Conner vs Harrah's Operating Company, Inc. et al, No. 3:2008cv00633 - Document 60 (D. Nev. 2010)

Court Description: ORDER GRANTING in part and DENYING in part 46 & 47 Motions for Summary Judgment. Summary judgment is granted on the conversion, civil conspiracy, respondeat superior, and negligent supervision claims, but denied on the § 1983 claims. Signed by Judge Robert C. Jones on 10/20/2010. (Copies have been distributed pursuant to the NEF - DRM)
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1 2 3 4 5 6 UNI TED STATES DI STRI CO URT CT 7 DI STRI O F NEV ADA CT 8 W I AM H. LLI CONNER, 9 Pl n if aitf, 1 0 vs . ll HARRAH' OPERATI CO.I e aI, S NG , NC. t . 1 2 Dee nt. fnda s 1 3 1 4 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 3: c 0063 RCJ RAM 08-v- 3- ORDER Thi c ears sout anale d c pia y be we n a Re c s no a t e e pl e sof s as ie of l ge ons r c t e no a i nd hr e m oy e 1 t Ne d Ga ngConr Boad(lheBoad' t rc vera ovepa men ma t aga er 5 he va a mi tol r t t r ' o e o n r y t de o mbl . ) 1 Pl nifalge vai st t.Pe n beor t Cou t et moi f s mmayj gme . 6 aitf le s rou ors ndig f e he r ar wo tons or u r ud nt l7 Fort r ons gi htr n,t Courtgr st m otonsi par and deni t he eas ven ei he ant he i n t es hem i par. n t Conner vs Harrah's Operating Company, Inc. et al Doc. 60 1 1 8 . 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Eihe Pl n ifha f ie t de an di c ve y oft e t pe, 8 f nda s t di vi c t r ai tf s a l d o m d s o r h a 1 orheh r c i d i a f ldt a du ei i r s ons t t epr s tm o i Eih wa , he 9 as e eve t nd aie o d c t n e p e o h e en ton. t er y t 20 Co t tsn hav t t be or it d t r n i i c e t sage neis ofma e ilf c as ur do ot e he ape f e t o e e mie f t ra e nui s ue t ra a t 21 t ove p ymen . l Pl n ifh t tfed a hi d poston t a h w a pai t pr era ount o ra t f ai tf ad es ii t s e ii h t e s d he op m , 22 t Cour woui no grn s he t d t a t ummayj dg ntt Deen nt ont c esoncam, c us r u me o f da s he onv ri li be a e 2 teCo r c ud n t o cu et a araon bej r c udn tce iPlitf src l cina d 3 h ut o l o c n ld h t e s a l u y o l o rdt an if e ol t n e o 24 d s r di De e da t ' How e e ,Pl ntf doe n te n a t r a i l ale e i a d oston o ic e t f n n s . v r ai if s o ve fi m tve y l g n ny ep ii r 25 a fda tt a h waspai t pr e a fi vi h t e d he op r moun .AsDe e dan spo n ou , a fr tveyt tfe t f n t i t t he fima i l esiid Pa e 6 of 1 g 4 1 t th di no k i heha b enovepai ( e Conne De 26:-1 ) And a orlar n ha e d t now f de r d.Se r p. 9 0 . t a gume t 2 c ns a tedt e ewa no diput t ta ov r ymen oc ure Pl ntf ha n me hi ou el dmit h r s s e ha n e pa t c r d. ai if s ot t s 3 s te b d t e t bls a g ui i s ofm a e i lf c on t c hit d ur en o s a ih en ne s ue t ra a t he onve son c ai , t Co t r i l m and he ur 4 teeo ega t s mmayj d me toDee d nso ti cam. h rfr rns u l u g n t fn a t n hs li 5 B. FourhAmendme Vi ains(2U. C.b1 3)( at Def t nt olto 4 S. 98 St e endant) s 6 De e n s m oton i b e o t i c t n i t a t ey ha pr bl c us t are t f nda t ' i s as d n he r on e ton h t h d oba e a e o r s 7 Pli iff vi a insofNev daRe s d St tt s(û ' s c ins465. 