Slater v. Stephens, No. 4:2014cv03576 - Document 36 (S.D. Tex. 2017)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM AND ORDER granting 30 MOTION for Summary Judgment . Slater's petition for a writ of habeas corpus is denied, and case is dismissed with prejudice. The court will not certify any issue for appellate review. (Signed by Judge Alfred H Bennett) Parties notified.(rosaldana, 4)
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Slater v. Stephens Doc. 36 United States District Court Southern District of Texas ENTERED UNI TED STATE S D I STR I CO UR T CT SO U TH ER N DISTR I T O F T EXA S C H O U STO N D I SI N VI O PA UL W A Y NE SLA TER, March 30, 2017 David J. Bradley, Clerk j j j j CI LACTI NO. 1 CV- 6 VI ON 4:4- 357 Pe ii r ttone , V S. LO RI D AV I E S, j j j Re ponde . s nt M EM O R AN D UM A N D O R DER I 1 9 , Te s u yc n itdP ul a n Sae o c pi l r e a h wa s ne e n 9 6 a xa j r o v ce a W y e ltr f a t mu d r nd e s e tnc d a t de t A feruns ce s u l ava lng hi s f of s a e a la e a pos - onvi ton r m edi , o a h. t uc s f ly ii m el t t ppe l t nd tc ci e es Sltrfldaf rl ttonf awrtofha a copus ( ke EntyNo. ) Res ae ie edea peii or i be s r . Doc t r 21 . ponden Lore t i Da i h smo e frs mmayj d me t ( c e Enr No 3 ) Th is en w b f r teCo r v s a v d o u r u g n . 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Tr a c i l ouns lpr ded i f e tve a s s a a t punihm e s ag ofti l e ovi ne f c i s it nce t he s nt t e r a by no i tga i a pr e i e de e of Sl t ' or ni br i t nves i tng nd es ntng vi nc a er s ga c a n i pa nue a l a ni di a lte m i nt nd e r ng s biii s. Tral couns pe f i el r onne defci nty i t puni lm e pha e cl i d i e l n he sz nt s os ng ar ent5 gum . Appe lt c la e ouns l s d ha r ied a c le e houl ve a s ha lnge t t ti lc ts o he ra our ' i t uc i on e r ous of e e . ns r tons xtane f ns s The de t pe t vi aest c tt i na pr bii a i tc ue and a h naly ol t he onsiuto l ohi ton ga ns r l unus puni hm en . ual s t Re p n e t a fldamo inf r u r u g n .( c e Enr No 3 ) Re p n e t s o d n h s ie to o s mmayj d me t Do k t ty . 0 . s o d n a gue t tSlt rr iest e ofhi cli i apr dur lydek intma r s ha a e a s hr e s a ms n oce a l t e nnera t tnoneofhi nd ha s camsmeiha a cor rle Sltrha fl ar s ns ( ke EntyNo. ) Thi mate li rt be s pus eif ae s ied epo e. Doc t r 35 . s tr i rpef r du iain s i o a j dc to . II. LegalStandards Fede a ha asr ew i s onda y t t sat cour pr e s a i lm ied i s ope. The r l be evi s ec r o he t e t oc s nd s i t n c St t sû s s prm a y a hor t f a e é e s i r ut iy orde i ngand e or i crm i ll w .I c i i ti l t y a s pos fni nf c ng i na a n r m nal r a s he l o 5 sltrcombi cai st andt eei o asngl gr ae nes l m wo hr nt i e oundf r le .Be us t y i iat difr ntf t or eif ca e he mplc e fe e acual a pr edur is ,t Cour w ilconsde t m ass paat gr nd oc als ues he t l i r he e r e oundsandr num be Sltrscl m sa or ngl e r ae ' ai cc di y. hol t i talr ponsbiiy f vi c tng consiutonalrght . Engl v. s d he nii es i lt or ndia i tt i i s' ' e I aac,456 U. 1 S. 07, 1 ( 982 .How a i t hasltgae hi cli i saec tdeer ne t co s off rl 28 1 ) n nmae ii td s ams n tt our t mi s he ure edea h b a a j dc to Und r2 U. C. 2 5 ( )1,ta na p iain frawrto h b a c r s a e s du iain. e 8 S. j 2 4 b ( ) û l p lc to o l i f a e s opu o b h l o ap ro i c t d pu s a tote u g n o aSaec u thal o b g a tdu ls n e af f e s n n uso y ru n t h j d me t f tt o r s ln t e rn e n e s ia ar t t...hea i nthase use t rme esavalbl i t c t oft Stt .' t ppe s ha t pplca xha td he e di ia e n he ours he aell' Exha ton çr fec sapolc off r l s a e c iy de i us i ûe l t i y ede a - t t om t s gned t gi t St t a i ta o o ve he a e n nii l pporuniy t t t pa supon a c r c a lge vi a i ofisprs r 'f de a rg s' Ande s v. o s nd ore t le d oltons t ione s e r l i ht .' r on Johns on, 338F. 38 386(t Ci. 3d 2, 5h r2003)(ntr cttonsa quottonsomitdl6Fe r ha sc t i enal iai nd ai te . deal bea ours onl pos es a hort t de a cl i t ta i a e hasnote us e t ough t s a e co t y s s ut iy o ny ny a m ha n nm t xha t d hr he t t ur pr es.Se 28U. C.j225 b)2) oc s e S. 4( ( . Asa c ola y t e or l r o xhausi t pr dur lba docti r quie i ton, he oce a - r rne e r s nmat t ltgat t r es o ii e hei camsi c inc wih saepr edurllw.Se Dr tev Haly,541U. 386,39 ( li n ompla e t tt oc a a e ek . e S. 2 2004) ; Lambrxv. n et y, U. 51 523( 997 ; emanv Thomps 501U. 722,7 ( 991. i Sigl ar 520 S. 8, 1 ) Col . on, S. 29 1 ) E oc dur lde a t. . cur whe aprs k e a f ul . oc s n ionerf ist e pr a l o xhaus a l esaer t vaiabl t t emedi a t c t es nd he our t whih t pettone woul be r quie t pr e hi c am s i or rt me tt e usi n o c he ii r d e r d o es nt s l i n de o e he xha to r uie twoul now fndt c am spr e alyba r ' Ba l v Dr k 372F. 748,755 eq r men d i he l i oc dur l red.' gwe l . ete, 3d ( hCi. 5t r 2004)( ai omitd) he saerme esa erndeeduna lbl bypeiine ' quotton te .W n tt e di r e r vaia e tto rs o p o e u a d futafd r l o r l l fr g t en e ls j diil ig p n a dh l t e wn r c d rl e a l, e ea c u tl l o e o h e de s u ca pn - o g' n o d h wi cli pr e al bardfom ha asrviw. Sone v Har t, F. 41 41 (t Ci.1 ) am oc dur ly re r be e e ' ' s . get61 3d 0, 6 5h r 995 ( tng Ste v You 11F. 1 quoi e l . ng, 3d 518,1 24 (1 t Ci.1 5 0h r 993:. A fderlco tma r e a e a ur y eviw n Th Stt ma ç x rsl wav l te (x a sin)rq ie n. 28 U.. j 2 5 ( () Sltrak e ae y l pe sy ie) h e h u to e urme t' e ' SC. 2 4b)3 . ae ss Rep n e towav e h u t ni ti c s .( c e Enl No 21a 1 ) Rep n e h sd cie t d s .( c e so d n t ie x a si n hs a e Do k t t . t 8. s o d nt a e l d o o o Do k t o y n Enr No. 0a 4 5 , 6 . ty 3 t 0, 0 5 ) imaesu e ha se o pr e u al b re cams nl ih s ws ( ) a ea da t a p eu ie n t ' n x u td r oc d r l ard li o y f e ho : 1 c us n cu l rj dc y or()t tû c tttonal oltonha i o bl r ule i t c ci ofonewhoi Gcual 2 ha Ea onsiui vi ai s prba y es td'n he onviton s a t ly i e ll' Haly,5 U. a 393(uoi Mura v Car ir 477U. 478,496( 98 ) nnoc nt.'' e 41 S. t q tng ry . re , S. 1 6). l t i ae has pr e e hi f de alconsiutona cli s t t sa e c t i a f he nm t es nt d s e r tt i l am o he tt ours n p o e u al r p r n e, n tesaec u t h v a j d c tdtemeis AEDPA alws e e a r c d rl o e ma n ra d h tt o rs a e du iae h rt, yp lo fd r l r ve b t r v d sd frn et tesaec u tud me t E l o usig o wh t saec u t n w e iw u p o i e eee c o h tt o rj g n . l7 c ln l n a a tt o rk e ll an di 'Culenv Pi se ,563U. 17 1 ( 1)aha speii rt t bur nunde d d,' l . nholtr S. 0, 82 201 , bea ttone û he de has r AEDPA t prvet thei e ildt r i , o o ha s ntte o elef' 'Montya v Johns 226F. 399,404 ( h Ci. o . on, 3d 5t r 2 0 )t s o t a t esaec u tsa j dc to o t ealg dc n t u in l ro û sço tay 0 0 ,o h w h t h tt o r' du iai n f h l e o si to a e r rç c nrr e t wa t or i ve a unr a ona e applca i of cla l esabls Fe r 1w .' Be ghui v o, nvol d n e s bl i ton , e ry t ihed de al a '' r s . Thompkns 560U. 370,380( 0)( i 28U. C.j2254( ( ); e aloThalrv Ha s i, S. 201 quotng S. d)1) s e s e . yne , 559U. 43,47( 0) Belv Cone 535U. 685,698( S. 201 ; l . , S. 2002) Earyv Pac r 537U. 3,7; l . ke , S. 8 ( 2) Wilamsv Ta or 5 U. 362,41 ( 200 ; li . yl , 29 S. 3 2000)7 A fderlha asc tmus pr umet . e a be our t es he undel ng fcualdeemi tonsoft saec tt bec r t unl st i ele llt ryi a t tr nai he tt our o orec, es he nmat ç buts he r prs i ofc rct s byclara c nci evi nc ' 28U. C.j2254( ( ) s ealo eumpton ore ne s e nd onvi ng de e. ' S. e)1; e s MilrElv Coc r l, U. 322,3 ( le - . k el537 S. 41 2003) Youngv Dr t , 6F. 61 629( t Ci. ; . eke 35 3d 6, 5h r 2004) (W safdeal ascour wear bo byt saeha asc tsfct lfndi , hi ii ç e r habe q e und he tt be our' a ua i ngs bot mplct a e ii-'nd xplct' l A pe ii rsc ttone ' ompla wihAEDPA doesnot onecr a ea e ilm e t ha sr le . ince t al e t n ntte nto bea ei f A n a ia i of ce l e tbls d fder lw i un e ona e i t sat c ti ntfest c r c pplc ton lary sa ihe e al a s r as bl f he t e our de ii he ore t goveni lga prnci e,butunr s r ng e l i pl ea onabl a i t tprnci et t f c s See Wilamsv Ta o 529U. 362, y pples ha i pl o he a t . li . ylr, S. 41 -3(0 0 .Anu rao a l a pl aino lw dfesfo a ic re t p lcto ;h s afd rl a a c u t 21 2 0 ) n e sn be p i t f a ifr r m n n o rc a piain tu , e ea h be s o r c o ma c retwha itn st b a i orc a pl aino lw o l iti a pl aini as o j cieyu rao a e y orc tti d o e n nc re t p i t fa ny fhs p i to s lo be tv l ne s n bl. c o c 1 a 4 9 l .F d r l a e srl fr m asaec u ts tr n to i pe ld dRoln a fi n e uit c l é t 0 - 1 e ea h b a ei fo tt o r'deemiain s rcu e s o g s ar d dj rss oud e mi dsg e o tec re meso tesaec ut d cso ' Ha rn tnv Rihe, 6 U.. 6,1 l( l. ia re n h orc s fh tt o r' e iin. r igo . c tr 5 2 S 8 0 201 ) s ' NoS p e Co r c s i as s g e tdt a awrt fh b a c r u s o l a tmaial is ei u rme u t a e t l) u g se h t io a e s o p s h u d uo tc l su f h y aprs rs tsist AEDPA sa r .' Hor v Bank ,5 U. 266,272 ( ione aife he tnda dgl' n . s 36 S. 2002) s alo ; ee s Robe tonv Cai 324F. 297,306( hCi.2003)(i ngt t28U. C.j2254( ç snot rs . n, 3d 5t r fndi ha S. d) l doe rquiefdealha asc t t grntr i r l xi l ) J ci docrne ,s ast hamlse r e r be ours o a elef ete vef'. udi al ti s uch he r e s e r rdoc rneandt non- e r c i t i i e brdl f de a ha sr le .Se Thack rv D r t e ro ti he r t oa tviypr nc pl , i e e r l bea e i f e e . ek , 39 F. 607,61 n. (t Ci. 6 3d 2 2 5h r 2005) A ti er c nnotrquieha srle unls it d)a . ral ror a e r bea eif e s tç hag ûu sa ta a dij ro sefc o i le c i d tr nn te uy' v r it' Ro e to , 2 F.d s b tnil n n u iu fe t rnfu n e n eemiig h j l s ed c.' b rs n 3 4 3 ' a 3 4( u t gBr c t . r ams n 5 7U. 61 , 2 ( 9 3 ) s eas Almanv S en s 3 0 t 0 q oi e h v Ab ah o , 0 S. 9 6 9 1 9 ); e lo e n . tr e , 2 F. 687,690- ( t Ci.2003)Cf hi i t AEDPA s esst ti i a opraet is 3d 91 7h r Not ng n he ugg t ha t s ppr it o sue wrt ofha a c puse t is be s or ven hough any e r off der l1w t tmay ha oc ured di nota f c ror e a a ha ve c r d fe t teo to .) Alo u d r h j rs r d n eto n fo T a ev fa e 48 U. 2 ( 9 9 , h uc me' . s , n e t e u ip u e c l wig r m e gu . n , 9 S. 88 1 8 ) ' ahabe c tc nnotgr ntr le i i woul r quiet c e ton a r toa tvea iato ofne as our a a e if f t d e r he r a i nd e r c i pplc i n w c tt i ll w . Se H or 536 U . a 272. ons iutona a e n, S. t Re p n e th smo d f rs mma yj d me t S mmayj d me ti prpe wh n te s o d n a ve o u r u g n . u r u g n s o r e h rc r s wstha temo i gpat i e tte t j d me t samatr fa ' FE R. V. 5 () e o d ho t th v n ry s n ild o u g n a t te o lw. D. CI P. 6c . ' i s a ge a pr nc pl Rul 56 of t Fe a Rul of Ci lPr dur ,r l tng t s m a y t A. ner l i i e, e he der l es vi oce e e a i o um r j d me ta pl swihe u lfr ei t ec ne t fha e sc musc s s' Clr v J h s n 2 2 u g n , p i t q a o c n h o tx o b a o e ae. a k . o n o , 0 ' F.d7 0 7 4( t Ci. 0 0 .A d src c u t o sd rngamo inf rs mma y u g n us al 3 6 , 6 5h r 2 0 ) itit o r c n iei to o u r j d me t u l y co tu diput f ct i a lg m os f vo a e t t nonmovi pa t butmus a s vi w t nsr es s ed a s n iht t a r bl o he ng ry, t lo e he e de etuough t hepr s of he s t tvee den i ybur ' Ande s v f i ryLobb I , vi nc l E t im t ubs an i vi tar den.' r on . be t y, nc. 4 7U. 2 2 2 4( 9 6 .Th g n r l u r u g n sa d r sh dt t ee tn t e d n t 7 S. 4 , 5 1 8 ) e e ea s mma yj d me t tn a d ol o h xe th y o o c lc wihAEDPA a ot rha slw.SeeSmihv Coc r l311F. 661 668(t Ci. 2) ontit t nd he bea a t . k el, 3d , 5h r200 ( e56ta pleso yt t e e t tidoesno c lc wiht ha asr ls',ov r e on Rul tp i nl o he xtnt ha t t onfit t he be ue ' eruld ) ot rgr ndsb Te dv Dr te,542U. 27 ( 4) he ou y nnar . ek S. 4 200 . 11 1. A nal i ys s Sl t rr i e t ve g oundsf r i i hi f de a ha aspe ii Sl t rr i e cl m stle a e as s i r or elef n s e r l be tton. a e a s s ai lr e, f ,a tvef t frttm eon f r habe sr vi our nd i or he is i ede al a e ew.A pr edur lba pr cl sconsde a i oc a r e ude i r ton ofan u y nexha t d gr ndsf rr le Se Col m an,50lU . a 736 n. . Sl e a gue t t c us e ou o e if e e S. t 1 8 at r r s ha he an s o c u ea d a t a p eu iet o ec met ep o e u a b ro to ecams Asds u s d h w a s n cu l rj dc o v r o h r c d rl a f h s li . ic s e be ow,Sl t r ha no s n a ba i t f gi t pr e a detc e i s i hi une us e l a e s t how ny s s o or ve he oc dur l i i nc e n s xha t d cai s Ale nai l t Cour fndst tSlt fha nots l m . tr tvey, he t i ha a e s hownt ta ofhi cl msm e i f r l ha ny s ai rt ede a habe r le . as e i f A. Lese -ncude l tuci onM ur r( ai One s rl l d nsr ton de Cl m ) Slt ra gue t t e m a ovi dei int ror cebyf ii t r s a i tu ton a e r s ha Fr e npr ded tce pe f man a lng o eque t n nsr c i t a wo l alwj r r t c n it i o ac i o h r h nc pi l r e .Sae b s shi lseh t ud l u o s o o v c hm f rme t e t a a t mu d r ltr a e s e s r o a i l d- f ns -nsa ci cli ont ve son oft c i hepr dedi hi polc sae e . ncude ofe e i t ton a m he r i he rme ovi n s i e t tm nt Th pr e uina mitd S ae ' vie tp d c n e so it e i e c a dply di f rtej r . e osc to d te ltrs d o a e o fs in n o v d n e n a e t o h u y B Sltra kst Cour t say a a t t sca et alow t saecourst rviw hi cli s l Rhi sv ae s he t o t nd bae hi s o l he tt t o e e s am . n ne . We r5 4U.. 6 , 7 (0 5 .h S prmeCo r a to ie al tdsa -n -b y nc pa tc i fd rl o r be, 4 S 2 9 2 5 2 0 )te u e ut uh rz d i e ty a da e a e rcie n e ea c ut mi tatalwsf t de l h lo or he veopme ofmert i cai whiepr e vi AEDPA' c r f tnaiyande nt iorous l ms l es r ng S once n or i lt xpedi y. enc Se f a 278.Rhi s howe ,har yr quie fder c rst sayevey pe ii adva ng u xha td cl m s eI t f ne , ver dl e r s e al ou t o t l tton nci ne use ai . Rhn so l a to ie sa a da e a c wh ntep tt e s o : 1 g o c uefrfin t e h ustecam;2 ie ny uh rz s ty n b y n e e h eion r h ws () o d a s o al g o x a th li () i i ta tecam i n t lil meies a d( )ta h h sno itnin l e g g di dltr tcis Se i. t 7 h th li s o pany rt s; n 3 h t e a tne t al n a e n i oy a tc. e d a 27 . l o y a Thee usin docrne,i udig t sa and-be nces f y val i pr dia e ont avalbiiy ofsae c t xha to ti ncl n he ty- a ya aet ve, s e c t d he ia lt tt our rme is S e28U. C. 2 4( ( ) Te a srcl e fre i a u eoftewrt o ti (o ie a TE . e de . e S. j 25 8)l. x s tity no c s t b s- -h - id crne c dt d t X CODE s i CRM. O. l l .7lj5a)a dg n rl po bttetl go s c e sv h b a a pl ain .Whl at l l . I PR at l0 () n e eal rhiish ii f u c sie a e s p i t s ie ri e l071 y n c o c snctonst fln ofas e svesaeha sapplcai i t e lmiedcic t es Sltrdoe note tbls t t a i he iig ucc s i tt bea i ton n hr e i t r umsanc , ae s sa ih ha h met i d ma dn rq rme t.Aril 1 . 