Nettleman III v. Florida Atlantic University, No. 9:2016cv81339 - Document 36 (S.D. Fla. 2017)

Court Description: ORDER AND OPINION GRANTING DEFENDANT THE FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY BOARD OF TRUSTEES' MOTION TO DISMISS COM PLAINT granting 20 Motion to Dismiss for Failure to State a Claim. Closing Case. Motions Terminated: 20 Defendant's M OTION TO DISMISS 9 Amended Complaint FOR FAILURE TO STATE A CLAIM filed by Florida Atlantic University Board of Trustees. Signed by Judge Donald M. Middlebrooks on 1/5/2017. (lan) NOTICE: If there are sealed documents in this case, they may be unsealed after 1 year or as directed by Court Order, unless they have been designated to be permanently sealed. See Local Rule 5.4 and Administrative Order 2014-69.
Download PDF
Nettleman III v. Florida Atlantic University Doc. 36 UNI TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT SO UTHERN DI STRI O F FLO RI CT DA CASE NO .1 81339- V- l 6CI M DDLEBRO OKS CHARLES A . ETTLEM AN ,11 N 1, Pli if a ntf, THE FLORI ATLANTI DA C UNI VERSI BOARD OF TRU STEES, TY De en nt f da . / O RDER AND OPI ON GRANTI DEFENDANT TH E FLO RI ATLANTI NI NG DA C UNI VERSI BOARD OF TRUSTEES'M OTI TO DI I COM PLAI TY ON SM SS NT THI CAUSE comes be or t Cour upon De e ntThe Fl i Ata i Uni r iy S f e he t f nda orda lntc ve st Bo r o T use s ($AU' M oi nt DimisPlitf Ame d dCo litC$ to ', ie a d f r te ' 1 F ' to o s s an ips n e mp an Mo in' fld ) ) o S pe e 2 ,2 6 ( 2 ) Pli tf Ch re A.Nete n l1(G tlma ' fld a n e tmb r 2 01 , DE 0 . anif a ls t ma , l i te n' ie l Ne ) Repo ei Opposton on Ocobe 11,201 ( 23 ,t whih FAU r id on Nove s ns n ii t r 6 DE ) o c eple mber1 0, 201 ( 28) Fort ras sae beow,FAU' M otoni g a e 6 DE . he e ons ttd l S i s r ntd. BACKGROUND Nete n i a lnd s v yi e nee a pr esorofge i ( 9,Amen d tlma s a ur e ng ngi r nd of s omatcs. DE de Co lit h r ia tri mpl, a ! 9 .l 2 0 , ec e td ai a ka e' fta hngmaeil mpan , een fe l co .' t ) n 0 8 h r ae b c g 'o e c i ' p tras (h t aeil' , whc i ld d t o mon sie , lb rt r e rie , h me r t e i t ras' M ) ih ncu e t we it l s a o ao y xecs s o wo k p d a sg me t,it o itr e r s u c s q iz s a de ms' (d a ! 1 ) tlma r gse e sin ns lss f n en t e o r e , uz e , n xa . 1 . t 0 ,Nete n e itr d ' t M aera swih t Unie Stt Copyrg Ofi e unde Copyrg Reg. o.7X0007969504. he t il t he td aes i ht fc r i ht N - (d.a ! 1 .The emaeil a eus df t pu pos ofta ng k ontnui e tonc s s 1 t 2) s tras r e or he r e e chi ' i ng ducai oure c t lnd s vey s e nees a at ne . (d.a ! 11 . l ad to t usng t Matras o a ur or , ngi r, nd tor ys' 1 t ) n diin o i he eil ' Dockets.Justia.com hi s f Ne te m el, tlman lc est m t G rouscolege and u ve steson ape - e e t rba i ' iens he o ç i va l s ni r ii rs m se ss. ' (#) f .. FAU h rd Nete n i t e s mme o 2 1 a a a j nc p o e s t ta h ac u s ie tlma n h u r f 0 4 s n d u t r f sor o e c o re c l d F n a n asofSu v yn f rt e F l 2 4 smetr (#.a ! 1 ) To ta h t e al u d me tl e r e ig o h al 01 e se . f t 3 , ec h c s ' c cul , ete a us d hi M a e i sa ma t m a ia e onlneby upl di our e s uni um N tlm n e s t ral nd de he va lbl i oa ng te t Blc b ad FAU' t n ie lanngma a e n s tm. (d.a ! 1 ) Blc o r h m o a k o r, S % ln e r i - n g me t yse ' I t 4 . a kb a d o ' m a be a es e ko y by t pr es orofr cor t e ole sude s FAU' i e ne y cc s d knl he of s - -e d, he nr ld t nt, S ntr t t hnol s ec ogy uppor saf,a t pr a dea ' (d. ! 1 . t t f nd he ogrm n.' I at 5) Ats ome poi tt r afer FAU ofe e Netema a poston t tac t c s a n f n he e t , fr d tl n ii o e h he our e gai or t Sp ig20 5sme tr f a ! 1 ) Nete nd cie b c u eh h da c p e af l-i he rn 1 e se .(#. t 7 . tlma e ln d e a s e a c e td u l me t po iin es wh r . (d) l De e e 2 4 Dr Ya Yo g (t ng' te Ch i ofa d sto le e e 1 .. n c mb r 01 , . n n d Yo ', h ar n ) pr f s i FAU' De rm e of Ci l Enviomne a & Ge ai s Engi ee i r que t o es or n S pa t nt vi, r nt l om tc n rng, e sed t tNete a per tt r pl e ha tlm n mi he e ac ments v ng pr e s t us hi M aera s f t Sp i ur eyi of s or o e s t il or he rng 2 5 s metr (d.a ! 1 ) Net ma d ne t er q e tb c us ,a h if r d Yo g h 01 e se . I t 6 . tl n e id h e u s e a e s e n o me n , e e lc ns d hi M a e i s t uni r ii f a f e a c d not a l FAU t us t m fe o ie e s t ral o ve stes or e nd oul low o e he r e f d e y o s r , te umed t tt ha he c ag . (d.a ! l ) W hen Yong di notr pl t hi demural Netlm an ass h re 1 t 8. is eh d c n ld d (d. t 1 ) su a o cu e . l a ! 