0 (r uduln a t antf or olto a vie au e t NRS' e to ) 07 fa e t cs 8 rltngt ga i an or205. 2(het b e ont c tnsoft tperc di ofte eai o mblng) d/ 083 t f) asd he one t he a e or ng h 9 over ym entand t w inesss at pa he t t ement ofot s. Thes ot w ines st em ent asnot s her e her t s at s, ed 1 s pr a pe rt a l uli a el gr e i t e vi o t p noti a y fr t ha d w ine s ng of 0 u a, p a o l be tm t y ound d n h de a e, n n is - n t s i ll t a l g ove p ym e . As n ed, h de l ra t ba c r tt e whe e Pl ntf w a ale dl he le ed r a nt ot t e a e t he c a a abl r ai if s l ge y 1 over d coul notr emberhi havi been a t t e,and D ef 2 pai d em m ng t he abl endant do notalege t any s l hat l ot w iness w er pr entwhen t aleged over 3 her t es e es he l paym entoccur ed,butonl t cerai r y hat t n 1 w ine s sI t rw a c d a vi eo t oft a l ge o r y e ors e t w i s e who di 4 t s e a e t he d ape he le d ve pa m nt pok o t s s ne d l al rt e de l r sm an ge no e a d i ti t b k' f dsa t tt e. 5 le h a e ' a r t d etci n he an s un t ha abl 1 6 Th q s i i t c t xtofa pr a e c us de er i a i howe r i whe hera e ue ton n he on e ob bl a e t m n ton, ve , s t n 1 obe tveyras abl ofierba e ont ttlt oft cic tnc skn t t ofi e a 7 j ci l e on e tc , s d he oaiy he rumsa e own o he tc r t l t tm e woul hav ha pr bl c us t be i v t ta c i ha be n c m it d. e 8 he i , d e d oba e a e o le e ha r me d e om te Se 1 Mar andv. igl 5 U. 3 3 9 yl Prn e, 40 S. 66, 70-71( 3) Thet alt oft cr msa e icldes 200 . ot iy he icu tnc s n u 20 t e ve a iy a ba i ofkn l d ofp r o pr di g he r a e den e. e Iln s v Gat s h r c t nd s s ow e ge e s ns ovi n a s y vi c Se li oi . e , 2 4 2U.. 3 2 8( 9 3 .Th Nit Ci utt a d tn dp o a ec u ea f l ws wh n 1 6 S 21 , 3 1 8 ) e nh r i t s eie r b bl a s s ol : e c h o 22 û nde t t al y ofcic s a e known t t e a r s i g ofi e s a pr e pe s n woul h u r he ot i t r um t nc s o h r e tn tc r , ud nt r o d ave 23 c lde t tt r wasafi pr bii t t(hedeen nt ha co te aci ''Unie oncu d ha hee ar oba lt ha t f da l d mmitd rme.' td y 2 Sae v fo z 482F.d 1 1 ( hCi. )( otn Unie atsv Smlh, 0F. 4 tts . pe, 3 067, 072 9t r2007 qu ig tdst e . ' 79 2d t 25 789, (t Ci.1 ).Unde t ssa dad,heermaisaqu si ofmatralfc whehe 792 9h r 986) r hi tn r t r e n e ton ei a t t r Page 7 of 1 4 1 t e S a e De e n sha p oba e c s t a r s Pl n ifw h n t y de a ne hi a t Boa d' h t t f nda t d r bl au e o r e t ai tf e he t i d m t he r s 2 of i fces. A lhough t e i no ques i off tt a r onabl of i coul have beleved t her s ton ac hat eas e fcer d i 3 Pli ifh dc antf a ommie t r uiiea tsru frt f,araona ej ' c dfndt ttee t d he eq st cu e s o het e s bl ul oul i ha h r t y 4 wa no pr a e c e t be i ve t tPl i ifha t e r qui ie m e r a f t h. s ob bl