1j5a()a to ie tefl gof sc e sv a piainwh n e es t e n ig e ui ns t e 107 ()1 uh rz s h in a u c sie p l to e s e c i c t cli t venotbe andcoul notha bee pr e e pr vi l ... aus t fct lorl lba i f t he ams ç ha en d ve n es ntd e ousy bec e he a ua ega ss or he cam wa u a albe,' Sae d e no po ieava l ag me toalw s c esv saerve Be a s Te a li s n v i lg ' ltr o s t rvd ibe ru n t lo u c sie tt e iw. c u e x s a l woul appl ispr dur llw t pr bi t t i ofa s es i saeapplcai sa ng Sltrsfder peii d y t oce a a o ohi t he ilng ucc sve tt i ton, tyi ae ' e al tton woul i e t edl sdely it t s pr e ngs d ns r ne es a no he e oc edi . 10 Tr Vol 1 a 22,11 1 St t ' Exhi t39 .I hi saeme ,Sl e t dt polc t ,a t he . .6 t 2- 3; a e s bi A n s t t nt atr ol he ie hat fer t c i fom t tu a s wedit t buye s oneoft br s dagun.Slt rbe ook ocane r he r nk nd ho t o he r, hem andihe a e gan s i a t n dr a a w ihoutt ki an m one hootng nd he ove w y t a ng y y. Sl t r s c es i r i ed t o pot nta de e es Fi s ,t evi nce r i e a ques i of a e ' onf son a s w e i l f ns . r t he de as d ton wheherSl t kil ddurngt c s ofar r Slt ra g t thi polc saeme û ga e t aer le i he our e obbe y. a e r ues ha s ie t t nt t t d ne t r be y elmen ofc pia m ur ra r s f c is ast whe he he wa c he ob r e t a t l de nd aied a t s ues o t r s omm itng a ti r r .. . ( ketEntyNo. a 25) Se obbey .' Doc ' r 21 t . cond, ae ' sae ntal dt def et ague Sltrs ttme lowe he ens o r t tt m ur r w e e a a tof s l- f e. W hie Sl t r spolc s a e e pr vi d de ais t ha he de s r n c e f de ens l ae ' i e t t m nt o de t l o s bsa taet o ed f n e , e ma a tcp tdta Sltr udtket esa da dp o ie u o s u tn it h s ee s sFre n niiae h t ae wo l a h tn n r vd j r r hi ac ountoft m ur s Rel i on t c t u ton ofeve s f s c he der . y ng he onsr c i nt ound i hi polc s a e e , n s i e t t m nt Sl t r a guest tFr m an s d have r ae r ha ee houl eque t d a l s r i l s e es e - nc uded- f ns i t u ton on sm pl of e e ns r c i i e m ur r de . Be us Sl trexha t d t scli on sae ha as r vi w,AEDPA gui st s Co ts ca e ae use hi a m t t be e e de hi ur ' r viw. Slt r m us no onl m e t hi bur of s e e ae t t y e s den howi t t Fr ma pr de de i e ng ha ee n ovi d fcint r pe e tto , emus as s o ta tesaeh b a c u tsrj ci no t i cam wa c n rr e r s nain h t lo h w h t h tt a e s o r' ee to f h s li s o tay t ora umva o bl a iai of f rllw.Se 28U. C.j225 d)1) o, n s na e pplc ton , edea a e S. 4( ( . 1. Inef ectve- ss s ance- f i A it of counselSt andard Course ua eanat ne se f t unde t sa dfom Sti l v Was ngt 466 t val t tor y' fors r he t ndar r rckand . hi on, U. 668( 984) UnderStikl ac i na dee ntsSi h Ame me rg saet e S. 1 . rc and, rmi l fnda ' xt nd nt iht r û d deni wh n ad fn eatm e ' pef r n ef lsb lw a o j cie sa d r o ra o a ln s a d e e e s to y s ro ma c al eo n b e tv tn ad f e s n be e s n t çbyprju c st defns ' Yar ou v Ge r 540U. 1, ( hee e die he e e. bor gh . nty, ' S. 3 2003)( emphassa d) s i dde ;ee aloRompil v Be d,545U. 374,387( s la . ar S. 2005) Wi nsv Smih,539U. 51 520( 3) ; ggi . t S. 0, 200 . 11 Co n e' p ro n ei c nsiu in lyd fce ti i flsb lw û no j ci sa d r u s ls e fnua c s o ttto al eiin f t al eo t be t tn ad a ve ofraonablnes.'Stikand, U. a 688.lll cal c ui ofc e' pef ncemus e s e s' rc l 466 S.t t-udii s r tny ounsls ronna l t be hi y de e e ta,'a e y e f tmus be m a t elm i t û he dit tng e f t of ghl f r n i l' nd ver for t de o i na e l t sori fec s hi i ht' I a 689.An i f c i - ssa ecl m f us on E ouns lscha lnge conduc ndsg - d. t ' nefe tve as itnc ai oc es û c e' le d t o t fcsoft pa tculrc s viwedasoft tmeofc e' c n he a t he ri a a e, e he i ounsls onducjj' a eohe wie t,'bec us t r s ûll i alt tmptng f adefnda t scond- s couns ' a ssa a t convi on or tit s 1 oo e i or e nt o e gue s els s itnce fer di a r e s nt nce ' I The 1 w ho s a a t ne s t dve s e e .' d. a nor n tor y' t c ous a i o d de s on on t i cons i nd nf nne ci i ral t tcsa sr t gy,' l i f f der lr le onl w he ûi i s ilchos t ti pe m ea est ac i nd t a e ' alow ng or e a e i f y n tt s o l en ha t r t he e ietilwihobvi unf r s' Cotonv. kr l343F. 746, 53(t Ci. ntr ra t ous aines.' t Coc el, 3d 752- 5h r 2003) The . p eu ieee n rq ie t emo a t os o ta lh r i ara o a ep o blt ta, u fr rj dc lme t e ur s h v n t h w h t ç ee s e s n bl r ba ii h tb t o t y c ouns ' u of s i l nor , her ul oft pr e ng woul ha be n dif r nt' St c l els npr e sona e s t es t he oc edi d ve e f e e . ri k and, ' 466U . a 694.$ r s bl pr biiy i apr S. t C ea ona e oba lt s obabiiys fc e t unde m i confde i t A lt ufii nt o r ne i nce n he o c e. 1 ut om ' d. ' W hieçll mountngStikl shi bari ne ra e yt k'aha speii ' dut l ûsur i rc and' gh s ve n as as ' bea ttoners y t Elltbls )t tasat cour' a iai ofStikl wasunr s na eunde j225 d)i o te sa ihl ha t e ts pplc ton rc and ea o bl r 4( s a1 h mo ed fiut' Pa l v Ke t cy 5 9U. 3 6 3 ( 01 ) t- sa d r sc e tdb 1t e r ifc l- dia . n u k 5 S. 5 , 71 2 0 .ûl tn a d rae y ' l -he Stikanda j2254( aebot hi ydefrntal.. a whent t a yi tnde rvi rc l nd d) r h ghl ee i , . nd he wo ppl n a m,e ew idoubl s 'Rihtr 562U. a 1 ( ttonomitdl s ealoKnowlsv Mizyanc 556U. s y o.' c e , S.t 05 ciai te ; e s e . r a e, S. 111 1 ( , 23 2009) . 2. Tri C ounsels St egy and Sl er' Choi al ' rat at s ces Be a e t St t ofTe c r Sl t rw ih ca t lm ur r t pr e uton nee d t c us he a e xas ha ged a e t pia de , he os c i de o prvet thec o ha ommitdmur r asdetne byTEX. NALCODEj1 0 b) ) andi e inal te de, i d PE 9.2( (1, ntnto ly 12 di s ti t cour e ofc mitng ora t d o çn he s om ti temptng t c mi ...r r ' TEX.PENAL CODE i o om t obbe y. ' j 1 03()2 . Fr ma fce ditc tc ce whe f mi adefns f hi cint AsSltr 9. a() ee n a d fiul hoi s n or ng e e or s le . ae c de ,ûll e denc wa undipue t tpeiine c us M atn' de t i vi lyo a once s ûthe vi e s s td ha tto r a ed ri s ah ndi dual r s apat ' ( ke EntyNo.21a 31. Sltrssae ntt polc pr de t be thopef r ry. Doc t r ' t ) ae ' ttme o ie ovi d he s o c a tng as c s f de e e.Slt rspolcesaeme dr vec r fi uc e sul f ns a e ' i t t nt o ouns lschoi saboutt t ores e' ce he he i whih wo d unde let ti de e e, t ec c ca wih c e nc .The src ur s c ul ri he ral f ns but hos hoies me t ons que es tit e off de ala s a e l c nne ed t de i i Fr e a woul m a i f hi ng Sl t r spolc e r nd t t aw ha l he c s ons e m n d ke n as oni ae' ie s a e e i t a de ens t t m nt n o f e. Asma e byBec vAl ndatd k . abama, U. 625( 98 ,Te salowsdefnda st r s 447 S. 1 0) xa l e nt o equet j r i t cins nlse -n l d do fns s oc ptl r e,n l igsmpemu d r Th Co r uy nsnzt o e s ricu e fe e t a ia mu d r icudn i l r e . e u t o ofCrmi lAppea sha l onsse l hed t a a us i entte t a i tu i on e l i na l s û itnty l hat n cc ed s il d o n nsr cton c vey de e i is r ie by t e denc f nsve s ue a s d he vi e.Thi i t'e r ga dls ofwhehers h e de e i sr s st e r es u t uc vi nc s tong orwea uni k, mpea hedorc r di e and r ga dl s ofwha t ti lcour ma orm a nott rk c onta ctd, e r es t he ra t y y hil a t ce biiyofhi e de e. Ha sv. at 7 S. . 804, ( x. i App. 98 . bouthe rdi lt t s vi nc ' ye St e, 28 W 2d ' 807 Te Crm. 1 7) Re tngal s r i l quesi es e -ncuded- f ns i tu ton on smpl mur woul ha pr dedanopton ofe e nsr c i i e der d ve ovi i f r u o swh beiv dta t eSaeh dno p o e t er b eyc mpo e t fc ptl r e b t o j r r o le e h t h tt a t r v n h o b r o n n o a ia mu d r u dibei dhi s fde e ear e .Stl,ha sr t gya i i e ac c i f smpl m ur r s leve s el- f ns gum nt ilt t ta e ntcpatd onviton or i e de . To t a e d, h d fns c ul as r q etaj r i t ci n o tej si c to o s lh t n t e ee e o d lo e u s u y nsnlto n h u tt ain f ef i de e e. Fr t be nni of ti lpr ee ngs Fr e a i c t d t t a m ai f f ns om he gi ng r a oc di , e m n ndi a e ha n ocus of t he defns sca e woul be a c am of s fde e e. Tr Vol 3 a 46e e' s d li el- f ns . . t 47. 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Thi c ce woul be rs and a tl de a e e c t obbe y c r s hoi d iky lm ie t de e e' optons pari ul r y bec us t t i c te ry i t c e t d co elt t i t d he f ns s i , tc a l a e he ral our a l n he as ol uns ha s l- ee ewo l n tb aj si c to u ls Sltrr q e td alse-n ld d isnzto o efd fns ud o e u tt ain ne s ae e u se e s ri cu e n t cin n i s m pl m ur r Tr V ol 4 a 1 50. i e de . . . t 49A fe bot pa tesr s ed, e m a ha a pr va e c t r h r i e t Fr e n d i t onver a i w ih Sl t be or t pa te s ton t a er f e he ri s tns e dic sigtej r c ag i t i c s .Theta s rp i dc t s h tS ae a dhsatr e i ih d s u sn h u y h r e n hs a e rn cit n iae t a ltr n i ton y h a l dic son,butpr de f w deaisa ad ong s us i ovi s e t l boutiscontnt t e : Tra Cour: A1 rght M r Fr e a ac or ngt t cl on t wal, a il t 1 i . . e m n, c di o he ock he l you nd M r Slt r ha ha a opporuniy t vii f a . a e ve d n t t o st or bout35 m i e . nut s I of asyour dic son i conc ne --obvi l Idon' know ns ar s us i s er d ousy t whati i orw ha i w a - bu i t r a hi f rhe i of ra t ts tt s t s he e nyt ng u t r ns a s he c r i c er d t thase ve fom yourdic son? ha ge s onc ne ha vol d r s us i Fr m a . ee n' Im e n,w e ha bee f l di c s ng i ,yotr H onor W e ha not a ve n uly s us i t l . d quie r ac d a we r ac t e he e hed a t nt tve dec son,bu I wa not e ai ii t s s tsi d t ti was an i onne decson o hi pa t Te a i a ife ha t nf d ii n s r. nt tve de i i wast notc nge m y i tals a e e t t Cour . c s on o ha nii t t m nt o he t TralCour : You ar t l w ye . i t e he a r Fr e a . e m n' The r s n 1m s yi t t i ' not i or e i Im no c t n he ea o ' a ng ha ts nf m d s ' t erai unde s a t cons que es oft tdec son.I m tyi t m ake r t nds he e nc ha ii ' r ng o t tclart hi . ha e o m TralCo t i ur : lw il1 tyou vi i w ih hi f om rghtt r f fve m i es 1 m l e st t m r i he e or i nut . ' goi t w a an a w e .... ng o nt ns r 14 Fr e a e nA n: Iunde s a r t nd. Tr Vol 1 a 6.Afers aki a i wih Sl e ,Fr mana r nty i or t ti c tt . .7 t t pe ng gan t atr ee ppa e l nf med he ral our hat hewoul notr s al s ri l d eque t es e -ncuded- f ns i t cton o m ur r Tr Vol 1 a 7- 9 ofe e nsnl i n de . . . 7 t 9. OnceSlt rde de nott r ques a i tuc i on mur r t ti lc tr us d t gi a e ci d o e t n nsr ton de , he ra our ef e o ve a isr ci no sl- ee s .Afe rve n t ej r c ag ,h til o r tl tepa t st a n n tu to n efd fn e tr e iwi g h u y h r e t e ra c u to d h ri h t e ûll rlva f t a cic t es( t rque t(oras l- e ei t ctonqt tMr lthe ee nt acs nd rumsanc of hel e s f efdefns nsnz i ha . Fr ma ha madeobvi l t twoul beanis i amur rc e. Tr Vol 1 a 24.Howe , ee n s ousy ha d s ue n de as ' . . 7 t ' ver b c us ûhe u yi s e i l t l ta te c n o c n c u e st e fn b y n ara o a l e a e û j r s p ct l od h t h y a n t o vit nls h y id e o d e s n be t ka y doub t r r wa c t he obbe y s omm itd. l i ... y unde sandi t ts fde e e doe n' a yi a te t s m r t ng ha el- f ns s t ppl n r b epc pi l r e (a e . TrVol1 a 2 . Th til o r a mitdt a s l-e e s c ud o b r a t mud r c s l' . . 7 t 51 e ra c u t d te h t efd fn e o l a ' 0 beaf ct i aû ur rc e, a hec d t e i goi i o s eki ofc pia m ur r . Tr a or n û de as ' nd m ' oul l e t ng nt om nds a t l de s' . s ' V ol 1 a 25. The t i c tor r d a r ce s s t tt pa te coul r s ar h whe he a s f .7 t ral our de e e s o ha he ri s d ee c t r el- defns i t ci wasa o it i t sc e.Tr Vol 1 a 26. e e nsnlton ppr pra e n hi as . .7 t W he t pa tesr t e t pr ec o ,a t r c e r ng w ih a a t ne i t a l t n he r i e um d he os ut r fe onf r i t n tor y n he ppela e s cin s i ûusiiain i n tapa t fted fn ei ti c s , e a s i i amu d rr b ey e to , ad j tfc to s o r o h ee s n h s a e b c u e t s r e-o b r stain' n tuste S aeo j ce t a sl- ee e isr cin. Tr Vo .l a 31 Fre n i to 'a d h h tt b e td o efd fns n tu to u . l 7 t . e ma r f re t t Te saut gove ni t vi nc i pr e utonsf mur ,' X. e e r d o he xas t t e r ng t de e n os c i e or der'TE CODE CR M. J Ahera s tr ces,t ti c tas d Fr ma if e a weri?'t whih t rcor r fecsFr ema hor e s he ral our ke ee n, ç' ns -h s ' o c he e d e l t e n r ple icame. Tr Vol 1 at7.Thi i lkel at gr phi leror Ther c dt tf l , e id,t ' . .7 ' s s i y ypo a ca r . e or ha olows howe ,make icla ver st er t tSltrdecde t f r a l s -ncl d- fns i tuci on sm pl m ur r ha ae i d o o go eseri ude ofe e nsr ton i e de . 1 0 Te a 1w rc g ie ta ûge eal ap ro c mmit gt eofn eo r b eyh sn rg t fsl-ee s x sa e o nz sh tç ln rl es n o ti h fe s f o b r a o ih o efd fn e l y, n a an t sitn e vci ' Dia dv Sae 931S. .d6 9 6 7( x. p.1 9 ) g is hi ne d d itm. l r . tt, ' l W 2 8 , 9 Te Ap 9 6 . 15 PRo. r. 36,1 nd obs v dt ti s cii ly i l d a alowa ef pr en i e de eof a t 38. 1 a er e ha t pe fcal nc ude n l nc or es tng vi nc s l- ee ea a u tfc to frmu d r TrVo . 