9 . Lat i 201 Nete a a FAU r ume t i r a i hi Du i t Fal 201 er n 5, tlm n nd es d her eltons p. rng he l 5 s m e tr a trt t n- ure s v yi pr es orwas de t FAU as d,and Ne te n e se , fe he he c r nt ur e ng of s pored, ke tl ma a re , otk hi plc frt erman e oft s me tr (# a ! 2 - 3 . On eh b c me ge d t a e s a e o h e id r he e se . / . t ! 2 2 ) c e e a t pr es orofr co d f t cour e Ne te he of s - -e r or he s , tl man l ogged i o Blck r onl t dicove t t nt a boa d, y o s r ha t out ng s ve ng pr e s had b n u ii ng hi M a e i s t t a t c s c cu um he goi ur yi of s or ee tlzi s t r al o e ch he our e uni l f t tsmet .(d.a ! 24) I si tngt mat f t ,Nete n t l r t ough or ha e ser l t . nvetgai he ter urher tlma hen eaned hr Blc r a Dr a kboa d nd opbox t tS ny ofhi M aei s'wee as us by t pr esors who ha i ma s tral' r lo ed he of s t) tu h tec rei te S rn a S mme 201 s me tr .(#. t! 252 ) Atn p itd d a g t h ou s n h p i g nd u r 5 e se s / a ! - 6 . o on i Ne te n a horze FAU t m a us oft M atra sorr c veany c pe a i f t rus tl ma ut i o ke e he e il e ei om ns ton or hei e i te s r e i c u s . (d.a ! 28 . Net ma as n tst a FAU h s a o td iso n h u v yng o re 1 t ) tl n lo oe h t e a d pe t wn i elecua pr ry polc whi h t r a st f culy me be a t c i t o r ofwor nt l t l ope t iy c i e t he a t t m r s he opyrgh wne ks t t a e c ea e i pe nty a at t f uly m e ha r r t d nde nde l nd he ac t mbers own i ta i f r ta tona ' niitve o r dii l a a e cp r o e . (d a !31& Ex. a 3 . c d mi u p s s' 1 . t ' A t) Netlma tld a co ai a i tFAU on J y 27 201 ( 1 , He a nde t te n le mpl nt gans ul , 6. DE ) me d he c antonc on Augus 23,201 ( 9) TheAme d Compl nt(k ompli e, t 6. DE . nde ai çcomplif' ase t an ) s rs t saut yc esofa tonagans FAU;( )co rghti rnge ntu r1 U. C.j 1 e wo tt or aus ci it 1 py i nfi me nde 7 S. 06, t s q.( mp .a ! 415 ) a d ( )atrto o c p rg tma a e n i o main u d r 1 e Co l t ! - 3 ; n 2 leain f o y i h n g me t nfr to n e 5 U. C.j 1 0 ()(d a ! 5 - 6 . I a dto te Co an alg sta b i rn ig o h s S. 2 2 a i. t ! 3 6 ) n d iin,h mplit le e h t y nfign n i co rg e M atra wihoutduepr s oflw,FAU vi atd Netl man' c tt i lrght py i htd eil t oce s a ol e te s onsiutona i s e n tn fo te F u te t Ame me to t eUn td SttsCo si to (d. t! 67 81. ma aig r m h o re n h nd n f h ie ae n tt in. 1 a ! - ) u FAU fldteisa tMo int Dimisp ru n t Fe R. v P.1 b ( ) ( 2 a 1. i h n tn to o s s u s a t o d. Ci. 2()6 . DE 0 t ) e LEGAL STANDARD A moi t dimisunde Rul 1 b)6)c le t l ls tcinc ofacompli . ton o s s r e 2( ( halnges he ega ufi e y ant Se Fe R.Ci P.1 b)6) n a s sng t lga s fcincy ofacompli ' ale tons t e d. v. 2( ( .l sesi he e l ufi e ants lgai ,he Cou ti b r s ound t a y t pl di sa r ari ult d i Bel Atantc Cor v Twombl 550 o ppl he ea ng t nda d tc a e n l l i p. . y, U.. 4 ( 0 7 a dAs c o v I b l 5 U.. 6 , 78( 0 ) a i,h c mplit' s . S 5 4 2 0 ) n h rh , q a , 56 S 6 2 6 2 09 .Th t s te o an i t . mu . cont i s fc e f c ualm a t r a e ed as tue,t t t t a c a m t r le t ti pl i e on a n ufi i nt a t te , cc pt r o sa e l i o e i f ha s aus bl isfc '' Am.De alAs ' v Ci Cor ,605 F. 1 t a e.' nt sn . gna p. 3d 283,1 (11h Ci.201 ( otng 289 t r 0) qu i Two y 55 U. at57 .tDimis i t r or pennitd whe ont bassofadipostve mbl 0 S. 0) i s sal s heef e te n he i s ii 3 is e oflw , c tu i oft f c ua ale tonswils ppor t c us ofa ton.' Gl e su a no onsr cton he a t l lgai l u t he a e c i ' ov r v LigetGr tI c,4 9 F.d 1 0 1 08( 1h Ci. 0 6 (ne n lq o ain o te )( i n . g t p. n . 5 3 3 4, 3 1 t r 2 0 ) itr a u tto s mitd et g i Ma s alC/ Bd o r h l y. . fEdu .v Ma s a l Ga Dit, 9 F. d 1 71 1 7 ( 1hCi. 9 ). c . rh l C@. s s.9 2 2 1 , 1 4 1 t r 1 93) W he r viwi a moton t dimi s a c tmus c tue pl ntf c pl nti t n e e ng i o s s , our t onsr ai ifs om ai n he lgh m os f or bl t pl i if a t ke t f ct ale tons sa e t en as tue. See i t t av a e o antf nd a he a ual l ga i t t d her i r Erc onv Par ,551U. 89,93 ( ;Chrso rv Har y 536U. 403,406 ( iks . dus S. 2007) itphe . bur S. 2002) ; Br o s v Ble Cr s t Ble S ed o Fl. I c, 1 6 F.d 1 6 , 1 6 ( 1h Ci. 1 9 ) o k , u o s o u hil f a, n . 1 3 3 4 3 9 1 t r 9 7 . Ho ve ,pl a ngs t t i r no m or t n c usons ar no e il d t t as umpton of we r e di ha ' e a e ha oncl i , e t ntte o he s i t uh. W hie lgal conc usons c n pr de t fame k of a c pl i , t y mus be rt l e l i a ovi he r wor om ant he t s uppore by f t a lgatons. l al 556 U. a 678;s e alo Si tai v Coc col td acual le i ' qb , ' S. t e s nalr nal , a- a Co,5 F. 1 2,1 ( 1h Ci.2009)(ttngt ta unwa rntd de to off c i not . 