Tiara Condominium Association, Inc. v. Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc. et al, No. 9:2008cv80254 - Document 320 (S.D. Fla. 2014)

Court Description: OPINION ORDER denying 286 Marsh, USA, Inc.'s Renewed Motion for Summary Judgment. Signed by Judge Daniel T. K. Hurley on 1/13/14. (lr)
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UN I TED STA TES D I STR I C O U R T CT SO UTH ERN D I STR I O F FLO R I CT DA CA SE NO .08- 254- V- UR LEY 80 CI H TI A CO ND O M I I M A SSO CI O N ,I C. AR N U ATI N , Pl ntf , ai if V*. M A R SH ,U SA ,I C . N , D e endant f . / O R DE R D EN YI G D EFEN D AN T ' N S R EN EW ED M O TI FO R SU M M A RY JU D G M ENT ON THI CAUSE i be or t c t S s f e he our upon De e ntM a s USA,l ' r newe moton f f nda r h, nc.s e d i or s mma y u g n .Th mo inr q ie tec u toa d e s o e q sino F o ialw: he u r j d me t e to e urs h o rt d rs an v l ue to f lrd a W n a is rn eb o e s r sa tpe il eain hp'wi iscin ,s h b o e s b e t oa e ta n n u a c r k r hae t ca rlto s i ' t t le ti t e r k r u j c t n x rs h c r t e nce dut ofca e r rng t br ontacual nha d y r equii he okert advie t c inta o s he le boutt a he mountof c r e pl ntyne d t me isco pl ei ur ncene .Fort r a onssaedher fer ove ag ude l ede o et t m et ns a eds he e s tt ea t , t cour a we st que ton i t a fr ai e a be us t r a e ge ne is sofm a e il he t ns r he si n he fim tv nd, ca e he e r nui s ue t ra f c ast whe he a S pec alr l to hi ' se bet n t pa te ,t t rw ih ot rdi put at o t r t i e a i ns p'exi t d wee he r i s oge he t he s ed s is s t c twilde t dee ntsr ne dmotonf s sue ,he our l ny he fnda ' e we i or umma yj r udgme . nt 1 PR O C EDU R AL H I . STO RY Pli if Tir Condomi um As ocai I (i aa', antf, aa ni s iton, nc. tTir' ) ma es t Tir nag he aa Condom i um ,an oc a r 43- t r t r l atd on Si r I lnd, Fl i whih wa ni e nfont s o y owe oc e nge sa orda, c s de t e byt ba k-o- c huni a i Se e rof200 Tir fldt sa ton a ns is vasatd wo c t ba k c nes n pt mbe 4. a a ie hi c i gai t t i urncebr r M as USA,nc.(( rh' ,a sri cli f brac ofc rc,bra of ns a oke, rh, I $ s ' se tng ams or e h onta t e ch Ma ) i id c na ofgood f iha f i de lng, glge m ir pr e ai neglge a br a h mple ove nt at nd ar ai ne i nt se es nt ton, i nce nd e c o fd cayd t F lo n b ifn a do a ag me t t ec u t rn e s mmayj d me tn f iu ir uy. o lwig reig n rl r u n , h o r g a td u r u g n i f vorofM a s o a 1c a m s a rh n 1 l i . Th s mmayj d me t uigwa afn db t eUntdS ae Co r o Ap asf rte e u r u g n r ln s fi ue y h ie tts u t f pe l o h Elve hCic to t t c tgoresofc r c camst wi: )t cl m t tM a s br c d e nt rui n he wo ae i onta t li ,o t(1 he ai ha rh ea he iswrte c rcua a e ntbyfii t pr epe- c r e i urnc c rge,a ( t itn onta t l greme alng o ocur roc urenc ns a e ovea nd 2) t ca m t tM a s br c a or ag ee ntt tke e usve r s he li ha r h ea hed n al r me o a xcl i e ponsbiiyf ens i t i lt or urng he a qua y ofTi r sc a ,a s c fc l byf ii t a s Tir t ti wasunde -ns e de c a a' over ge nd pe ii aly, alng o dvie a a ha t ri ur d be a e ofisr la e on a out t d, t o- r ol pr t a ai a . TheEl ve h Cic talo c us t e i nc n da e w yea - d opery ppr s ll e nt r ui s afr d t e s fime h ummay j d me t r l g i fv r o M as o t e cams f r n gi e t r u g n ui n a o f rh n h li o e lg n n 1Ont tr tc t gor ofc am s t sc t d,a t El ve h Cic tafi he is a e y l i ,hi our hel nd he e nt r ui fnned,hat he t t Cii ns'polc i ques i i f c pr ded pe - ur e c r e,a t tTi r t r f e tze iy n ton n a t ovi r occ r nce ove ag nd ha a a he e or sa e no c ai f br c ofc r c b r s ofM a s salege f iur t pr ur pe - c r e tt d l m or ea h ont a t y ea on r h' l d a l e o oc e r oc ur enc co r ge.On t s c c t gor ofc ai s t sc r hel a t El ve h Cic ta fnned, ha ve a he e ond a e y l m , hi ou t d, nd he e nt r ui f i t t t or l c nt a t be w e n t pa te di notr quie M a s t e ur t tTi a w as ade t l he a o r c t e he ri s d e r r h o ns e ha ar qua e y i ur d,. t t heor l r ct t e hepa te di note e M a s sr ponsbiii be ns e ie.ha t a conta be we nt ri s d xtnd rh' es i ltes yond t twhihwassae i Ma s swrte lte sofeng me ( No.179,p.81gTi aJ 607 ha c ttd n rh' itn etr age nt ECF ar , F. a 746- ,als ofpr e