Horne v. Clinch Valley Medical Center, No. 1:2011cv00048 - Document 53 (W.D. Va. 2012)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Samuel G. Wilson on 10/12/2012. (lmh)
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CL ERKS OFFI U.. DI COURT CE S SQ AT ROANOKE,VA F1 ê tFD I THEUNI STATESDI N TED STRI COURT CT FO R T H E W E STER N D I STR I O F V I G I I CT R N A AB I G D O N DI I O N N V SI JEA N NE H O R N E, û2T 12 2 1 02 J A C DkDLLY, ULI ) i I CLERK ' BY; UW CLERK C i lA cton N o.1: v00048 vi i 11c Pl nt f , ai i f M EM O M N DU M O PI NIO N V. C LI CH V A LLEY M E D I L N CA CE N TER ,I C . N , D ef endant. By:Sam uelG .W ison l U ni ed St es D i ri Judge t at st ct Thi i a acin puruantt t Ag Dici nai i Empl s s n to s o he e srmi ton n oymen Ac, U. C.j t t29 S. 621e s (t t eq.$ ADEA' , t Ameia wihDia ltesAc, U. C.1 01e s q. ' and he ) rc ns t s biii t42 S. 21 t e (; ', ypanifJ ameHo n , fr rn rea Cln hValyM e ia Ce tr(û i c ( ADA' b litf e l ) r e a ome u s t i c le dc l n e l n h cl Valey',ordr she alege yunl u tr nai fom Clnc Valy.Hor wokeda l ' t e es r l dl awf l emi ton r ) i h le ne r t Clnc Val f m or t n t nt fveye r be or t hos t lt r i t d he f vi a i is i h ley or e ha we y-i a s f e he pia e m na e r or oltng t c i ofc han- - omm a polc a < t ntal sa rng'a e e ge y-oom do t . Hor nd i y nd t e i ly l nde i ' n m r nc r po c or ne cli st tt er s ar pr t xtf unlwf ag a dia lt dic i na in a t t am ha hos ea ons e e e or a ul e nd s biiy s rmi to nd ha Clnc V a l y a t ly t r i t d he be us s i ane ry t fy- a - d,i uln- pe n i h le c ua l e m na e r ca e he s a l i t ye r ol ns i de nde t da ei.Cl c Valyha mo e f rs mmayj g n o b t camsa dag e ta Ho n ib t c ih l n e s v d o u r ud me t n oh li n r u s h t r e c nnote t bls unlwf dic i nai eihe by or na y pr orby e oyi t bur nn sa ih a ul s rmi ton t r di r oof mpl ng he de s fi pr s he outi d i M c melDo l Cor v.Gr n,411U. 792( 97 .The hitng oof c me lne n Dol l ucas p, ee S. 1 3) c u t g e swi Cl c Valyo Ho n ' ADEA alg to sa dwilg a t u r j d me t o r a r e t i h le n r e s h n le ai n n l r n s mmay u g n on t cl m . How ever,vi i H or s AD A cl m t ough a M cD or el D oual l t hat ai ew ng ne' ai hr m l as ens, he c r dic r ti eis off ta wilde Clnc Valy' motonf s ou t s ens rabl sues ac nd l ny i h le s i or ummayj me t r udg n on t cl m . hat ai 1. Honw w asbor i 1 a ha s f r d f o i uln- pe n n 962 nd s uf e e r m ns i de ndentdi be e snce t ag a t s i he e offve. I 1 i n 982,s s a t d w or ng asa r i t r d nur e i Clnc Valey' e e ge he t r e ki eg s e e s n i h l s m r ncy d p rme t Twiead y e eyd y Ho esda ee rq ie ta s ij c h refwih e a t n . c a , v r a , na ' ib ts e uz d h t he ne t e s l t i uln a tke af w s ts c br ks De piet er uie t ,Hor c i d t wo k ns i nd a e hor na k ea . s t hos eq r men s ne ontnue o r f Clnc Valeyuntlt hos t lt r na e he i Fe u r of201 Clnc Val y' or i h l i he pia e mi t d r n br a y 0. i h le s m o i ton f rt r i tng Hor i t diput unde l ng t sl ws t tva i o e m na i ne s he s e ryi hi a ui. Acc di t Clnc V ale i w a i Febnz r of 201 t tis Chi fN ur i Of i r or ng o i h l y, t s n ay 0 ha t e s ng fce , Ti ot H a c e ode, ea ned t tHor ha s m hy r l r l r ha ne d poke t isChi fofSur er Dr J e Cl us r not e g y, . os ph a to, a o tap riulre r e c - e a t n d co ($ . '.Dr Clu toha a p o c e Hon b u at a meg n y d p rme t o tr i J' . a sr d p r a h d r e c Dr ) t as he a Dr J' t te c r is 'dtrngar e s f.