78 3d 25 260 1 t r sai ha n ra e ducin a t s consdee tu f pur eofdeemi ngwheheracli i l lys ûce ) i rd r e or pos tr ni t am s egal uf int, Ge r l apli tf i notr quie t de a lalt f c supon whih he ba e hi cai . ne aly, a n if s e r d o t i l he a t c ss s l m Fe R. v. 8()2) he , e8a ()rquiesas ta pli satme oft cli t t d, Ci P. a( .Rat r Rul ()2 e r hor nd an t e nt he am ha f il notfest def ntofbot t cai a t s a ry ii he enda h he l m nd he uppori gr tng ounds Twombl 550 U. a . y, S. t 555- Howe r i e 8a ( silrquiesa tho ng, rt rt ablnke a s ton,of 56. ve, t Rul ()2) tl e r s wi ' ahe han a t seri e il me t r le .'l a 55 n. Pl ntf' t i to t pr de t û r ntte nt o e if' d. t 6 3. ai ifs i gai n o ovi he g ounds of hi obl ' s ' ilm e t r if r r m or t n lbel a c l i , a f mul c r ct ton oft entte nt o ele equies e ha a s nd oncusons and or ai e ia i he eeme sofac eofa ton wilnotdo. I a 555 ( tto omit . tFa t lalgai l nt aus ci l ' d t ' ciain ted) ' cua le tons mu tb e o h t r ie( anips rg tt rle a o et es e uaielve, ntea s mpi n s e n ug o as plitf ) ih o eif b v h p c ltv e l o h s u to t tal oft a l ga i i t c pl nta e tue. I ha 1 he le tons n he om ai r r ' d ' 4 DI SCUSSI ON Thevi lt ofNetema sCom pli tt nson t r s uton ofa uns tl is i t abiiy tl n' a n ur he e ol i n eted s ue n he Elve h Cic t unde wha c r sanc s i a doest Copy i Re e es Clrfc ton e nt r ui: r t icum t e , f ny, he rght m di a ii a i Ac (i ti CRCA' a ogaet Stt 's r i i ' br t he aes ove egn mmuniy,purua t Se ton 5oft Fo te h ) t s nt o ci he ure nt Ame ndm e ? nt Sover gn i ei mmuniy le a t he r of t i t ntM oton be us FAU a g , a t is t he a t hc nsa i ca e r ues nd Nete n ap a s t conc i t Compli ,t t FAU c tt e a sa e age y a She tl ma pe r o ede n he ant ha ons iut s tt nc s ' t g v r ig bo y o ap bl u ie st . ( 2 a 4 Co l a ! 3 . Flrda lw d tn s a o enn d f u i nv ri ' DE 0 t ; mp . t ) o i a ei e c y' u v riyb ad o tu te a a' tt a e cy o s b v so l'frp r os so d lmii te niest o r f r se s s i ae g n l) r u diiinl' o u p e f ei tng h s sope ofs r gn i niy. Fl Stt j 768. ( . M e nwhie,t Elvent Ame nt c oveei mmu t a. a. 282) a l he e h ndme ga t i nt fom s i n tj tt sae te ev s b tas t l tt a e ce a e tt s rn s mmu i r ut o us o tts h ms le , u lo o s ae g n is nd nii y s e t tf n to a a am o t sae' Ro sv Jfe s n C/ De 'o at ,7 F.d 6 5 6 9 ha u cin s n r f he tt . s . efr o y. p t fHe lh 01 3 5 , 5 ' ( 1h Ci.2 2 (n en lq oainso t d . Th r i n d s u et a F i a i nn o t e 1 t r 01 ) itr a u tto mie ) e e s o ip t h t AU s n l t a fh sa e' ha woul o he wie qua iy f s r gn i muniy. W e e FAU i mune fom s tunde tt 't t d t r s lf or ove ei m t r m r ui r t El ve h Am e e ,i woul ha t c e t be s d i or r t co e wihi t he e nt ndm nt t d ve o ons nt o ue n de o m t n he Cour' J idi i - whi i ha notdone. ts' s cton ur ch t s N on hels ,a bot Pa tesr ogni ,Congr sma ln c ra n ca e ,...a oga et et e s s h ri ec ze es y, i e ti s s i br t he St t s s r gn i muniy.' Por Aut Tr -iu on Cor v Fe ne 495 U . 299,304 a e ' ove ei m t ' t h. ansl ds p. . e y S. ( 990) Abr ton i per si e whe t condii a e stsi ( ) Congr s 1 . ogai s misbl n wo tons r aifed: 1 es t n q i o al e p e s llisitn t a r g t t ei ni ;a d( )i n rs gcs p ru n i e u v c ly x r se s t ne t o b o ae h mmu t n 2 k g e s a tl u s a t u y co t av l e ecs o p we , Se n l T ieo a v Fl rd , 7U. 4 , 5( 9 6 ( tr a o ai x r ie f o r' mio e rb fFl. . o ia 51 S. 4 5 1 9 ) i en l d ' n quoai omit . W ih rs c t t s c p ong,t Suprme Co tha hed t t ttons ted) t e pe t o he e ond r he e ur s l ha Congr s ca e s nnota tpurua t a ofisAri e 1power t e nd t s pe oft f de al c s nt o ny t tcl s o xpa he co he e r 5 c u t'Aril lIj rs ito l a 7 - 3 (i'e Elv nh Ame d n r srcst j d ca o rs t e l u idcin. d. t 2 7 df c -h e e t n me t e tit he u iil powe unde Aril 11 a Aril Ic nnotbe us d t cic ve t consiutonallmia i r r tc e 1 , nd tc e a e o r um nt he tt i i ttons pa e u o fd r l u idito ' . l oh rwo d ,is fra af d r lsau ee a tdp ru n lc d p n e e a j rs cin.) n te r s n o a s e ea ttt n ce u s a t ' t Ari e I pur t t a oga e t St t ' s r i i o tcl pors o br t he aes ove egn mmuniy,i i voi Conve s y,t t t s d. r el he Supr me Cour a fr e i Se i e Trbe t t t Fouree t Am e e ' Enf c m e e t fim d n m nol i ha he t nh ndm nts or e nt Clus ( ci 5)pr desalgii t ba i f a ogai #.a 59,65- (ii Fiz rc a e Se ton ovi e tmae ss or br ton.f t 66 ctng tpatik v Bi e , 2 U, 4 5 ( 9 6 ) U.. . t r 4 7 S. 4 1 7 ); S CONS . me d. V,j5 (-h Co g e ss alh v p we z T a n XI il e n r s h l a e o r i' t e ore,by a o it lgilton,t pr sons oft s a tce.) Tha i be us ihe