Snyder v. Astrue, No. 3:2011cv00064 - Document 15 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 6/21/2012. (mab)
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CL ERK:OFFI U' DI COURT CE :, SX ' . AT ROKE, VA FWq l I THE UN I N TED STATES DI STRI CO UR T CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI O F V I N I CT RGI A CHA RLO TTESV I LLE D I I ON V SI J-jj; N j ? 2 J c. n' U k c . :E zz ur - '- a c - LEA H Y .SN Y DER, Ci lA c i N o.3: 1 c 00064 vi ton 1 - vPl ntf ai i f M EM O M N D UM O PI I N ON MI CHAEL J A STRUE, . Com m i s one ofSoc a Sec iy, si r i l urt ' By: H on. l n E.Conr d Ge a Chi Unied St esD it i Judge ef t at s rct D e e nt f nda . Thepl i ifhasf l d t sa ton c le ng t fna dec s on oft Com m i s o of a ntf ie hi c i ha l ngi he i l i i he s i ner Soci lSe urt de ng t pl i if s c a m f a pe i ofdi a lt a di a lt i ur nc a c iy nyi he a ntf l i or rod s biiy nd s biiy ns a e be ft unde t SocalSe urt Ac,asa nde 42U. C.jj41 i a 423.J iditonof neis r he i c iy t me d, S. 6() nd urs ci t sc ti purua t 42U. C.j405g) Thi c tsrviw i lmie t adee mi tonof hi our s s nt o S. ( . s our' e e s i td o tr nai whe he t r i s t i e de et s t r he e s ubsantal vi nc o uppor t Commisone ' c uson t tt pli if t he s i rs oncl i ha he antf f ied t m e tt r quiem e sf r e tte e t be ft unde t A c . l s s t nta a l o e he e r nt o n il m nt o ne is r he t f uch ubs a i l e de e e s s t fnalde s on oft Com m i sone m us be a tr e Law sv.Ce e e ze vi nc xi t , he i cii he si r t fi m d. l br z , 368F. 6 6 ( hCi.1 .Sttdbrel s tnta evi nc ha be n dei dass h 2d 40, 42 4t r 966) ae ity, ubsa il de e s e tne uc r e nte de e c i rng t r co d asa w hol asm i htbe f el va vi nc , ons de i he e r e, g ound a dequa e t s t o uppor a t c ncusonbyaras na emi o li e o bl nd.Rihads nv. rls 402U. 38 401( 971. c r o Peae , S. 9, 1 ) The pl i if Lea Y vonne Sny r wasbom on N ove be 11 1 a ntf , h de , m r , 949. She hasnow ear a G ED . M r Snyder' pas r evantw or i udes t postonsoflcensed pr i ned s. s t el k ncl he ii i actcal nur e hom e hea t nur e,of i e n s and c r nur e On Se em ber 1 2009,t pl ntf s, lh s fc ur e, ha ge s . pt 7, he ai i f f l d a a i a i f a pe i ofdi a lt a diabiiy i ur e be tt . M r .Snyde ie n pplc ton or rod s biiy nd s lt ns anc ne i s s r a lge t ts be me dia e f alf m sofs bsa talganf e oy e o Fe a y 2, le d ha he ca s bl d or 1 or u t n i i ul mpl m nt n bnzr 2000,due t num erouscondii i udi biat caps ii oft s der di es o tons, ncl ng l eral ult s he houl s, abet R K m elt ,r tno t ea pa n,ba k pa n,c nta pan s nd ome, nd hy yc a. Ther c d lius ei pahy, r i c i e r l i y r a pogl emi e or r ve l t tM r .Snyde m e t i ur d sausr quie nt oft Ac t oug M a c 31, e a s ha s r t he ns e tt e r me s he t hr h r h 2004. Co e ns quen l t pli tf i e il t dia lt i ur ebe isonl i s ha e tbls ty, he a n if s ntted o s biiy ns anc neft y f he s sa ihed t ts be m e di a ed f r a 1f m s ofs t nta ga nf e pl e on o be or M a c 31 ha he ca s bl o l or ubs a i l i ul m oym nt r f e rh , 20 Se c neal 42U. C.j423a . 04. e e rlv S. () M r .Snyde ' c am wasd e upon i ta c i e ai n a r co i er ton.Shet n s rs l i enid niil onsd r to nd e nsd a i he r ue t d a r ceved ade novohe rng andr vi w bef r a Ad i sr tveLa J eq se nd e i ai e e o e n m nita i w udge.l a n n opi on da ed Fe u y 1 , 2011 t La J ni t br ar 5 , he w udge de e m i d t tt pl ntf w a notdi a e 1 t r ne ha he ai i f s s bl d f om Fe u y 2,2000,he a l ge ons td e t o M a c 31 2004,he da e l s i tr d. r br ar r le d e at , hr ugh r h , r t a t ns te The La J w udge f nd t tM r .Snyde s f e fo s ve ei iment i t f m ofbiae a ou ha s r ufer d r m e r mpar s n he or l tr l ca ultsoft s de sa di beesmelius TheLa J eas es e t pl ntf' r sdua ps ii he houl r nd a t lt . w udg s s d he ai ifs e i l f tona ca c t asf l s unc i l pa iy olow : Afe c r f c i r ton of t en ie r co d, t unde sgned tnds t t tr a eul onsde ai he tr e r he ri i ha, t ough t da e l ti ur t c ai a ha t r i hr he t as ns ed, he l m nt d he esdualf tona ca ciy t unc i l pa t o pef m t f lrnge oflghtwor a dei d i 20 C. R.404. 