( .Supp. ot Summ. 4, o k r bout . s i int ae sues' li ec nt hit Br pa M . J. E. F. 28; p. ot Summ.J Ex.1 1 E. F. 31 1 ) ThoughHor ha not C. No. Res M . . 0, , C. No. - 0. ne d wo ked o t da i quesi s t d Dr Clusr wha s hadhe r fo ot rnur e . r n he y n ton, he ol . a to t he a d r m he ss Ac or ngt Haclr ,hedecde tha g-or s dsusi wihDr Clusr vi ae t c di o r eode i d t t l ne'l ic sons t . a to oltd he t l H os t ls c i ofc m a polc ' w hi h r r st tnur i s af s e t r s ve pa i nt pia ' ha n om nd i y,' c equie ha s ng t f e k o e ol te - c r is wiht atndi physca beor noiyi he s ro s ( .Supp. o.Summ. ae sues t he te ng iin f e tf ng r upeir . Br M t J 4,E. F. 28,Res M o .Summ. Ex.11 1 E. F. 31 11) Ha ce odeas . C. No. . p. t J. , -2, C. No. - . r lr lo i le dt tg-or lpotntal sa rdDrJbygosi ngt Dr Clusr r ar ng ç ive ha l ne e ily lndee . be l spi o . a to eg di pur re paintcaeis a utwhihs ha nofrtha k wldge. ( .Supp. o. po td te r sues bo c he d is- nd no e ' Br ' M t Summ.J 4, C. No.28. Ha ce oderc de hi fndi sonadici i r f . E. F. ) r lr e or d s i ng s plnay onn: On 2- 1 M s Hor was as d by Dr Clusr f her opi on of g .J 4- 0 . ne ke . a to or ni Dr rgadi a c s t pt a welasa ohe is s M s Hor ha no 1 tha e r ng l het ube . s l ny t r sue . . ne d s nd knowldge oft spt b sils rd ( t Dr Clusr wha s ha çhe r ' e hi . ut tl hae wihj . a to t he d l ad' f om ot saf . M s.Hor f l t f l chai of com m and as i r at t r her t f ne aied o olow n t el es o phys ci i uesi ii by st f i an ss dentfed af g-or made potntal sa r co nt a a ER physca l ne l l e ily lndeous mme s bout n iin. ( s M ot Summ.J Ex.1 1 ECFNo. - 0. Haclr tr naedHor baedo hi Re p. . . 0, , 31 1 ) r eode emi t ne s n s fndi a s a tr hie Elz t Ha ma Hor sf ry-i ye rol r pl e e . ngs nd, oon fe , r d iabeh r n, ne' o t sx- a - d e ac m nt Hor cl i st the t r i to w a s ti m oton i D e e berof2008,m a m o hs ne a m ha r e m na i n s e n i n cm ny nt be or he co r a i n wih D r Cl usr w he Clnch V a l y he d a m ana r 'r tea i Gl e f e r nve s to t . a to, n i le l ge s e r t n ad Sprngs W es Vigi a.Att r r a ,Clnc Va ly c eae a t i Sa if c i Co mite. i , t r ni he ete t i h le r td t ent ts a ton m te ' pat ' Soo afe t r te ,t he oft Pai ntSaif cton Comm iteas d t co ite n tr he er at he ad he te tsa i te ke he mm te me be st ofe t na ofe pl esbe ive t beç s es' C on- s et.'Fr m t e m r o f r he mes m oye le d o t s t'and i a s s' o hos a n s isons t c ubm s i , he omm ite- d c eae m a t r$ ii 'a t nega i ' it l ne li te hea r td se 6 tve' nd t tve'lss. Hor cam s pos t tt neg i or t ha he atve, ç a s t' ls w a a t aly a ls ofa d a urhea t e pl e t t non- s e s i t s c u l i