aus o le ha a ntf d h e st ns e or he 5 Hei an r ew e t vi t m evi d he deo apesand cam e t t concl i hi s ft t showed an o he uson m el hat hey 6 over paym ent Hei an' r t whi i suppored by af i t i cat he r ew ed t t of . m s epor, ch s t fdavi, ndi es evi he ape 7 t dipuedbe i fnedea l a d i idia e t f l n ( )Pli ifma abe oft he s t t n i t i, n t n c t d he olowig: l antf de t wo 8 $1 00c psa mi - cc rttbl no.31 ,()t ba wo t ha di( tede er 0 hi t niba aa a e 6* 2 he nk n he n l 3) h al , 9 He na de ,drw f r$500c psfom t e b k (ep e en ig Pli ifspr erwi ngsof r n z e ou hi r h an r r s tn antf' op nni 1 $ 00 a s tt m ne t Pl ntf c ps ( Hen e te plc a a ton t $5 0 20 ) nd e he xto ai ifs hi ;4) rand z h n a ed n ddii alwo 00 1l c p n xtt Pli ifsc ps f rat al $3 his e o antf hi , o ot of 000, f er movi hi 5% c be or e ng s omm ison o t s i n he 1 $ 2 3000t alwhihca t $1 0.( )He na zt n sa ke t $28 ne tt Pl n ifsc ps ot , c me o 5 , 5 r nde he tc d he 50 x o aitf hi ; 1 a d ( )Pli iflf t t ewihhi orgi lc psa t e $ 50 i chisHer nde ha 3 n 6 antf e t he abl t s i na hi nd h 28 n p na z d 1 sa k d.Mulipupos Re t3 d,De 30, ,ECFNo.46Ex.B,atch 1.Pl nips 4 tc e ( t- r e por c. 2008 ta ) aitf 1 wini so hi $ 5 n ng n s 2000be s dha be n $ 0 mi a5% c t houl ve e 200 nus ommiso of$1 ,f rat al s in 00 o ot 1 of$1 0,h c $2850wa anov pa n o $95 Pi Sup r s rSa Le dic r dt t 6 90 en e s er yme t f 0, t e vio ng e s ove e ha 1 Plitf d won $3 on t t eon asn ebe,whih h r alz d wasi 7 an ifha 000 he abl igl t c e e ie mpos i ebe a e sbl c us 1 t tbl lmiwa $2000.f 4) Le n i e Suveilnc OpeaorGrgoyWal ra d 8 he a e i t s (#. . e ott d r la e rt e r i ke n 1 AsitntCa ioMa ge Li aCofe .1 ) Le ake Plitf t s a wihhi but 9 ssa sn na r nd fe (d.. e s d anif o pe k t m, 20 Plitf r ue (J..Fit-i mi tsafe t ov pa n, dt rymi e afe Le anif efsd.. ) fytve nue tr he er yme tan hit nuts tr e J 21 dic ve e t eror Cofe a ke Pli ift r t r t $95 wheeu Pli ifbe a s o r d he r , fe s d antf o e u n he 0, r pon antf c me 22 dee l a de nde t s a wihpes nsi posto ofa hort (#..Hema c led fnsve nd ma d o pe k t ro n iins ut iy.. ) i n al / 23 Pli ifo Augus 4,20 ,a Pl n ifr f e t r t r t $95 a whi poi Hema antf n t 08 nd aitf e us d o e u n he 0, t ch nt i n 24 l hen t bank tw i ' i t game ofbaccar t t plyeral w i i he hasbeton t ' W he t ns' n he a , he a so ns f he 25 bank. Page 8 of 1 4 l c ncl dheha pr bl c us ta Pl ntf ha vi ae NRSs ton20 08 (het.I o ude d oba e a e h t ai if d oltd eci 5. 32 t l)(d 2 4-5 . ) 3 A ra o l uycoul fndalc ofprba ec us a t ssa e.Pl nifsbe a or e s nabej r d i a k o bl a e t hi tg aitf h vi 4 wasc ns sen w ih a pe s n who i a ci n aly ove p d doe notr a i i,ha no wa t o it t t ro s c de t l r ai , s e lze t s yo 5 c ntr o de y i whe c r ntd ( c us heha be nmi gln t al e y ov pad o i m r n t n onfo e be a e s e n i g he leg dl er i 6 wi n wihot rf dsa g mblng wih t m) wh i un r tnda y de e i when nnigs t he un nd