67( ,whih ror he ul a i k s fne n F. 15 b) c c n it o lfi a d c ryig o j csweg i g u t 2 p u ds fe ue ty o sss f it n a r n b e t ih n p o 0 o n ; r q nl ng lfig a d c ryn o j csweg ig 1 pomd ;a sa dn a d o wakn a it n ar ig b e t i hn 0 t s nd tn ig n /r lig n t alofs x hour i a ei ot i s n n ghthourw o kda r y. ( . 8) Afe c n i eigt sr sd a fmcin lc p ct i c n u cinwi t panifs Tr 1 . tr o sd rn hi ei u l t to a a a iy n o j n to t he lit h f a ed a i a prorw or e re e,a w el a t t tm ony ofa voc tona e r , he ge, uc ton, nd i k xpe i nc s l s he es i a i l xpe t t La J edetr i d t tM r . de r t ne s fce f to lca ciy t pe f he w udg e m ne ha s Sny r eai d ufi int unci na pa t o ronn r pa tr l va w or a a of i e nur e a asa c r nu s A c r ngl t La J s e e nt k s n f c s nd ha ge z e. co di y, he w udge uli a e y c l d t tt pl i t f w a no di a ed t ough he da e l s i ur a t , tm t l onc ude ha he a n if s t s bl hr r t a t ns ed nd, hus t tt pl ntf w a note tte t a pe i d ofdi a lt ordi a lt i u a e be ft . Se ha he ai if s n il d o ro s biiy s biiy ns r nc ne is e ' Diaii idfn db teAc a teçnbit t e!g i aysbtnil anu atvt b rao of sbly s eie y h t sh ç a ly o n ae n n u sata gifl cii y esn t i i y an m e c l dee mi bl physialorm e a i paim e whl ca beex cedt r ul i deah o whih ha y dialy tr na e c ntl m r nt ch n pe t o es t n t r c s lse o c n b e p c e t ls f rac n iu u p ro of o ls t a 1 mo t . 4 U. C. 4 3 d ( )A) a td r a e x e td o a t o o t o s e i d n t e s h n 2 nhs' 2 S. j 2 ( ) 1( . n ' g n r l 2 C. R. 4 4 1 2 ( Th La J d eso i o wa a o td a t etn l e ii n e eal 0 F. j 0 .5 0 9. e w u g ' pnin s d p e s h i a d cso y oft Comm isone by t Soca Sec iyAdmi sr ton' AppeasCounc l Ha ng he s i r he il urt nita i s l i. vi e us e al ava l bl a i s r tve r m e es M r .Snyde hasnow a xha t d 1 ia e dm nit a i e di , s r ppea ed t t scou t l o hi r. W hie t pl i ifm a be di a e f r c rai f m sofe pl e t t c uci lf t l l he a ntf y s bl d o e t n or m oym n , he r a ac ua de e m i ton i whe he t pl i ifwasdi a e f ral f m s ofs t nta ga nf t r na i s t r he a ntf s bl d o l or ubs a i l i ul e ly n .Se 4 U.. j4 3 d ( ) Th r a efu ee nso p o fwhihmus b mp o me t e 2 SC. 2 ( )2 . ee r o r lme t f r o c te c i r d i m a ng s h a a l i .Thes e e e t a e s m m a i ed as f l s: ons de e n ki uc n na ys s e lm n s r u rz olow o jcieme ia fcsa dciia fn ig ; 2 t eo iin a dc n lso so te tng b e tv dc l a t n l c l i dn s ( ) h pno s n o cu in f r ai n p y iin ; 3 s b e tv e ie c o p y ia ma ie tto so i ime t, sd srb d h sca s ( ) u jcie v d n e f h sc l n fsain f mpar n s a e cie t oug acai ntstsi hr h l ma ' e tmony'a ()t cli tsed ain, ai hit y,e i l , nd 4 he aman ' uc to voc tonal sor rsdua s ls a a Vie v.Fi h, F. 11 1159- ( hCi.1 ) Unde woodv. biof, kil, nd ge. tk nc 438 2d 57, -60 4t r 971 ; r Ri c f 298F. 850,851( hCi.19 . 