t ge nd l lhy m oye s ha ' Clnch Va ly i e d t pur fom ispa ol- a t Hona who wasi uln- pe nt i le nt nde o ge r t yr l nd hat e, ns i de nde a f t s ve w he Clnc V a l y t r i t d he ,w a one oft t r t . nd ory e n n i h le e m na e r s he a ge s l I. Clnc Vale c e t tHor ha no pr of nora pr m a f i c s unde M c o mel i h l y ont nds ha ne s o , i ac e a e r D r l D o a Cor v.Gr n,ofag di c i i to ugl s p. ee e s rm na i n.The c ta ee a gr nt Clnc V a l y' our gr s nd a s i h le s m oton f s m a y J m e o H om e' ag di c i i ton c a m . i or um r ' udg nt n s e s rm na i l i 2 Th ADEA p o bt e ly r fo t ic a gi g a yidv d a . . e a s o s c e r hiis mpo es r m t sh r rn j n n ii u l . b c u e f u h d id vd a' a e' 2 U. C. 6 3a () A pan ifc na r s mma yj d me to a ADEA n i iu ls g . 9 S. j 2 ()1 . litf a vet u r u g n n n ' 1Thenon- s tls i atac ase bi 4t Clnc Vale sr pl i s as e it s t hed xhi t o i h ly' e y n uppor ofism oi f s m ay t t ton or um r j d me t Th l ticu e Hon ' n meao gwi tite oh r. u g n . e i n ld s r es a ln t hre n tes s h 2 mmayj d me ti a p o raewh nçh pla ig,h dso eya ddsls r maeil o fl, n Su r u g n s p r pit e t e e dn ste ic v r n ico ue tras n i a d t e a yafd vi s o t th r i n g n ieis ea t a ymaeila t n t th mo a ti e tldt j d me t n fia t h w ha tee s o e un su s o n tra fc a d ha te v n s nie o u g n s t a amatro lw. Fe R. v. 5 ()2) Th p rymo igfrsmmayj d metb astebtd no s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 c( . e at vn o u r u g n e r h t e f ' r i or i t cour oft bassf ism o i a i ntf ngt epa t oft r cor t tdemonsrt t a e nf m ng he t he i or t ton nd de iyi hos rs he e d ha tae he bs nce o ag n n is eo maeilat Ceoe Co p v. tet4 7U.. 1 , 23(98 ) I rve n as mmay f e uie su f tra fc. ltx r . Cart, 7 S 3 7 3 1 6 . n e iwig u r j g n moinu d rRue5 ,h c u tt s da alu tfa l ifrn e i fv ro ten n vngp ry. ud me t to n e l 6 te o r t t rw ljsiibe nee c s n a o fh o mo i at ' mu ' UntdSae v. r l aTrn fr rCo, 7 F2d8 2 8 (t Ci.1 9 )(ingAn es nv. b rvLo b . i tts Caoi a so me .9 8 . 3 , 35 4h r 9 2 ct e n i d ro Liet b v Ic, 7 U. 2 2, 5 (9 6 ) n .4 7 S. 4 2 5 1 8 ). 3 c am i one oft ways Fis, pli ifma ofe e de eofagedic i nai unde li n wo . r t a antf y f r vi nc s rmi ton r é di r prncplsofpr 'Bur v. s nay i i e or oof' ns AAF- c M Ouay.l ,9 F. 728,7 1( h Ci.1 6) nc. 6 3d 3 4t r 99 . Toa o ds mmayj d me t e p o e dn u d ro dn r p i ilso p o t th p anif v i u r u g n wh n r c e ig n e r iay rncp e f r ol t e lit t f mu t r d c drc e ie c o asae p r o et d srmiaea d o fn ie t e ie c o s p o u e ie t vd n e f ttd u p s o ici n t n / r idr c) vd n e f s fc e tpr tvef cet r l c age neis ofma e i lf c . Rhoadsv. C, 7 F.d ufii n oba i or o efe t nui s ue t ra a t' ' FDI 25 3 373,391(t Ci. )(le aini o i nal ( i Brnklvv. r Rece tonCl 4h r 2001 atr to n rgi ) quotng i e Habour rai ub, 18 F.d598 607( h Ci.1 )(ntr lquottonmakso te .tW ha i r quie i 0 3 , 4t r 999) i ena ai r mitd) l t s e rd s e d eofc vi enc onduc orsa e e st tbot r fe die l t al ge dicrm i t y a tt de t tt m nt ha h e lct r cty he