a i t he , o s de sa bl f nsve 7 a c e oft a who i und sa bl s s couswhe hi a cu e r us st s w hi c us d heh, nd s ertnda y u pii n s c s r ef e o ho m 8 aleged evi l dence i poss es, Unlke i acrm i cas wher a cour m us det m i pr t ess i n i nal e e t t er ne obabl e 9 c us a amatro lw adeemiai whi i fs l amatrof u ntab twhih a e s te f a tr n ton ch s tef te j dgme ou c 1 ra o bl udg c ndia e i t c ntxtofas 0 e s na ej es a sgre n he o e ummayj f udgme tmoi i ajl c s , n ton n 983 a e 11 t r i a s c nd lye ofditcu t b a e t qu s i i whe hera r a o bl f ttnd c d he e s e o a r fi ly ec us he e ton s t e s na e ac -i er oul 1 fn a l c ofpr a e c s . Th ditnc i n a i e be a e i t f m e c s t pr abl 2 id a k ob bl au e e s i to rs s c us n he or r a e he ob e 13 caus de er naton i an ancil y evi i y m ater wher i t Itercas i i an el ent e t mi i s lar dentar t , eas n he a t e ts em 1 o ac siutonalo t Toi eteditnci woul bet tkefo t j yt qu tont t 4 f ontt i tr. gnor h si ton d o a rm he ur he esi ha 15 Congr spl es aced w ihi is pur ew undert Ci lRi sActof l871.See U . Cons.am end. t nt vi he vi ght S. t 1 Vl;Curi v foehe , 5U. I 1 -9 (974)( teVlIoft Ci lRiht Ac of1 68) 6 I ts . t r 41 S. 89, 93 4 1 Til 1 he vi g s t 9 l (< Se nhAmend ntd sa yt a tonse or ngsauor rghs a r r aj y 7 < The ve t me oe ppl o ci nf ci ttt y i t, nd equies ur 1 t i lu d m a i t s a ut c e t sI ga rg sa r m e e , or e bl i an a to f 8 ra pon e nd, f he t t e r a e e l i ht nd e di s enf c a e n c i n or 1 da ge i t odiar cou t ofIw.) Eve iac tbeive ter wa uli t ypr a e 9 ma s n he r n y rs a '. n f our le s h e s tmael ob bl ' 20 c us i ac e s mmayj gme i no a o it a n t j 1 83cam i t coutbeive a e n as, u r ud nts t pprprae gais a l 9 li fhe r le s 21 a r a ona ef tt n c d diag e . Suc i t c s he e A tt spo n , he e a r a ona e e s bl ac -i der oul s r e h s he a e r . hi i t w r e s bl 2 f t fn rc ul fnd t r wasno pr a e c us ast m e r a H e m a de e m i e t a r s 2 ac - i de o d i he e ob bl a e o ns e , i n t r n d o r e t 23 Pli ifont t f c re,(d.5 .Hei or dhi s erio,Se o Ag tRus Nei,o t antf he het hag I ) nf me s up vs r nir en s l f he 2 e de c an s dNelt vi otp (d..Neia re wihHema sfn ngs (d.. 4 vi n e d howe i he de a e.1 ) l ge d t i n' idi .1 4 25 Pl ntf ar ved att ofi oft Boar w ihoutnottcaton t Hei an on A ugus 6,201 ai if ri he tces he d t ii i o m t 0, Pa e 9 of I g 4 l a be a e He m a w a a r a y pr pa e t a r thi ,h di no a k Pl i ifa f t r nd c us i n s le d e r d o res m e d t s a ntf ny urhe 2 qu si beor deai n hi (d..Pl nifa ke ihec da dgoi t aibyr yng e tons f e t nig m.I ) aitf s d f oul voi ng oj l epa i 3 t m o y, d Hei a t d hi t a r t ni t m one w o d r m ov t e el m e toft he ne an m n ol m h t e ur ng he y ul e e h e n he 4 ci rq rnghi t kee temo yatrbengi or doft rg f own .