2d 4t r 62) A fe a r vi w oft r c d i t sm a t r t cour i c t a ne t c l e t tt tr e e he e or n hi te , he t s ons r i d o onc ud ha he Com m i s one ' tna de i i n i s s i r s i l c s o s uppor e by s t nta e de e. A s s a e a td ubs a i l vi nc t t d bove, he La t w J udge f ound t tM r . ha s Snyde ' bia e a c ps ii oft s de s a di be e m e lt r s l t r l a ults he houl r nd a t s lius co tt ed t onl s ve e i pa r e s i t sca e a t tt s s ve e i pa r en s w he nsiut he y e r m im nt n hi s nd ha he e e r m im t , n c nsd r di c nu to wi t plitf' oh rme ial d tr n bl n nsvee o ie e n o j nci n t he an ifs t e d c ly eemia e o e r h i pa nnen s di notr nde he i pa e ofpe f m i he pas r e tw or Es e i l t m i t, d e r r nca bl r or ng r t el van k. s ntaly, he pl i i fs m ai c e i a expr s ed a or la g e ,i t tt La J a ntf n ont nton, s e s t a r um nt s ha he w udge e e b f lng n'd y aii t a oun f w ha s beleve w ashe prm a y s ve e i pai o cc t or t he i s r i r e r m nnen - w ha i r f r e t i t t t s e e r d o n he r c d a c oni o c nt a pai s e or s hr c r e r l n yndr m e on t l f s de ofhe b o he e t i r ody. The pl i ifa s a gue , a ntf l o r s t a l s e e e , ha t Law J o e s r xt nt t t he udge e r r oneousy f ie t f nd a s ve e i paim e w ih r pe t l a ld o i e r m r nt t es c t he vi i bl rnes a e pa n. A s s tf t i t o ni t La J o r s on ur i s nd ye i e orh n he pi on, he w udge e es l xpr s y d t r i d t tt s t o c tons di no c us m or t m i m a lm ia i i t pl i i f s e e m ne ha he e w ondii d ta e e han ni l i t ton n he a ntf ' a lt t pe f m ba i w o k a tviisa t ,di no quaiy ass ve e i par nt .Se 20 biiy o ror sc r ci te nd, hus d t lf e r m ime s e C. R. 4 4.5 1 Th c u t g e sta o j cieme ia e ie e t eo i in o t e F. j 0 1 2 . e o r a re h t be t v dc l vd nc ,h p no s f h pl i i f ste tng physci ns a he own t s i ony s a ntf r a i i a , nd r e tm uppor he c e i t tc oni pa n t r ont nton ha hr c i s nd om ea he viualpr e c tt ei ime sdurngt i ur pe i t La y r nd r s obl ms onsiut mpar nt i he ns ed rod he w J er c ze a muchi t opi on.( .1 ) Howe r t ke quesi i t sc ei udg e ogni d s n he ni Tr 7. ve ,he y ton n hi as s whe he a loft pli ifsi par e t ,c i r d sngl ori c bi ton, ende e he t r l he antf m im n s onsde e i y n om na i r r d r di a e pr ort M a c 31 200 s bl d i o r h , 4. Unde t SocalSe urt Re a i ,as que i dia lt a l i hasbee r he i c iy gultons e ntal s biiy na yss n e t bls d f rpur esof c i rng whe he a c a m a i di a e unde t A c . 20 C . R. s a ihe o pos ons de i t r l i nt s s bl d r he t F. j40 15 a .Unde t ss que ildia lt a l i,heAdmi srtveLa J emus trt 4. 20() r hi e nta sbiiy nayss t nitai w udg tis de e m i w he he t cl i a i s ile ge i s t ntalga nf a i t I t c ai a nt t r ne t r he a m nt s tl nga d n ubs a i i ul ctviy. f he l m i di notw o k d ti t r l va tpe i t La J d r tr ng he e e n r od, he w udge m us t n de e m i w he he t t he t r ne t r he c a m a n i s ve e y i pa r l i i t s e r l m ied.A s ve e i pa r e ti one t ts gnii a l lm isa c a m a ' e r m im n s ha i f c nty i t l i nt s physca orme tla lt t pef m bascwor a tviis J j404.520() 404. 21.I t il na biiy o ror i k ci te . #. 1 c, 15 f he ca ma s f r fom a s ve ei par e ,heLa J li nt ufe s r e r m im nt t w udgemus t n de e m i whehe t t t he t r ne t r ha i pa r e m e t orequa s a c rai ls i o i pa r e s I t i pa r e doe no m e to m im nt e s l e t n i tng f m im nt . f he m im nt s t e r e lalse i par e , he t La J qua itd m im nt t n he w udgemus dee m i bas o t ca ma ' r i l t tr ne, ed n he li nts esdua f tona ca ciy, t rt i r ntp e nt t cli a fom pe f m i he pa t unc i l pa t whe he he mpaime r ve s he am nt r ror ng r s r l va wor l t cl manti a et pe f m he pas r e ntwor t n t La J e e nt k. f he ai s bl o ror r t elva k, he he w udge mus d tr newh t e t i ar n p e nst ecama tfo ma iga a j