o nf c pprprae e sai he ovii hi ril ' . t s ca e f ' t Foure h Ame e ,ado e we la r t a i of t Elve h Amend e a t tent ndm nt pt d l he he dopton he e nt m nt nd he r tfc ton of t Consiuton,ope a e t a tr t pr - xitng baanc bet e sa e a a ii ai he tt i r t d o le he e e si l e we n tt nd f r lpo rac eve by Aril lla t Elve h Am e ede a we hi d tce I nd he e nt ndme .'1 at65 66. nt' d. He e,Nete a s Compl nta lgest tFAU vi aed bot f r c i htsa ut r tlm n' ai le ha olt h ede al opyrg tt es and t Fouree h Am e e . St t or la lt as t sa e enttes s he t nt ndm nt aut y ibiiy o tt ii uppos dl se s fom e y tm r CRCA,whi h e e sy atempt t a oga e sae s r gn i uniy,t r by s ts yi t c xpr s l t s o br t t t ove ei mm t he e a if ng he trt pr of t Se nol Trbe a oga i t t Se nol Trbe,51 U. a 55. The Ac s s ong he mi e i br ton es. mi e i 7 S. t t pr des i r ev par: ovi ,n el ant t Any St t any i tument iy ofa Stt a any of e or e oye ofa St e ae, nsr alt a e, nd sc r mpl e at or i tu nsr ment iy of a St t a tng i hi or her of i lca ciy,s lno be alt ae ci n s sc a pa t hal t i mune,unde t Elvent Am e m r he e h ndmentoft Consiuton oft Unie St t he tt i he t d aes orund a ot rdoc rne ofs r gn i er ny he ti ove ei mmuniy,fom s ti Fede a c tby t r ui n r l our an peron, i l ng a gove nm e a or nongove n e a entt f a y s ncudi ny r nt l r m nt l iy, or vi a i ofa oft e usve rght ofa c i owne pr de by s ctons olton ny he xcl i i s opyrght r ovi d e i 1 tr h 1 f i 06 h oug 22, or mpori c es of phonor c ds i vi a i of s cton tng opi e or n ol ton e i 602,orf a ot rvi a i unde t stte. or ny he olton r hi il 17U. C,j511a .Cong e sr nf c t spolc es r ,c i ng: S. () r s ei ores hi iy lewhe e ontnui us ve i s he pyrght r Anyo who vi a e a of t excl i r ght of t co i ow ne as ne olt s ny he 1 o of t a hor as pr de i s c i 22 r he ut ovi d n e ton pr ded by s c i 1 t ough ovi e tons 06 hr e nt he t a es n 10 a, or who i rs copis or phonor cords i o t Unied Stt i 6A() mpo t e 6 vi ai ofs ton 602,i a i rng oft c i htorrghtoft au hor as ol ton ec i s n nfi er he opyrg i he t , t ca e ma be Forpur e oft s c ptr ( t r t n s ci 506 ,a he s y . pos s hi ha e ohe ha e ton ) ny r e e t c i hts l be de m e t i l t rght conf red by s ton ef r nce o opyrg ha l e d o ncude he i s er eci 106 a .Asus i t ss bs to t t m i ny ' i l a Stt a A() ed n hi u ecin, he er i one' ncudes ny ae, ny a i tum e alt of a St e, a a ofi e or empl e of a St e or nsr nt iy at nd ny fc r oye at i tum e alt ofa St t ac i i hi orhe ofi alc c t Any St t , a a nsr nt iy a e tng n s r fci apa iy. ae nd ny s c isr me tl y ofie ,o e o e ,s alb s b e tt te p o so so u h n tu nai , fc r r mply e h l e u j c o h r viin f t t s tte i t s me m a r and t t s m e e entas a no hi il n he a nne o he a xt ny ngove nm e al r nt t iy, ntt l a j501a . d. t () The mor difc t quesi i whe he Cong e s e td CRCA tpu s ntt a va i e fi ul ton s t r r s nace û r ua o ld e r s ofpowe , Se nol Trbe,51 U. a 55. The El ve h Cic thas ar dy f und xe cie r' mi e i ' 7 S, t e nt r ui lea o t t i lght of CRCA ' l sa i hit r icongr s i e ha , n i S egiltve so y, s e s nt nded t a ogae sae s r gn o br t t t ove ei i nt u e isAril I owe . Na 1As ' o a d o a mac v Bd o g nso he mmu i nd r t t e p r' t sn fBo r s fph r y . . fRe e t ft y c ' Unv s - o Ga ,63 F.d 1 9 ,1 3 ( 1h Ci.2 1 ( een fe C i. 't f . 3 3 2 7 31 1 t r 01 ) h ri a tr i y NABP' . Be a s t e ' c ue h ) Su rmeCo r h dp e iusy rj ce Aril IsCo y ih a dPae tClu ea av ldg o n pe u t a r vo l ee td t e ' p rg t n tn a s s ai r u d c t a ogat sae s e g i o br e tt over i n mmuniy vi t Pae Re e Ac , s e Fl Prpai t a he tnt m dy t e a. e d Poss c te ondar Educ Ex ns Bd.v Col,Savigs Bank,527 U. 627 ( 999) t Elve h y . pe e . l n S. 1 , he e nt Cic tr a o e t a ' itwo l b ic ng u u t h l ta Co g e sma a r g t t eStt ' rui e s n d h t i l ud e n o r o s o od h t n r s y b o ae h aes g s r i i uniy unde ' t s ove egn mm t r' he ame clus t or aci br a e k f tons oughtunde CRCA.' NABP,633 r ' F. a 131 1 Thus i hel t tt Copyrg a PaentClus c d nots 3d t 4- 5. , t d ha he iht nd t a e oul uppor CRCA ' t S e r ieofabr ton a hort 1 at1 5. t s m etme, t l ngua ofNABP a a ed xe c s ogai ut iy. d. 31 1At he a i he a ge ppe r t l vet doorope f a e a e ofSe i 5 oft Foure h Am e o ea he n or n mbr c cton he tent ndme asas ceof nt our a ogai gi n t rgh f t l algai . 