(#..Bu a rme e uii m o p h ne le i nf me he ihtul er f ) t t 5 t i poi ,Pl n ifh ale d b n a r s e Pl i ift n we t Ha r h' w ih Hei a h s nt ai tf ad r a y ee r e t d. a ntf he nt o r a s t man nd 6 padte$ (d. t5 -) i h 950.1 a -6 . 7 The i or i know n t Hei an w hen he det ned Pl ntf m i susai a diect nf maton o m ai ai if ght t n r 8 fndi ofp ob bl c us t tPl n ifha c m i e t c i e oft eû, t i m i tn . i ng r a e a e ha ai tf d om t d he rm t h bu t gh ot 9 Plitf a i e fa l r us d, oHema a d o he s t rt r t $950 Har h' came he an ifh d nde d lty ef e t i n n t r, o e u n he ra s li d 1 ha b nov pai Thesaut a is er quie t tape s ç 0 d ee er d. t t e t s u e r s ha ron û knowigl c r l an p ope t n y ontoll y r ry ll ofa ot rp s wiht i e t de iet tperonoftepr ry.Ne Re Stt j n he eron t he ntnt o prv ha s h opet ' v. v. a. ' 12 205. 0832. it lKnow i y'i cat a know l ngl ndi es edge t t f sexitwhi cons iut t actor hat he act s ch tt e he I om i i cons iutng a crm e,and does notr r know l 3 sson tt i i equie edge ofisunl f ness. I i a l s t aw ul t s es er 1 m ensr t i ent Know l 4 ea han nt . edge ofany pari arf m ay be i er ed fom t know l tcul act nf r r he edge of 1 s c o h fc sa s oul puta or na iypr de tp r onupon i r 'Ne Re Stt j 5 u h t er a t s h d n di rl u n e s nquiy. v. v. a. ' l 1 01 The e de ce s 6 93. 7. vi n howst ata pe s n ofo di r pr de e i Hei a sposto co d h ro r na y u nc n m n' ii n ul 1 ha c c u d t a t r w a a f i p oba lt t a Pl ntf r t n d f ,w ih t i t ntt 7 ve on l de h t he e s a r r biiy h t ai if e ai e unds t he n e o l ke p t e , ha he kne ort ta or na iy pr de tp r o s d ha e kn 8 e hm t t w ha n di r l u n e s n houl v own w e e n hi . r ot s 1 Pa tc a l Le sr por t Hei an t tt e m a m u w i ni on a sngl ha ofba c r ta 9 ri ul ry, e' e t o m ha h xi m n ngs i e nd c aa t 20 tbl no.31 wa $2000( nusc ae 6 s mi ommiso ,c pldwihtevi oe de eHei nrviwe s in) ou e t h de vi nc ma e e d 21 s wig Pl n ifIa ngwih $3 i wi n ( iusc ho n aitf e vi t 000 n nnigs m n ommiso on asn eha woul s in) igl nd, d 22 l a a pe s ofor n r p ude e t b i ve t tPl n if an e re e ba c r tpl ye y ha ed r on di a y r nc o ele ha ai tf , xpe i nc d c a a a rz d 23 l f t e t bl w ih w i ngst a h kne ors oul ha e k e t h a e t nni h t e w h d v nown we e notrgh f l hi . The e i r i t ul s y r s 24 z a n ifa is pl y ng ba a a f urt fveda a we k f ra houra a tm e be tn a pl i tf dm t a i cc r t o o i ys e o n t i , ti g n 25 a rgeof$50t $1 0 pe h . ( vea ' o 0 r and Conne De 1 5 3,Se .l 2009,ECFNo. Ex.1. r p. 9:-1 pt 9, 47 ) Page 10 of 1 4 1 a s a pl e de e ofPl n if sr f a t r t n t e m on y a t rt e r rw a s ii a l lo m e vi nc ai tf e us l o e ur h e fe he r o s pec fc ly 2 p nt d o t hi ,s c t ta p r on ofor n l pr n e w oul c l t tPl ntf oi e ut o m u h ha e s di a ' ude c y d onc ude ha ai if 3 i t n d t ke p t m one . Stl,t e de e t a Pl n ifkne he ha b n ove p d i t n e de o e he y il he vi nc h t ai tf w d ee r ai n he 4 tr tpl i weak. i s ace s 5 l a crm i cont ,a Gndi ofpr n i nal ext ng obabl caus