sme t oa y t eemi eh r he mp ime t rve t h li n r m kn n du t n t n ot rN or he v k. As not above,i t i t cas t Law J ed n he nsant e, he udge f ound t t pl ntf schroni pai hat he ai if c n a vi ua pr e s di notqua iy a s ve e i pa r e s durng t r l nti t e pe i nd s l obl m d lf s e r m im nt i he e eva ns l d rod. r Furher o e t La J t m r , he w udge de e M r .Snyde ' cl i a t f r h s e oft s que i l ni d s r s a m t he ou t t p he e nta 4 a l ss fndi t ts r t ne s fc e f tona ca ct durng t i ur d pe i t na y i, i ng ha he eai d ufi i nt unci l pa iy i he ns e rod o pe f m he pas r e twor Thepli ifdoe notc t nd on a ror r t elvan k. antf s on e ppea t the s de l ha r houl r c ps ii a di ts(het i ime swhiht La J a ults nd abee t wo mpar nt c he w udgef oundt besver)c us d o e e a e he t be di a e durng t i tr d pe i I t a t pl i ife s ntaly c e t tt e ro s bl d i he nsze rod. ns e d, he a ntf s e i l ont nds ha hos s ve ei ime s aong wih he c oni pan a e c to r nde ed he dia e prort e r mpar nt , l t r hr c i nd ye ondii n, e r r s bl d i o t ed t ls i s r d Ha igrviwe ter c r ,h c u t eiv st a teo j cieme ia h ae a t n u e . vn e e d h e o d te o r b l e h t h b e tv dc l e e de e f om t i ur d pe i s vi nc r he ns e r od uppor st La J t he w udge' tndi t tt pl ntf c uoni s i ng ha he ai ifs l c pan s r ea r tnopahy di notc tt es ver i r e t on orbe or M a c 31 i ynd om nd e i t d onsiut e e mpaim n s f e rh , 200 The c t urhe a ee t tt e f tca e by t c bi ton ofs ve e a nons ve e 4. our f t r gr s ha he f ec us d he om na i e r nd e r i paim e sw a no s s ve e a t pr ve t pl i iff om pe f m i he pas r l va w o k. m r nt s t o e r s o e nt he a ntf r r or ng r t e e nt r Th o j cieme ia e ie c tr u hted t ls is rds wst td s ieh r e b e tv d c l v d n e h o g h ae at n u e ho ha, e pt e s de c ps lts t pl ntf mai a ne af lr ge ofm o i and 5 5r ai n sr h. houl r a u ii , he ai if nti d ul an ton / ot to tengt Furhe m o e,t e de e s t r r he vi nc ugge t t tM r . s s ha s Snyde w a a t l e r e i i pr m e i r s c ualy xpe i nc ng m ove nt n herm e ca c ndii nsast i ur d pe i pr es e J e A .A l , . . opi d i di l o to he ns e r od ogr s d. os ph oi M D , ne n Ja r 200 t the d t d t the c m pl nt oflf- i d pai r l t t di bei ne o t nua y 2 ha oub e ha r o ai s e tsde n e aed o a tc ur pahy and,i Aprl2003,obs r dt ts C ppe re wel' ( .300,302,280. I Fe uay200 n i eve ha he s a gdl l. Tr a ' ) n br r 4, Dr St phe on obs ve t tM r .Snyde hadunde g numer CT a M RIsudi . e ns er d ha s r r one ous nd t es t iho e de e ofa pr e st e ai ' rc pl i sS l f- i bod num bne sa d t ut vi nc w ny obl m o xpl n' he om a nt i e ts ded y of s nd p i i c mbiain' ( .1 6 . Fu temo e teo j cieme ia e i e c fo t ei u e an n o n to . Tr 1 7) rh r r ,h be tv d c l v d n e r m h ns rd ' pe i d s t nta e t as es m e soft s a e age y p i i ns H e y Sc r M . . a r o ubs a i t s he s s nt he t t nc hys c a , nr ove n, D , nd R. Ka a M . .who r vi wed a1e de ofr c d a opi d t tM r .Snyde ,durng t S. di n, D , e e 1 vi nce e or nd ne ha s r i he r l nti ur d pe i w a c pa e oflfi a c r yi t e y pounds occ s ona l a t n e eva ns e r od, s a bl i tng nd a r ng w nt a i ly nd e poundsf equenty'sandi and/ w al ng aboutsx hour i an ei r l , t ng or ki i sn ghthourw or kday;sti itng aboutsx hour i an ei i sn ghthourw or kday'and occasi l r , onaly eachi over ng head and clm bi a i ng ldde ,ope o s fol Tr 1 -59,1 -8 ) Furhemor i hi a s s ntDr Sco r a r r , r caf d.( . 057 81 2. t r e,n s sesme , . ven notdt poorydei dnaur oft pli ifsS e r pan s ome.'