 5 (iigHeio tr s 4 6U. a 41 ) l c n iu u a s se tcc n a t aefu dt 8 7 ctn lc pe o , 6 S. t 6 . f o tn o s nd y tmai o tcs r o n o e itt ec u t s as d tr n wh t e tea srino pes na jzid cinwo l be x s,h o r mu t lo ee mi e eh r h se t f ro ll s ito ud o r r as bl Se Elcs f l e ona e. e e . or maci I . 340 F.d a 1 - 2. nce nc, 3 t 351 5 Contnuous a Svs e atc Cont s i nd tm i act l a yi t çc i usa s t m a i ' con a t t s ,c t ha f us d on t o n ppl ng he i ontnuo nd ys e tc ' t c s e t our s ve oc e w a e .Fis ,he l f s m eki o de i r ephysc lpr s nc i t f u sae, uc as r as r t t y ook or o nd f lbe at ia e e e n he or m t t s h c por t f ciii ,bn ac ot t ,a nt , eg s r ton, i o o a i n. l t s r ga d, he or a e a ltes nk c m s ge s r i t a i or nc m r to n hi e r t S p e Co r' d cso i Pek n v. n u tCo o . ii Co.3 2U. 43 ( 9 2 u r me u ts e iin n r i s Be R e ns lM nng , 4 S. 7 1 5 ) çe is(l etxbo k c s o g n rl u idcina p o raeye rie o raf rin i man th e t o a e f e ea j rs ito p r p itl xecsd ve o eg r c r o ainta h sn t o e tdt s ii t efr m. 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Alhought cam-n-uidi notaiei Ohi t e)Cour r ldt t ompa ' t ' he li i s t d rs n o,hg t ue ha iwo l n t oaed ep o e sf rOh ot a j d c t t ec nr v ry t ud o vilt u r c s o i o du iae h o to e s . l (nena cttonso te . d. itr l iai mitd) I a ton t l oki f ree e t ofphysc lpr s nc c t ha alo c i r n ddii o o ng o lm n s i a e e e, ours ve s onsde ed w he he t de e n hasa tvel s i ie bus ne si t f u s a e a t e e t w hi h t r he f nda t c i y olc t d i s n he or m t t nd he xt nt o c t de e ntha pa tc pa e i t sae' e onom i ma ke s Se Tua v.R.. vnol he f nda s rii t d n he tt s c c r t . e zon J Re ds Toba coCo.433F.d 11 11 ( hCi. c , 3 63, 72 9t r 2006)(itng, i caofc i lsi as ndii ontnuousa nd s em atc cont s,ûvoll e,'(econom i i pact' çcontnuiy,'and ti egr i i o t s at s yst i act ç lm ' s cm ,'ç i t ' tnt aton nt he t e' r aor ore onomi makes).l ot rwor ,c ursha e mi t E onomi r aiy' egult y c c r t' n he ds o t ve xa ned he i ec c e lt ' o t ed f n a tsa tvte i t ef r m sae l . t1 7 (nena ctto a dq o ai nmak f h e e d n ' ciiis n h o u tt. d a 1 3 itr l i in n u tto r s a o te ) seas Tre welr Cr x o & Trn hHodncCo.9 F.d 1 2 ,1 3 ( 0h Ci. mitd ; e lo ir ie v. o t n e c li , 0 3 5 3 5 3 1t r 1 9 )(i dwi a p o a i Det S sa n . I d kM f . r .4F. p' 8 7 8 0( d. 9 6 ct t p r v ln la v .I c v.n a c Co p, Ap x 5 , 6 Fe e h Ci. 0 ) (itn , sr lva t ot eg n r lu idcina ay i, eh rted fn a t r 2 01) l i g a ee n t h e ea j rs ito n l ss wh te h ee d n s a tvey s iisbusne si t sae a t vol eofb i s c c i l olct i s n he t t nd he um usne s onduc e i t sa eby t t d n he t t he d fn a t. ee d n ) l Helco e os t Supr m eCo tc i r d e h oft f egong a e a c l n i pt r , he e ur onsde e ac he or i r as nd oncuded t a aCol inc po ainwa n t u j c t g n r lu idcini Te a .Th c r o ai n s h t lmba o r to s o s be t o e ea j rs ito n x s e op r to ' l c na t wi Te a Cb a ial . . o itdo sn i gisc ife e u ieo fc rt Ho so o tcs t x s ç l sc ly . c nsse f e d n t he x c tv fie o u t n h g f ac r c - gotai n s son; c ptng i o isNe Yor ba ac ountc c dr wn on a or onta tne i to es i ac e i nt t w k nk c he ks a Housonbank;purhasngheio e s e pme ,a tani s r c fom g Te s t c i lc ptr, qui nt nd ri ng evies r a xa e eprs )f s t i st ;a sndi pe s lt ( xas f tani ' Heioptr , ntr ie or ubsantal lms nd e ng ronne o Te ) or ri ng.' lc e os 466 U. a 41 Afe notngt a e eofe de e ofaphysca pr e ei Te s s h a S. t 6. tr i he bs nc vi nc i l es nc n xa , uc s a ag nt abusnes lc ns ,i o por ton,orc or t f c lte , he Supr m eCour a s n e , i s i e e nc r ai om a e a iiis t e t lo e mphasz d t tt de e i e ha he f ndantt ver... r onne ...o r to i Te ors d a pr t t ne pe f d pe ai ns n xas ol ny oduc t tra hedTe s (ndjne rs i t busnes i Te . Llat411 Alhought dee nt ha e c xa , a ve olcied i s n xas' t. ' . t he fnda pur has d a s g t a por i ofis fe tofhe i e s f o a c pa ba e i For W o t c e i nik nt ton t l e lcopt r r m om ny s d n t r h, t Cour hed t td e epur ha es e n i oc ur i a r gu a i e v s a enote he t l ha d r m c s , ve f c rng t e l r ntr al, r nought o war n aS ae sa s rino ( e ea) u idci no e an n e ie tc p o aini ac us o ra t tt' se t f g n rlj rs ito v r o rsd n o rto n a e f o a ton notr l t t t e plr ha e ta a tons ' l a 41 ci e a ed o hos zc s r ns c i . d. t 8. ' A ppl ng Pe ki a H e i op e os i G o yi r ns nd lc t r n odve , he Su e e Cour ' m os r c nt ar t pr m ts t ee decso o t e rieo ge rl u idito t Cou thedt tNo t Caolnac dno iin n he xecs f nea j rs cin,he r l ha rh r i oul t e r iepes na j rs ito o rf rins sdaiso Go d e rUS t a ma u a t r dtr s xecs ro l u idcin ve o eg ub iire f o y a A h t n fcu e ie prmaiyf s l i t Eur a a Asa makes e nt i rl or ae n he ope n nd in r t, ve hought s lpec ntge'of(he ( mal re a ' t a f egns i ai ' tr .. wer diti e wihi NorhCaolnabyohe Goodye rUSA ori ubsdiresl ies . e srbutd t n t r i t r a aflaes' Goodve ,1 S. .a 28 TheSup e Cour rj ce t saec ts fiit . ' ar 31 Ct t 52. r me t ee td he tt our' c uson t plci tr si t d te m ofc me c ' ss fcintf t e r ieof oncl i hat a ng ie n he d r a s om r e'wa ufi e or he xe c s p ro a j rs ito o e t ef ri ns b iire .1 . t2 5 - 6 l r a h n t i c n l so , e s n lu id cin v r h o eg u sd ais d a 8 5 5 . n e c i g h s o cu in t c t t d asf l w s he our no e olo : l co r s t t pa e c pan Goodye rU SA ,whi h doe notc e tt n nt a t o he r nt om y, a c s ont s he No t Caol ac u tspes n lu idcino e i, tto esaen trg se e rh r i o r' ro a j rs ito v r tpeiin r r o e itrd n t d b i s i N orh Ca olna They have no pl c ofbusne s e pl s o o o usne s n t r i . ae i s , m oyee , r ba ac ot t i N orh Ca olna. The do notd i m a a t e, a ri e nk c m s n t r i y es gn, nuf c ur or dve ts t rpr t i Norh Ca olna.Andt y do no s i tbusnes i N orh hei oduc s n t r i he t olci i s n t Ca olna ort m s l ss lors p tr t N orh Ca olna c t e s Eve s a r i he e ve el hi ies o t r i us om r . n o, s l p r e t g o peiin r 'ie (e so t o a dso t ftn o mi in mal ec na e f t o e s trs tn f h usn u o e s f l o s t l ma a tr dbewee 2004a 2007 weeditiutdwihi Norh Caolnab nufcu e t n nd ) r srb e t n t r i y ot rGoodyea U SA a t la e . he r fi i t s 1 a 2852. d. t The Supr e Cour c l ed t tt s a e c r ' r i nce on a s r m ofco m e ce em t onc ud ha he t t ou ts ela ten m r t o yt e tbihg n r lu idito wa mipa e he r o sa ls e e a j rs ci n s s lc d: Fl ofma ac er 'pr t i ot f u weha e aned,ma bolt r ow nuf mr s oduc s nt he or m, ve xpli y se a a flain g r net s e ii j rs ito . . Bu te sr igt b ltrt e n f ito ema o p cfc u idcin . . tis e vn o o se h e e cs o s e i cj rs ito d n twar n ad tr naint a, a e o x rie f p cf u idcin o o ra t eemi t h tb sd n i o t s te ,h fr m h sg n rl u idcino rad f n a t ho e is te o u a e ea j rs ito ve ee d n . 