woul m ean t any evi e e d hat dence t w as hat 6 a fui oft a r s ne d n be e ude l t p e e tc nt xt howe ,a fndi t tt e e r t he r e t e ot xcl d. n he r s n o e , ver i ng ha h r 7 ma ha be npr a eca esmpl me nst tPli ifi note ildt s y ve e ob bl us i y a ha antf s ntte o ummar u n yj dgme t 8 o t j 1 cl m, tnott tDee da sar te eve e ildt s n he 983 ai bu ha fn nt e h ms l s ntte o ummayj gme . r ud nt 9 Becaus a r e easonabl f - i e act fndercoul deci t pr d de he obabl caus queston eiherway, e e i t 1 Def 0 endant have notm ett r i talbur ofpr on t scause ofacton, s hei nii den oof hi i 11 Pl ntf aloar st taraona ej orc dc l t tHei nwa motv tdt ai if s gue ha e s bl ur oul oncude ha ma s iae o 1 a r s Pl i tf b a m os t he f l f Pl n ifahe Pl n ifi p 2 r e t a n if y ni iy e t or ai tf r ai tf m ugne Hei a s i e iy. Bu d m n' nt grt t I s j ci moi ton aet al i p iei apob bl c us a yss Wh e v Unie ae, 3 ube tve tvai s r otly na post n r a e a e nal i. r n . tdstts 1 51 U. 80 81 (I ) Thequ ton i wh he a or na i p u ntpe s n i t posto 4 7 S. 6, 3 996 . esi s et r n di rl r de r o n he iin y 15 oft ares i oficerw oul concl undert t alt oft cicum st he r tng t d ude he ot iy he r ancest t e was a hat her 1 f i p oba lt t s s e c m it d a c i e. i gl 540 U . a 370 1 Tha a a r si 6 a r r biiy he u p ct om te rm Pr n e, S. t -7 . t n r e tng 1 ofi m ay t vengef delghti ar es i a suspectw ho has i uled hi ,oreven t 7 tcer ake ul i n r tng ns t m hat 1 rve gei tes es j tvemotvai f a are ti ofnoi t 8 e n s h ol ubeci i ton or n rs,s mpor. 1 9 Pli iff t ra gue t theha ne radmitd a ove pa me .Butt sd no hng antf urhe r s ha s ve te n r y nt hi oes t i 20 t ne a et e e de e a l bl t Hei w h n h m a t e de e m i a i t a r s Pl i if o g t h vi nc vaia e o man e e de h t r n ton o r e t a ntf . 21 Hema c ul ha h d s tce te de c t f m p oba l c u er g dl sofPli ifs i n o d ve a ufi in vi n e o or r be a s e ar es antf 22 d i .Pl nifas ague ta aras a ej r c ul c l eta Pl nifr s bl enal aitf lo r s h t e on bl uor o d oncud h t aitf eaona y 23 r us d t a c ptt a s r i t the ha be n ov pai a t t ew ihou ha n be n s ef e o c e he s e t ha on d e er d t he abl t t vi g e hown 24 t e vi o t p Bu t ow l dg 'u rt e N e a c i i alsa u esdo notr quie a h de a e. t ç kn e e' nde h v da rm n t t t es e r 2 s be tv b le b as s e t o p o s o t hm,h th h sc mmie ac i .Rah r 5 u jcie eif y u p c, r rof h wn o i ta e a o t d rme te, t Page 11of 1 4 1 ig çknowldgeofa patc a fc ma b i erdfom t kno e eofs c ot rfcsas e ny riulr a t y e nfre r he wldg u h he at 2 s ul p a odi rl prde pes up iqui 'Ne Re Stt j1 01 Hema ma ho d ut n r naiy u nt ron on n f ' v. v. a. 93. 