( .1 ) Apa t e he l fne t e he antf' l ntal i yndr ' Tr 063. c r fo t sa fr tv e ie e t c u t lon tst ec mp eed a t o a yo j cieme ia r m hi fimaie vd nc ,he o r as o e h o lt e rh f n be t v dc l e d nc fom t i ur perod s si t tt pl i ifsi par e s whe c i r vie e r he ns ed i ugge tng ha he antf m im nt , n onsde ed et ri vi ly o c lc i l we eofdia i s ve iy. Henc a sa ed a ihe ndi dual r ole tve y, r s blng e rt e, s tt bove t r c d , he e or s ppo t t e La J u rs h w udge' dee mi ton t tt pli ifsc oni pa n a e pr e sdi not s tr nai ha he antf hr c i nd ye oblm d rs t t lve ofs ve e i im e t durngt i ur d pe i d.Furher e, her or ie o he e l e r mpar n s i he ns e ro t mor t ec d pr de s t tale de e t s po tt La J ovi s ubsan i vi nc o up r he w udge' fndi t tt c s i ng ha he ombi ton oft na i he pli ifsi r t ( h sveea nonsver)di notha adia i i c o he antf mpaimens bot e r nd e e d ve sblng mpa t n r tloug t da e l s i ur d. lr h he t a t ns e To c le t bassoft La J dg sde son,t pl i ifpoi st t f ctt the ha lnge he i he w u e' cii he antf nt o he a ha r te tng phys c a de er i d s x ye r a t t da e l ti ur d t tt c bi ton ofhe rai i i ns t m ne i a s fer he t as ns e ha he om na i r i r nt r nde e he t aly dia e f alwor l i tu t tbot ofM r .Snyde ' mpaime s e r d r ot l s bl d or l k. t s r e ha h s rs te tngphysca s te M uli eI r ntQue tonnaie i whih t ydignos d rai iins ubmitd tpl mpaime si rs n c he a e dibe i ne opahy a r tnopahy a pr d ci c lfndi t s a tc ur t nd e i t nd ovi ed lni a i ngs o uppor t ropi on.C. t hei ni F. Sut r M . . w a o ofM r .Snyde ' t e tng phys c a . l a l t e da e M a c 31 201 Dr e , D , s ne s rs r a i i i ns n et r t d r h , 0, . Sut rs a ed t the be n t e tng t pl n iff ove t n yea s l di gnos ng r tnopa hy a e t t ha e r a i he ai tf or r e r. n a i e i t nd ne o t Dr Sut rsa e t tt s c to c us d i par pe i a vii a c oni ur pahy, . e t t d ha he e ondiins a e m ied rpher l son nd hr c pa n i t l f s d oft pl i if sbod He opi d t tt s m e c li s sr nde e M r . i n he e t i e he a ntf y. ne ha he e di a s ue e r d s S y e u a l t wo ke e a ap r-i , e e tr j b n d r n be o r v n t a ttme s d na y o . Appr xi a e y t e m ont l t r on J 2 201 Dr Sut rc pl t d a M uli e o m t l hr e hs a e , une 4, 0, . e om e e tpl I nne Quesi ie i whihhedignos dc oni pai dibeesmelt ,a mpai nt tonnar ,n c a e hr c n, a t lius nd hypot oi s . A ferls i va i c i ca fndi ,Dr Su e as es e t pl ntf s hyr di m t i tng rous lni l i ngs . t r s s d he ai if s m pt s i l ng pa n t oughou t l f s d ofherbody,num bne sofbot f e , i y om , nc udi i hr t he e t i e s h e t pa n 6 r lt d t ne o t f tgue,a arg viua de e t Dr Sut r t t pli ifspan a ea e o ur pahy, a i nd i ht s l f c . . er aed he antf i s s nt tn on atn- nts al Het n o ne t tM r .Snyde waslm iedt at a oft eve o e e poi c e. he pi d ha s r i t o ot l wo t t eehour ofsti and t t t eehour ofsa ng orwaki i a ei o hr s itng wo o hr s tndi l ng n n ghthourwor da k y. Dr Sut rde e ne t tt pl ntf coul oc asonaly lf a c r u t t n pounds . e t nni d ha he ai i f d c i l i t nd ar y p o e . Furhe t nnor ,hef e ound t tM r .Snyde wases e tal pr cl d fom r c ng,g a pi ha s r s n i ly e ude r ea hi r s ng, t r ig a dt si go j csa dwa sg iia tylmie i p ro mi gfn ma i lto s He u nn , n witn be t n s i nfc nl i td n ef r n ie npuain . o ne t tt pl i if s pa n,f tg ,a o he s m pt s f e nty i t r er d w ih he a lt pi d ha he a ntf i a i ue nd t r y om r que l n e f e t r biiy t c e r t Thes s pt s a i pa r e t w oul c us t pl ntf t m i sa l as ttee o onc nt a e. e ym om nd m im n s d a e he ai i f o s t e t lr da ofwor pe mont Dr Sut rbei ve ys k r h, . e le d.Fi ly, . e