le d s i naor tiu a t tbe rdie tyont c etde oyme d ii ' Jz( i Brnkly,1 F. a nd ha a rcl he ontse mpl nt ecson. #.quotng i e 80 3d t ' 607)(ntr quotto maksomit ) i enal ain r ted . A pl i i fl cki s h pr m a pr ee unde t bur s fi pr s he e a ntf a ng uc oof y oc d r he den- hi tng oof c m e ai d i M c xpl ne n Donne lDouglsCor v.Gr e 3 Se M oodv v. Ar ofHowar Cnt .I , l a n. e n. e c d y. nc.No. 11 1 201 W L 11 - 720, 2 84053, t* ( hCi. i 1 201 .Unde t spr she t a 2 4t r Aprl 0, 2) r hi oof c me,he pli ifmus frtesabls aprmaf i ca eofdic i nai bys ngt ts was( ) antf t is t ih i ace s srmi ton howi ha he 1 f ryy aso a eo od rwh n ()h re ly rtr n tdh r t a ()s ewa p ro mi h r o t e r f g r le e 2 e mp o e emiae e, h t 3 h s ef r ng e dute a alve t tme he e oye ' lgii t e cai , ndt t( he f rposto is t e lha t r mpl rs e tmae xpe ttons a ha 4) r onne iin r m a ne ope orw a f le by a s t nta l you erpe s e i d n s il d ubs a i ly ng r on.H ilv. khe d M a t l Loc e ri n LocsisM gmt.I ,35 F. 277,285( hCi.200 ( nba ) s as Duca v. be re itc . nc. 4 3d 4t r 4) e nc ; ee lo n Al mal Cnt Sc Bd.293F.d 716,721( hCi. v. h. , 3 4t r 2002)($T) f t ee nti s tsi dwihpr (( he ourh lme s aite t oof 3I Gr sv. F Fia ca S r ie,l 9S Ct2 4 ( 0 9, ihh l ta teADEA d e n tato ie n os BL n n il evcs 2 . . 3 3 2 0 )whc ed h th o s o uh rz m i m oi dic i i to cli sa t pl ntfsm us pr byapr ponde a oft e denc t ta w a xed- tve s rm nain am nd hat ai if t ove e r nce he vi e ha ge s t ç u fr c u eo tec le g de ly rdeiin,u t eTh ma (h o i o sa to )p itdo th th hed t o' a s fh haln e mpo e cso J si o s te pnin' uh r one u ta te b ' c Supr eCour hasnotafim ai l decdedwhehe t M c em t fr tvey i t r he DonnelDoual fa l as r mewor applest AD EA cai s k i o lm . Si eGr s howeve ,c t o sdet scicui ha hedt tt M c o lDoualsfa e k i sil nc os, r ours uti hi r t ve l ha he D nnel a r m wor s tl a po rae S e eg, shc v M iea 6 5F.d6 2 6 2(t Ci. 2.Th Fo rhCic iha n ts h l, p rp it. e , ..Ye c ik . n t, 7 3 2 , 3 6h r201 ) e u t rut s o o ed buti fctr i l appledM c n a outney i Donnel Doualst A DEA cli sbeor Gr s s e. c.La rv.Ha ve 438F. l a o am f e os , e e. , be r v, 3d 40 4 0(t Ci. 0 6 , n h ssn ea pl dMc n el uca t ADEA camsi u p bihe d cso s se 4, 3 4h r 2 0 )a d a ic p i Do n lDo ls o e li n n u ls d e iin , e . e. ,M ood 201 W L 11 g. y, 2 84053,a * t 2. 4 ofr pl c m e tby a s t tal young rwor r no pr ofr plce e by s e ae n ubsan i ly e ke - t oof e a m nt omeo ne e ieyouti t ADEA' pr e tdcls .) I t pli ife tbls aprmafci caeof ntrl sde he S otce a s' . f he antf sa ihes i a e s ' a dici nai t bur ( bur nofpr to s fst t e oye t ofe a ge s rmi ton,he den a de oducin) hit o he mpl r o f r nondi c i i t y r as f rt r i tng t pl ntf H il 354 F. a 285. And,i t s rm na or e on o e m na i he ai if l, 3d t f he e oye me sisbur n,abur n ofpr r t nst t pl i ift pr t tt e oy r s mpl r et t de de oof eur o he antf o ove ha he mpl e ' s a e r a o w e e no ist ue r as ,bu a pr t xtf a di c i i t o I t t d e s ns r t t r e ons t e e or ge s r m na i n. d. He e,Hor as e t t ts i a pr vai i he c a m ofa di c i i ton unde t r ne s r s ha he ' n e l n r l i c ge s r m na i r he ADI A unde bot mehods' EI r h t . 