7. i n y y. 3 ha e ha pr b e c us t be i e t a Pl ntf,a e ren e ba c r tplye ,s d ha v d oba l a e o lev h t ai if n xpe i c d c a a a r houl ve 4 be n pu o no i e ofhi ha ng t ke m or t a he l gii a el w on by t e f c t a het k e t n tc s vi a n e h n e tm t y h a t h t oo 5 m or t t m axi um w i ngs pos bl on a sngl hand att e no.316. Buta r onabl e hat he m nni si e i e abl eas e 6 j r c dfn aIc ofpr bl c us h r. uy oul id a k oba e a e ee 7 Fi ly,heei qu iid i nal t r s alfe mmuniyia obe tvel ras bl ofi e woul notha t f n j ci y e ona e tc r d ve 8 kno und rt s crumsa e t thedi n ha pr bl c us Se To rsv Ci o . , wn e he e ic tnc s ha d ot ve oba e a e. e re . t fLA. y 9 5 F.d 1 9 1 1( hCi. )( tn S i v Kat,53 U. 1 2 ( ).The 48 3 1 7, 21 9t r2008 ciig aucer . z 3 S. 94, 01 2001) 1 qu si i wheherther (l e ug e de ef aras bl j yt c l t tra o bl 0 eton s t t e is no h vi nc or e ona e ur o oncude ha e s na e t 11 ofieswoul no h vea tda ( ma jdi i are tngg antfl'f a 1 2(ii Gr fc r d t a ce s Hei n d n rsi pli if. #. t 21 ctng ant ' 1 v Ci o on Be h,31 F.d 1 l 1 0( hCi.2 :.Hee aras a ej yc d 2 . t fL g ac 5 3 08 , 09 9t r 002 y r, e on bl ur oul 1 co l t ta obe tv yraona eofie woul noth vearetdPl ntf bae onte 3 ncude ha n j ciel e s bl fc r d a rse ai if sd h 1 e de eav l bl ,s cii a l , he I c ofe de e a t kn l dg t ath h d be n ov pai 4 vi nc aia e pe fc ly t a k vi nc s o ow e e h e a e er d. 1 The e de e i c t no qu s i off c a t pr bl c us t fn a m e r a ofc i i 5 vi nc ndi a es e ton a t s o oba e a e o i d ns e rm nal 1 n gie c , t ra o a l j r c udtn t a arao a eotc rs o l n th vec n ld d 6 e lg n e bu a e s n be uy o l i d h t e s n bl fie h ud o a o cu e 1 t tt e e de e s ow e pr bl c us ofknowl ge 7 ha h vi nc h d oba e a e ed . 1 8 C. Ci lCons r y ( r s and j1 3Con piac ( lDee vi piac Har ah') 98 s r y Al fndant) s 1 9 ç n a tona e c vi co p r c i a co bi ton o t o orm or per on who, s e 4 c i bl i l ns i a y s m na i f w A e s s by om 20 c etda to it dt a c ihs u awf obe tv f t pur eo hami onc re cin,nen o c ompls ome nl ul jcie or he pos f r ng 2 l a he whi h r s t i damag ' Coli r Un on Fe Sav tr o As ',66 P. 61 ,62 not r c e uls n e. ' lns . i d . f f an s n 2 2d 0 2 2 ( v.1 ) %A prvaeidi dua ma beIa eu rj1 3i s c pie ore trdj it 2 Ne 983 . t i t n vi l y ibl nde 98 f he ons rd nee on 23 a tonwihasaeacor'Fr lnv Fo 31 F. 423, l( tngRadcfev Rai ci t tt t . anki . x, 2 3d 44 cii ' lf . nbow 2 Con t.Co.25 F. 77 7 (t Ci.,c r.lc?é 53 U. 1 20( 01) 4 sr , 4 3d 2, 83 9h r) e t z/W, 4 S. 0 20 ). 25 The ale ed co pia y be we n Ha r h' a t e St t De e a s c e nst a l e lg ns r c t e r a s nd h a e f nd nt onc r he leg d Pa 1 of 1 ge 2 4 1 c nve sonofPl n ifsf o ri aitf ' undsa aco pia yt de i hi o hi ci lrg s Pli it nd ns r c o prve m f s vi iht . antf's 2 cai frc ve sondoe n s vi s l m o on ri s ot uf ve ummayj dgme t I i posi et tac pia ycam r u n. t s sbl ha ons rc li 3 c n s r i whe e t c ai f t un ryi g ha m f l be a e t e unde l n ha m w a not a u v ve r he l m or he de l n r ais c us h ryi g r s 4 c r i d out bu a pl i tf m us s w a ge ne i s ofm a e i f c t tt de e n sa e d a re , t a n if t ho nui s ue t ral a t ha he f nda t gr e 5 t c r' outa wr f a tag ns t pl i if Th r c d i t aly de d ofan s h e d ce o af y ong ul c ai t he a ntf e e or s ot l voi y uc vi en 6 i t scase wih r n hi t espectt t conver on cl m . Pl ntf hasadm it he hasno diectevi o he si ai ai if ted r dence 7 o a a r e nt ( eCon De 64:2 5 66:-7,714-8,71 1 f ny g e me .Se ner p. 2 -65:, 1 : :4-74: 7,Se t 1 200 1 p . 