1 a 1 6- 9 (esrci hol ng t br ton, ve he i t acua le tons d. t 31 1 r titng di o 1FAU r i on t shol ng t a gue t tNete a s saut y cai sm us be dimi s d. But eles hi di o r ha tlm n' t t or l m t s se t twoul onl b tu i Nete a s cli sr t d e l i y on Ari l 1 Be us he a s ha d y e r e f tlm n' am ese xcusvel tce . ca e lo as e t a Fouree h A m endm e f unda i n,I m us - a di t Cour i NABP - a s s t s rs t nt nt o to t s d he tn s es he m e isoft tgr rt ha ound. 7 cr icumsa s pld i c pl nt see /.# . Th u s o i ta,wi te Aril I r u e t nce e n om ai , n w)2 e ph t s ht t h t e o t h c f e l e t ke t unl k a oga i - a cons nty,Ne te or cos d, he y o oc br ton nd eque l tl man' saut y c i s t t or opyrght cli s- i t Foure h Amendme . am s he tent nt As dic s N ete a s Compli pais t saut r c es of a i n wih a Due s us ed, tlm n' ant r he t t o y aus cto t Pr es cai unde t Foure nt Amendme . To be n wih,t e blng pr sonsoft oc s l m r he te h nt gi t he na i ovii he Enf c m e Clus enc or e nt a e ompa s t powe t e f ct t t Due Pr s Clus t ough s he r o fe ua e he oce s a e hr a p o raelg sain.Ci o e n v Flr s 5 U. 5 7, 1 ( 9 7 .Th tlgsainc n p r p it e ilto t fBo r e . o e , 21 S. 0 5 9 1 9 ) a e ilto a y begea e t r r medyi S ct lvi ai ' oft Fouree h Am e e ,Unie St e v r d owa ds e ng t ua oltons' he a t nt ndm nt t d ats . Ge r a, 5 U. 1 , 1 ( 06 , o c n pr o gi 46 S, 51 51 20 ) r a ophylcialy tr t tc a tc l a ge ionduc not is l t tef u c n ttto a' i t ee i a i o g u n e a d p o rin lt bewe n t ( n o ttto a) n o si in l f h r s ' n r e c n r po t aiy t e he u c nsi in l u ' c o u ij r t b p e t tdo r me id a dteme n a o tdt t te d. Cj o e ne 5 U. nu y o e rv n e r e de n h a s d pe o ha n ' @ fBo r , 21 S. ' a 518 53 Ne tema a us FAU ofde i ng hi ofa pr ry i er twihoutduepr s t , 3. tl n cc es prvi m ope t nt es t oce s oflw,a t at mpt t alegea 'a t lvi ato ' erGe gi Se NABP,633 F. a a nd hus te s o l n 'c ua ol i n'und or a. e 3d t 1 1 (nalzi neal i ntc lcl m unde Sa t lvi ai 'fa wor ;s e alo ( 23 a 3 6 a y ng ry de ia ai r icua olton' rme k) e s DE t 8- , ctngt Ge gi . 9 ii o or a)3 2Thi i i con r tt t Fi Cic t whih h hel CRCA t be,c t orc l û n i ope s s n tas o he hh r ui, c as d o a eg ialy, i mpr r a e r s ofCong es i xe cie r sonall giltve powe .' Chave v ArePublc Pr s ,204 F, 601,607 e sa i r' z . t io e s 3d ( hCi,2000)(ugge tng t tCongrs woul ha ne d,butdi no have apur et r y 5t r s si ha es d ve ede d t , pos o el on t Foure nt Amendmen , bu h di i a e nt t t CRCA' br adt wa not he te h t t ol ng, n ny ve , ha S e h s c n re t n prp ri aet teijr s u h t b qe e td . o gu n a d o ot t o h nuy o g to e rv ne ) on 3l is Re y,FAU ct s t a f no e i NABPSwhlh quesi whet r a k oc a due n t pl ie o oot t n c tons he i edur l pr p o s cli a t ly f ls u rGeor a' fame k. NABP,633 F.d at1 6,n.2. The r ce s am c ua l a l nde gi s r wor ' ' 3 31 3 Elven h Cic t deci d t pur ue t s lne of i uiy bec us i hel t t e e t r ui lne o s hi i nq r a e t d ha , ven as umi s ng Geo gi s a i a i t f t a l ga i i t tca e w er i uf i e . 1 FA U r w ih r a' pplc ton, he ac ual le tons n ha s e ns fci nt d. uns t te fon t' lgc t ofra fca atc o an d e p o es cam roe i c p rq t h o toes o i o fe ail t k n y u rc s li o td n o yih a i rnge n .( 28a 3- .Thi agume comest l e,a FAU di notbifi i isi ta nfi me t DE t 4) s r nt oo at s d re t n t nill moi Thet yi t r or k e d wai d. l r Egi ,571F.d 115 11 (1 t Ci. ton. heor s heef e i me de ve ' n e di ' 3 6, 63 lh r 200 . la e sonl FAU' cii sofNete n' pl di ,whih a s t t ortca 9) ddrs y S rtque tlma s ea ngs c s ume he he ei l pos i lt of t Four e nt A m e s biiy he te h ndm e ' Due Pr es Cl us s t i ng CRCA ' a oga i nts oc s a e us a ni S br ton of s r g i m u t ove ei n m niy. 8 I NABP,t El nt Cicui c ede t t$ c i i a pr ry i e e tpr e t d n he eve h r t onc d ha 1 opyrght s ope t ntr s ot c e a unde t Due Pr s Clus ' NABP,633 F. a 1317. Howe r t cour not d t t Due r he oce s a e. ' 3d t ve , he t e hat he Pr s Cl e does notgua a ee t ta i vi lbe a e t r t i pr t, onl t t t oce s aus r nt ha n ndi dua bl o e a n opery y ha he pr ry notbe deprve k t due pr es oflw.' 1 a 1 6- 7 ( i Zi r v ope t i d ' hout wi oc s a ' d. t 31 1 quotng nemon . Bu c 494 U. 11 1 (990 ) The eor,t is befr t Cour waswha pr e swa r h, S, 3, 25 1 ). r f e he sue o e he t t oc s s duet t i rnge upon pli if I a 1 7.The c ti nttedt optons: t rapr or o he nfi da ntf. d. t 31 our de i i wo i eihe e- pos- prvai heai Se i ( s usi t c tonsunde whih oneort ot ri due) tde i ton rng. e d. dic sng he ondii r c he he s . The Elvent Cicui hel t a pr - prvai he rng wasunf asbl a notr quie wher e h r t d hat e de i ton a i e i e nd e rd e t co antdi notale t tt uni riy def nda a t d on a e tbls d sa epr dur he mpli d lge ha he ve st e nt c e n sa ihe t t oce e t twa i i d t de i i vi soft i c i ht .' 