'Howe r s ma snoa t efor t a g he cli i tr ve, he ke cual f to r ue r am n ems oft di r prnci esofpr .'Se Fe R.Ci P.56c (xpli ngt mehodsbywhih a t nay i pl or oof' e d. v. () e ani he t c p ryo p sn s mmayj d me tc nc e t ag n ied s ueo maeil a t; r ia dat p o i g u r u g n a r ae e un ip t f tra fc) Fedn n Da po tv.Chidrn' Guid,742F.Sup 2d77 777( M d.201 (ç he fiur t ven r le s l p. 2, D. 0) ç By r al e o r s t t sagume ,t pli ifa ndo a dici naoydichagecam.) I fc,i epond o hi r nt he antf ba ns ny s rmi tr s r 1i ' . n a t t ' r q rsag n r usra igo Ho n ' s mmapj d me t epo et ge naM c l l e uie e e o e dn f r es u r u g n r s ns o la Domel D oucl a gum e tf age di c i i ton. Re r es ,Hor s c a m f isunde t f t as r n or s rm na i ga dl s ne' l i a l r he ourh M c or e lD ougl pr bec us he r a m e w asonl one ye younge t n Hor - not D m l as ong a e r epl ce nt y ar r ha ne Ss tntal y er' Se e. ,Gr i nv.Fis EnegvCop .3 F. 33 3 ( hCi. iubsa ily oung . es c. osea ' rt r , 49 3d 2, 40 6t r 2003)( di t tar pl e n whowassxye r yo ert nt pl ntf wasnot hol ng ha e ac me t i a s ung ha he ai if t u sa i l younge '. Be us t r aenoge neis sofmaeilfctonHome' t b tntaly s r'4 ca e hee r l nui sue tra a s ADEA cam a dCln hValy i e tte t j d me t samatro lw,hec u t l g a t li n ic l s nild o u g n a e te f a t o r wil rn Cl c Valy' moi nf rs mmayj d me t nti cam. i h le s to o u r u g n o h s li n 4H o necl m st the r plce e wa Fa Kenne , who i t fw ye syounge t n'Hom e a r ai ha r e a m nt s ye dy s d e ar a r ha ' nd ' v r4 y aso a e' ( s Mo. mm. . . , , No. - )Wh te Hon ' rplcme twa ç e 0 er f g . Rep. tSu J Ex 6 4 ECF 316. eh r res e a e n s o ' Elza t H a m a a Clnc Vale c ai s orFayeK e med asHor cl m s t out om e i t s e i be h r n, s i h l y l m , r y, ne ai , he c s he am . 5 11 1. Cln hValy sag me t i fv ro s mmayj d me to Ho esADA cam lr ey i c le ' r u n s n a o f u r u g n n m ' li ag l m ir is a gum e s o Hor sA D EA c a m . Clnc Va l y c e t tHor ha no r or t r nt n ne' li i h le ont nds ha ne s o di r pr ofdiabiiy di c i i i n,no M c o lD oua a prm a f c e c e ofdi a lt r na y oof s lt s r m nato D nnel l s i a i as s biiy dicrm i ton,a no abiiy t de ons r t t tClnc V a l y' no i c i i t r r a o f r s i na i nd lt o m ta e ha i h le s nd s rm na o y e s ns o t r nai Hol we epr txt . He ea i Hor ha ne e t d t a guei t r sof e mi tng ' ne r ee ual r gan, ne s glc e o r n em or na y pr a ha t r f ef l t e t bls a g nui is ofma e ilf tby t t di r oof nd s he e or aied o sa ih e ne s ue t ra ac ha m e hod. H o eve , vi ngt sdiput t r h t M cDonne lDo a lns t c tfnds t s w r ewi hi s e h oug he l ugls e ,he our i t tt i bl i s off tpr l t co tf o r s vi t c r r y on s m a y ha r a e s ues ac ec ude he ur r m e ol ng he ont ove s um r j d me ta d, c o d n l,h c u t l d n Cl c Valy' moi no Ho n ' ADA cam. u g n , n a c r i gy te o r wil e y i h le s to n r e s n li Undert ADA,tnl c r e iys l dici naea i