7a 3 - 4 Th til o r sae ta t esau e efd fns s j siiain o r e . . l 1 t 3 3 . e ra c u t ttd h th ttt di no s cii ly r f rt û lpr ec i f c pia m ur r' a de e t r d t pe fcal e e o ç al os utons or a t l de ,' nd ni d he eques on t t t ha ba i . Tr V ol 1 a 34.2 Fr e an sr nuo l butuns c s uly, r ss . . 7 t 1 e m te us y, uc es f l a gued ag ns t t i cour' ai t he ral ts d a of a s fde e e i tuci enil el- f ns nsr ton. Tr Vol 1 a 38. . 7 t 40. Fr ma s guiti e cosng ee n' l/nnoc nce l i s m a i n a g d t tSl t rha notc m it d a r bbe y. um to r ue ha a e d om te o r 3. Stat H abeas R e ew e vi Sl e ' sae ha s a i a i r ied t i e r l e cl m s Fr ma s d ha atr s t t bea pplc ton a s wo nt reatd ai ' ee n houl ve . r se al s ri ude ofe ei tuci o sm pl m ur ra heti c t houl ha gi n eque t d es e -ncl d- f ns nsr ton n i e de ndt ral our s d ve ve ani tu ton ons l- e e.Slt rscli st nedont c nsr c i e fdef ns a e ' am ur he onve s ton a t def ns t bl bef r r a i t he e e a e o e Fr e an a m ounc d t tt y w oul f go a i t u i n on s m pl m ur r Sl t ra Fr em a bot em l e ha he d or n ns r cto i e de . a e nd e n h s m it d ha asa f da t pr di dif r ntde c i i oft tc ub te be f i vis ovi ng f e e s rptons ha onve s ton. I a G elm i r rai n ç i na y pr a fdavi' da e J f i t' t d anua y 24,2002,3Fr e a s i t t éup untl ha ver m om e ' t t ut lt i l r 1 e m n a d ha , û it t y nt' he é ua r a m s r t g w a ... o a k f t kic n s nk' whi h i l d t c l s e of e e ofc pialm ur t a e y s t s or he t he i ' c nc ude t h e s r f ns ea a t der c ge i t i c m e i t sca e ' St t H a asRe d a 1 Pl c nge whe Sl t har d n he ndi t nt n hi us .' a e be cor t 94. ans ha d n a er û ur ii y, l i e es l elc e t pur uea û lornot ng- ta l sr t gyi medit l pror t prsngl abet xpr sy, e t d o s n al- - hi a - l' ta e m s a ey i t't e u yc ag .S aeHa a Re o da 1 .F e ma s i û rl ca tya q is e t ( ae ') o'h j r h r e tt be s c r t 93 re n ad:ç eu tnl c ue c d o Sltrs l Aril 3 . 4)p o ie ta tnal o e uin frmu d rtesaeo ted fn a tsal ep r te t t e 836a r vd s h tû 1prsc t s o r e,h tt rh ee d n h lb emitd o c i o ofe t tmo a t aIr e ntfcsandcic t ess r f r esi ny s o l elva a t r umsanc uroundi t kilngandt pr vi r ltons p e si ng he li he e ous ea i hi xitng bewee t a us andt dec as d,t t w ih alr e tf t andcic sa sgoi t s t n he cc ed he e e ogeher t l elvan acs rum tnce ng o how t c ton he ondii oft m i oft ac s att tm eoft ofe e.' he nd he cu ed he i he fns ' TheCour ofCrm i Appeashadprvi l f nd t t prorveri oft tsaut a id i ca tl t i nal l e ousy ou hat he i son ha tt e pple n pia- mud rp oe uin .Se Sate iev Sae 78 S. .d2 ,28 ( x Crm. p 1 8 ) Putlv Sae 7 re r sc to s e t wht . tt, 6 W 2 71 3 Te . i Ap . 9 9 * rel . tt, 61 i , S. .d3 0 3 0( x Crm. .1 8 )La v S ae 6 0SW.d11 1 ( x. i Ap .1 8 ) W 2 6 , 7 Te . i App 9 8 ; mb . tt, 8 . 2 , 7 Te Crm. p 9 4 . Fremanpa s d a y be or pr di a he am davi. e s e wa f e ovi ng not r t a pa e l s rde i i o çolt die'o t is of sguitwihouta l s ri l p r nty obe c sont r lhe c n he s ue hi l t ny es e ncudedofe e f ns a ali t ti c tsfna c r ' St t Habe s Rec d a 1 t l n he ral our' i l ha ge. ae ' a or t 94. Fr e a s i t tSlt rs e m n a d ha a e ' de sont m a a trlf l e ai t hi t l ga c e ncesofhi elc i .. prvael cii û was de fe uly xpl ned o m he e l ons que s e ton . i t y i t ope tilc toom .' St t Ha s Rec d a 1 n he n ra ourr ' ae bea or t 94. Fr man f t r s d t t Slt r s ee urhe ai ha a e ' ts prs , bete pr s , l c i wa , or ove , ol yhi elc i ' Stt Ha asRe da 1 4. tur ie al i x e s e e ton s m e r s el s e ton. a e be ' cor t 9 Ove adec delt r Sl e a d asr rf c ua basst hi ha scli t oug hi own r a a e , atr dde tonge a t l i o s bea am hr h s a tda t Slt rsaed: fi vi. a e t t The ea es ve alf cua i c a eslwa t poi out M uchofi i ba ed r r e r a t l nac ur ci nt o nt . ts s on whatM r Fr mant d m ewa t bes ti lsr e . ee ol s he t ra tatgy. M y de e ewa s fde e e.Theofe ei vedwha wast ha be a f ns s el f ns f ns nvol t o ve en dr dea . W hiewewe enegotatng i my ca oneoft m e puled apit a ug l l r ii n r he n l sol nd be n s i Nlme ouss swe ee ga hootng. l r hot r xcha ngeda t m e we ekild.1pule nd wo n r le ld m ygunonl a trt s i be n. wmsi f a ofmy lf whe Ibe n s i y fe he hootng ga I n er ie n ga hootng. A f e a1 oft e de e waspr s nt d a t guiti enc s a oft ti l t r 1 he vi nc e e e t he l/nnoc e t ge he r a lhad a l dicus i n wih M r Fr e a i t c toom . ldi no unde sa ong s so t . e m n n he ourr d t r tnd e r hi hes i but t d m et twe s ul go f al ornot ngt ti w e s d ve yt ng a d he ol ha ho d or 1 hi ha s houl a kt ej r t d cd wh t e Iha c mmitdc pi l d ra dn tak ta a y s h u y o e ie eh r d o te a t mur e n o s h t n a oh rc r e b s b te t t ejzy.M r Fre nt l met a i weal we t e t e hag s e u mitd o h l r . e ma od h t f lo d h j r t c n ie oh rc a g ste p o a l wo dc mp o s a dc n itmeo u y o o sd r t e h r e h y r b by ul o r mie n o vc f mu d r Mr Fre n tl me tej r c ud c n i e s l d fn e i t c ptl r e. . e ma od h u y o l o sd r ef e e s f he a ia mu d r s h o l c r es b te t tej r .Het l meIso dab te c a c r e wa t e ny hag u mi d o h u y t od t o etr h n e o b iga q i e i t j r ha t d cd o l i 1wa g i yo c pi l r e o f en c ut d f he u y d o e ie ny f s ul f a t mu d r r t t a im ocent r . Ia ee t goal wihwha M r Fr e a s gr d o ong t t . e m n uggese la no al wye a t d. m t a r nd heha m uc mor e re et n ldi Idi notf l unde sa wha het d m e d h e xpe i nc ha d. d uly rt nd t ol a woul ne rha a e d t hi sr e i lhad known t tt r i no s f nd d ve ve gr e o s tatgy f ha he e s el de e e i ar r mur rpr ec i M ydef ns wa s fdef ns . 1s onl f ns n obbe p de os uton. e e s el e e hot y t pr e tm ys f o ot c el. St t Habe s Re or a 604. ae a c d t Thesa eha asc t ve lysgne f t fndi gsa l ga concusonsr co me ng t t be our e nma l i d acuali n nd e l l i e m ndi t t Cour ofCrmi Appe l de r le . W ih t conti tng a fda tt tmony,t sat hat he t i nal a s ny e if t he l c i fi vi esi he t e ha asco t a edaque tonofwheherFr manorSlt rsafi viwasc edi e Thesaeha as be ur f c si t ee a e ' fda t r bl . t t be c u tf u dk o c e il t ea s rinsi ( ae')h b a a fd vts b te mo eta t le o r o n ç t rdb e h s et n Sltrs a e s fia i u mitd r h n wev n o ye r afe t tila ma yeasahe ti c e' de t i whih( jcli t thewa e t as tr he ra nd ny r r ral ouns ls ah n c he ams ha ntd o tsiya dt a tilc u s ln t( ae) wa tdt g f ralo n t n 'S aeHa e sRe o da e tf n h t ra o n e, o Sltr, n e o o o l r ohig. tt b a c r t ' 1 095. l c r s,t sa e ha as c tpr mied isdecson o ûhe c edi e a fdavi ofti n onta t he t t be our e s t ii n l r bl fi t ral t c ns lCha lsFr man.' St eHa asRec d at1 1 ou e re ee ' at be or 047.4 W ih t t e t ha ndor e e ,t Cour of Crm i A ppe s i s f c ua t ndi a e i s m nt he t i nal al s ued a t l i ngs cc ptng Fr e e man' ac ountt tSlt rls prsngl abe t e sye e t t puruea al- - hi a - l s c ha a e ûur ii y l i expr s l l ced o s n lornot ng- tal srtg ' ndt tFre nûeuca l ac es dt ( atrs a r l s rde ii t r lt tae y'a ha e ma é l tnty qui ce o Sl e 'l ppaenty obe cson o ol he r di ont is ofhi guit t an ls e i ude ofens a a ln t ti lc t fna c r ' ce he s ue s lwihout y e s r ncl d f e t l i he ra ours i l ha ge. ' St t Habe Rec dat1 4.5Thesaeha sc t oundt tFr e a t t l e anedt l ga ae as or 09 1 t t bea our f ha e m n û l y xpl i he e l fl c n e u n e o ( ae ') e iin'S aeHa e s c r a 1 9 .Alo F e ma slu yag me t o s q e c s f Sltrs d cso . tt b a Re o d t 0 4 s , r e n' j r ru n ' c em i t a lge lck ofevi ncet s onc ng he le d a de o how t tt s i oc r d durng t co s ofa ha he hootng cure i he ur e r bey r lcs g ae 'l e es de son t r lt die by notr si a chage on a ob r efe t sltrs xpr s cii o ol he c eque tng r lse -ncudedofe e. Stt Ha a Re or at1 (ii Tr Vol 1 a 73- . W ih t e e sri l fns ' ae be s c d 095 ctng . . 7 t 89) t hos ' pr dia e f c s t sa e ha as c tf e c t a t, he t t be our ound t tFr man was l i fe tve f de e rng t ha ee t ne f c i or f ri o not Thesat ha sc tbolt r isde son t tFr eman' afi tby r yi t isf la iywih til t e bea our seed t cii ha e s fdavi el ng t t amiirt t ra on c e Fr ma sti de ano a a ouns l ee n' ral me r nd dvoca yi c esohert nt i tntc eove c t Cour di not esde' c n as t ha he nsa as rwhih he t d pr i ' a f nd oundçhatti c elFr emanwasaze ousadvoc t ofhi cle si er twhowoul ohe e ge i atil ç ral ouns e t al ae s int nt es d n nga n ra sr tgyofbl fa bl t c itntwih ti c el'a tae uf nd user onsse t ral ouns s dvoca y ofas l- f ei tuci i t i t ca e. c efdeens nsr ton n he nsant s ' ' SaeHa e sReo da 1 95 Thesaeh b a c u t lor l do F ema sohe t io o syrp ee tain'wi tt b a c r t 0 . tt a e s o ras ei n re n' t rû g r u l e rsn lto l t e v ' h rg r t Sae' ûneetntep e aaino teg i-n o e c j r c ag b ma i 'n meo soh rsg eto s e ad o ltrst trsi h rp rto fh ul in c n e uy h re y kng' u ru te u g sin i t a do j cins SaeHa e sRe oda 1 4 . n be t . tt b a c r t 0 8 o Sl e i d ha bee e il t ac geont l s ofkns ofmur a t deensvecha geofs f atr : woul ve n ntted o har he eser f e der nd he f i r el defns i t y ha be r quesed. Stt H a asRec da 1 e e f he d en e t ' ae be ' or t 062. 18 ( ltrs wih s ndn te u siga u yi sn cino t els e-n ld dofe s o mu d r' fe Sae'l s e a o r q etn j r n t zto n h e s ricu e fn e f r e'a tr l ouns le aned t l ga cons que es' St t Habe sRec d a 1 l c e xpli he e l e nc . a e ' a or t 095,111 0. 4. FederalR evi cw The ope a i ofA ED PA g de t r s ng a r s toff r r e .Thi Cour m us r ton ui s he ea oni nd e ul ede al evi w s t t pr um e c r c a1 sa e c t fndi unl s Sl t r r but t t pr um pton wih lc e r a es or e t l t t our i ngs e s a e e s ha es i t ç l a nd con ncnge de e. U. C.j225 e ( ) Sltrsbur ni r f i t lga c l i i vi i vi nc ' '28 S. 4() 1. ae ' de n eutng he e l oncusons s notlght H em us s i . t how t tt y w e e t ont a y t ora unr as bl a i ato of f r ll w .' ha he r t r r o, n e ona e pplc i n , ede a a ' c 28 U. C.j 225 d)1 . Sltrmus as rbuta fcua fndi by tcea a c nci S. 4( ( ) ae t lo e ny a t l i ngs tl r nd onvi ng e ie c - 28U. C.j 2 5 ()1 . S ae c aln e t saec u t u g n b ag ig ta vd n e' ' S. 2 4 e( ) ltr h le g s he tt o r j d me t y r un h t Fr e a s a fda tw a notcr di e t ta r as bl com pe e ato ney w oul notha alow e e m n' f i vi s e bl , ha e ona y t nt t r d ve l d hi cle t pa tcpa ei t de ii whet rt r l ont a lornot ngde e e,ha Slt lcke s int o rii t n he c son he o ey he l- - hi f ns t t aer a d t i el t c pa t t as es t c e nc oft tde son, ndt t ee n s dnot he nt lecual a ciy o s s he ons que es ha cii a ha Fr ma houl have de e r d t Sl t r s wi hes f re o a e ' s . Sae 'c le g t t saec u tu g n frt ip tshee p iifcu li ig r ltn ltrs haln e o he tt o rj d me tis ds ue t x lct a t a tndn s eaig t Fr e a scr biiy.I an at mptt ove comet de e enc t t sa eco ttndi ,Slt r o e m n' edi lt n te o r he f r e o he tt ur i ngs a e ha s it d ne e denc t ta guabl t nds t i pugn Fr m a s cha a t r a di cou hi s ubm te w vi e ha r y e o m ee n' r c e nd s nt s afi vi.6 UnderSupr e Coul pr ce nt howe r afde a habe speii rf tg e t f da tl em ' e de , t ve, e r l a ttone û mus me t he AEDPA sa r ont rcor t twa beor t saec t'Pi se , U. a 1 s ealo tndadq he e d ha s f e he tt our.' nholtr 563 S.t 85; e s Cl kv Thalr 673F. 41 41 ( 2)(ppl ngPi se a c l ngt t fdeal our ar . e , 3d 0, 7 201 a yi nholtr nd oncudi hathe e r c t 1 6 Sltr rmai rl so : 1 a afd vtFe ma s b te i adifrn c s e pann ta atil ton y ae p i rl ei n () n fia i re n u mitd n fee t a e x liig h t ra atre y e s o l ma emotra d cso sa d( ) nafd vtrm asaetilu g o iigta Fe ma wa n t c mp tn, h ud k stil e iin n 2 a fia ifo tt raj d e pnn h t re n s o a o ee t h n s, rehc l ton y.( c e Enr No 21a 2 -4) o eto tia atre Do k t ty . t 2 2 . 19 mus çc i ro yt rcor t twa befr t saeha a c t'.7 Sltrsne evi nceha ttonsde nl he e d ha s o e he tt be s our')1 ae ' w de s no be rngon f de al e e Be a eSlt rhasnoto he wier bute t f c ua fndi r ltng ai e r r viw. c us a e t r s e td he a t l i ngs ea i t Fr e a sa tda t t sCour m us pr um ec r c hi c edi e s a em e t thei or e Sl t r o e m n' fi vi, hi t t es or e t s r bl t t nt ha nf m d a e ofhi o i be or Sl e c et a lornot ng a oac s ptons f e atr hos he l- - hi ppr h. Sltrag t ttllas bl c tntc ms lwoul ha rquese i tu tonson ae rues ha tre ona y ompee ot e d ve e td nsr ci mur rand s l- e ea woul notha a l dhi cle t pa tcpa ei muchl s veo,ha de e fdef ns nd d ve lowe s int o ri i t n, es t t t d ii ' ( ke Enr 21a 39) Undel ngSltrsagume i t prs i ha t al ecson. Doc t tyNp. t . ' ryi ae ' r nts he e umptont the 1ornot nga oa co dnotbear as bl sr t g i t sc e.TheFit Cic thasf - hi ppr ch ul e ona e ta e y n hi as fh r ui oundt t ha atil o n e ' d cso t p s ea t l- rn ti srtg wa n to j ci eyu ra o a l, ra c u s ls e iin o uru n t lo - ohng tae y s o b e tv l n e s n be' a ' e when l s r i l d- f e i t u i nswe eava l bl Se Dr y v.Thal r 647 F. 535, ven es e -nc ude ofens nsr cto r ia e. e uer e, 3d 5 0(t Ci. 01 ) fndn t a e e i hs u g n wa mitke ) Th Te a Co r o Crmi a 4 5h r 2 1 (i ig h t v n f ij d me t s sa n . e x s u t f i n l Appe s has f al ound t ta de ens a t ne doe nota tdefc e l i f lng t r ue ta l s r ha f e tor y s c ii nty n aii o eq s es e i l ncudedofe ei hewa pur ui a alo - t ngti sr t y.SeeExPare lrfc,1 S. . f ns f s s ng n l- r no hi ral taeg t #/ / 60 W 3d l 46,55 ( x.Crm.App.2004) t h c osng t f goalse -ncl d- fns i tu i Te i .Alhoug ho i o or e sri ude ofe e nsr cton ma e j r r c o s b t e c n ito a d a a q itli û ik 'i çss mei ss c e su. k s u o s h o e ewe n o v ci n n n c uta s t s y, t û o tme u c s f l' r ' i ' Lynnv St e,8 S. . 599,603( x. . at 60 W 2d Te App.1 . 