Littlejohn #141899 v. Washington et al, No. 2:2016cv00284 - Document 7 (W.D. Mich. 2017)

Court Description: OPINION; signed by Judge Gordon J. Quist (Judge Gordon J. Quist, jmt)
Download PDF
Littlejohn #141899 v. Washington et al Doc. 7 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN NORTHERN DIVISION JUIVONNE LITTLEJOHN, #141899, Plaintiff, Case No. 2:16-cv-284 v. Honorable Gordon J. Quist HEIDI WASHINGTON, Defendants. ____________________________________/ OPINION DENYING LEAVE TO PROCEED IN FORMA PAUPERIS - THREE STRIKES Plaintiff Juvionne Littlejohn, a prisoner incarcerated at Baraga Maximum Correctional Facility, filed a complaint pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983. Plaintiff was initially granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis. Because Plaintiff has filed at least three lawsuits that were dismissed as frivolous or for failure to state a claim, he is barred from proceeding in forma pauperis under 28 U.S.C. § 1915(g). The Court therefore will vacate the earlier order allowing Plaintiff to proceed in forma pauperis and order Plaintiff to pay the $400.00 civil action filing fee applicable to those not permitted to proceed in forma pauperis within twenty-eight (28) days of this opinion and accompanying order. If Plaintiff fails to do so, the Court will order that his action be dismissed without prejudice. Even if the case is dismissed, Plaintiff will be responsible for payment of the $400.00 filing fee in accordance with In re Alea, 286 F.3d 378, 380-81 (6th Cir. 2002). Discussion The Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA), Pub. L. No. 104-134, 110 Stat. 1321 (1996), which was enacted on April 26, 1996, amended the procedural rules governing a prisoner’s request for the privilege of proceeding in forma pauperis. As the Sixth Circuit has stated, the PLRA Dockets.Justia.com was “aimed at the skyrocketing numbers of claims filed by prisoners – many of which are meritless – and the corresponding burden those filings have placed on the federal courts.” Hampton v. Hobbs, 106 F.3d 1281, 1286 (6th Cir. 1997). For that reason, Congress put into place economic incentives to prompt a prisoner to “stop and think” before filing a complaint. Id. For example, a prisoner is liable for the civil action filing fee, and if the prisoner qualifies to proceed in forma pauperis, the prisoner may pay the fee through partial payments as outlined in 28 U.S.C. § 1915(b). The constitutionality of the fee requirements of the PLRA has been upheld by the Sixth Circuit. Id. at 1288. In addition, another provision reinforces the “stop and think” aspect of the PLRA by preventing a prisoner from proceeding in forma pauperis when the prisoner repeatedly files meritless lawsuits. Known as the “three-strikes” rule, the provision states: In no event shall a prisoner bring a civil action or appeal a judgment in a civil action or proceeding under [the section governing proceedings in forma pauperis] if the prisoner has, on 3 or more prior occasions, while incarcerated or detained in any facility, brought an action or appeal in a court of the United States that was dismissed on the grounds that it is frivolous, malicious, or fails to state a claim upon which relief may be granted, unless the prisoner is under imminent danger of serious physical injury. 28 U.S.C. § 1915(g). The statutory restriction “[i]n no event,” found in § 1915(g), is express and unequivocal. The statute does allow an exception for a prisoner who is “under imminent danger of serious physical injury.” The Sixth Circuit has upheld the constitutionality of the three-strikes rule against arguments that it violates equal protection, the right of access to the courts, and due process, and that it constitutes a bill of attainder and is ex post facto legislation. Wilson v. Yaklich, 148 F.3d 596, 604-06 (6th Cir. 1998); accord Pointer v. Wilkinson, 502 F.3d 369, 377 (6th Cir. 2007) (citing Wilson, 148 F.3d at 604-06); Rodriguez v. Cook, 169 F.3d 1176, 1178-82 (9th Cir. 1999); Rivera -2- v. Allin, 144 F.3d 719, 723-26 (11th Cir. 1998); Carson v. Johnson, 112 F.3d 818, 821-22 (5th Cir. 1997). Plaintiff has been an active litigant in the federal courts in Michigan, having filed approximately 40 cases in this district and more than a dozen other cases in the Eastern District of Michigan. In more than three of Plaintiff’s lawsuits, the Court entered dismissals on the grounds of failure to state a claim. See Littlejohn v. Green et al., No. 2:07-cv-213 (W.D. Mich. Jan. 16, 2008); Littlejohn v. McGinnis, No. 2:98-cv-243 (W.D. Mich. Apr. 5, 1999); Littlejohn v. Alexander, No. 2:91-cv-244 (W.D. Mich. Nov. 27, 1991); Littlejohn v. Houseworth, No. 2:91-cv-255 (W.D. Mich. Mar. 25, 1992). Although two of the dismissals were entered before enactment of the PLRA on April 26, 1996, the dismissals nevertheless count as strikes. See Wilson, 148 F.3d at 604. Plaintiff also has been denied leave to proceed in forma pauperis on the basis of the three-strikes rule on at least four prior occasions. See Littlejohn v. Richardson et al., No. 1:13-cv-763 (W.D. Mich. Jul. 30, 2013); Littlejohn v. Caruso et al., No. 2:10-cv-316 (W.D. Mich. May 1, 2011); Littlejohn v. Dube, Not. 2:10-cv-42 (W.D. Mich. Sept. 3, 2010); Littlejohn v. Tribley et al., No. 2:10-cv-26 (W.D. Mich. Aug. 26, 2010). Moreover, Plaintiff’s allegations do not fall within the exception to the three-strikes rule because he does not allege facts establishing that he is under imminent danger of serious physical injury. Congress did not define “imminent danger” in the PLRA, but it is significant that Congress chose to use the word “imminent,” a word that conveys the idea of immediacy. “Imminent” is “Near at hand . . . impending; on the point of happening; threatening, menacing, perilous. Something which is threatening to happen at once, something close at hand, something to happen upon the instant . . . and on the point of