taquaiidi vi lon he tg o oveed ntt hal s rmi t gans lfe ndi dua t b sso d s bl yi r g r t j ba piainp o e u e ,h hrng a v n e n , r he a i f ia it n e ad o o p lc to r c d r s te ii , d a c me to i ds h r eo e o e s e ly ec mp n ain j btann , n oh r ems c ndto s a d ic ag f mply e , mpo e o e s to ,o ri ig a d t e tr , o i n , n i prviege ofe oyme . U. C.j 1 1 a) Aswih a dic i nai cai ,c rs i l s mpl nt' '42 S. 21 2( . t ge srmi ton l ms ou t e l t ADA dia lt dic i i ton cai unde t ç di r prnci esofpr 'a vaua e s biiy s rm na i l ms r he s na y i pl or oof' nd M c melDougaspr s mes Se Enni v. tlAs ' ofBus Educ. di l ,53 F.d Dor l l oof che . e s Na ' sn . Ra o. nc. 3 55,5 7-59( hCi.1995 .Toe tbls ap i f i caeofwr 'ltr nai unde t 4t r ) sa ih rma ace s ongf emi ton u r he ADA,apl ntf mus s t t()s wa dia e ( s wa dic r ( s wa ai if t how ha 1 he s s bld;2) he s s haged; 3) he s f tli he emplye slgii t e cai a t tmeofdic r e;a ( t ulilng r o r' e tmae xpe ttons the i s ha g nd 4) he 5The s t a oft evi nc t c tc dconsde to di ypr um otl he de e he our oul i r çr nar oof'ofa ordia lt dic i i to ge s biiy srm nain co it oft s whih a r wihoutelbo ai i H o ne' r ciai oft fct: nsss hi, c ppea s t a r ton n r s e tton he a s Pli ift tfedt tKnowlsha t dheron a las f occ si t ts ne edt antf esii ha e d ol t e t our a ons ha he ed o q ta ge on dia lt ... ui nd t s biiy. I a tont pl ntf bei lse ont ç aset'itwhi i udedt a ofa1 n ddii o ai if ng itd he ç non- s 'ls, ch ncl he ges l 1 i iiu l (8.% o te o e fry , o e sae ta te d r g tigod ra dgh ) 4 ndvd as 7 6 fh m v r o t)Kn wls ttd h th y t e et le n se we n w a n' geti any younge . s t tng r' ' ( s . o . u J 5 ECF No. . Ho n , o v r ma e noe f r wh toe e t ic po aete ef csit Re p M t S mm. . , 31) r e h we e , k s fo t a s v r o n o r t h s a t n o he lgalagum e sf ra a dia lt dic i i ton. re r nt o ge nd s biiy srm nai 6 cic tnce ofhe dicha ger i ear as bl i e e oft a uldicrmi ton.1 a 58, r umsa s r s r a s e ona e nf r nce mlwf s i nai d. t . s as Roha v. t ksPr e ttonsLLC,375F. 266,272n. ( hCi. 4)(ii ee lo n Newor es nai 3d 9 4t r 200 ctng Ha br kv. i lnN. eI ,25 F. 696,70 ( hCi.2001 l t pli if ul oo M chei Am. nc. 2 3d 2 4t r :. f he antf e t bls saprm af i c e,hebur n s fst t de e n t a tc a eal gii t , sa ihe i ace as t de hi' o he f nda t o ri ult e tma e t nondicrmi t y e a ton f ise oyme a to Enni,53 F. a 58.And,i t s i na or xplna i or t mpl nt c in. s 3d t f he de e ntm e t isbur n ofpr ton, hepl i ifmus pr t tt e pl r spr f r d f nda e s t de oduc i t antf t ove ha he m oye ' ofe e ra onwasa t lyaprtxtf dia lt dici nai Se i (ii StM ay' HonorCt. es cual ee or s biiy srmi ton. e d.ctng . r s r v. c ,509U. 5 510(993) û t spoit ç plitf sprmafci c e,c nedwih Hiks S. 02, 1 . i hi n, a anif i a e as ombi At t s fiin e d n et tndt a t ee ly rsa sre j siiai ni fle ma p r th tir u fce t vie c o i h t h mpo e ' se td u tfc to s as , y emi te re off c t c udet tt e pl runl u l dic i nae ''Hei v. ombo Sa Ba a t o oncl ha he m oye awf ly s rmi td.' ko Col v. nk, F. B.434F. 249,258 ( hCi. S. , 