993) Slt ra guest tt n a quit on s l- f ns wa am uc m or lkel r s t ha a outiht ae r ha t c tal efde e e s a h e i y e ult n n rg Sl e a g t tt sCour s d c i rhi ne evi e bec ehi sat habe couns pr vi atr r ues ha hi t houl onsde s w denc aus s t e as el o ded ietcierp ee tt nu d r rie v R n 5 6U. 1(01 )b n t d u igten w e ie c h icu si n f tv e r snai n e Ma tnz . ya , 6 S. 2 2 , y o a d cn h e vd n e e n lde n k o ti fd rlh b a ato .a ri zd e n ta pyt camsta weef l aj diae o temei b t sae hs e ea p e s cin Ma t o s o p l o li h t r ul du c td n h rt y he tt ne y s ha sc t aus t ecl m sa e bydei ton, pr dur lydef t ' Esc il v Stphen 749F. 380, bea our bec e hos ai r , tnii not oce al auled. ' am la . e s, 3d 3 4(t Ci.01 ) Be a s Rth Te a c u t aj dc tdE ae' iefciea ssa e cam o temeis. . 9 5h r2 4 . c u e l e x s o rs du iae sltrs n fe tv -sitnc ) li n h rt . l Ma tn za dT e i aeia p st. Via u v v Se n , 9F. px2 9 2 6(t Ci. 01) seas Al n rie n r vno r n p o ie' l n e a . tphe s 61 Ap ' 6 , 7 5h r2 5; e lo l ' l e v Se n , 9F. p' 2 0 2 0( t Ci. 01 ) tl u , n eacam i c n iee a dde ido t mei b te . tphes 61 Ap x 8 , 9 5h r2 5 . û- so c li s o sd rd n ne n he rt y h -h s saeha sc tMari zi i tt bea our, tne s napplca e, ndma notf i asane ptont Pi se sr et tba saf r i bl a y uncton xce i o nholtr' ul ha r edeal ha scour fom consderngevi enotpr e e t t sat ha sc t' Esc la,7 F. a 395. bea tr i i denc es ntd o he t e bea our. ' amil 49 3d t 20 a q itlu d ra ûl o - oh n 'srtg b s d o ara o a l d u tta ( ltr c mmitd c uta n e n al rn ti g tae y a e n e s n be o b h t S ae l o te r r ' ( ketEntyNo.35at11 .Slt ' polcesae nti ioltonma ha rie t obbey.' Doc r ) aers i ttme n s ai y ve asd he pos i lt ofbot def es butt Stt' sr e de (ncl ng e wines t tmony a sbiiy h ens , he aes tong vi nce i udi ye t s esi nd f e i e de )r utd Sltrsveson ofe nt. Sltrhasnots ornsc vi nce ef e ae ' ri ve s ae hown t tar a onabetil ha e s l ra a t ne c d notty t di pr t r tor y oul r o s ove he obbe y el m e , sbl r s tng i a a qui t ,w he t r e nt pos i y e uli n n c tal n he s fde e ei t c i woul notha bee ba e on an sr rt tmony. el- f ns nsnzton d ve n s d y tonge esi Tnl t al- - hi s r t gyeve u l e l e, he lor not ng ta e nt aly xc uded t pos i lt s f def e.Fr e an he s biiyof el- ens em unde sood t i i tonsoft tsr t gy.B Bute n afe Slt rm a hi de son, Freem an rt he mplca i ha ta e l ve tr a e de s cii ze lusy ague f t i uson ofa s fdef e i tu ton. Sltrnow a g t ttgly ao l r d or he ncl i el- ens nsr ci ae r ues ha tan c ompee crmi de e el tnt i nal f ns awye woul ha undert t ssmpl l lc e a woul not r d ve sood hi i e ega onc pt nd d ha r ques e a i t u ton on s f de e e w ihouta s r ques i a i t u i on m ur ' ve e t d n ns r c i el- f ns t lo e tng n ns r cton den' ( cke EntyNo. a 32) Theti c thowe r di notfndt is s smpl a rce sd Do t r 21 t . ral our, ve , d i he sue o i e, nd e se t pr ee ngs t alow t par i s t r s r h t i s Tr V ol 1 a 2 26,31 37.Onl a t r he oc di o l he te o e ea c he s ue. . . 7 t 4y fe r e r h a s t nta dicus i di t tilc r uli t l r us t i l a i tuci n on es a c nd ubsa i l s son d he ra ou t tma ey ef e o ncude n nsr to s l- f ns l efde e e.g Slt ra guest tar as bl a t ne ae r ha e ona e tor ywoul not vealowe hi cle t maket dec son d ha l d s int o he ii wh t e t pu s ea alo -o hn d fns .t cj tgo iainof e iinsa t ep ro a c oc s eh r o ru n l rn t ig ee e é ae rz to d cso s h e s n l h ie l ofa c i i lde e ntort t tc lc c ofc rm na f nda he aci a hoi es ouns i nota wa a e s t k .... Auty v el s l ys n a y as ' ' r . 1 8 Sltrsar e spr uppos t Fr ema di notknow t tt ti c twoul r f e a s fde e e ae ' gum nt es e hat e n d ha he ral our d e us el- f ns isrcinu tl he h c n utdwi Sae a o thealo- t n a p o c .( c e Enr No 35a 5 . rc r ntuto nia r e o s l t ltr b u t l-rnohig p r a h Do k t ty . t ) The e od e h s howst te ry i t c eFr ema kne t ti cour' postonont r ltons p bewe ls e -ncl dofe e ha a l n he as e n w he ral ts ii he eai hi t en e s ri ude f ns s a s fde e ee l i t ti . Tr Vol4 at1 50. Eve t n,t ti c talowed sgnii antdicus i a nd el- f ns ary n he ral . . 49n he he ral our l i tc s son nd rs r ont is . Tr Vol 17a 25e each he s ue . . t 26. 1 9 St eha sc el r dt tt ti c t at bea ouns a gue ha he ral ourcomm itdlgal r byde ngt i tuci .Stt Ha s te e eror nyi he nsr tons ae bea Re d a 5, 3 34. cor t 28, 2- Mc ke 727 F. 358,362 (t Ci.1 4) Some decsonss h aswhehe t pl d guit Kas l, 2d 5h r 98 . ii uc t r o ea ly, wh te t tsiy wh t rt wav aj r til o wh t e t tk a a p a a es f n a na t eh r o e tf , ehe o ie u y ra, r eh r o a e n p e l r o u d me tlo adef et t he c nnotbemadebyc ens ha t y a ouns lbu mus bem a byt def nda hi s f SeeJone e, t t de he e nt m el. s v Bar s 463U. 745,751( 983) Asdefom t ede ii b ongi t t cint Sl e has . ne , S. 1 . i r hos csons el ng o he le , atr nots hown t ta t i a t ne s d nota l hi c i ntt pa tci t i ot rt c i ldec s ons ha r al tor y houl low s le o r i pa e n he a tca ii . Sltrha notpr vi d a 1w s ae s o de ny a howi t tc ng ha ouns i c tt i ly i fe tve f pr e i el s onsiutona l ne f c i or es ntng po e i ldefnsvesr t gi ,s h asr quesi l s r i l d- f ns i tuc i , o hi c int t nta e i ta e es uc e tng es e -ncude ofe e nsr tons t s le . Stl,Sltraguest tt ti c ttaiedt c i rasat es dmatrwhehe g il ae r ha he ral our û l o onsde f hr hol te t r hel wa eve ca bl ofunde sandi s ch ade son.' ( ke EntyNo.21a 37.0 Therc d s n pa e rt ng u cii ' Doc t r t )2 e or s howst tFr ma e ai d t a l e o i t Sl tr butFr e a wa nots et ti wa ha ee n xpl ne he vaiabl ptons o ae , em n s ur ha t s l ni o dde iinonhi pa t ort thet rsoodjt c e nc oft tde son. Tr t nf nne cso a s r' ha l lt ' unde he onsque es ha cii ' . ' Vol 1 a 6.Afe a he s tr c sFr ema a r l i caedt tSlt rc enott r que t .7 t tr not r hor e es e n ppa enty ndi t ha a e hos o e s a ls e -ncuded- f e i tu to but Fr m a di not pr de a det l a e s ri l ofens nsr c i n, ee n d ovi ny ai bout Sl tr s ae ' unde sa ng oft tde i i Sl e a gue t he l ked t ment a rt ndi ha c son. atr r s hat ac he al cume t m a de ii n o ke c sons a bouthi c e be a e:he wa ilt r t he c d notundert nd t dif r nc bewe n ca t l s as c us s lie ae, oul sa he fe e e t e pia mu d ra d smp emu d r h h d p e iusy e p re c dah a ij r a dp sby h do g ni r e n i l r e, e a rvo l x ein e e d n u y n osil a r a c br nda ai mage heha aI of63ori t E l ma r ,' f tone onaf t orffh-r , d Q n he û nor lange'he unci d dul ourh it gade lve, ndha alani dior r W iht edefcince , aer g ha ûgl s bl ompee e la d e r ng s de . t hos i e is Slt aruest ttrea ona yc tnt c ouns l e woul not l w anune d alo ducaed,nt le t lylm ie cle t ma t c ii a lf - - ah t i el c ua l i t d int o ke he rtc l ie orde t d cso o ho t c u t h u disnzttej r o telw. ( c e En r No. a 3 ) e ii n f w he o r s o l n t c h u y n h a ' Do k t ty 21 t 8 . ' 2 0 sltrdi no as t sa ec t t c i rwheherhi i tuci t co lwe ei or e kno ng,or ae d t k he tt ours o onsde t s nsr tons o unse r nf m d, wi vol t y. unar The1w i ce rt a a c mp tn d fn a tst ie to s gr )e tte t b f lo d' a s la h t o ee t ee d n ' l r cin ae n i d o e o lwe . d l ' fo n l v Ph l ,8 7 F.d28 , 2 (t Ci.1 8 ) s eRo e t v Dr te 35 F.d6 2 6 wehed . eps 1 2 5 29 5h r 9 7 ; e b rs . ek , 6 3 3 , 38 ( h Ci.2004) Auty,727 F. a 362. Sltrhasnotpr vi d brei t tc e nsvey 5t r ; r 2d t ae o de ifng ha omprhe i l c a ii t c pe e y s a r f m a ng ti lde s ons m uc l spoi t t 1 r quii t t l rfes he om t nc t nda d or ki r a ci i , h es n ed o aw e r ng ha s h dec sons be knowi a vol a y.' I s m iara c e , he supr m e cour hasbe w a y uc ii ng nd unt r z n i l ont xt t e t en r t i pos a i or e a know i r r m e on a de e o m e n nf m d nd ng equie nt f ndant s de s on. Se Sc i o v ' ci i e hr r . fandrgan, U. 465, ( i 550 S. 479 2007)(eusngt i et tsa r onadee rf i o mpos ha tndad fndantsde sonnot ' cii t prs nt mii tng e de e) l ot r c s s t Fit Cic t has f o ee tgai vi nc . n he a e , he fh rui ound no i fe tve nefci r pr e ai nwhe c e es nt to n ouns lf l hi clen ' ûnf me dec son. Br e olows s i ts E or d ii ' awne v Epps 439F. i ' r. , App' x 396, (t Ci. l;Dowt tv John on, F. 733, ( hCi. 401 5h r20l ) hit . s 230 3d 748 5t r2000)s ealoAuty, 27 ;e s r 7 F. a 362 (çfAur knowi y ma t c ce ,( slwye)wasehial bound t f l 2d t ç ty I ngl de he hoi s hi a r t c ly o olow Auty' wihes') r s s .. ' Ther co d s e r uggesst tSl t rw asnot ghl i e lge .How e , a e snot hown t t t ha a e hi y nt li nt ver Sl t rha s ha he co d no unde sa t lgalpa hwa a a of hi ,pa tc a l afe c ul t r t nd he e t ys he d m riulry tr ouns ls l hy e ' engt di c son w ih hi . A pr ti ps hol ca eva ua i di notû e a a e denc ofa m e a s us i t m e-ral yc ogi l l ton d û ve l ny vi e r nt l di e e or m e a de e t on or a s as nt l f c boutt tm e oft alege of e e. Cl r s Re d a 23. A he i he l d f ns ' e k' cor t ' co t yevaua i f mpeenc l ton ound t tSlt runde sood t r mentr c er ofhi c i nalti l ha a e rt he udi a y onc ns s rmi ra . Cl k' Re or a 26.Sl t ' hit yc anedmi devi eofl i e lge e,Cl k' Re or er s c d t aers sor ont i xe denc ow nt li nc er s c d a 26,butaprtilc t era ompeenc e l ton f t tt tngtfigdlt r alan evi nc ofa t y vauai ound ha esi ûale o eve y de e m e a di e s orm e alde e ofs fci nts rt t pr bi M r Sl e f om s a ng t i la t nt l s a e nt f ct uf i e eve iy o ohi t . at r r t ndi ra t he 2 1 Sltrful tetilc u tfrn tt d ns ig gi o terc r t e sr t tted cso ...wa ae a t h ra o r o o t mo ihn hml n h e od o n ue ha h e iin s a s knowigl vol a iy, eli or e a f l unde sood, butdoe notpoi t an l plci t tr r m e on n y, untrl w l-nf m d, nd uly rt ' ' s nto y aw a ng ha equie nt atil o r.( c t tyNo. 5a 8 . ra c ut Do ke Enr 3 t) pr e tm e M r Sltrde es nt i . . ae monsr t st a lt t cons t t hi ato e wihar a ona ede e ta e he biiy o ul wih s t m y t e s bl gr e of atonal r i unde s a ng a he de onsr t bot ar tonal nd af t under t ndi of hel ga r t ndi nd m ta es h a i a ac ual s a ng t e l pr ee ngsag ns hi ' Clr sRe or a 27.A pos-ra ps hol c e uai û ro td) oc di ai t m. ek' c d t ' ttil yc ogial val ton t rre mi t i or a i i t St t sf l ' t ts w ed t tSl t r s E em or wasi ac 'hi a t nton a he nf m ton n he a e' ie ' ha ho ha a e ' ç m y nt t s te i nd , a ta tt nki wa nor ;he wasc bsr c hi ng s mal oope a i hewasore ed t per o plce a st ton . r tve; i nt o s n, a , nd iua i . . hi i i wasgood c e ni hi l gal e c m e . St e H a asRe or a 1 2 The s a e s ns ght onc r ng s e pr di a nt' at be ' c d t 093.2 tt ha asc te e sy fund t tc e ûf l expl ne t lga c e be our xpr sl o ha ouns l luly ai d he e l onsquenc of( atrs es Sl e 'l de ii ' Stt Ha a Rec d a 1 c son. a e be s ' or t 094. Slt rha nots ae s hown t the di notunde sand t ha d rt he e a ton.AsSltrwasû se ofhi owndef e'M oor v Johns 1 F. 586,606(t xplnai ae t tr s ma ens ,' e. on, 94 3d 5h Ci.1 ,hi tilat ne camotbef r 999) s ra tor y l ound i feci f f l ng hi wihes Se Far tav nef tve or olowi s s . e et . Ca f r i,4 2 U. 8 6 8 0 (97 )(t-e c u e p o iin ...s a o t e tsitn e o l o na 2 S. 0 , 2 1 5 ll o nsl r vso -h pe ks f h a ssa c ' f c e, nda a ssa , we e ti sila a ssa ouns la n s itntho ver xper, s tl n sitnt' ). E tng t oug t s û i hr h he moke,i i a rntt t(hi Cour i)beng as t pe mi a cut t s ppae ha t s t s i ked o r t de e f ndan t a dconvitonont gr t o voi ci he oundt t sl wy di e c l what a ke hi t do. t ha hi a er d xa ty he s d m o Tha agume a we sis l ' Unie St e v Mas ,896F. 88,9 (t Ci.1 .Sltrha not r nt ns r tef' td ats . at 2d 2 5h r 990) ae s s wnt tFr e n pr de detc e pe f m a er a i t t dic son of a a ce a of ho ha e ma ovi d i i nt ror nc eltng o he s us i , nd c ptnce hi wi hesc s s once ni t i lt c i . r ng, r a a tcs 5. Pr j c eudie The sa e ha as c t di no m a any e i i fndi a tt be our d t ke xplc t i ngs bout w he he Fr e a s t r e m n' I t pr -rale u i t ps hol s obs r ed:tM r Sltri cae t thei cu rntychagedw ih n he eti valaton,he yc ogit e v ç . ae ndi td ha s re l r t c pialmur r W he as i heknowst dif r ebewe ca t mur randmur hesae i sn' W he a t de . n ked f he feenc t en pial de der ttd no, i n a ke i ca tlmur ri wore t mu de hesaed 1 do tknow.' Clr sRec d a 23. Sltrmaynothave s d f pia de s s han r r tt 1 n' ' ek' ' or t ae knownt difr ncebewe ca tlandsmpl mur ri t i ta sa ofti .Tha,howe ,doesno mea he he fe e t en pia i e de n he niil tges ral t ver t n di no,m uc Is t thecoul not lt i til es aly wih c elsa ssanc d t h e s ha d , aer n ra, peci l t ouns ' s it e. 24 rp e e tto wi rg r t telse-ncu e - fe s isr cin p eu c dt d fn e Sae e r sn ain t e ad o h e sri ld d o fn e n tu to s rj die he e e s . ltr h ag e t tteCo r mu tc n ie t is ed n o n r l çwl n asae c u trj csa r u s ha h u t s o sd r he su e ov .Ge e al û he tt o r eet y, g f de a cl i w ihoute e sy add e sng t tcl i ,a f de alha e r l am t xpr s l r s i ha a m e r beasc t us pr s e t tt our m t e um ha he fd rl li wa a j dc tdo t emeis'J h s nv Wi ims 1 3S. . 