1 a 2855. U li a el t Co the d t t when m e ur d ag i tPe ki a H e i o e os d. t tm t y, he ur l ha , as e a ns r ns nd lc pt r , t f rins b iire ' ome to st No t Caoiat el s o t f(h c ni u u a d he o eg u sda is c l cin o rh r l x ll h r o t e o tn o s n n s t m ai ge r busnes c t c s nec s a yt e yse tc ne al i s on a t ' e s r o mpowe N o t Ca olnat e e t n s t r rh r i o nt rai ui a ns t m on c a m sunr a ed t a hi t tc m e t t m w ih t St t ' I a 2857. gai t he li el t o nyt ng ha ol c s he t he a e. d. t ' Thi w ast u e n t ug a t m a lpe c nt ge 'o t f r gn s i i r e 'tr s w a s r e ve ho h i l r e a ' f he o ei ubs d a i s ie s s tspor caly' pur ed i N ort Car i 1 a 2852,2856. 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Nonehees ,a t ssag oft pr e ngs t c t ncude t tAs r ha mad aprm a t l s t hi t e he oc edi , he our co l s ha hbu y s e i f ces o ngt t d xi s be tt g n r lu idcini Vign a Co sr e i t elg t a i h wi ha Ca e s u j c o e ea j rs ito n r ii. n tu d n h ih m os f vor bl t As ur t e de eesa ihest tCa x mait nsco i t a a e o hb y,he vi nc t bls ha de n ai ntnuousa nd s t m a i c m e ci lc ac s w ih t f u sa e. ys e tc om r a ont t t he or m t t Thec tsde ii i bas d prm a iy on Ca x' t r td s i iai ofVig ni- ed our' cson s e i rl de s a gee olct ton r i a bas c t r a t e e t whi i hasi r a i y pr ie fom pa tcpa i i t sae' usome s nd he xt nt o ch t nc e sngl oftd r ri i tng n he t t s m a ke f m iia y e pm e .I c r tt t de e r t or ltr qui nt n ontas o he f ndan i He ioptr ,Ca x ha no t n lc e os de s t m e e y m a a t cka ' c s ofgoodsa s r i e f o a V igi a ve rl de t pa ge'pur ha e nd e v c s r m r ni ndorora ce e a c pt d c k dr hec awn f om a Vi gi a ba H elc e os 466 U . a 41 Li w i e, nt a y t t r r ni nk. i opt r , S. t 8. ke s co r r o he de e nti Goodvea ,Ca x ha done m o et n s m pl pl c a pr f nda n r de s r ha i y a e oduc i t t s r a of t n o he t e m c me c desi d f t Unie Stt s l t d,o rt pas fve ye r ,Ca x ha r gulry om r e tne or he t d a e . nsea ve he t i a s de s e a l s i ie busnes i Vigi a de i d m o et n 41pe c ntofisUnied St t s l r ve olct d i s n r ni , rve r ha re t t aes aes e nue f om V i g ni a m a n a ne ongoi c a t wih nlm e ousV i g ni bas c t e s r r i a, nd i t i d ng ont c s t l r r i a- ed us om r . Se r oft Vigi a- edcuso e s i l ngt M CSC,Spe i lTac ialSe vies ve al he r ni bas t m r , ncudi he ca tc r c , a Gl nd obalSu y Sol i ns a e r pe tc t e s ofCa x,who pur ha e pr uc sf om Ca ppl uto , r e a us om r de c s od t r dex ye afe yea .Si 201 t M CSC haspur has d ne l $5 milon dola si pr t fom ar tr r nce 0, he c e ary li lr n oduc s r Ca x,a co mtng f a s t nta po ton oft c pa ss l r venue. G i n t de c t i or ubs a i l r i he om ny' a es e ve he 10 c pa ss es i Vigi a i i ofno s prs t tCade hasa tve y at mpt d t co r c om ny' ucc s n r ni , t s ur ie ha x c i l te e o nta t w ih V igi