3d -59 4t r 2006)( i Re vesv.Sa ronPl ngPr dss quotng e nde s umbi o . l ,53 U. 1 1 ( ). nc. 0 S. 33, 43 2000) The e i nodeba ei t sc s ast t frtt e pr r s t n hi a e o he is hr e ongsoft M c mel Do a he Dor l ugls pr m a f ci c e: o ne hasi uln- pe ntdi be e , i h V a l y t r i t d he , nd s i a e as H r ns i de nde a t s Clnc le e m na e r a he w a m e tng Clnc V a l y' e ct tons A st t f t pr s ei i h le s xpe a i . o he ourh ong,H o e' a gum e f a ur m s r nt e t es Clnc V a l y' Pa i ntSa i f c i Com m it e a t ls s ofk s e ' a C i h le s te ts a ton te nd he it û s t' nd d as e ' a non- s t' e pl esi c e t d.6 H or co e t tt t m oye t r a e ne nt nds ha he s a s t' itw a i f c a ls ofa d a non- s e ' ls s n a t i t ge nd unhe lhy e pl eswhom C lnc V a l y i e a t m oye i h le nt nded t t r i t She c a m s t ts pe s ly o e m na e. l i ha he r ona l kne alf te peo e o t non- s tls,a t t$a1o t m e t rha am e c w 1 oure n pl n he as e it nd ha ç1 f he ihe d dial c tonor( fmiymembe whodi . ( p. o.Summ. .Ex.1 23,ECFNo.311. ondii aa l r dl' Res M t ' J , -) Hom e' bur ofes abls ng apri a faci case i (notoner ' Tex.D ep' ofCom m . s den t i hi m e si ous.' t Afar v. di 45 U. 248,253( 981;Enni,53F. a 59.Unde t cr tnc ,he fis Bur ne, 0 S. 1 ) s 3d t r he icumsa es t 6Hor sot revi nc on t spoi c it amos e iel ofi ne' he de e hi nt onsss l t ntr y nadm isbl he s y. si e ara 7 c tfndsar s bl i e e eofunlwf ldic i na i a wilpr e t t q si of our i ea ona e nf r nc a u s rmi ton nd l oc ed o he ue ton pr ext et . A pl i ifc n s a ntf a how pr e by dem cns r tng t t def ndantsexpl att i et xt ta i hat he e ' an im s ç rhyo ce nce'o byd fri ot rfr ofcr tnta e de es fce ty s unwo t f rde ' r ç e gng) he oms icumsa il vi nc ufiinl of pr ba i ofi t ntonaldi c i i ton. D uga v.Al m a l Cnt Sc Bd. 293 F. 71 721 o tve n e i s rm na i ' ' n be re v. h. , 3d 6, (t Ci.2002) W rchtv. C.De tofHe 1h & Huma Se v .405F.Supp. 6 636 4h r , . i N. p' at n r s, 2d 31, ( D. C. 0 5 .Me ec n e t r i is f in t o ec meas mmayj d me t to , E. N. 2 0 ) r o j cu e s n u fce t o v ro u r u g n mo in Andes v.Coo sBrwi Co. 1 1F. 11 ,11 ( 0t Ci.1 ) andt pli ifmus do ron r e nc , 8 3d 71 79 1 h r 999 , he antf t m or t n pr e c l o y a l ga i ofdi c i i ton;t onc e e pa tc a sa e r quie ' e ha es nt onc us r le tons s rm na i d r t ri ul r r e r d. c ' M er v. on,759F. 989,998(dCi.1 ) ii Dac 2d 2 r 985 . Her ,Clnc Val y c am si t m i t d Hor be us s vi aedt hos t ' c i e i h le l i t er na e ne ca e he ol t he pials hanof c m a polcy. I r pons ,H o 'e r f r t c t o t polc is f w hi h sa e : - om nd i n es e l e e s he our t he i y t el, c t t s n l yo e l t t pa i nt a f l t pr c i d tea m e r gi en m a f u va ua e he te nd ee he es rbe r t nt e m y a rey af tt paint ( ldoe notc y wih esabls d polcy a dves l fec he te , or s ompl t t ihe i nd pr e e yo ne d t oc dur u e o: * Cont c t a t ndi p i a or o c l phys c a f c a ii a i of a t he te ng hysci n, n- a l i i n, or l rf c ton t or r orpr s i d teamen pln. he de s e crbe r t t a * I ,a t di c s ng t i s wih t a t