0 8 1 9 ( 01 )s e e ea cam s d u iae n h rt. o n o . l a , 3 Ct 1 8 , 0 6 2 3 ;e ' l aloHar igt v Rihtr 562U. 8 98- ( 1 .W hehe unde a#enov orAEDPA r e s rn on . c e , S. 6, 99 201 ) t r r o eviw, howe r Slt rhasnots wnat e ona epr biiyt t but orcouns lsunpr es i e r s ve , a e ho ç as bl oba lt ha , f r e' of sonal ror , t r s toft pr e ng woul ha bee dif e . Stikl 466U . a 694. he e ul he oc edi d ve n fer nt' rc and, ' S. t Sltrs rj dc ag me t rs me t a d fn e b s do s l- ee ea dr b eywo l ae ' p eu ie r u n p e u s h t ee s s a e n efd fns n o b r ud ha c eaed ar as ve r t e onabl pr e obabiiy ofadif r ntr s t W hienoti t c e ofaSti l lt fe e e ul. l n he ont xt rckand c am ,heCour ofCrm i lAppe l c i r dt vibiiyoft Slt rspr pos d def e .On li t t i na a s onsde e he a lt he a e ' o e ens s drc a p a, ae ag e ta t ee i e c wa lg l is fiin t s p o t h j r ' v r it ie t p e l Sltr r u d h t h v d n e s e al n u fce t o u p r t e u y s ed c y whih r r d fndi t thehadcomm itd ar c equie i ng ha te obber TheCour ofCrm i Appea ss v ye y. t i nal l ur e d t e de e and f he vi nc ound a f l s s olow : Thee denc a ti wa c itntonl wihas he by( ae)a hiac omplce vi e tral s onsse y t c me Sltr nd s c i t rp of t vi tmswho wer mil d i o bele ng t y we e goi t pur ha e o i f he ci e se nt i vi he r ng o c s d u sfo g ae ) A rto a tiro f c c u d c n l d fo W a hn o s r g r m sltr. ain l re f a t o l o cu e r m s igtn' t tmonyt thea omplcese tfo onesdeofhec rand( ae 'lpostoni esi ha t cc i ' xi r m i t a Sltrs ii ng ofhi efne rt o he sdea t nt i smula ousys i a t vitm si ms l a he t r i nd he her i t ne l hootng t he c i n teb c s a wa /vd n eo ap e dttdr b e ymu d r A rto a j r c l h a k e t se ie c f rme iae o b r/ r e . ain l uy oud as c l ( atr a orhi a complc huri yt neal al oft $3000 lo oncude Sl e) nd/ s c ie redl ook ry l he fom vitm Andr w ' bodybe or fe ng t s ene.The ewasno e de ea ti r ci e s f e l ei he c r vi nc t ral ir ntoduce s ri ( ae 'lcam hefrd onl a trone oft vitm' frt d uppo tng Sltrs li e y fe he ci s is puled a gun. Fis,no we ponswe e f l rt a r ound a t s e t he c ne. Sec ond,s ve aloft e r he wot we et t vi i ' ba ks Thid t sugsr c e du i t a opse mds r o he ctm s c . r he l e over d rng he ut i s w e ef om t o dif r ntg s r r w f e e uns uppori W a hi o st s i on a la a ulus tng s ngt n' e tm y ppe l nt ndl i W oodst ge he s t vi tm s Four h, he e w a no phys c e de e s ppor i g o t r hot he c i . t t r s i al vi nc u tn ( ae 'lcli s ha bule hol i t c wah wher t ofe et pl eo Sltrs am uc s lt es n he ar s e he fns ook ac r on t ousdeof( ae 'lc rt tW a hi on trd s veals sa ( ae la he ti Sltrs a ha s ngt ie e r hot t Sltr nd W oods Fi l ( ae 'jcai t tt $2800wasa t lyblwna ybyt wi . naly Sltrs l m ha he cual o wa he nd i we k. I i unlkel t t s a ls a kst t lng $200 whih we e f s a t s i y he wo m l t c o a i c r ound ne r a 25 Andr wsbod woul r m an i pl e whie t m uc l r rwa ofca h t alng e y d e i n ac l he h a ge d s ot i $ 2800 s omehow bl w a y. e wa Opn o o Die tAp a a 3 .Th Co r o Crmi l p asf u dt a û rto a j r c ud ii n n rc pe l t 5 e u t f i na Ap e l o n h t 1 ai n l u y o l a c l ( aelkildt vitmsa pa t apr diae r bbey. Opi ononDie tAppe a oncude Sltr le he ci s r of eme ttd o r ' ni ' rc al t 35. Furhe ,t Cour ofCrm i Appe l add e s Sl t r sar e t the s t vi tm s i t r he t i nal a s r s ed a e ' gum nt ha hot he c i n s l- ens e fdef e: I t i t t c e t r we e no de e e w ines es The onl e de e i r n he nsan as he e r f ns t s . y vi nc nt oduc d e fvorbl t ( ae lwast pori ofhi own vi tpe sae nti whih he a a e o Sltr he ton s deoa d ttme n c cai she s t vitm s i s fde e e or aler tvey,Erc W a hi on wa lm hot he c i n el- f ns , t na i l i s ngt s i ve i hes i .N oneoft phys ca e de orot revi ncei r nvol d nt hootngs he i l vi nce he de nt oduc d e a tils t ra uppore ( ae 'lcam heace i s l- ens ort tErcW a hi on td Sltrs li td n efdef e ha i s ngt frda ys t et ra ( ltr o a t ev ci . ie n hos i t S ae ) r t h itms he Opi ononDiec Appea a 35.TheCour ofCrmi lAppe sc ude tl aers uns ni r t lt t i na al oncl d:tslt 'l uppore td ca m ofs fde e ewasi onsse w iht physca e de ef li el- f ns nc it nt t he i l vi nc ound a t s neoft ofe e. t he ce he f ns ' ' Opi o on Diec Appe la 36.3 ni n r t a t 2 W hiet lngua quot a l he a ge ed bove a es e cai sbr ddr s d l m oughtunde dif r l ga sa r r fe ent e l t nda ds f om t tbef e t Cour ,t l c l a t t s m e co l i no r s na e pr biiy of a r ha or he t he ogi e ds o he a nc us on: ea o bl oba lt di f r nt es tfow sfom c f e e r ul l r ouns ' a l ge y defci ntpe f m anc A st s a ec t e ens ve y els le dl i e r or e. he t t our s xt i l di c s d, a e ' polces a e en pr de a fn e or f om w hi h t ar t tSl t rdi no r s us e Sl t r s i t t m t ovi d r m w k r c o gue ha a e d t ob ori e t kilt vitm s butt physca e de a e wines t s i ntnd o l he c i , he i l vi nce nd ye t s e tmony c e t d a much rae sr tonge c e t tSl t c m it d c pia m ur r Undere t ra #c novo ordef r ntalA EDPA r as ha a er om te a t l de . ihe ee i sa r Slt r has not s tnda d, a e hown a r as e onabl pr ba lt of a dif e r ul ha til c e o biiy fer nt es t d ra ouns el Thesaeha scour obs vedt tt Cou tofCrm i lAppe sf tt bea t er ha he r i na al oundt tt e de wastl l an ha he vi nce ç egaly d fcu l sfiin t etbihta (ltrc mmitdmud rd rn tec u s o c mmit go atmpigt c mmi a tal u tce to sa ls h t Sae) o te r e uig h o re f o ti r te tn o o t y n rbb r'a dth r wa n e d n es p o t g( ltrs cam ta h Grdo l a r n o tevitm'p ldag n' o ey' n ç ee s o vie c u p ri Sae'l li h t e e ny he o e fh ci s ul u . t n e ' St eHabe Rec da 1 at as or t 098.Thesat habe c r s te as ou t umm a ie t sfndi onha sr e :dhee denc di not rz d hi i ng bea eviw t vi e d t s p o tSltrs cam ta h a tdi s l d fn ea d(ilu s p o tdcam o s l d fn ewa ic nsse t t u p r ( ae') li h t e ce n ef ee s n hs n u p re li f ef ee s s n o itn wih t ph ialevi ef he ysc denc ound a t s eneoft ofens ' Stt Ha sRec da 1 t he c he f e.' a e bea or t 098. 26 pe f meddif r nty.Thi c am i de e ror fe e l s l i s nid. B. Or cBr n l r ntand Lear ngDiabiiis( ai Two) gani ai mpaime ni s lte Cl m Sl t r s m o he w a t onl de e e wines ca l d i t pena t phas Sl t ' m ot r a e ' t r s he y f ns t s le n he ly e. a er s he tsiidt a ac rhtSae wh n h wa tv y a sod whc r s le i ah a ij r rq iig e tfe h t a i ltr e e s i e e r l, ih e utd n e d n u y e u rn s gey.Sltrsmot ras e ai dt theha a I of63,unci onaf t orffh- a ur r ae' he lo xpl ne ha d nQ f toned ourh- it grde lv la dddn t owel c d mial TrVo . a 8 - 7.I cosn , r e ne o rg dj r r e e, n i o d la a e c l y. . l21 t 5 8 n l i g F e ma nc u a e u o s t c i rt cic tnc oft crmei t contxtofSltrsl I Tr Vol21a 1 o onsde he rumsa es he i n he e ae ' ow Q. . . t 4142. Th p osc t rho ve, r u di co igt a alw I a dh a ij r ddn t tg t a an ta e r e uo , we r ag e n lsn h t o Q n e d n u y i o mi ae g is i de t s nt nc Tr Vol 21a 1 a h e e e. . . t 48. Sl trf ulsFr ema f noti tga i andpr e i a tonal de ofhi l r ng ae a t e n or nvesi tng es ntng ddii evi nce s ea ni dia ltesa pos i e or ani br n da s biii nd sbl g c ai mage Slt ra g st ta de peri s i ton i o hi . a e r ue ha e nve tgai nt s j v nl hso ywo l ha erv ae miiaige i e c of l me tl ead to a apo sb e u e ie it r u d v e e ld tg tn v d n e mid n a rtr ain nd sil cloni or ni br i dior r St eHabe sRec da 47.l doi s Slt rr i ont e prma y lr c ga c a n s de . at a or t n ng o, a e eles hr e i r s t c so i o mai nz Fis, y h l gs Dr W atrY. ia owh p ro me a e au to i ol e fnfr to . rtps c o o it . l r 4 e Quj n o ef r d n v lain n 1 98i ihh fu atp e s n lyc a g d et h a ij r ; iihbi da da g e sv tp . 9 nwhc e o nd E lro ai h n e u o e d nu y d sn i t n g r sie y e' l t e ' SaeHa e sRe o d a 1 . Dr Quj n as o s r e a l o n tv dio d r' n ate r n tt b a c r t 01 . ia o lo b e v d ç g aie s r e'a d û anig c l d s r e , b t o ie f w ohe d tis S aeHa a Re o da 1 .Dr Quj n rc mme e io d r' u pr vd d e t r eal. tt be s c r t 01 . ia o e o nd d ' at ol c a ne ops chol ca w or t neur ogi al nd ur y ogi l kupt m ea ur c r ntbr i s r ra d f tons ' o s e ur e a ndi o de nd ys unc i . ' St t Ha a Re or a 1 a e be s c d t 02. Sl erpr en sa tona i or tono f r l asr e Aspr vi l dicused,e r ha r ew at es t ddii lnf mai n ede a habe eviw. e ousy s s fdeal beas evi to u e o wh t saec u tk e a ddd'Pih ltr5 3U. a 1 2 Re s nn t tçi wo db srn et ak t c ss n a a tt o r n w n i, n ose, 6 S. t 8 . ao ig ha t l ul e ta g o s f ' lt fd rl o rsoa ay ewh te asaec utsaj dc t nrs l di ad cso ta u e s n bl a pl dfd rla e ea c u tt n lz eh r tt o r' du iai eut n e iin h t nra o a y p i e ea lw o e e t fcsn t eoetesaec u q' n ose e l il h l ta x if cam h sb e aj diae o temeisb a o at o b fr h tt o r 'Pih ltr xpi ty ed h tçj a li a e n du c td n h rt y c g saec u qafd rl a e sp tin rmu t v ro tel tto ofj2 5 ( ()o terc r ta wa b f r ta tt o r e ea h b a eio e s o ec me h i ain t mi 2 4d)1 n h e o d h t s eoe h t s a e c t' 1 a l8 t t our . d. t 5. ' 27 Sec Drl La ge ond, . ohn r npero me ane ops hol c e l i i 1 whi hdic s d f r d ur yc ogi al vauaton n 991 c s us e Sltrs e dij r , rv ae aFul aeIQ. c r o 7 , e o n z di ime t i me r a d ae ' h a nu y2 e e ld lSc l . s o e f 7 rc g ie mpar n s n mo y n 5 a a m i f i ng, nd co l ng t tt tng r ulsw e e çc m e ur t w ih t pr e of c de c unctoni a nc udi ha es i es t r û om ns a e t he es nce o ga c br n i r nt' St t Ha as Re d a 292.6 The pos i lt of or c br i r ni ai mpaime .' ae be cor t 2 sbiiy gani an i imen t as dlt pos i lt ofdii bior c r overe tonalr ci a posi y mpar t t ieg he sbiiy r snhi t y ontol moi ea tons nd sbl or ni bas i ga c ed mpuli be vi .' Stt Ha asRe or a 292. sve ha or' a e be c d t Thid,Slt rsm ot rpr de a a fdavi s yi t tFr e a ne as d a r ae ' he ovi d n fi t a ng ha e m n ver ke boutSl trs ae ' h a ij r o h se u ai n l r blms SaeHa e sRe o da 6 6 0 Sae ' mo h ratc e e d n u y r i d c to a p o e . tt b a c r t 0 - 7. ltrs t e ta h d t he afda tHo tnl pe ntSc Ditit( SD) e t s wi ha a a t veSltr o r fi vi uso nde nde hool src HI r pors ho ngt t t ge wel ae wa f nc i ng on a s co ort r gr lveli r di s lng,lnguag and m ah. St t s u toni e nd- hid- ade e n ea ng, peli a e, t ae H a asRec d a 61 23. be or t 0- Th saeh b a è u tsa j iaino t scam hng do a afd viF e ma s b te e tt a e s o r' dudc to fhi li i e n n fia t r e n u mitd t t e a ne hi a oa t t m ii tng e de e'ç twas t n a r m a nsnow ,t ha xpl i d s ppr ch o he tga i vi nc . t l he nd e i hough m y pr e sona opi ont t( ae')me al ysunci sadoubl e ds r ha smula ousy ofsi l ni ha Sltrs nt d f tonwa e-dge wodt t i tne l t nde t bot a e i ae hi blm e t ne sf t c r d ofe e a i cae t the was e d o h m lor t s a worhi s or he ha ge f ns nd ndi t ha , i e lkey t beac i ngt e tt s ey. Stt Ha sRec d a 1 Fr ema ta s d nde d, i l o ontnui hr a o ocit ' a e bea ' or t 97. e n ûdvie ( ltr ta e ie c o h sme tl y f n to c udb c n ie e b a u ya et e miiaigo S ael h t vd n e f i na d su cin o l e o sd rd y j r s ih r tg tn r a gr va i .... St t Ha sRe r a 275. g a tng ' ae bea co d t ' 2 5 Dr Lag nn tdta çmldia hitr icu e hsb igsr c b ac ra a e5y asrs ligi ah a . r e oe h tt e c l soy n ld s i en tu k y a t g e r e utn n e d l ij r a dn uo ug r, u d ti o tea cd n weeIc ig.Th p te t nfssa a g dsa o hse frh a nuy n e rs rey b t eal fh c ie t r a kn e ain ma iet jg e c r n ilA oe e d s whih e e t d t t ve t andr s t fom t abovec rac de .'St e Ha sRec da 288. c xtnds owar o he rex e uled r he a ci nt' at bea or t Thesaeha sc t nealyr e r t Dr La ge srporaslheO rhar Cr ekH os t Re or . Stt tt bea our ge r l efred o . r n' e t t t c d e pial c ds' ae ' Habe Re r at1 as co d 088. 28 The sat ha s cour f t e bea t ound t t Fr ema ade t l i tga e e de e of Slt rs ha e n qua ey nvesi t d vi nc ae ' pos i e m e a1he t i s and l r ng diabiiy. The sa e ha ascour f und t tSlt rs sbl nt - alh s ues en ni s lt tt be to ha a e ' ps hol ca r c dswe e a ia e i t Stt s tl ,whi h Fr ema exa i d. St t Ha s yc ogi l e or r va lbl n he a e' i e c e n m ne a e bea Re r a 1 co d t 086,1 088- 2 W hie Sl t ra gue t ta tonali tga i w oul have pr 89.7 l a e r s ha ddii nves i ton d oduc d e gr a e evi nc ofor ni br n i r nta l n nngdit uli , a e r leson e de t t e t r de e ga c ai mpaime nd e r i fk tes Slt r e i vi nce ha dif r onl i de al no i m ii tngt u t fom t ta ia et c fe s y n t i, t n tgai hr s, r ha va lbl o ouns l e. W ih c t ouns l s a ce s a a r ntus oft e r or ,t s a e ha s c te e ' c s , nd ppa e e, hos ec ds he t t bea our ndor e sd Fr m a s dec son nott pur ue a def ns ba e on m e aldys unc i The s a e ha as c t ee n' ii o s e e sd nt f ton. t t be our f u dt a t s o t eif r to i terc r si et e mo eh r u ta be ei ilo ( ae) o n h tt t f h n o main n h e o d s ih r r amf lh n n tca t Sltr mo orc it ofnon- tga i e de e. a e Ha sRec d a 1 onsss mii tng vi nc ' t bea 'St or t 086. Fori t nce, he Or ha d nsa t c r Cr k Hos t r or sa e t ti l ee pial ec ds t t d ha t i d be consde ed difc tt e f c s rous c nge i woul i r fi ul o fe t e i ha n g ae 'lbe vi i muchashede e alogehe t be vi ofwhihhei c r da i it sltrs ha or nas nis t t r he ha or c s hage nd nsss t thi onl pr e i a tt ofa ha s y obl m s tiude ngert r ce t not rpeo e. St t Ha asRe or a 1 9. owa d rai he pl ' a e be ' c d t 08 Be a et Or ha d Cr e Hos t lr or ûpr uc d m i d r s t , t saeha a cour f und c us he c r e k pia ec ds E od e xe e uls' he t t be s ' to ta Fre nwa n tiefcief rpu t gt e b f r tej r . SaeHa e sRe od a 1 9 h t e ma s o n fe tv o t n h m eo e h u y tt b a c r t 0 9. i Li w i e i or aton about a e ' t ot r sc a m t t sc l hood a ci nt e nt d hi f om ke s , nf m i Sl t r s t he ' l i ha hi hid m c de pr ve e m r pr r snga a og es i c demi ly'c lcedwihot ri or toni her co d s si ç ha hi aci ns ca l ' onti t t he nf ma i nt e r ugge tng û t s to t 2 7 The defns i si td me a- lh is s be or til Forexa e Fr ma tld a mo i f t e e nve tgae ntlheat s ue f e ra. mpl, ee n ie ton or he asit eofal ha or s ints. Clr sRe d a 1 Thetilcour di notr eont moton i dit y. ssanc ç vi al ce it' ek' cor t 3. be ' ra t d ul hat i mme ael Su equ l Dr Edwar Sive n m e w ih Slt t ases hi s niy a c bs enty, . d l nna t t aer o s s s a t nd ompet y.Clr sRe d a 22enc e k' cor t 27. Reyi onclnialntr e a r c ds Dr Sive manf l ng i c i eviws nd e or , . l r oundSltrc ae ompee t sa ti a s ne.Clr sRec d tnt o t nd ral nd a e k' or a 2 2 .l rviwighibak r u d Dr Slema srpot nin dahe dij r Sltrh ds fee a a efv t 2-7 