a- s d c pani t s r e asdi ti ut r ofispr t r ni ba e om es o e v sr b o s t oduc s t. I a e f t o m i m i t sgnii a e oft hi voll e ofr ve ge r t d i n n f or t ni ze he i f c nc he gh dm e nue ne a e n Vigi aasa r s to iss iia i e f t,Ca x ha f us dm uc ofisa g e o t f c r ni e ul f t olct ton fors de s oc e h t r um nt n he a t t talr pe c t ge oft pr t pur has d by t M CSC wasuli ae y s ppe t M a i ha a ge r en a he oduc s c e he tm t l hi d o rne Cor ba e i ot rsaes r he t t M CSC' he dqua tr i Qua i W hiet tfcor ps s s n he tt ,at r han he S a res n ntco. l ha a t m a r nde t sc e s e tuni ,t c r i t bl t a e wih Ca x' as e to t ti y e r hi as om wha que he ou t s ma e o gr e t de s s ri n ha t n g tsafn igo g n r l u idcin Ise d tet c n mi r ai 'i t a Ca e a tv l e ae i dn f e e a j zs ito . n ta ,h ç o o c e lt 's h t d x ciey e y s i isbusne sfom t M CSC a ot rVigni - s d e ii s a t twihoutt r ve olct i s r he nd he r i a ba e ntte , nd ha t he e nue de i d f om t s e ii s Ca x' fna i lpi ur w o d b dr s i ly dif r nt Tuaz 433 r ve r he e ntte , de s i nc a ct e ul e a tca l f e e . on, F. a 11 3 ( i t twhehe ac po aed e ntsc a t i apatc a ca eae 3d t 7 notng ha t r or r t efnda ' ontcs n riulr s r s tnta andc i ubsa il ontnuousofe t nsont t conomi r lt ' t dee ntsaci te ) tn ur he ç e c eaiy'of he fnda ' tviis (n en lctto o te ) s eas E1 Lil & Co v Ma n Ph r ( A)l c, 0 F. u p. itr a iain mitd ; e lo i ly . . v e a ma US n .5 4 S p 2 38 ( . ld. 0 7 (xecsngg nea j rs it nwh r t d fn a tç e rte ) d 7 SD.n 2 0 ) e rii e rlu id ci o ee he ee d n ç neald g m ilonsofdola sworh ofc li lr t omm e c a a tviy i l a ' l r i l c i t n ndina'tuough is( a ge e ma ke i t ç r t d r tng t ef t' fors' ) l s ,viwi alofCade sr lva c a t a a whol ,a ke pi i m i t n um e ng 1 x' ee nt ontc s s e nd e ng n nd he pa tc a btr n f e by As ly a t ssa oft ltgai t c tc l est ti ma riulr lde ac d hbtr t hi t ge he ii ton, he our oncud ha t y p o el a sr g n r lu idcino e Ca e r p ry se t e e a j rs ito v r d x.Th d f n a tsc mmeca c n a t wih e ee d n ' o ril o tcs t Vigi a a es fcinty c i r ni r ufi e l ontnuousa s t ma i t ti s dantci t bengbr ug t nd yse tc ha t houl i pa e i o ht o c ti Vi gi a o c us s ofa ton un e a e t is c t c sw ih t Com m on ea t .4 our n r ni n a e ci r l t d o t on a t t he w lh 4Ha n ra he t sde iin,hec rne dn ta rs t is ofs clcj rs cin. vig e c d hi cso t out e o ddeshe sue pe i uidito 2. R e onabl ne s as e s O nc t pl ntf ha s n t ts f i ntm i m um co a t e s t s e he ai i f s how ha ufk e ni nt c s xi t o uppor t t he e rieo p ro lu id ci n çt e o sd fn a t')b r e t p e e t do el gc s xecs f e s na j rs ito ,t b c me ee d n ls u d n o r s n a c mp li a e i n t thep e e c ofs meoh rc nsd r t nswo l rn e j rs ito u r ao a l.' Elc . ha t rs n e o te o ie ai o ud e d r u idcin n e s n be' e s ' f rI cnc I c, 4 F.da 1 51(u tn Bt g rKi , 1U. a 4 7 .Fa tr rlv n t o ma i sn .3 0 3 t 3 q o ig l e ng 47 S. t 7 ) co s ee a t o r t i iq iyi lde $ 1 t b r e o t ed fnd n, 2 t eitr sso tefr m sae ()t e hs n ur ncu :ç ) he u d n n h ee a t ( ) h n ee t f h o u tt, 3 h ( p an ipsitr s i o tii rlel( )teitrtt j d ca s se ' itr s i o tiigt litf nee t n banng eit 4 h ne sae u iil y tm s nee tn bann he mos