1 a 1 8( tngRi e ha s i gne o prve ndi dual des her opyrg s ' d. t 31 ci i t nhous v t e. De b C/ ,764F. 1 ( 1h Ci.1 5) ( Kal z. 2d 451 1 t r 98 ) emphassi orgna) Bec us t pli ift r i n ii l. a e he antf he e di notm a t ar umen ,t opi on di not e uae wheher t sa e f ied t pr de d ke he g t he ni d val t t he tt al o ovi a e u t p s- e rv to rme is i. t1 9 at o g i ald dt al u fce c l' tn ad d q ae o td p iain e de , d a 31 , lh u h t l e o i fiinly 'sa d r u s f pl di s h a cai , i 4 or ea ng uc l m d. FAU ag e ta,j s a i NABP,Nete n fie t ie tf a e tbl h d sae ru s h t u t s n t ma ald o d niy n sa i e tt l s pr e e desgne t de i hi ofhi c i e M a e i l Tha woul obvi t t ne f oc dur i d o prve m s opyrght d t ra . t d ae he ed or a pr - prva i he rng. Addii l i c e ,Nete a di nots tcinty a lge a e de i ton a i tonaly, t ontnds tlm n d ufi e l le n a e e ofpos- prvai r m e es l pa tc a ,he di no a e s whe he he c d ha bs nc tde i ton e di . n riul r d t ddr s t r oul ve fld a c ie omm o l t ta i n agans FAU. Nete a r s n aw or cto i t tlm n e ponds t t he post muli e ha ied tpl pr edu e t tha t pur e ofde i ng hi ofhi pr ry i e es. M or r he i it, oc r s ha ve he pos prvi m s ope t nt r t eove , nsss 4 I di t , t El ve h Ci c t r f e ed t di ti c ts fndi t t G e gi pr de n c a he e nt r ui e er nc he s rct our ' i ng ha or a ovi d sa u or c mon l w,a a i srtve r medi a obs r e f t rt tt pl ntf ha t t t y, om a nd dm nitai e es nd e v d urhe ha he ai if d fl d a sa e br a ofc r c a ton a t rt f de alc e wasdim is NABP,633 F. a ie t t e ch onta t c i fe he e r as s s ed. 3d t 1319. 9 he ne d nota e st a iabiiy ofc e ddr s he val lt omm o 1w t tr di s a t s sa - t h e n i n a or eme e t hi t ge houg ve f s h r me e wer a iabl t woul notpr dean a quae pos- prvai he rng. uc e di s e val e, hey d ovi dt t tde i ton a i On t pr d prva i font Iagr e wih FAU t tN ete a doe no r ie a sngl he e- e i ton r , e t ha tlm n s t as i e esa ihed sae pr edur e nci a desgn t srp hi ofapr t i er s . TheCo pl nt t bls t t oc e vi ng i o ti m opery nt e t m ai a r g r ly t t'FAU ha e c td m uli e p oc dur pup os t d prve Pli ifofhi ve s ene a l ha ' s na t tpl r e es ed o e i antf s p o et itrs i h se p rg t, ( mpl a !7 ) Thi p rsn i tio e t a c mmo at r p ry ne et n i o y ih s' Co . t 2 . s h a ig s al rd o e o d t ' t de he mands ofNABP butdoe notis l a lge a pa tc arpr edur . W ihoutmor i i s te f le ny ri ul oc e t e, t s me el a S or a cr ia i 'ofa e e nta t hed t a docrna t t Twomby,550 U . a r y i muli ect ton' n l me tac f o ti l es. l S. t 545. Tha r f e e i ,howe r f l d by t e alegai t tc d a g y be c tue t e er nc s ve , olowe hr e l tons ha oul r uabl onsr d as mor s cii pr edur : e pe fc oc es t t FAU tnt ntona l a delbe a el i no e Dr ha l e i ly nd i i rt y g r d . Nete a sr s e t FAU ' i r a tusng hi M a e i s i or t us t M atra s tlm n' e pons o S nquiy bou i s t ral, n der o e he eil wihoutdee ton by hi a wihou ha ng t c t tci m nd t t vi o ompe ae hi '(d.a ! 73) ( t ti ns t m' i t ; 2) ha t i n e i ly a dei r t l al we ot pr e s st ac es a dis m i t t M a e i l d t ntonal nd lbe a ey lo d her of s or o c s nd s e na e he t ras i vateBlc b ad lanig ma a e n s tm, u t rn tei fi e n'(d.a !7 ) a d i h a k o r e r n - n g me t yse f rheig h n rng me t i t 4 ; n ' ( )t t(th lmisplc d o a c s t Blc b ad - ta s ta o l p o e s r a t er 3 ha t l e i t a e n c e s o a k o r h ti, h t ny r fso s nd h i g suden s c n s e t ma e i l posed t r - a e desg t pr ve Pl ntf a sm ia l t t a e he t ras t he eon r i ned o e nt ai if nd i l ry- stae oh rfo b c mi a r o t tifi g me t (d a ! 7 ) Ho v r e c o te e i td te r m e o ng wae f h n rn e n' i. t 5 . we e , a h f h s u ' puttve d oc dur ' i i ufi e ,unde t sa r s f t i NABP a t c esr i a i f e es' s ns fcint pr r he t nda d et orh n nd he as eled upon t r n,t ti rFAU' oblga i t pr deNete a apr - prva i he i he ei o rgge S i ton o ovi tlm n e de i ton arng. The ma n pr e wih e ch of N ete a s e mpl s i t t none of t m a e i oblm t a tlm n' xa e s ha he r ç s a i he sa e pr e es' a t t r i c e pl t i NABP. Se NA BP,633 F. a i t bls d t t oc dur ,' s hat e m s ont m a ed n e e 3d t 1 7 ( i Huds v Pal r,468 U. 51 53 (98 )( ai ng t tpr d i ton 31 quotng on . me S. 7, 2 1 4) expl ni ha e-eprvai r di a e d mpr tc lwhe e a l sofpr pery i oc sone by a r ndom ,una horz ac eme es r i aci a i r os o t s ca i d a ut ied t 10 by a sae e oye r t rt n by