n e e n s c g o n , . i r n' e r me to e a nuy ae a ufrd t g ie v wh n h wa h tb a c r Dr Si e ma sr p r as a k o e g d p ir I s o e r n i g fo 6 t 8 Dr e e s i y a . . l r n' e o t lo c n wld e ro Q c r s a g n r m 3 o 0. . v Sivema concl dt t ewa noçe de ofame a diea eor. .de e t... t t , t e, s vert t l r n ude hather s çvi nce ntl s s . f c of he ype naur or e iy o pr bi M r Sl e fo knowi wheherornott algedbe orwaswr ' Clr sRec dat23.A fe Dr ohi t . atr r m ng t he le havi ong. ek' ' or tr . Sive nis hir por,hetil tol hedeens i l nna sued s e tt ra court dt f e twoul gr ntfndsf d a u orabe vi a s ints ipr de m o e ha or l ce it f ovi d r i o maton.Tr V ol 3a 57. Thede e edi notrt nanex to e u eSlt f or cbr n da a nfr i . . t f ns d eai per t valat aer or gani ai m ge. 29 a db h vo weeb c ier te t a c n r l db ac id o dh a ij r . S aeHa e s c r n e a ir r y hoc ah r h n o tol y h lh o e d n u y' tt b a Re o d e ' a 1 91 Th s F e ma ddn tt to u lj. . v ia l e u ain lh at , n u n l r c r s' t 0 . u , r e n i o tn r d ce . a albe d c to a, e lh a dj ve ie e o d ' i a aç e s n betil e iinb s do . .e o d whihc n ane ahit r o vo e c j xa s d s ç a o a l ra d cso a e n .r c r s c o ti d so y f iln e u tpo e ar wiha i elge er nget tprcl d( ae )fo bei c i e me alyr adeda whih t n ntli nc a ha e ude Sltr rm ng onsderd nt l etr nd c s we an a pa e a lt t co or hi be ori he de ied. a eHa asRec d a 1 ho d p r nt biiy o nf m s havi f sr ' t be 'St or t 092. TheFit Cicui hashe dt tt decson t f eg pr e i tdoubl edge ' vi nc i fh r t l ha he ii o or o es ntng t e- d'e de e s ar ao a l tilsr tg .S eRo rgu zv Qu re ma ,2 4F. p' 4 9 5 0( t Ci. 0 6 e s n be ra tae y e d i e . a tr n 0 Ap x 8 , 0 5h r 2 0 ) (i ngt de ii t f eg pr s i doubl-dgede de er gadi peii rspema n fndi he cson o or o eentng ee vi nc e r ng ttone' r ne t br n da a wa r s na e snce i c d ha bolt e t St t c e r ar ng f tle ai m ge s ea o bl i t oul ve ser d he a e as eg di utr dan r us s;Ho nsv Coc el,325F. 579,586 ( h Ci.2003)( di Eha atcial ge o nes) pki . kr l 3d 5t r hol ng û t a tc t de son not t pur ue and pr s nt potntaly m ii tng e de e on t gr cii o s ee e il tgai vi nc he ound t t i i ha t s d u l-d e i n tr i o j cieyra o a e'; a nv Sc t, F.d9 8 9 4(t Ci.1 9 ) o bee g d n au e s b e tv l e s n bl' M n . o t41 3 6 , 8 5h r 9 4 ) ( i t he y deee e owed ti couns whe de di a a sr t c matrt fr notng he av frnc ral el n ci ng s taegial te o oego a ti e de ofaç e-dge naur whihmi ham dee tsc e .I riulrt dmitng vi nce doubl e d t e' c ght r fndan ' as) npa tc a,he Fit Cic i h sh l t a e d n eo o g n cb an ij r p e e t aû o b ee g d's r , nd fh ru t a ed h t vie c f r a i r i nu y rs n s û u l-d e ' wo d a d l f r ncei a c dedt c l ee de s c or o ouns lsi or d de sont a r ha m t tmaybe alt def nda by e ' nf me cii o ve t r ha f l he e nt no s ti e de eoft snaur 'M ari zv Dr te, 4F. 878, ( hCi. t ubmitng vi nc hi t e. ' tne . ek 40 3d 889 5t r2005)( tng cii Ki h n v J h s n 1 0F.d6 8 7 3( t Ci.9 9 ) A j r rc ul s es meme tl o i o t e s . o n o , 9 3 9 , 0 5h r1 9 ). u o o d e o c n a c ndt ns i onl asag a tng bec us t y i r s t lkelhood t tadef ntw ila tvi e l a i Se y gr va i a e he nc ea e he i i ha enda l c ol nty ga n. e Nes n v Qu re man 47 F.d 2 7 3 7 0 ( t Ci.2 0 ) t eSe e t Cic i h sn td lo . a tr , 2 3 8 , 0 - 8 5h r 0 6 .As h v n h rut a o e , s nt nce sû a notbe i pr s ed w ih t i a t tt know t ca eofvi i nes i t e us i; e e r û y m m es t he de ha o he us c ous s s o xc e t t y ma c l i t a t whe vi e be ora a st beouti t de e ntspowe he y oncude ns e d hat n olnt havi ppe r o sde he f nda ' r 30 ofco r ,c pia puni hm e i a opr a e t i pa t t ' Fos erv Sc i 223 F. 626, nt ol a t l s nt s ppr i t o nca cia e. ' t . hom g, 3d 637 ( hCi. 7t r 2000)( ai omitd) Thus t çi r tonofe denc t t( dee nt s frd quotton te . ,he ûntoduci vi e ha a fnda j ufee fom or ni (..per ne )br ndama whih i asocat wih poori s c r a a r ga c ie, ma nt ai ge, c s s i ed t mpule ontol nd vi e pr nst woul ha . .nc e edt lkelhoodofaf ur dange ousfndi ' M artne , olnt ope iy, d ve . i r as he i i ut e r i ng. ' i z 653 F.App' a 321. A c or ngl E uns ' dec s on nott i r x t c di y, l co els i i o ntoduc e denc ofneur ogi al e vi e ol c i ime (. ,ogani bri dn ge asmii tngevi ncea t punihme pha ec tt e mpar nt ie. r c an ma ) tgai de the s nt s onsiutd r ao a e a d p oe td p o e so a j d me t b c us e i e c o o g n c b an ij r i a e s n bl n r tce r f sin l u g n' e a e v d n e f r a i ri nu y s ' çd k oubl - dge s o d. I a 887 90. e e d w r ' d. t ' Th saeh b a c u t o dn d fce t ef r e tt a e s o r fun o eiin p ro mmwei F e ma sh n ln o b an ij r n r e n' a d ig f ri-nu y a l a i di tc t e de e.G i t s r de e enc af o de Fr e a ss r t gi de s ons nd e m ng- fi uly vi nc ven he t ong f r e f r d e m n' ta e c cii , t s a e ha a c tse he t t be s our ' ndor e e ofhi dec son not o pur ue a tona m ii tng e de e was s m nt s ii t s ddii l tga i vi nc noturr as bl .8 Thi cl m i de e . le ona e z s ai s ni d C. Cl i Ar osng gume s( ai Thr e nt Cl m e) Slt ra g t tFr ema pr de i fe tve r pr s nt i i t pe t pha ecl i a e r ues ha e n ovi d ne f c i e e e aton n he nalp s osng ag e s I r um nt. nauni quepr e e, osngs oc dur cl i ummaton i hi ca epr ee dwiht de ens a gui i nt s s oc de t he f e r ng frt f l d by t St t ,f l d t by a r buta fom t de e e,a e ng wih a fnal is, olowe he a e olowe hen e tl r he f ns nd ndi t i sae n b teSae S ae f ut Fre nf rû rtczngt ej r d rn s mmain frb ig ttme t y h tt . ltr a ls e ma o û iiii h u y u ig u to s o en c rl ar nta unwilngt a yz t e de eciialy. ( ke EntyNo. a 53 .Sltr t roga , nd de, li o nal e he vi nc rtc l ' Doc t r ' 21 t ) ae di not r i e a r a e St i l cl m on s a e ha s r vi w . To ove c e t r s t nt d a s ny el t d r ck and ai t t bea e e r om he e ula pr e alba ,Slt ra gue t tsae ha asco elpr de i f c i r pr en a i by not oc dur r a e r s ha t t be uns ovi d nefe tve e es t ton Th saeha e sc ut i n te d ra e p esfn igo p eu ie ThsCo r' rve o tetil n te e tt b a o r dd o rn e n x rs idn n rj dc . i u ts e iw fh ra a d h e de Sltrpr entd on sae ha sr viw doesnots gge tar as bl pr bii ofadif e r s tha vi nce ae es e tt bea e e u s e ona e oba lt y fkr nt e ul d c elpr pa e adifr ntpunihmentpha edefns ouns e r d fe e s - s e e. 31 r i i a c a m c le ng Fr e a s c osng s m a i a s ng l i ha l ngi e m n' l i um ton. 1 . I f e t ve A s i t e- - abe - ouns lSt ne f c i - s s anc of H as c e andar d W ihoutel bor ton,Sl t a gues t t de i e e i hi habe c t a ai a er r ha tci nci s n s as ouns l s r pr e ato e ' e es nt i n alow hi t ove co et pr dur l rof si f tve as i t ecl i sunde M ar i zv Ryan, l m o r m he oce a ba hi nefec i - s sanc a m ï tne . 5 6 U..1 ( 01 ) Un e M a tn z S ae mus s w c us a d a t a p eu ie fo h b a 6 S 2 2 . d r rie , ltr t ho a e n cu l rj dc r m a e s c ouns l sr pr e a i l t i f tve as i t nc - - bea - ouns lc e , hec e t tus e ' e es nt ton. n he nefec i - s s a e of ha s c e ont xt t aus es es t Sti l sa r Se Edwar v.Car ntr 5 U. 446,451( he rckand tndad. e ds pe e , 29 S. 2000)(os ca etg ot t how us tnl j s a yd fce c i c u s lsp ro ma c wild ,h we e ' h a ssa c mu tha eb e s u t n eiin y n o n e' ef r n e l o o v r t e sitn e s v e n o , i fe tveast vi aet Fedea Consiuton' ;M u ry v Car ir 477U. 478,492 ( 986) nefci o olt he rl tt i ' ra . re , l S. 1 Cl t ne er s t i f tveasitnc ofc e doe notc tt ec us .' Tome tt Ator y ror hor ofnefeci ssa e ouns l s onsiut a egl). e he St ikand sanda d i t ha a - ouns lc e ,t pe ii rm us do m or t n i iy is s rc l t r n he be s c e ontxt he ttone t e ha dentf s ue orc a m st tha asc l i ha be ouns di notr i e a a e now ba r Se H it on v GD CP W ar el d a s nd r r ed. e ts . den,759 F. 1 0,1 ( 1hCi. 4)(t neaiedalgai ar i ufi e i ha asc es'ome t 3d 21 265 1 t r201 û rlz le tons e ns fcint n be as 't e ge teMa tn ze c p in ; mihv M u r y, 7 U. 5 , 35( 98 )(g h meef c t t o nsl h rie x e to ) S t . ra 4 7 S. 27 5 1 6 û T) e r a tha c u e 1 f ie t r cog z t f t orl ga bas sf acl i , f ie t r i et cl i de pier cog z ng a l d o e ni e he ac ual e l i or a m or a l d o a s he a m s t e ni i i, snot onsiut c us f apr e al aul. A saeha sat ne ç ednota s d tdoe c tt e a e or oc dur def t' tt bea tor y l ). ne tnd houl notr s e r nonfi ouscli butrt rma s lc fom a ) aie vey rvol am, ahe y ee t r mongt m i or rt ma miet he n de o xi z he lkelhood ofs c sona i i uc es ppea'be us tc l' ca e çouns lc nno bedefc e f f lngt pr safi ous e a t i i nt or aii o es rvol poi . Va qu zv Stphen 5 F.App' 775,779( h Ci. 5)( ai omitd) nt' s e . e s, 97 ' x 5t r 201 quottons te . Unde Mari z,apeii rma mee t ca eee tbys ngt 1 t thi cai of r tne ttone y t he us lmen howi t ) ha s l m ( i fe tveasitnceofc e a ti i s tntal ..ha s me i-a ( t t a c e nefci ssa ouns l trals ubsa i -/c, s ome rt nd 2)ha habe s ouns l w a i f e tve i f ii t pr s ntt e c a m s i hi fr t s a e habe pr ee ng. Gar a v s ne f c i n a lng o e e hos l i n s is t t as oc di ' ' z . 32 Stphe s,738F.d 669,676 (t Ci.201 .A fdealco tsf usi on saehabe c e' e n 3 5h r 3) e r ur' oc s tt as ouns ls rprs ntton.SeeMathe v Davi,665F. x31 31 1 ( hCi. 6)Mari zv Davs e e e ai t ws . s App' 5, 7- 8 5t r201 ; tne . i, 653F. x308, 8(t Ci. 6) Tr i v Davs 8 F.d328(t Ci. 6) Tos t App' 31 5h r201 ; evno . i, 29 3 5h r 201 . how hat saeh b a c u s lsd fce c e utdi a ta prj d c , p t in rmu t h w h r t h s a e tt a e s o n e' e in yr s l n cu l eu ie a ei o e s s o a m o i c s e t û i nii anty gr a e ha t t e s r ' o es a ihpl n e r on diec r vi w . Car i r, U . û g fc l e t rt n ha nec s a y' t t bls ai r or s r te e r e 477 S. a 4 3 9 .l ti cr ut ç cu l rj dc 'rq rst ep tto e t û sa ls n t r l t a t t 9 - 4 n h s ic i,l t a p eu ie'e uie h eiin r o é tbih o meey h the a e err a h stil rae apo sbi t of rj die b t h th ywo k dt h sa t a a s b tn il ro s t i ra ce td si l y p eu c , u t a te r e o i cu l nd u sa ta i d sd a tg ,nfci i e tr ra wi n o c n t ui n l i nso .Mo r v Qu re ma , ia v n a e i e t s nietil t or f o si to a dme ins' o e . a tr n ngh he t ' 5 F. 454, ( hCi. 34 3d 463 5t r 2008) s ealoHe nande v Stphe 5 F. x531 542( hCi. ;e s r z . e ns, 37 App' , 5t r 2 3 ;Ba re e v J h s n 2 F.d 7 ,7 9 ( t Ci.2 0 .trj d c ...me n ta ( 01 ) r ints . o n o , 21 3 41 6 5h r 00 ) ç eu ie p as ht a p t in r mu t h w ara o a ep o a ii h t ewo l h veb e ga tdsaeha e s eif a eio e ) s s o e s n bl r b b lyta h ud a e n r ne tt b a rle h d t t hi ha a c s be s ouns lspe f m a eno be dek int' M ari z,653 F. e ' ror nc t en t e .' tne App' at318. x 2. Fr em an' Sum m at on e s i Sl t rc e t t e m a ovi i f e i as i t nc by delve i ac osnga gum e a e ont nds ha Fr e npr ded ne f ctve s s a e i r ng l i r nt t a ç rtcze ltej r ...f rb ig r d ,ar g n ,a d u wil t a ay e t e ie c h t t iii gd h u y c o en u e ro a t n n lng o n lz he vd n e i c i c l ' ( c e En r No 5 ) A d fn e atr e sco ig ag me t a e s j c t t e rt al ' Do k t ty . 3 . e e s to n y' lsn r u ns r ube t o h i y. Stikandsz ç SeeBelv Cone 535U. 685, ( rc l tndad. l. , S. 697 2002) Beor asesi t tnean tnor . f e s sng he o d e o hi ag me t,t Co r o sr e t a F e ma n v rpr vd d aj tfc to f rh stn e f s r u ns he u t b e v s h t r e n e e o ie usiiain o i e s , r m blng c osng a gum e .t lhough c sm a a i l i r nt l t A oM ynot ndul ç t r tona i a i f ot s ls i ge pos hoc a i lz ton' orc m e ' de sonma ngt tcon r dit t a ia ee de eofcouns lsa tons net rm a t y i it cii ki ha ta c s he va lbl vi nc e ' c i , ihe y he nss c ouns lco i m e r a pe toft s r t gi ba i f hi orhe ac i . Ri ht ,5621 5. t 1 e nfr ve y s c he ta e c s s or s r tons' c er ' 7. a 09 ( tng Wi ns 539U. ,a 5 27) Theei aé tongpr umpton't tcouns lsatntont quoi ggi , S. t 26- . r s û r s es i 'ha e' te i o 33 c rai is st t e usonofot sr tec sti t c i r t rt nûs rneglc .'Yar ou e t n s ue o he xcl i her el t ral a tcs ahe ha ûhee e t' bor gh v Ge t 5 0U. 1 8( 00 ) çcl u e h swieltt d i d cdigh w b s t rp e e ta . nr 4 S. , 2 3 . l o nsl a d aiu e n e i n o e t o e r sn y l cle ,a de e e e t c int nd f r nc o ouns ls t c ialdec sons i hi c osng pr e a i i pa tc a l e ' a tc ii n s l i es nt ton s riulry i po tntbe aus oft br r nge of lgii a e de e e sr e a t sa ' l at5m ra c e he oad a e tm t f ns tatgy t hat t ge. d ' 6. G udi a r e ofadef ns a t ne ss m a i i t r or hi hl de e e i . . ' 1 a 6.Thi l ci l evi w l e e tor y' um ton s he ef e g y f r ntal . .' d. t s Cour m us te m i t c osnga gum e i ise iey.'Jenni v Stphen 61 F. t t çxa ne he l i r nt n t ntr t ' ngs . e s, 7 App' 31 x 5, 31 (t Ci.201 . 8 5h r 5) Sl t rdoesnotcom pl i a ae a n boutFr m a s c osng a gum e s i t guiti e e phas ee n' l i r nt n he l/nnoc nc e. Fr e a ss e m n' umm a i i t tpori ofti wasnotove l e i ,butf l ton n ha ton ral ry motonal olowed a l c a ogial nd co i t nt he e.Fr e a spuni hm e a gum e ss a i sar contas . Fr m an be c os ng ns s e t m e m n' s nt r nt t nd n t k r t ee gan l i ag me t b wihn te u yt o M onig'TrVo. 8a 1 8 J r r mu t o ha er s o d d r u n s y s ig h j r l d r n . . l1 t 1 . u o s s n t v e p n e , Go ' be us c ca e ouns lt l unc d i oanemotona l c g lc ur a i ta r nc a i viiy. e hen a he nt i ly har ed e t e ga ns r oga e nd nci lt Att begi ng,Fr ema s a gument s emed t r l c ltl m or t n a emotona he nni e n' r s e o efe t ite e ha n i l rs ns t ap r ev dp ro a sih b uo s F e ma s i t t i iilyd dn titn hi epo e o ec ie es n l l t yj r r . r e n ad ha he ntal i o n e d s g ag me totk a e to a t r .TrVo . a 1 22 Ev lai t e u y s e a o t wadhm, r u n t a e n mo in lu n . l21 t 2 . au tng h j r ' d me n r o r i 9 a a r ty f a i t tt g l/nnoce e de ii wasba ed on e oton,Fr e a pe ceve nd ppa en l e rng ha he uiti nc c son s m i em n r i d Fe ma a p rnl h n e ia p o c u o assigteuys e a o . e ma e pan dt t eRo k re n p ae tyc a g dhs p r a h p n sesn h j r'd me n r Fre n x lie hah to i v l p ro al ta b r rlwo l n tr s n t ag etn ' c u ei idiae t hm th tteewa s me t ey es n l h t ' os ud o epo d o reip'bea s t n c td o i ç a h r s o y u t po e 'a dmoese i l ap o lm wihth ma n ri whc gu os h n e t e ie c a tein c n ea d rblm, n r p ct l r be t û e n e n ih r r) a dld he vd n e th n o e c n ' ka y t guit s oftil' Tr Vol21at1 Thef tt tFr m a c nge t c i onhi feti no ne s a iyac r lpha e ra.' . . 