o nedt tt s na l Dr Sut r pi ha he ympt a oms nd lm ia i de a l d i t q tonna r ha be n pr e f t pa tt n ye r . i t tons t ie n he ues i i e d e es nt or he s e a s La r St phe on,M . . w a t ot rt e tng ph i a w ho co pl t d a q s i ie r y e ns D , s he he r a i ysci n m ee ue tonna r o be l ofM r . n haf s Snyde .Theque tol ar ,da e Dec mbe 7, 0, el t Dr r si m ie t d e r 201 r teced . St p ns ' opi on t tt pl i ifss e he on s ni ha he antf ympt sa lmiai nshad be n pr e snc 2000. om nd i t to e es nt i e 2 l a s i ty s r n lgh l tonge pos ur t t ta pt d by Dr Su e ,D r St phe on e e s d hi be i f r t e han ha do e . t r . e ns xpr s e s le t tM r .Snyde di f l dia e and hasbee f r a n be ofye r ,i m y opi o but ha s r ks uly s bl d n o um r as n ni n, defniel o rt pat5t 1 ye r. ( .1 ) i t y ve he s o 0 as' Tr 395. ' A ss a e a t t d bove, he t e tng phys c a 'opi ons l nd s e s t r ai i i ns ni e om uppor t t pl i if s t o he a ntf a gum entt tt La J ge e r d i fndi t he c oni pa n s nd om e a vi ua r ha he w ud r e n i ng hat r hr c i y r nd s l lm ia i nsdi notr s t t l lofs ve e i pa r e s How e r t pr e i t sc e i t to d i e o he eve e r m i m nt . ve , he obl m n hi as , a t c ntali s on a nd he e r s ue ppea , sw he hert s opi o ,r nde e a oxi a el s x ye r a t r li t he e ni ns e r d ppr m t y i a s fe t da e l ti u e r l t ba k t t pl i i fs i ur d pe i J he t as ns r d, e a e c o he a ntf ns e rod. ohns n v. a nha t 434 F. o B r r, 3d 650,655 6( hCi.2005)( rczim) hieMr . yd rsownt tmony s -5 4t r pe lra .W l s Sn e ' esi upporst t he 2 Forpur e oft is sr e tt t sa l Dr Stphens n c r trz t plitf s pt pos s he s ue elvan o hi ppea, . e o haace ied he an ifs ym oms a lm ia i nss m ia t t way i whi h Dr Su erca ur t em . nd f t to i l r o he n c . t pt ed h 7 o iinso h rte tn ph sca s t eo j ci eme ia e d n efo teis rdp ro , s pn o f e r ai g y iin ,h be tv dc l vie c r m h n u e eid a s umm a ieda ve,f ist co r a et pli ifsposton i t ad, hem e c le de eof rz bo a l o robor t he antf ii nse t di a vi nc r co d a t l c r di t t opi o oft tea i phys c a a t pl i if sown e r c ualy ont a c s he ni ns he r tng i i ns nd he a ntf t tmony. Alhough,assa e a ve t m e c e denc fom t pl ntf si ur pe i esi t tt d bo , he dial vi e r he ai if ns ed rod m i hte t bls t e s e ofi pa r e s i t f m ofc oni pa n s om e a g s a ih he xit nce m im nt n he or hr c i yndr nd r tnopahy,t se de f l t l nd s e i t hi vi nce ais o e uppor t t a gume t tt e i r nt , og t r t o he r nt ha hes mpaime s t e he w ih he ot r i paim e s wer s s ve e ast pr ve pe f r a e ofpa tr e n wor The t r he m r nt , e o e r o e nt r o m nc s el va t k. onl s edsofevi ncefom t i ur d pe i d t ts a e n si ty t t si s i c t y hr de r he ns e ro ha pe k ve lgh l o hi s ue ndia e t t t a dst ve y e oft i ur d perod,M r .Snyde ' c oni pai s om e a ha , ow r he r nd he ns e i s r s hr c n yndr nd rtnopahyi efrdt s e e wihhe a lt t f us Tr 258,788. Furhe mor,a ei t ntree o ome xtnt t r biiy o oc .( . ) tr e t one ot rl a i i t tans rpt m e c e de e f om t i ur d pe i s ges st tt he oc ton n he r c i , di al vi nc r he ns e r od ug t ha he pl n ifwoul ha t c ti he a tviy durngt tme whe t pai woul a tc he . aitf d ve o ura l r c i t i he i s n he n d ta k r 11 ) He ,be us t te tngphysca 'opi o sa i bol c rs t t obe tve 68. nce ca e he rai iins nins tnd n d onta to he jci m e c le de t oug t da e l ti ur s t nta e de e e s st s di a vi nce hr h he t as ns ed, ubs a i l vi nc xi t o uppor t La t he w J udge sde son nott r l t ba k t eopi o t t i ur pe i ' cii o e ae c hos ni ns o he ns ed rod. Furhe t nnor ,bec