an e t ihe sa e pr dur be us ' i t e i tnce t t mpl e, a he ha sabls d t t oce e ca e' n hos nsa s the sae c nnotknow whe s h de rvai wilocc ' . The co e ofa i sa ihe û tt a t n uc p i tons l ur' ) nc pt n i tbls d e sa e pr edur ' condii ng t pr de i ton he rng r r m e e e ged i a s i of tt oc e' toni he e- prva i a i equie nt m r n eres SuprmeCour opi ons Se Pa r tv Ta or 451U. 527,537- ( 981,overue onot r e t ni . e r at . yl , S. 38 1 ) r ld he gr sb Danil v Wilams 47 U. 3 ( 6) Lo v Zi r Bru hCo. 455U. ound y es . li , 4 S. 27 198 ; gan . mme man s , S. 422, 436- ( 982) Huds n,468 U. a 531 3 Zi r 37 1 ; o S. t - 4; ne mon,494 U. a 1 1 S. t 28- 30. An esabls d sae pr ed e t e e st t m e hanim t tefec sa de i ton o c rbut s t t ihe t t oc ur t f r o he c s ha f t r prva i r onti e o ca e a de i to ' Rit nhous ,764 F. a 1 us prvai n. ' te e 2d t 456,n. J e alo Vi on v Campbel C@. 5; e s ns . l Fic Cour,820 F. 1 1 ( t Ci, 1 . I i t s me ha s t t efcuaes a s al t 2d 94, 99 6h r 987) t s hi c nim ha fe t t k i r e polcy.' NABP,633 F. a 1 7.Thatpolc ca t ke t f m ofd or r l s gove nm nt i ' 3d t 31 i y n a he or t mal u e , f r gultons a sa ut ' e ctd t ough a i i r tve,oreve l s ai ,pr es .' Ea t r e ai , nd tt es' na e hr i be a i del n egil tve oc s' s e Hou ev Fel r,91 F. 1 1 ( h Ci.1 . Butt polcy c d alo dei fo a s . de 0 2d 387, 403 7t r 990) he i oul s rve r m c omm it e or s fcinty s ni r ofi ils i or decsons mad û a c e- c se bass' te ufi e l e o fca ' nf mal ii e i on as by- a i. ' l I eiher s ena i t polcy unde l ng t pr dur mus be dic ee,a tc a e a d. n t c ro, he i ryi he oce e t s r t ri ult d, nd ge rly-pplc bl neal a ia e.SeeNABPS633 F. a 1 (i ralis i whehe i i f e e bl 3d t 318 i The e sue s t r t s ors ea e t a idv d as- idvd asg n r l , so po e t NABP s c al -wo l b d p ie of h t n ii u l n iiu l e e a l a p s d o y pe sc l y u d e e rv d pr ry itr t whe t sae acor a t puruant t t etbls d sae pr edur ' ope t neess n he tt t s c s o he sa ihe tt oc e.) ' ( empha i adde . W ha doe notcountasa e tbls d pr e ei t a e e ofd te ss d) t s n sa ihe oc dur s he bs nc t tr be p o e u e (h t wo l h v prv n e tede rv to ' Rie h s , 6 F.da 1 5 . r c d r s tal ud a e e e td h p iain. t n ou e 7 4 2 t 4 6 ' t Alhough Ne te t tl man cha a t rze FAU' a t a o isons as i oc dur s' t r a e rcei s S c s nd m s i i e e ,' he e r pr no ale tons t t FA U ofi i s wer i pl m e i a ge a i ed g l ga i ha fc al e m e ntng ner lz over en polc t nm t i y o a opr a e c r ght d m a eral Tha FA U, s ii aly Yong,di not r pl t N e tem a s ppr i t opy i e t i. t pec fc l d e y o tl n' me sge( sa Compl a !73 s . t ) howsonl a i vi lfiueofco y n ndi dua alr mmuni ton,nott ope ai cai he rton 11 of a e tbls d pr edur . I al gi t t FAU a l d i he pr e s s t a ce s a n sa ihe oc e n le ng ha lowe i r of s or o c s nd ot d se nae t e Maeil' tr u h Blc b ad (d.a ! 7 ) Nete n r ie a ij r ta is mi t h tras' h o g a k o r i t 4 , tlma as s n n u y h t wo d f es ea y ha m onl hi pe s ly. Eve i he m e ns t i y t t FAU pe m it d ul or e bl r y m r onal n f a o mpl ha r te pr e s s t us e h ot ' wor m or br dl he doe notr er t a r e r ulton, of s or o e ac hers ks e oa y, s ef o ny ul, eg a i saut ,or i or decson t ta horz s h a tviy. W ihoutt s contnt Nete a s tt e nf mal ii ha ut ied uc c i t t hi e , tlm n' a lga i i tnt mount t a ac us ton of i dm i sr tve ne i nce'f FAU' f l e t le ton s a a o n c ai l nita i a glge ' or S aiur o i tt e i te pr e e ' t tm i tha bl d a es t hi M aeral . Rit nsiut i t r oc dur s' ha gh ve ocke cc s o s t i s tenhou ,764 be se F.2d a 1 t 456.Thesmei tueoft lmison who c n a e sBl kboa d. (d.a !75)5 A sa a sr he i t a cc s ac r 1 t . gl l m at , al t ee of t e al gai a e difc t t r conc l wih Nete n' own oba ter 1 hr hes le tons r fi ul o e ie t tl ma s a srin ta FAU çnsi td apoiy' or s e tt ec p rg t o f c t me es (#. t! se t h t o s tt e i u l 't e p c h o y ih s f a ul mb r. / a ! c y 29- .Thenaurli ee efom t i ele t lprpet polc i t tanyi rngi a tviy 40) t a nf rnc r he nt lcua o ry iy s ha nfi ng ci t woul ha be c r r t t gove ni r e a t e or ç r d ve en onta y o he r ng ul nd her f e $ andom ,u ut i e ac . a na horz d t' ' NABP,633 a 1 1 t 3 7. Bec us Netlm a f l t alege t tFAU r id on a e t ihe sa c pr e r t a e te n ais o l ha ele n sabls d tt oc du e o de i hi ofpr ry,due pr e s di notr quie a pr - prva i he rng - s l a t prve m ope t oc s d e r e de i ton a i o ong s i a me ni ulposll prv ton rmedyf t l si a l e. ds 468 U. a 533. Tha a ngf t-de iai e or he os s vaiabl ' 'Hu on, S. t t me ns c r r t Ne te a s c e i a , onta y o tlm n' ont nton,t Cour m us consde whet t Compli he t t i r her he ant a quaey pl dsan abs e ofpos- prvai r dis NABP,633 F,d a 1 9 (fpr de tl ea enc tde i ton eme e . 