39. ac ha ee n ha d a tcs s e s t ce s rl oncen. Th S p e Co rh ste ale )h wod o J sie(n f r r l i r n rlJ c s n:1 d treag me t e u rme u t a i c l d te rs f utc a d ome Soi t Ge ea) a k o :ma e he r u ns r g co ofev yca e. rtca t onet tlplnne sIt gh ,l ca,c e ,complt .Sec wa t onea t aly er s Fis me he ha a d-a hou t ogi l ohernt e e ond s he cu l p ee td nerpe ,n o eetdsone , ia p it g. ehi she lel e attn ru n ta Ih u h rsne -itru td ic h rn,ij itd dsp oni Th t r t u ryd v saigag me th t to g t n dwa o a r on ob dta ng t' Ge t 5 0U. 89( oig Ad o a yBeo eteSu rmeCo r,3 A. A.. 01 f Ae g igt e h t ih.' nr 4 S. - qu tn v c c fr h pe ' y, u t 7 B. J 8 , 8 3(951 0 1 :. 34 t ne dt m a harh e i a al.Tr Vol 1 3 Ashesa td, Fr ma slngua ont he e o ke s motonal ppe s . . 22.0 t re ee n' a ge he c d r co d ge r ly c por s w ih Sl t r s de c i i - a r ant c ol e r ne a l om t t a e ' s rpton r og , onde c ndi a pos i y s e ng, nd s bl i uli ns tng. A s t cl i s at m e c i d,how e r Fr e a t m pe e hi t he os ng t e nt ontnue ve , e m n e r d s one,hi i e s nt nt b a cea e a hel e yf l d acohe i t ec me l r r nd oos l olowe sve heme.Fr e a be wiha e otonal e m n gan t n m i appe al itn e t u s t e uo s o no b igt i iie 'a dfr e o n l ro a tu g so Sltr' T . ne d d o n e t j r r f r t en û vlz d'n o b c mig ç r g n j d e f ae . r l c a ' Vo . a l 9 1 .Fre n' itn b c memoeo vo a hea k dt- w c nap ro u g l21 t 1 , 20 e ma s n e t e a r b ius s s e tl a e s nj d e lo a ohe u tl ehms lalwsh ms l t b p t nap sto t b j d e b a t e ?'Tr Vo. n t r n ih i ef l o i efo e u i o iin o e u g d y noh r ' . l21 a 1 0. ihta p e iae F e ma s mmaie t eitn o hsh rng :f' akju o s ta ti t 2 W t h t rd c t, r e n u rz d h ne t f i aa ue ç d s r rlh th s l tm ebec r f be us t sa a ehi Thi tmebeve yc i usbe a et c usonsc d i a e ul ca e he t kes r gh. s i r auto c us he oncl i oul b ftl' Tr Vo. a 1 .Ar uigt th u yl fil u g dhscin , riua l i lg t f e aa. . l21 t 25 g n ha tej r l aryj d e i le tpatc lry n ih o ' n hi 1 l Fre n' i ta sae ntc de t m f tndi Sltrguit s ow Q, e ma s niil ttme hi d he or i ng ae ly. The St t sr s a e' e pons ve a gum e c r c e i d Fr m a sa oa h notasa i uli r nt i r nt ha a t rze ee n' ppr c n ns tng a , b t sa atmp t p t u o so at ulti ' Tr Vol21a 1 83 u a n te t o u j r r n l i rp- . . t 2 .1TheS aep rev dc u s ls g t ' tt e c ie o n e' dic s ina o tt ef i let rt r ag e tn a s tigt ej r u t fe t o g l t rtr a s u so b u h alr o eu n reig s et h u y p o e l o uiy o eu n t n t Fr m a saed: ee n tt It houghtlwoul thavet doabunc ofs lng. t dn' o h eli I houghta1lwoul ha t doi ma ar t l d ve o s ybe gue he ca eba e ont e de t twa pr e e a r l onyouras u a st tyouwoul bec ef , s s d he vi nce ha s es ntd nd ey s r nce ha d ar ul t t uwoul beca i ,hat woul us t es meengi rngandmedi a mahe tca ha yo d utous t you d e hos a nee i cal nd t ma i l mi t e uat t se de nds o val e hi vi nce.Tha ' whatIe ced. s r ydi tge i. lkno ldi t t ts xpe t l u el dn' t tAnd w dn'ge i. t Tr Vol 21a 1 . . t 22. The pr ec orsat d: os ut t e Mr Fr ma i tyi t ma you f guit be us you di tgi hi s ki ofs ci t . ee n s r ng o ke eel ly ca e dn' ve m ome nd um en gr tng.Tha' t ii ont c oft r al lti Theguitti i r alygoi t bels gges eei ts he cng he ake he e guitrp. l rp s e l ng o u t t youhe' goi t getu heebef eyoua t l t youa ekilngt tboyt r t tyoua e o s ng o .p r or nd elyou hat r li ha he e ha r kligta y u gma .Ho sl a dtuywer n takn y ut ki a bo y.W er j s akn i n h t o n n nety n r l 'e o s ig o o l ny d l l 'e u t s ig you t ans e tr es i is . o w r h e pecal sues Tr Vol21a 1 29. . . t 28- 35 de t elgi eve di t Tr Vol 21a 128- Thepr e ut a gue 1 wa st makeyouf e ba ah- i bl r c . . . t 29. os c or r d:: He nt o el d be a e you di tgr thi a opr a e y oryou di ts a outl e c us dn' ee m ppr i t l dn' t y ong nough ordi tr nde t dn' e r he t pe ofve di the w an e For tt guitt i ' Tr Vol 21 a 1 y r c t d. ge he l r p.' . . t 30. Thedef e ss c cosnga gum e r t ne t t ea le t m e bu wihoutvirola ens ' e ond l i r nt e ur d o he ri r he , t t ti nd wi afc so g tigj r r t f lo t erç wnp ro a g d n e' TrVo . a 1 8 F e ma t o u n et u o s o o lw h i t e s n l uia c . . l21 t 3 . r e n h n o ' e p an dt u o s û eh v t wa eo rev su . . s e ilya j d e t ehg e t o iint a x lie oj r r:t a e o k u s le p . e p cal s u g s h ih s p sto h t W act e c n h v , ol eal j d ea oh rma o wo n' lf .Th ti av r hihsain.l' iz n a a e t i r l u g n te n r ma s ie a s e y g tto ts i t y no s ehi t bet ken lghty a al ls t om t ng o a i l nd 1 ugge tt tyou do i t m a c t n a t tmeyou a e' s ha s o ke erai t he i r' f l wigt ev ieo pes n l o ce c .Tr Vo . a 1 8 iht t Fre nu g dj r r t ol n h oc f ro a c ns in e . l21 t 3 .W t ha, e ma r e u o s o o r t nt û eur o t t y ha e t evi ncea t i e a guitphas ofti l' Tr Vol 21a how he ndld he de t he nnoc nce nd l e ra . . . t ' 1 .F e ma e c u a e u o st ra s s wh te te ewa a t cu l o b r i o d r os yta 39 r e n n o rg dj r r o e s e s eh r h r s n l ta r b ey n r e t a h t a t r wasca t lmur ,be aus wihoutr bbe y t r wasno ca t lm ur . he e pia der c e t o r he e pia der Look a i tt ca e uly. Tha ' wha lm a ki you t do. Tr Vol 21a 1 rf l ts t ' s ng o ' . . t 42. ' Fr e e man' cl i wa notpe f c ,a defniey nott sr e ot ra t ne ma ha s osng s re t nd i t l he tatgy he tor ys y ve a o td û ' b s r ,S ae ') a e wa n Arso l o e e Clrn eDar w. Ge ty, 40U. d p e . û o e u e ( ltrs lwy r s o itte r v n ae c ro ' nr 5 S. ' l ' a 11 Stl,t s a e ha s cour ' fndi t t Fr em a û as a z al advoc t ofhi cle ' t . il he t t bea ts i ng ha e n t w e ous ae s i nt s i e e twho woul ohe e ge i a tils r t g ofl uf a bl tr' a ur t l des i d hi nt r s d n nga n ra ta e y bl f nd use '' cc a ey crbe s c osng a gum e . St t H a s Rec d a 1 3 Fr e a ne r pr ded a r dm a t any l i r nt a e bea or t 095.2 e m n ve ovi oa p o srtg cb ssf r i ag me tb t ae fil d s rb s ro hi s mmaina t rtczn j r r tae i a i o hs r u n, u Sltr ary e cie pat f s u to sç iiii g u o s c 3 2 Fr e n' pu s nts l toni t sca ei consse wihonei whih asaeappelaec t e t t e ma s nihme unmai n hi s s itnt t n c tt lt our notd ha h Rp n a io dn t a u t fi lcu igte uy; n ak d wi o to u ,bo tuor'p ro a e pein e ' e se t n n r iae mo n o tme etrn h j r a d s e , t u fc sa u j r s tes n lx re c s h t tm i adv s y af thi cint....'Thom a Le Jo sv. at,No.0190ha ght erel fec s le ' s e ne St e - 00460- 1 W L 397045,a * CR, 995 t8 ( x Ap . uy5 1 9 ) Ele ee o iin h v c atsdF e ma a l b sv , irs cfla dvtp rtv , Te . p J l , 9 5 . swh r, pno s a e h sie re n s ç u ie dsepetu, n iu eaie' a ' V n os elv Stt,No 079 -0 6 CR,1 97WL 6 4 l a *1( x. .Oc.l ,1 9 : a d d srb d hs a n rd l . ae . - 50 6 9 3 6 0, t Te App t 5 9 7 n ecie i ag me t tl a t xe sv a drmbi 'Flksv Stt, 0 SW.d8 4, 45( x. p 1 9 ) ru n sye s t tn ie n a l e np' a e . ae 8 2 . 2 4 8 Te Ap . 9 0 . f r. . o v ci ( i . ( c e Enr No 21a 5 ) Al o hFr e n n v ru e t eph a e o . c n it hml' Do k t ty . t 7 . t ug e ma e e s d h rs ng ' h < esdua doubt' at m ofa ti hi cl i hi a gum e sc nt r on wha heconsde edt be ç i l r 'as er r n s osng, s r nt e e ed t i r o ap o d cso b j r r i teg itl c n ep a e p riua l i lg to S ae ' lw 1 l o r e ii n y uo s n h ul/mo e c h s , a t lry n ih f ltrs o Q. n i c e s nce hi e i ll ngua cr l ar s e , s motona a ge iced ound a s i of r i ldoubtand hi conc u ng peces esdua s l di s a e e s dr t tpoi hom e. t t m nt ove ha nt The c c t r s t he guitimoce e i s sdur ng c os ng a gum e si a sr t gi one t hoi e o evi i t l/r nc s ue i l i r nt s ta e c o whihc t mus defr Se Unie atsv. i,285F. 378, 4( hCi. c ours t e. e tdst e Davs 3d 38 5t r 2002)(i ngt t fndi ha a çatc ( t sr hoft govenmentsc ea t hi g l'a t punihmen phas i ç n tta k on) he tengt he r ' as s o s uit' t he s t e s ç a s ct t tc lde ii ';Moor v. pe ik acia cson' ) e Johns 1 F. 586,618(t Ci.1 (Thi Cour has on, 94 3d 5h r 999) t s t rc g ie t a,n a a p o raec pi lc s ,c u s lsd cso t r l u o t ej r ' r sd a e o nz d h t i n p r p it a t a e o n e' e iin o ey p n h u y s e iu l a do a ubt boutt de e nts guitm a be notonl r as bl,buthi hl be ii lt a c pial he f nda ' l y y e ona e g y nefc a o a t d e nt') l e i lngei doubt sbe nr c ze a a efci srtgyf a di t efnda . . ç atng i rng ' cr ha e e ogni d s n fe tve tae or voi ng he de t pe ly. Tar rv Ho r 1 F. 71 71 1 ( 1hCi.1 .Ac or ngt onefdeal ah nat ' ve . ppe , 69 3d 0, 5- 6 1 t r 999) c di o ' e r c u tsu ish v s wnt a r sd a d u tç temo t o ru E tg tn 'fc. ( esu y o r, t de a e ho h t e iu l o b ûs h s p wef l miiai g a t On td l i s ugge t t t bes t ng a c t lde e ntca do t i ove hi c nce ofr evi a lf ss hat he t hi apia f nda n o mpr s ha s ec i ng ie s ntncehasnot ngt do wih m ii tng e denc src l s ki Thebes t nghe c n do,al e e hi o t tga i vi e ti ty pea ng. t hi a l es b nge l i t riedoubta hi guit' 1 ( ottonomitd) le ei qua,s o as bout s l. d.qu ai ' te . Fr e a s a gum e ,how e r e otonali m a ha bee bor t ha l a ks of t tc , e m n' r nt ve m i t y ve n, e he lm r ac i s tr u h o l s me a-o u e d l r Th e t na a p a c ul ha etme jl r a ans h o g ny o wh tfc s d ei y. e moi l p e l o d v u d t o s g i t ve o r Fr em a pe s ly, nd pos i y hi c i nt buti w asl ec s y t s tofc c a ed r s t tles e n r ona l a s bl s le , t l i el he or pr al ul t i k ha i a teh a t fa a vo ae sd s rto . Ge r 5 0U. a 9 1 (ee tn i fe tv a ssa c th e r o n d c t' ic ei n' nt 4 S. t - 0 rj cig nefcie sitn e ' y, ofc ouns lc am not t tndi c e li wihsa ng ouns l de gr ton ofde enda asa û peron,l y dr g e s ni a i f nt û bad s ous u 37 a ditsikn t if (n q al r 'd rn cosn ag me tls eas Flrd v Nio , 4 U. d c,tn ig he ,a d j ibid' u ig l ig r u n s; e lo o ia . x n 5 3 S. 1 1 ( 75, 92 2004)(i ngno dei e pef ma ewhent at ne c ede t thi cle was fndi fcint ror nc he tor y onc d ha s int guit i t guitphas ofa de t pe t t i lafe he ha t d hi c i ntofhi pl n a no r e ve ly n he l e a h naly ra t r d ol s le s a nd t ec i d ars ns) W hieadifr at yu sina yma vec t adifr nt ncuso a t epo e . l feent tome nque to bl yha ome o fee co l in bou t bes a oa ht tkei t punihmen phae,teve t betcrmi ldee eat ne wo d he t ppr c o a n he s t s ûgl n he s i na fns tor ys ul no de e a pa tcul rcle ti t s m e w a ' St i k and,466 U . a 689. tlhe e ar c t f nd ri a i n n he a y.' r c l S. t l- r e ountes l s wa t pr deefe tvea ssa ei a gi nc ell'Ll ; ealoPi ser 563U. a 1 ys o ovi fci sitnc n ny ve as .' Ld.se s nholt , S. t 89. Stt ha asc a e be ouns lco d r as e ul e onabl de i nott r iea c am ba e on Fr man' punihm e y c de o as li s d ee s s nt pha es s umma i ton. Li ot St ikan cl ms a i f ci - s it nc cli f usng on c osng a gume s ke her rc l d ai , n nefe tve a ssa e am oc i l i r nt silr quiesapettone t s tl e r ii r o how û r s bl pr biiy t t' butf t de i e cosng,çhe 1 ea ona e oba lt ha , a ' or he fcint l i ç t rs toft pr ee ng woul ha be n difrnt' Smih v S s 558 U. 1 1 ( 0) eul he oc di d ve e fee .' t . piak, S. 39, 54 201 (i ngt tc ms ' dipaagi comment i pe lypha ecosngar ntporr yi cle as tndi ha ot els s r ng s n nat s l i gume ta ng int l ik'çwitd'a dû e ne 'ween t u fce toe tbihp eu ie o gof //kl #gv n t c 'ç se , n t me td' r o s fiin t sa ls rj dc pr n i rc / a ie s t ' d naur oft c s andcouns lse iia lormec Auai rc and, U. at .Thi t e he a e e' xplct ppea f ry) ngstikl 466 S. 694) s i notac ewhe eFr e a sconduc wass e e oust ti û s as r e m n' t o gr gi ha t t r i t pr rf toni unde m ned he ope unci ng o tea v ra ilp o e s's c t a ûh tilc n o berle u o a h vigp o u e tej s f h d e sra r c s' u h h t t e ra a n t eid p n s a n r d c d h u t t r ul. Stikl 466 U. a 68 es t' rc and, ' S. t 6. W iht t nt xtande pe i lyi lght t hi ydefr nta sanda dsa f dedcouns ' t ha co e , s c al n i ofhe ghl e e i l t r for els c osng a gume ,a r s bl habe s a t ne coul f go chal ngi Fr m a s s l i r nt ea ona e a tor y d or le ng ee n' umm a i i ton n o de t f cust pr e di onm o e e f tveis .Sl e pr desltl mor t n as ri al r r o o he oc e ngs r - feci s ues atr ovi ite e ha upe fci de l r to t ts a e ha s c c a a i n ha t t bea ouns s el houl ha r i ed t c os ng- r e cl i . I po t nty, d ve a s he l i a gum nt a m m r a l 38 Sltrh sn t h wnta t ewa p eu ie b gtt ha e sc u s ls d fce t ro ma c -h t ae a o s o h tç s rj d c d y sae b a o n e'l eiin pef r n e ta h i ,t tt r i a r a ona e pr biiy t the w oul ha bee gr nt d s a e habe s r le ha t s ha he e s e s bl oba lt ha d ve n a e t t a e i f d he c a m sbee pr e e i t fr ts a e ha sa i a i ' Bar v. avi,660 F. pp' 293, 4 li n es nt d n he i s t t bea pplc ton. ' bee D s A x 31 (t Ci.201 ;s alo Gatsv Davs 6 F.App' 463,47 ( h Ci.201 . W iht he vy 5h r 6) ee s e . i, 48 x 0 5t r 6) t he a d frn egv nF e ma ssr tg c oc sa dt eo eain o Src l d p eu ie a dmi d u eee c ie r e n' tae y h ie n h p r to f tikan rj dc , n n f l t tt s a e ha asc tha ale dy opi d t Fr e a çwas a ze l advoc t ofhi clents ha he t t be our d r a ne hat e m n t a ous ae s i ' i e es'St t Ha asRec d a 1 ntr t' a e be or t 095,Slt rha nots ae s hown a r as e onabl pr biiy t tt sae e oba lt ha he t t ha sc t bea our woul havegr nt dr ifha c d a e ele d ouns la nce t scli .Ac di y, a e hasnot e dva d hi am cor ngl Slt r s o h t tt h b a c u s lsrp e e tto p o ie c u ea a t a prj d c t o ro te h wnta sae a e s o n e' e r sn ain r vd s a s nd cu l eu ie o vec me h PF C 1ZIba Oft sune us e cl i .3 OC dtF r hi xha t d a m 3 D. Appel eRepr s nt i ( ai Four lat e e aton Cl m ) Sl t ra guest ta la ec ae r ha ppe l t ouns l ovi d i f c i as i t eby not hale ngt ti l e pr de nef e tve s sanc c l ngi he r a c tsi t c i on e r ne of e e Dur ng t puni hm e pha e ofti l t St t pr e e our ' ns nz ton xta ous f ns s. i he s nt s r a , he a e es nt d e ie c o u r ltdo fns sa db da t Sltr a c mmitd.Fre nr q et dta t e uo s vd n e f n eae fe e n a cs ae h d o te e ma e u se h t h j r r o y c i rt ea t afe t St t ha pr n be nl onsde hos c s tr he ae d ove yond ar s bl doubtt theha c ea ona e ha d omm it d te t e Tr Vo . 