us t teai physc a 'opi onswe ei onsse wih t t us e a e he r tng ii ns ni r nc itnt t he hr t o t eo jcieme ia e i n et rug t ed t ls i u e ,h La J d era o a y f h be tv d c l vde c h o h h ae a tns rd te w u g e s n bl e e t d nott ac r c r lng w e g t t e opi o . Se Cr i v.Cha er 76 F. d 58 590 lc e o co d ontoli i ht o hos ni ns e a g t , 3 5, ( h Ci.1 )(t ne i i iaton,i aphysca sopi oni nots 4t r 996 1 By gatve mplc i f iin' ni s upporedbyci ca t lni l e de e o i i i i ons s e w ih o he s t nta e de e, ts d be ac r d vi nc r f t s nc i t nt t t r ubs a i l vi nc i houl co de sg fc ntyl swei .) I e ani hi de so t af dt weg 't t teai iniia l es ght'. n xpli ng s ciin o for d ' no iht'o he r tng phys c a 'opi ons t La J i i ns ni , he w udge s cii ly s a e t tt e opi ons s o i s r pe fca l t t d ha hos ni t od n t ong c r s t t ob e tveme c le de ofrc dfom t i ur pei SeeSSR 96- 3 ontat o he j ci dia vi nce e or r he ns ed rod. 21, 8 1 9 W L 3 41 8 a * (uy2 1 9 )(x liigta t eLa J d emu tp o ieû p cfc 96 7 8 , t 5 J 1 , 9 6 e p ann h t h w u g s r vd d e ii s ras f t weg gi t t te tngs ur sme c opi on' e ons or he iht ven o he rai o ce' dial ni ). Be a et eo j cieme ia e d n elr eyc n rdcst eplitf sa srin o c us h b e tv dc l vie c ag l o ta it h an if se t s f o d sb igp i t eLa J d ewa lk wie u tfe i ds o nigt epan ifsc e iii ia ln an,h w u g s ie s j siid n ic u tn h litf' r db ly t r g r i ghe alg to so p i M o es e i c ly teLa J d edeemie t a t eo jcie e ad n r le ain f an. r p cf al,h w u g tr n d h t h be tv i me ia e ie etr ug ted t ls i u e (ale jt s p r tecama tsa srin o dc l vd nc h o h h ae at ns rd d igd o u po th li n ' se t s f f o ttldia lt t o t daels i urd.3 ( r20. A pli ifss j ci saeme s oa sbiiy hrugh he t a tns e ' T . ) antf ub e tve tt nt ' c onceni pan,m pa r nt ,a lm ia i a ei ufi i n ,a o ,t e t bls adia lt , r ng i i ime s nd i ttons r ns tc e t l ne o sa ih s biiy' i ta ,ne au t acama tsce blt,h fc-id rmus c n ie t eo j ci eme ia nse d i v lai ng li n ' rdiii te a tfn e t o sd r h b e tv dc l y e d nc i t c e.SeeCr c,76F. a 592(dAllgainsofpai a ot rs j ci vie e n he as ai 3d t tl le to n nd he ube tve s oms wihoutmo e aei ufiin goesa ihdia lt .... g ani notdia i pe ympt , t r , r ns fce t t tbls s biiyl pji s s blng r # , n s b e tv e d n eo p i c l t a ep e e e c o e o j cieme c le ie c o . a d u j cie vie c f an amo tk rc d n e v r b e tv dia vd n e r . ç t lc t r of'(ntr quottonmar omitdl;seas 20C. R.j404.5 /)(in he a k he e .'i enal ai ks te ) e lo F. 1 29( t l de em i ngwheheryo a e dia e weco i ral yours t r ni t u r s bld, nsde 1 ympt s i udi pai a t om , ncl ng n, nd he e tn t whc y u s mp o c nr ao byb a c pe a c n itn wihteo j ci e x e t o ih o r y t ms a e s na l e c e td s o sse t t h b e tv m e c le de e a ot re de e....Howe r sae e t a di a vi nc nd he vi nc ve , tt m n s boutyourpai orot r n he s omswilnotal esa iht tyouaedia e . ..'.Thus be us t obe tve ympt l one tbls ha r sbld . ' ) , ca e he j ci m e ca e de e s t nta l s di l vi nc ubs a i ly uppors t La J t he w udge' d i i nott f l a ce t s ec s on o uly c pt he pl i if st s i o t s c t ilnotdit b t La J a ntf e tm ny, hi our w l s ur he w udge' c e biiy d e m i ton. Se s r di lt et r na i e Cr c,76F. a 589(tnrviwi f s tnta e de e, dono unde tket r - ih ai 3d t t e e ng or ubsa il vi nc we l t ra o eweg c nlcige ie e ma ec e iii d tr n to s o s bsi t o r u g nt o ta o t e o fitn vd nc , k rdb ly eemiai n , r u t ue u j d me f r h t f h t t Se rtr ' . ceay.) ' 3 Howe r t c tnotst tt La J ve , he our e ha he w udgeac or d s eweghtt t pl ntf st tm o r ar ng c de om i o he ai if' esi ny eg di h rp i a dsmpo .