4, 9, 8 ECFNo. ,Ex.1. 47 ) 9 Pl i if r pondst ta cons r can be i er ed fom t evi antf es ha piacy nf r r he dence. Pl ntf not t ai if es hat 1 Ha r h' empl ee W e e t ol Pl i ift a he woul r c i t ca lf om Hei an t the di 0 ra s oy bb r t d a ntf h t d e e ve he l r m ha d 11 i f r ve,and t afenvar ,Hei an t d W ebber t he had caled Pl ntf But n act ecei hat t ds m ol t hat l ai if 1 Pl ntf m pl alegescom m uni i be ween a l enf cem entagency and a crm i 2 ai ifsi y l caton t aw or i nal 1 c mpl n ntvi i a trac i ale edl o cure A ras bl j r woudha n evi nc 3 o aia / ctm fe rme lg y c rd. e ona e uy l ve o de e 1 f om whi t concl t Def 4 r ch o ude hat endant conspied agai Pl ntf t w r uly conver hi s r nst ai if o ongf l t s l mone ,b a s i a a st er i nodipuet tPl ntf wa i f c ove pad. Howe r t r 5 y ec u e t ppe r h e s s t ha ai if s n a t r i ve , he e 1 r mansadiput ast whehe Defnda t c e aedwh n Ha r h' r pore ac i a t 6 e i s e o t r e n s oop r t e ra s e td rme nd he 1 St t De e n s t n i s i a e i, r e t d Pl i tf o pr bl c us ,a f ciia e t 7 a e f nda t he nve tg t d t a r se a n if n oba e a e nd a lt t d he 1 rtr ofHarh' mone ( ci ld bt vi t t etofc i n pr e ui Th Cour 8 eun ra s y a vi e ) a he hra rmial os c ton. e t 1 teeoegrnss mmayj men ontecam f ci l s rc ,bu no ont cli fr 9 h rfr a t u r udg t h li or vicon pia y t t he am o 2 9 1 c pia y. 0 983 ons rc 2I D. Repondea Supe i Li lt and Ne i ntSupenz i ( r s s t ror abiiy glge i on Har ah') s 2 2 Bec us t onl cli ta s vi aeund j1 3, be a eter i nors nd a a e he y ams h t ur ve r er 98 and c us h e s epo e t 23 s ei Ia lt un j1 3,T yl v fit88 F.d 1 l ( hCi.1 ) t Cou t up ror ibii der ' 98 a or . s, 0 2 040, 045 9t r 989 ,he r y 2 ga ss 4 rnt ummayj gme tont sc us ofaton.Fu- r e Pl ntf ad e n e de eof r ud n hi a e ci lhemor, ai if duc s o vi nc t 25 t ç os l n glg ts r s o 'r qu r d t s he i sy e i en upe vii n' e ie o how s pe viorla l y f a c vi rgh s gr u r s i bii or i l i t t Pa 1 of 1 ge 3 4 1 vi ai Se Rihar on v Goor 3 F.d 431 435( d Ci. olton. e c ds . d, 47 3 , 2 r 2003) . 2 3 C O NCLUSIO N I I HEREBY ORDERED t tt Motonsf Summa'Ju TS ha he i or l dgme ( Nos 46,47 y nt ECF . ) 4 aeGRANTED i pa'a DENI i p t Su l u nti ga e entec nv rin, r n l nd t ED n ar. mmayj dgme s rntd h o eso 5 ci l ons r c r s onde ts pe ir a ne i nts r soncl m sbu d e on t j 1 83 vic pia y, e p a u ro , nd glge upe vii ai t enid he 9 6 a j 1 3 c ns r c cl ms nd 98 o pia y ai . 7 Da e t s20t da ofOc ob r 201 t d hi b y t e , 0. 8 9 10 ROBER - JON ES ' . 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