ndi phys ci n,you s ilf elt f fer s us i he s ue t he te ng ia tl e he o de or tea m e m ay a r e y a f c t pa i t notf t c r r r r t nt dve s l f e t he ten , i y he ha ge nur e, s yourdepa t e m a ge ort hous s r i or rm nt na r he e upe v s . @ Co i t moniora c r frt paint. ntnue o t nd ae o he te g) * D oc e t ca l t t a t ndi phys c a or on- l phys c a i t um nt he ls o he te ng ii n ca l i i n n he pa i nt s m e c r c d. te ' di al e or ( s M ot Summ.J Ex.11 1 ECFNo.31 11) Thepolc f t rad s nuri saft Rep. . . ,, - . iy urhe vies sng tf o E l y tyt r s leteis o eo o ewi ( e atndn p sca p irt i lme t g s wa s r o e ov h sue n n n t t l te i g hy iin ro o mpe ni a h h n t ChanofComma ' ( s M ot Summ.J Ex.11 2,ECFNo. - 1. 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Rat ,D r Cl to approached Hor he n her . ausr ne- s aldaysaferD r J' ever t . s 8 pa intc r is te - a e s ues t s k Ho ne' pr es i lo ni a tDr J.Atl s on isf ce t o ee r s of sona pi ons bou . ea t t a , he polc doe notpr bi a nu s f o a we i t Chi of Sur r s que to w he he pos iy s ohi t r e r m ns r ng he ef ge y' s i ns n es t m ;i m e ey r r sanu s t f l ac ran pr e e whe s i c nc z dabouta he t r l equie r e o olow e ti pc dur n he s o e ne d co ' prs rb dte t n rg me Ont a bai, r ao a ej r rc udc ncu eta o trs e cie rame t e i n. h t ss a e s n bl u o o l o ld h t ClnchVa ly' t ofe ed e a ton i unworhy ofc e nce' Duca 293 F. a 7 . i le s û f r xpl na i s pr t r de .' n, 3d t 21 Clnc Va ly' ot rpr f r d nondic i naor r as f t r nai Hor i t t i h le s he ofe e s rmi t y e on or e mi tng ne s ha s S e ily sa r ' .Jwhiet ki t Dr Clusr I r pons Ho ne ofer t he i nta l l nde ed'Dr pot l al ng o . a to. n es e, r f s he de ii n t s i o o Clnc Va l y' Le rofH um a R e our s Jo Know l s who s a e pos to e tm ny f i h le s ade n s ce , hn e, tt d t thec d ç r cal'a e pl ebeng tnni t f t t nta l ' ng s ehi ha oul k e l' n m oye i e naed or t e ily'doi om t ng not po d rn hi t it-h e y asa ah ma rs u c sp o e so a.( s M o . u J Ex. 6 u ig s hry t re e r s u n eo r e r f sin l Re p. t S mm. . 3, , ECFNo.313. And, nea , r( e ilysa rous'sae nt weemeey -) Hor dds he d ntal lndeg l' ttme s r rl pot o no sta Dr Clu tos ii d.Ag i ar a o bej r rc udc n ld t tCln h piin h t . a sr ol t ce an, e s na l uo o l o cu e ha ic Valey' i of e e e a ton i unw orhy ofc e nc ' Duca 293 F. a 721 l s t f r d xpl na i s pr t r de e. ' n, 3d t . 1 t spoi ,f-one'jd i fci cae, mbi dwih s fcinte denc t tndt t $ hi nt l r s prma a e s co ne t ufi e vi e o i ha At l tee ly rsa s re j siiaini fle ma p r t h tiro fc t c n ldet a t h mpo e ' se td u tfc to s as , y emit e re f a t o o cu h the e oye unlwf l dici nae ''Heko, F.da 258 ( i Ree ,530U. a mpl r a uly s rmi td.' i 434 3 t -59 quotng ves S. t 1 3 .Th c u th r fr la e teq e to o ds bl yds rmiaint t ej r a dd n e 4 ) e o r tee o e e v s h u sin f ia ii ici n to o h u y n e is t ClnchVale ' motonf sl yj me onHone' ADA cli ? i ly s i or tmmar udg nt r s am. 7Clnc Vale ciesHuppe ue v. 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