3 t 31 i ede i ton pr s notf asbl,pli ifk oul onl esabls a a t ldue pr es vi a i i prva i oce s e i e antf s d y t ih n cua c oc s olton f is fce l ale dt tt Stt f ldt pr deade epos- prvatonr t ufiinty lge ha he ae aie o ovi quat tde i i emedis'. e' ) 5I e i i unc ea f om t Com pl i w he hert s f a ur s e m ed f om a dec s on on t nde d, t s l r r he a nt t hi e t e t m r ny i i he pa tFAU orwheheri i buiti t Blc r t t s l-n o a kboa d, Thi pa tc a alegai alo f l bec us a r s riul r l ton s ais a e, t m os,i a lge not t t t lm is we e desgne t de i e pr es or of c r ove t r t t le s ha he i t r i d o pr v of s s ontol r hei c i s butt tt yweede i t c ce a de i ton.NABP,633a 1 8( ai if opyrght, ha he r sgned o on al ny prvai t 31 pl ntf S t i ntf a esa i he sat pr ed e whi h ha a ispu pos t de i ton of a i mus de iy n t bls d t e oc ur c s s t r e he prva i prtce i ees)(mphassi o i nal. oe td ntr t e i n rgi ) 12 1 do not a ee wih Nete n' r a ng of fo gr t tl ma s e di gan v Zi r , mme man Br h Co t t a us ha n . i pe nde ndentt r a ton i ne s arl i qua e whe i i t o y pos- de i ton pr es o t c i s ce s iy nade t n t s he nl t prva i oc s a ia e, Lo val bl gan r ie a e t gene a prnci lt ta pos- prvaton he rng ofa ki i et r t d he r l i pa ha tde i i ai ny nd s i ufi intwhe aswast ca e t r , t pl i ifc l d a esa ihe sa e pr edu e ns fce n, he s he e he antf halenge n t bls d tt oc r . Lo gan,455 U. a 43 The Supr m e Cou twe on t s y t t i t e cicums a es a t t S. t 6. e r nt o a ha , n hos r t nc , or r med w a Spa tc a l 'un l uli m a ng t pl n if i ntr y whol .' l at 437. But e y s ' ri ulry' hepf n ki he aitf i iel e e ' d. t t pr poston does not hol i t r r e st ton - whe t r i no e t bls d sa e ha o ii d n he eve s iua i n he e s s a ihe tt pr edu e I t de i ton wa unpr dit bl a a pr de i ton pr s t r by oc r . f he prva i s e c a e nd e- prva i oce s he e f e os d,a sa e pr vi s alt pr es du Sby m a ng a lbl a t tr m e t tco d or cl e t t o de l he oc s e s ki vaia e or e dy ha ul a qua ey r r s t l s. Zi mon,494 U. a 1 de t l ed e s he os ' ner ' S. t 29. He e,Netema a s rs t t éhe St t of Fl i has no s aut r s m e or cli s r tl n s e t ha s t ae orda t t o y che am - r e pr dur t a e seihe c i ti rnge e ora f r ci lrgh scli , bot of eviw oce e o ddr s t r opyrgh nfi m nt ede al vi i t am h whih ae f rlca esofaci ' ( c r edea us ton. Compl at! 80) The e algai do note ' . . s le tons xhaus t t he m e ofno f r r m e es As FAU obs ves Nete a does nota tnd t t pos i lt nu n-ede al e di . er , tlm n te o he sbiiy t thec d be madewhol by flng aco mon 1 t ts t6 As a resu l, t Compli td ha oul e ii m aw or ui. t he a n oes nots fcinty a lget tFl i f l t pr de a uf e l le ha orda ais o ovi dequae pos- prvai r medi . t tde i ton e es l f l t tNete a spla ng doe notaleg adue pr es vi a i t tc d be t olows ha tlm n' e di s l e oc s olton ha oul vi caed by t Foure nt Ame e ' Enf c ntClus Im us c ude,i t ,t t ndi t he te h ndm nts or eme a e. t oncl n um ha Ne tema hasnotesa ihe a ba i f r CRCA t a oga e FAU' s r i i tl n t bls d ss o o br t S ove egn mmuniy i t s t n hi i t nc 7 Acc di y, i i ns a e. or ngl t s 6Si neihe pa t a g st poitand t Com pl ntdoe notad e si,Iwilnota s s t nce t r ry r ue he n he ai s dr s t l s e s he m e isoft sque ton ofFl i l w . rt hi si orda a 7 s sa i wih u yrjdc frt rao s Fis,i NABP,h Elv nhCic ts getd Dimisls to t eu ie o wo e sn . rt n te e e t rui ug se t hy he i a pos i lt of f c ua alega i ns t tm i s ts y t NABP s a r NABP, he pot tc l sbliy a t l l to ha ght a i f he t nda d. 13 ORDERED a ADJUDGED t t The Fl i Ata i Uni r iy Boa d of Tr t es nd ha orda lntc ve st r use ' M oton t DimisPli ifsAmende Compl nt( 20)i GRANTED. Pli ifChal A. i o s s antf d ai DE s antf res Nete n,IlsAmende Compli ( 9)i DI I tlma I' d ant DE s SM SSED W I THOUT PREJUDI CE. The Clr ofCo ts lCLO SE THI CASE a DENY alpe ngm otonsA S M O OT. ek ur hal S nd l ndi i dy f e h, Fl i , t s /e a o or da hi DONE AND ORDERED i Cha be s a W e t P n m r, t s Z .- . J nua y,201 a r 7. Z yz . A . . / x ze '' '' a, ' < .. , D O A LD M .M I D LEBR OO K S D UN I TED STATES D I STRI J D GE CT U A1 Couns lofRec d l e or 633 F, a 1 6- 9. Se 3d t 31 1 cond,t sout ome a l N ete a t avoi pr cl i is ,s d hi c lows tlm n o d e uson s ues houl he pur ue s a e l w r m e e s t t a e di s. 14