0 a 1 - 8 Tr Vo . a 43 4 . I ta ,tetilc u ti t ce j r r n tt h m. . l 2 t 6 1 ; . l 21 t - 4 nse d h ra o r nsnltd u o s o o c i e r neo of e esl ora pur e unl syou fnd a be i ve b cl ar e de e t tt onsder xt a us f ns t ny pos f es i nd le y e vi nc ha he defnda co teds hot rofens . .'Clr sRe or a 76(mphassadde .Sltragues e nt mmit uc he f es . .' ek' c d t e i d) ae r t ta la ec ha ppe lt ouns ls d ha c le d t tilc tsdenilofhi pr e i tu ton. e houl ve ha lnge he ra our' a s opos d nsr c i Slt rdi note us t scli i sa ec t Fe r r viw i bare unl sSl e s ae d xha t hi a m n tt our. de al e e s r d es atr hows 3 3 I t atr i a f t s m er a onsdic s d a n he lenatve, nd or he a e s s us e bove t Cour woul de Slt rsStikl cl m , he t d ny a e ' rc and ai i t m e iswer f l aval ef f r lrviw . f he rt e uly iabl or ede a e e 39 c u ea dp eu c t f r iet r s la t r c d rl ea t Sae ag e ta ti Co rc nr a h a s n rj die o o gv he e utn p o e u a d ful. ltr r u s h th s u t a e c t me is be aus sae ha asco elpr ded de i e r pr e a i underM ari z by not he rt c e t t be uns ovi fcint e es nt ton tne r i i hei f e tve- s sanc - - ppe l t c a s ngt ne f c i as i t e of a la e- ouns l l i .TheFi t Cic t shel hat àr f z e c am fh r uiha dt M /nc onl f gi t def ul ofi f c i - s s a e of ti lcouns l ai s.Se Re d v Stphe , y or ves he a t nef e tve as i t nc - -r a e cl m e e . e ns 739 F. 75 778n.6( t Ci.201 .UnderFit Cic tlw,sat ha asc e' rpr e ai 3d 3, 1 5h r 4) fh rui a t e be ouns ls e es ntton c cnotf gi t Sl e ' f l r t e us t sc1i .4 a or ve he atrs aiu e o xha t hi a m 3 Eve i t M ari ze e i i ude i fe tve- ssa e- - ppela e cou elcai , n f he tne xc pton ncl d ne f c i as it nc ofa lt - ns l ms Sae h sn t h wnta hsu d ryn cam h smei.S ae a g e t tu o smu ti db y n ltr a o s o h t i n e lig li a rt ltr r u s haj r r s fn e o d ar a ona edoubtt tac t de e e s bl ha apial f ndan c t omm it d a exta ousofe ebe or c i i i i te n r ne f ns f e onsderng t n a we i t s cilis . Sl trsaes ns rng he pe a s ues ae t t : Sic a lat1 2 ,h til o r mus isnlttej r a teg l/ no e c sa e n e t e s 9 3 te ra c u t t n t c h u y t h ui i c n e tg tn t ti c nnotc i ran e r ne ofe e unls i be ivesbey ar as na e ha t n onsde xta ous f ns e s t le ond e o bl doubtha t defnda c t the e nt ommitdi.Harlv. ae, 4S. . 1 4,1 58( x. te t rel Stt 88 W 2d 5 57- Te Crm.App.1 . The c tmus gi t smei tuci upon r ueta t i 994) our t ve he a nsr ton eq s t he punihme sage M ic l v.Stt,931S. . 950,954( x.Crm.App.1 ) s nt t . thel ae W 2d Te i 996 . Furher e ari e370T s ci 3()oft CodeofCrmi Pr dur pr de t mor, tcl . e ton a he i nal oce e ovi s t a t e u yc n t o i e e ta e us fns si a s s igp n s me t ne she h th j r a no c nsd r x rn o ofe e n se sn u ih n u ls t y ar pr nbe ar s bl doubtSe Huiarv.Stt 1 S. . 479, ( x. e ove yond ea ona e . e z ae, 2 W 3d 481 Te Crm.App.2000) i . ( ke EntyNo.21at63)(tlcsa Doc t r iai dded) Reponde count st tt tilc tdi no er . s nt er ha he ra our d t r be us t Cour of i nal ca e he t Crmi Appe l di no gi i a s d tbe n mposngabe i yond- -e ona ea r as bl doubtsa r t nda d on e r ne of e e untla t rSl t r s ti l xt a ous f ns s i f e a e ' r a . Th p risfi t ditn us b t e j r i tu to si tep n l p a eo c ptla d e ate al o si g ih ewe n u y nsr cin n h e at h s f a ia n y 3 4 The Supr eme Cour cure l hasunderco i r ton t quesi ofwheherM ari z é s a is t t r nty nsde a i he ton t tne ç o pple o al pr edu al deauled, s t ili fe tvea ssanceof ppelt c ns cl ms'Davl Dfvx, l 621 oc r ly f t but ubsanta,nef ci s it a lae ou el ai . ' iav. z/ No. 6- 9, 2 1 WL 81 5 8 (01 ) ThiCo r, we e,st o n t f l w (it Cic i) rc d n a ie it td y. La d 06 1 9 6 2 6 . s u tho v ri t u d o ol Ffh rutp ee e t st xss o a ' d b o ' v Liigso , 7 F.d2 6 2 0(t Ci. 5. . vn tn 7 7 3 8 , 9 5h r201 ) 40 non- a t ti l . Ari e 37. oft Te s Code ofCrmi Appe l gove st punihm e c pial la s tcl 07 he xa i nal as m he s nt phas ofanon- pial r a a a l sbot pa test of e e de E t a m a t rt c t e s e ca t ti l nd low h r i o f r vi nce t o ny te he our de m as r l va t s nt nc ng, nc udi but lm ie t . . vi nceofa e r ne c i e orba ac t t e e nt o e e i i l ng not i t d o . e de n xt a ous r m d t ha is s hownbe yondar s na edoubt. .' TEX. ea o bl . .' CODECRI PRO. r. 07()a; ealoJac M. a t37. 3 ()se s kwn v St e 992S. . 469,477( x.Crm. . at, W 2d Te i App.1 .l c r tt Co tofCrmi Appe l 999) n ontas,he ur i nal as ha hed t s l hat gl e de ei c pia c e i c r l byaril 3707 whihc ansnos h the vi nc n a tl ass s ontoled tce . 1, c onti uc r srcino t eito u to o e ta e u o f n ee i e c .Fu te uo e a uyi e tito n h n r d cin f x rn o s fe s v d n e rh n r , j r n anon- pia c er eve noi tuc i c ca t l as ec i s nsr ton ompa a et t s c a is si t u tons r bl o he pe i l s ue nsr c i i ac pia c e;hi ditnc i e ai t r quieme i nonca t lc est tt n a t l as t s si ton xpl ns he e r nt n pia as ha he j r b s p rtl isr ce n tt c n ie e ta o so f n e u ls t y a e uy e e aaey n tu td o o o sd r xrne u fe s s n e s he r pr n be ove yond ar s na edoubt ea o bl . Jac s 992S. . a 477(mpha i a d) Theonl bur Te splce one r ne ofe e k on, W 2d t e ss dde . y den xa a s xta ous fns s i a c pia s ntncng he rng i lhe oblga i of ç e l pr ng't t ti lc tt tt n a tl e e i ai s ç t i ton clary ovi o he ra our ha he e r ne ofens wa commitda t t(hedee nlwast pe rt . Hughe v.St e, xta ous f e s te nd ha t fnda t he metaor' ' s at 24S. .d833,8 43( Crm. 2000 ; e aloSlrc v St e,8 S. . 877, ( x. W 3 42- Tex. i App. ) s e s f/ç . at 76 W 2d , 909 Te Crm. i App.1 . 994) Thej r isr din i t i c s c nfr dt Te a 1w b r q ii G la e ie e'h t u y n tu o s n h s a e o o me o x s a y e urng t e r vd nc 't a c Sltre ge i t e r ne ofe es Clr sRe or a 76. The l di notr quiet ti l ae nga d n he xta ous f ns . e k' c d t aw d e r he ra c r t pr de an m or r gor r qui e enta a l t c ou t o ovi y e i ous e r m nd ppela e ouns l di not ne e tt r s a e d gl c o ai e m e io i cli .The Cour wilde t scai . rt rous a m t l ny hi l m E. TheDe h Penaly ( ai Fi ) at t Cl m ve Slt rsfna ha asc am a guest tt de t nalyvi aest c tt i pr bii a e ' i l be l i r ha he a hpe t ol t he onsiutonal ohi ton on c ue andunus punihment Slt ra kst sCour t e nd t r cor a pe m i dic r r l ual s . a e s hi t o xpa he e d nd r t s ove y 41 t e o et us ofc pia punihmen nato de Slt rdi notr s t sc am i sa eco t nd o xpl r he e a t l s t i nwi . a e d aie hi l i n t t ur a ha nots s hown t theca ove comeanypr dur lde a t3 ha n r oce a f u1.5TheCour c nnotg a r le o t ta r nt ei f n he m e is oft s c a m . rt hi l i I t at r tve, a e ' cli lc me i unde t c r ntl w.Slt rprm a iyr le on n he le na i Slt rs am a ks rt r he ur e a a e i rl ei s adis i opi o i Gls i v Gr s, sentng nin n o sp . os U. S. ,1 S.Ct 27 2755- ( ) whee 35 . 26, 80 2015, r J tc Bry r j ie b J tc Gis eg c nsd rdpec ie pr be wi ted ahp nat, usie e e , on d y usie n b r , o i ee rev d o lms t h e t e l h y i l ng tac of r la lt t a bir r a ia i of s rous a ir ve sbl punihme , ncudi û k l e ibiiy, he r ta y pplc ton ei nd re r i e s nt i vi s f i c us d b l deays a lc ofpe ogialpur e. 1 a 2776.J tc ndi dual uferng a e y ong l , nd a k nol c pos ' d. t ' usi e Br ye ur dt Su e Cour t c i f lbrefng ont t rt de t pe lyvi a e t e r ge he pr me t o onsder ul i i t he he ah nat olt s he whe Consiuton. 1 a 2755. tt i ' d. t ' The Supr eme Cour ha ne r hed t tt de t pe ly is f r t rt n t me t t s ve l ha he ah na t tel, a he ha he ans o i os i o me h ns t c ryi o tv oae t eCo ttto Th Gl sl mao i rc g ie mp e t r c a ims o ar t u , i lts h nsi in. e o s; j rt e o nz d u p y t ttti s tld t tca t punihm e i consiu i .... 35 S. .a 2732; e alo Ba ev ha l s e te ha pial s nt s i tt tonal ' '1 Ct t se s z . Re s 553U. 35, ( e, S. 47 2008)Ctclpial s nti c tt i l'; nne yv fouii 55 g a t punihme s onsiutona.lKe d . sana, 4 ' U. 407, ( )(çT1 deahpe t i noti a yunc tt i l.' J tceBrye ' S. 420 2008 ç( he t naly s nvmi bl onsiutona gl). usi e rs disntngopi oni Gl sl wa onl adisnt a i t inf f t rc i rtonbyhi flow se i ni n os ; s y se , n nviato or urhe onsdeai p s el j sie . usieBry rs o n s i no ce t n w,lal e tbih dfd r l o siui n la u tc s J tc e e ' c mme t d d t rae e ce ry sa ls e e ea c n t to a lw. t Thi Cour i û s tsû boundbyprorSupr m eCour ca e untls h tmea i i ex e syove r e byt t i e t s s i uc i s t s pr s l ruld ha Cour. UniedSt e v Hol s,822 F. 481 503 n. (t Ci.1 . Thi Cour woul be t' t ats . me ' 2d , 2 5h r 987) s t d 3 5 Sltrar st iefeci r pr s nt i ysaeha sc elhoul f gi t pr dur l of sfnal ae gue hatn f tve e e e atonb tt bea ouns s d or ve he oce a bar hi i cam.Th Fit Cic t a rf sdt a pl Ma t e t t li ( al ono p rant teefcie eso c u s l' li e fh ruih s eue o p y ri z o t ams t td t eti o h fe tv n s f o n e. n c h ' V s u zv Se e s 5 7F. px77 7 (t Ci. 01 )s eas Wi isv Se e s 5 0F Ap x29 , 0 n4 a q e . tph n , 9 Ap ' 5, 78 5h r 2 5 'e lo l n . tph n , 6 . p' 9 3 6 .4 , k (t Ci. 01 )Re dv Stph n ,7 9F.d7 3 77 (t Ci. 4 . 5h r 2 4 ; e . e e s 3 3 5 , 8 5h r201 ) 42 c ompeled t de r le e i Slt r sc lnge t c pia punihmen wa f l a ia e f l o ny e if ven f a e ' hale o a tl s t s uly val bl or f de alr vi w . e r e e l . V Certfcate ofA ppeal lt ii abiiy Un e AEDPA,a p io e c n o se a pelt rviw fo a lwe c u tsj d me t dr rs n r n n t e k p lae e e r m o r o r' u g n wiho rc vi aCeriiaeofAppe lbiiyCt '.Se 28U. C.j22534) Sltrha no t ut e ei ng tfc t aa lt COA' e ) S. c . ae s t ye r quesed t tt sCour gr hi a CO A , houg t sCou t n c i rt i s s s te t ha hi t ant m t h hi r ca ons de he s ue ua pont . e Se Alxande v Johns 211 F. 895,898 ( h Ci.2000) ç-he COA saue esa ihe e e r . on, 3d 5t r . û' l ttt tbls s pr edur lr l sand r quies a t es d i r i t whe he t cr tc tm a e e t n a oc a u e e r hr hol nquiy n o t r he icui our y nt rai n a al' Sl kv. c e,529U. 473,482( ppe . ac M Danil ' S. 2000) A c tma onl is aCOA whe tt . our y y sue n the a i a ha m a a s t ntal s i of t de a of a c tt i pplc nt s de ubsa i how ng he ni l ons iutonal rght' 28 U . C . i .' S. j2253()2) c( . TheFi t Cic t dst t he s rt ofan i a e spuni hm e , ve a s nt nc ofde t fh r ui hol ha t eve iy nm t ' s nt e n e e e a h, t snoti a ofis fr quiet is nceofaCOA.'Clr v Johns 202F. 760,76 (t ç doe ,n nd tel, e r he sua ' ak . on, 3d 4 5h Ci.2000) TheFit Cic t howe r ani pae t tac twilr ol a quesi a a r . fh rui, ve, tci ts ha our l es ve ny tons bout COA i t de t rw i t sfvor Se He nande v Johns 21 F.d243, ( hCi. n he ah-o nmae' a . e r z. on, 3 3 248 5t r2000) . The Supr m e Cour hasexpl ne t s a e t ai d he t ndar f eva ua i t pr i t of g an i a C OA on d or l tng he opre y r tng camsrj ce o termeisa f lo :t h r ad src c u th srj ce t ec nsi to a li ee td n h i rt s ol ws t ee itit o r a ee td h o tt in l W u cli o t meist s ngrquie t stsyj ams n he rt,he howi e rd o aif 2253()i srihtor r Thepeii rmus c s tag f wad: ttone t d mo taet a r ao a l j rsswo dfn t d src c u tsa s sme to t ec nsi to a e nsrt h t e s n be u it ul i d he itit o r' s e s n f h o tt in l u c ai s deba a e or w'ong. Sl k,529 U . at48 M il r El 537 U . a 336- On t ot r lm t bl r ' ac ' S. 4; le - , S. t 38. he he ha a di t i tc t ha ha de e ha sr le on pr dur lgr nd, sr c our t t s ni d bea e i f oce a ounds s d i s a COA Ewhe houl s ue t n t ep io e s o , t e s,h t u it o ra o wo l tn id b tb ewh te t ep tto sae h rs n r h ws a la tta j rss f e s n ud i d t e aa l eh r h eiin tts 43 av ldcam o t ed n a o ac nsi to a rg t n t tu it o r a o wo dfn i d b tbe ai li f h e il f o tt in l ih a d ha j rss f e s n ul i d t e aa l u w he he t di t i tc t a c r ti ispr e al u i Sl k, U . a 48 M il r El 537 t r he sr c our w s or ec n t oc dur r lng. ac 529 S. t 4; le - , U . a 336- U nl s t pr s S. t 38. e s he i oner e t t CO A s a r ç a al oul bew a r nt d. Sl k, m e s he t nda d, û ppe w d no r a e ' ac ' 529 U . at484. S. Sltrsp tto rie is e wo ty o j dca rviw.Ne e tee s h vngc n i ee ae ' eiin as s su s rh f u iil e e v rh ls, a i o sd rd Sl t ' pe ii i lghtofA ED PA ' s a r and c r lng pr c ntt sCour de e m i t t a er s tton n i S t nda ds ont oli e ede hi t t r nes ha a COA s d noti s on a cl i s houl s ue ny a m . V. Conc us on l i Fo t r a onsdi c s d a r he e s s us e bove t Cour GRANTS Re ponde ' moton f s , he t s nts i or umm a y r j d me tDENI Sae ' p tto f rawrt h b a c r s a DI M I SESt i c s W I u g n, ES ltrs eiin o iof a e s opu , nd S S hs a e TH PREJU DI . The Cour w ilnotc r iy any i s f a la e r vi w . CE t l e tf s ue or ppe l t e e The Clr wil ovi copi oft sOr rt t pa te . e k l pr de es hi de o he ri s S GNED o I n v&R a 2 2 1 27 , t u tn, x s a Ho so Te a . A LFRED H .BE T UN I TED STA TES D I STRJ J G E UD 44
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