( . 0) He c ,h La J g sf dn ta teplitf wa a latp ril ce il e an n y tms Tr 2 . n e te w ud e' i ig h th anif s t e s at l rdbe n ay bele t pli ifsa g e onappea t tt Law J is he antf' r um nt l ha he udgei pr ry ev u e he c e biiy. m ope l alatd r r di lt 9 Fi ly,a f t pl i t f sa gum en t tt hypot tc ques i putt t na l s or he a n if r t ha he he i al tons o he voc tona e a i l xper w e e i om pl t , he c tno e t tt La J t r nc e e t our t s ha he w udge w a notr uie t s eq r d o c i rvoc tonale r t tm ony i as e sng t pl n if s c pac t t peror he pa t ons de ai xpe t es i n s s i he ai tf ' a iy o f m r s r l van wor G e m a v. s nl Ci lA c i N o.5: e e t k. r no A t e, vi ton 09CV 0 3, 0 W L 1 008 201 83841 a * 6, t 4 ( . Va. a 6,201 ;20C. R.j404.560( () s as Gr v.Sc i r 699F. W D. M y 0) F. 1 b)2 ; ee lo ant hweke, 2d 1 9 1 2( t Ci.1 8 ) Ta lrv. en e c r 5 2F.d 6 4, 68 6 ( t Ci. 9 5 . 8 , 9 4h r 9 3 ; vo W ib r e , 1 2 6 6 - 9 4h r 1 7 ) How e r alhough t La J ve , t he w udge el c e t c i rt voc tona e r ' t s i o a t e t d o onsde he a i l xpe ts e tm ny t he f t se oft s que i a ys si a s s ng t r ui e e soft pl i ifspa twor ourh t p he e ntal nal i n s es i he eq r m nt he a ntf s k, t La J e i pe nty a rve a t s m e c us on r a hed by t voc tona e r he w udg nde nde l r i d t he a oncl i e c he a i l xpe t a t rco pa i t pl i i f sr i fe m rng he a ntf esdualf tona c pac t w ih t phys c a m en a dem a unc i l a iy t he i al nd tl nds o he pas r e twor ( . ) f r t elvan k. Tr 21. l s r ,t e de on w hi h t pl n ifr le on a alt a g t tt La n ho t he vi nce c he ai tf e i s ppe o r ue ha he w J udge' de i i n i no s s c s o s t uppo t d by s t ntale de e br a dow n unde t w e ghtoft re ubs a i vi nc e ks r he i he r or a awhol W hie i ce t nl a ec d s e. l t rai y ppea st tM r .Snyde i dia e a t pr e tm e r ha s r s s bl d t he es nt i , t r i s t i e de e t s he e s ubsantal vi nc o uppor t La J t he w udge' de e m i ton t tt m or r e s t r na i ha he e ec nt e de e doc e i he di a lt c vi nc um ntng r s biiy anno be r l t d ba k t t c ii a pe i i whi h s t e a e c o he r tc l rod n c he sil n o e is e saus Th o j ci me ia e d n et rug t edaels i u e smpy tle j y d n urd tt . e be t ve d c l vie c l o h h t a tns rd i l l f l t be routt pl i ifsa s ri t t La J ais o a he antf s e ton hat he w udgee r by negl tng t i e iy c ran red ec i o d ntf e ti s ve e i pa nne st t i c bi to w ih a lo he ot r s ver a nons ve e i pa r e t , e r m i nt ha , n om na i n t l f r he e e nd e r m im n s ale l pr nt d he f om pe f m i bas c wor a tvii s 4 l ged y eve e r r r or ng i k c i te . Fort r as s a ed,t c tfndst Com m i s o ' r ol i oft pe tne he e ons t t he our i he s i ner s es uton he ri nt c l c si t r c d i t sca e t be s ont i t n he e or n hi s o uppore by s bsa i le denc Acc di y, he fna td u t nta vi e. or ngl t i l 4 Furhe m o e,t c tnot t t t t extntt tconti se s i t e denc t r s uto oft e t r r he our es ha, o he e ha lct xit n he vi e, he e ol in hos c lc sar pr l ce t t Com mi s one ,eve i t sc t i tr ol t dif e l Opne i v. onfi t e opery ded o he s i r n f hi our m gh es ve hem fer nty. nhe m Fic 4 F.d3 6 3 7(t Ci.1 7 ) n h, 95 2 9 , 9 4h r 9 4 . de i i oft Com m i sone m us be a fr e La s 368 F. a 642. A n a opra e c son he si r t fi m d. w , 2d t ppr i t j d me ta do d rwil ee tr dt i d y. u g n n r e l b ne e hs a The Cl r i di e t d t s nd ce tte c e oft sor rt a 1c ek s rce o e rii d opi s hi de o 1 ouns lofr c d. e e or ENTER :Thi At da of u e 2012. s # y Jn , Chi fUnie St t D it i tJ e t d a es s r c udge