efcintr olto ofco rvese ,a ( t s rdi ees oft svea saesi t fi e es uin nto ris nd 5) he hae ntr t he e rl tt n f t i f ndn e als t ntves a polc e . I The Fede a Cic tha e urherng u m nt ubsa i ocil ii s' d. ' r l r ui s mphasze t t i d ha fndn j rs ito u r a o a l i di tdt terr st to i wh c t ep an ifsitr s i ig u id cin n e s n be s tmi o h ae i in n ih h litf nee t l e ua a dt esae sitrs i a j dc tn teds u ei tefr m aes atn ae ta te a e n h tt ' n eet n du iaig h ip t n h o u r o te u td h t h y r ce ryo t ihe b t eb r e o s b e tn ted fn a t oli ai nwihnt ef n m. lal uweg d y h u d n f u j cig h e e d n t i g to t i h o z ' t ' Be l Hil Fa Co. Ro So ri Com.21F. 1 1 ( d.Ci.1 . verv ls n v. yal veecn , 3d 558, 568 Fe r 994) He e, r Cade hasf ie t de x a ld o monsr t t tt i t ntca epr s nt t t ofr r ta e ha he nsa s e e s he ype a e cru tn e i whc tee rieo p ro a j rs ito wo l b t e s n be W hl i ic msa c s n ih h xecs f es n lu idci n ud e mr a o a l. ie t m a bemor i nve en f Ca x t ltg t i Vigi a Si ogr si c y e nco ni t or de o ii a e n r ni , tpr es n omm unia i a c ton nd ta pora i ha ma t dee eofalws ti a f ei ti ll sbur ns e.' r ns tton s de he fns a ui n or gn rbuna es de om '' Sc ng rv. t hki I .No. 1 1 U. App. hwa e M mc n.nc, 99- 049, 999 S. LEXI 25038,a *1 ( d. r Oc. 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Supp.2d660, ( D.Va.201 ) 670 E. 0. 15 I t i c s ,h c u tsc n n e t a teitr s o j sieweg si fv ro k e i g n hs a e t e o r i o vic d h th nee t f u tc i h n a o f e p n t c ei t W esem DititofVigi a.As y t sal a busnes a Vigi aha a he as n he t src r ni hbur d oc l i s nd r ni s n i i e e ti pr di af m f risr sde st ltga et i diput s' I Ad to ly, ntr s n ovi ng ont o t e i nt o ii t her s e . d. dii nal ' çdoc tc tons whienotasgnii n f c or fvorr t i ngt ca e' sncesa itc r fe t t ke ondii , l i fca t a t , a eani he s ,' i t tsis e l c t tt sdititpr vi sas e erti . I .Fi l , t c tha bor no r s r tonswih ha hi src o de pe di ral6 d naly he our r s e e va i t r s c t isa l yt a j dc t teplitf sp tn cams a Ca e h sfie t epe t o t bit o d u iae h an if ae t li , nd d x a ald o i de monsr t t a oft ot relm e t ofs t m i i e rt a f r sw egh i f vorof ta e hat ny he he e n s yse c nt g iy nd aines i n a t a f r i t ca e t t Ea t r D i ti tofN e Y or r ns e r ng he s o he s e n s r c w k. l s ,c i rng a loft f c or r l ntt at a f rofve o a l i ,t c t n um ons de i 1 he a t s e eva o r ns e nue f na yss he our co l de t tt f ct swei i f vorofr t ni ve i t sditi t Ac or ngl nc u s ha he a or gh n a eai ng nue n hi src. c di y, Ca x' at r tver ue tt ta f ven t t Ea t r DititofNew Yor wilbede ed. de s le na i eq s o r nser ue o he se n src k l ni Co l i nc us on Fort r as s tf t a ve,Cade sm o i t d s isf l c ofpe s l he e ons e orh bo x' ton o im s or a k r ona j rs ito a i r p rv n eo ,nteatmaie t ta se tec s t t eEatr Ditit u idcin nd mp o e e u r i h l tv ,o rn fr h a e o h sen src e o Ne Yor wilbede ed.TheClr i diecedt s nd c rii d co e oft sme or ndlm f w k, l ni e k s r t o e e tfe pis hi m a l opi on a t a om panyi or rt al c ni nd he cc ng de o l ouns lofr co d. e e r EN TER :Ths i 1 a f e tmb r 3 C+xd yo S p e e , 2012. 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