happening.” BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY, 514-15 (6th ed. 1991). “Imminent” is also defined as “ready to take place, near at hand, impending, hanging threateningly over one’s head, menacingly near.” WEBSTER’S THIRD NEW INTERNATIONAL -3- DICTIONARY, 1130 (1976). “Imminent danger” is “such an appearance of threatened and impending injury as would put a reasonable and prudent man to his instant defense.” BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY, 515 (6th ed. 1991). The Sixth Circuit set forth the following general requirements for a claim of imminent danger: In order to allege sufficiently imminent danger, we have held that “the threat or prison condition must be real and proximate and the danger of serious physical injury must exist at the time the complaint is filed.” Rittner v. Kinder, 290 F. App’x 796, 797 (6th Cir. 2008) (internal quotation marks omitted). “Thus a prisoner’s assertion that he or she faced danger in the past is insufficient to invoke the exception.” Id. at 797–98; see also [Taylor v. First Med. Mgmt., 508 F. App’x 488, 492 (6th Cir. 2012)] (“Allegations of past dangers are insufficient to invoke the exception.”); Percival v. Gerth, 443 F. App’x 944, 946 (6th Cir. 2011) (“Assertions of past danger will not satisfy the ‘imminent danger’ exception.”); cf. [Pointer v. Wilkinson, 502 F.3d 369, 371 n.1 (6th Cir. 2007)] (implying that past danger is insufficient for the imminent-danger exception). In addition to a temporal requirement, we have explained that the allegations must be sufficient to allow a court to draw reasonable inferences that the danger exists. To that end, “district courts may deny a prisoner leave to proceed pursuant to § 1915(g) when the prisoner’s claims of imminent danger are conclusory or ridiculous, or are clearly baseless (i.e. are fantastic or delusional and rise to the level of irrational or wholly incredible).” Rittner, 290 F. App’x at 798 (internal quotation marks and citations omitted); see also Taylor, 508 F. App’x at 492 (“Allegations that are conclusory, ridiculous, or clearly baseless are also insufficient for purposes of the imminent-danger exception.”). Vandiver v. Prison Health Services, Inc., 727 F.3d 580, 585 (6th Cir. 2013). A prisoner’s claim of imminent danger is subject to the same notice pleading requirement as that which applies to prisoner complaints. Id. Consequently, a prisoner must allege facts in the complaint from which the Court could reasonably conclude that the prisoner was under an existing danger at the time he filed his complaint, but the prisoner need not affirmatively prove those allegations. Id. In the instant complaint, Plaintiff alleges that, at some time in the past, he was attacked by unknown gang members. He asserts that Defendants have continued to place him at Marquette Branch Prison (MBP) and Baraga Maximum Correctional Facility (AMF), despite the fact that many gang members are housed at those facilities. Plaintiff presently is incarcerated in -4- administrative segregation at AMF. He asserts that he is in imminent danger of being assaulted by a gang member. Plaintiff’s allegation of imminent danger rests largely on the fact that he was attacked in the past by one or more members of a gang. A prisoner’s assertion that he faced danger in the past is insufficient to invoke the exception. Vandiver, 727 F.3d at 585; Rittner, 290 F. App’x at 797-98. In addition, Plaintiff makes no allegations about recent assaults or threats. In fact, as early as 2010, Plaintiff sought and was twice denied pauper status in this Court under the three-strikes rule based on essentially the same allegations. See Littlejohn v. Caruso et al., No. 2:10-cv-316 (W.D. Mich. May 1, 2011) (complaining that, because he had a conflict with a gang at MBP, he was in imminent danger at AMF due to the presence of gang members in the prison); Littlejohn v. Tribley et al., No. 2:10-cv-26 (W.D. Mich. Aug. 26, 2010) (complaining that his placement at MBP placed him in imminent danger because he was previously involved in a conflict with the Vice Lords at MBP). Further, Plaintiff is housed at AMF in administrative segregation. Administrative segregation is the most restrictive level of security classification. MICH. DEP’T OF CORR., POLICY DIRECTIVE 04.05.120, ¶L (effective Sept. 27, 2010). Prisoners in administrative segregation are not permitted recreation or religious and educational programming in a group setting. Id., ¶W. Because Plaintiff is not allowed recreation in a group setting, the other prisoners who have threatened him would not have access to him during yard time. The other inmates would also not have access to Plaintiff in the hallways or showers as administrative segregation is the most restrictive level of security classification. Plaintiff therefore fails to allege that the prisoners’ threats constitute “imminent danger” under 28 U.S.C. § 1915(g). Plaintiff has thus failed to show that he falls within the exception to the three-strikes rule. -5- In light of the foregoing, the Court’s January 31, 2016, order granting leave to proceed in forma pauperis will be vacated as improvidently granted. Plaintiff shall have twentyeight (28) days from the date of entry of this order to pay the entire civil action filing fee, which is $400.00. When Plaintiff pays his filing fee, the Court will screen his complaint as required by 28 U.S.C. § 1915A and 42 U.S.C. § 1997e(c). If Plaintiff fails to pay the filing fee within the 28-day period, his case will be dismissed without prejudice, but he will continue to be responsible for payment of the $400.00 filing fee. Dated: February 28, 2017 /s/ Gordon J. Quist GORDON J. QUIST UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE SEND REMITTANCES TO THE FOLLOWING ADDRESS: Clerk, U.S. District Court 399 Federal Building 110 Michigan Street, NW Grand Rapids, MI 49503 All checks or other forms of payment shall be payable to “Clerk, U.S. District Court.” -6-