undet ngswhihdi no s cii lyi udeadut t a s 3d t 747J it oposd raki c d t pe fcal ncl y o dvie on t optm a t o a ount ofc r e ne de t m ee Ti r scom pl t i u a e ne ds he i l ype r m s ove ag e d o t a a' e e ns r nc e . m i r pr s nt ton a br ac ofi ple cove ntof g s e e e a i nd e h m i d na ood f ih a f i de i Ti a Condo. a t nd a r alng. ar As ', n . . r hd M c e n nCo . I c, 0 F.d7 ( 1h r 2 0 ( a af. sn I c v Ma s r L n a s, n .6 7 3 42 1 tCi. 01 ) Tir ) On t neglge ea br ac offduc a y dut c am s t El ve h Cic tafim e t s he i nc nd e h i i r y l i , he e nt r ui fr d hi c u tss mma y u g n r l gt t ee tn ta Tir ' camsr se o M a s salg dfiue o r' u r j d me t ui o h x e th t aas li e td n rh' le e al r n t pr ur peroc ure ea oppos d t a e t lmisoflabiiy.Howe r t t e e t s o oc e - c r nc s e o ggr gae i t i lt ve , o he xtnt he e cli s we e ba ed on M arh' al ge f l e t a s Ti a t ti wasunde -ns e a t am r s s s le d aiur o dvie ar ha t ri ur d nd o pr ry a s Ti r on t a qua y ofis c r ,t Elve h Cic tc ude t tt s ope l dvi e a a he de c t ove age he e nt r ui oncl d ha hi c tsr la e on Fl i ' e no i l sr e,whi h i a i bl wo d haveba r d bot t r our' ei nc orda s co m c os ul c f pplca e ul re h ot cli s r s d a uns tld que ton ofFl i l w. The ef e t Elven h Cic tc rii d a am , aie n ete si orda a r or , he e t r ui e tfe que tont t Fl i Su e Cour, e tng i t de e m i whet t e onom i l sr e si o he orda pr me t r quesi t o t r ne her he c c os ul a i d t i ur nc br r . pple o ns a e oke s TheFl i Supr m eCou t e t td t quesi que y ng i t d whehe t e onom i orda e r r sae he ton, r i nsea t r he c c l sr l a i a a1 t a i ur d' s ta ns a i ur nce b oke f r pur l ec os u e pples t 1 o n ns e s ui gai t n ns a r r o e y onom i l s s c os e whe et pa tesa e i c r t lprviy.On t sque to i hed, r ce ng fom esa ihe r he ri r n ontacua i t hi si n, t l e di r t bls d pr c de ,t tShea iaton oft e onomi l sr e i lmie t pr t la lt c es' e e nt ha s pplc i t he c c os ul s i td o oduc s ibiiy as .z ' 2I Ti aI t Fl i Supr m eCour c ude n ar L he orda e t oncl d: Ha ngr vi dt orgi ando i nal pos oft e vi e ewe he i n rgi pur e he conomi l sr e, ndwha c os ul a t ha bee de c i a t unprncpl d e enson oft r e, no t ket sfna s n s rbed s he i i e xt i he ul we w a hi i l se a hol t t t e nom i l s r e a i s o y i t pr t p nd d ha he co c os ul pple nl n he oduc s la lt t i biiy c t xt W et r ce fom ourprorr i t t e e t tt y ha a id on e . hus e de r i ulngs o he xt nt ha he ve pple t e ono i l sr et c s so he t n pr t la lt he c m c os ul o a e t r ha oduc s ibiiy. Ti 11at407. ara Ta aCo d . s', n . . r h& Mc e n nCo . I c,1 0S 3 3 9 4 7 ( a 2 3 L ir ir n o As n l c v Ma s L n a s, n 1 o.d 9 , 0 F1. 01 ) Ta a f) Reli ont Fl i Supr m eCo tsr sa e tofFl i lw,t Elve h Cic tr e f. y ng he orda e ur' e tt men orda a he e nt r ui uld t tFl rda' e onom i l sdocrned dno pr cudeTir st r c am sag i tM a s f rbr a h ha o i s c c os ti i t e l a a' o t l i a ns rh o e c ofûducir dut a neglge e a r mande t s c am st t sc t o r c i ai Ti a a y y nd i nc , nd e d he e l i o hi our f r e onsder ton. ar Co d . s' I c v rh & Mc n a Co .I c,71 F.d 1 3( tci. 01 )L a a11. n o As n n . .Ma s Le n n s, n . 4 3 25 llb r 2 3 Tir 1) . I .I I SSUE S O N REN EW ED SU M M A R Y JU D G M EN T l is e e dmo inf r u r j d me tMa s c n e d t a ih dn e tac nrcu l n t r n we to o s mmay u g n , rh o tn s h tt a o xr -o ta t a dut t a s Tir on is f l ver gene ds a s c fcal ha no dut t r omm e Tir ' y o dvie a a t ul co a e , nd pe ii ly, d y o ec nd a a s pr ur ntofa updaeda aial whiht ga optmalns a eva1 3I f t rc ends oc eme n t ppr s on c o uge i i ur bl ue. t urhe ont t ttha nodut t w a noft da rofunde -ns a a no d yt pr der co me to ha i d y o r he nge ri ur nce nd ut o ovi e m ndai ns on r as bl,pr ntpolc lmisofl si lghtofTir ' c plt i ur ncene ds Ba edon e ona e ude iy i t os n i a a s om e e ns a e . s t c r c ual r l tons p of t pa te ,M a s as e t t t Fl i s (i pe nt t tnle' he ont a t e a i hi he ri s r h s r s ha or da' çnde nde or l ' pr cl sa s r i oft s c ai swhi h i con e a es m pl d plca i 'of t conta tc ai s e ude s e ton he e l m c t t nds r i y d i tve ' he du rc l m , 3A sat es d m a t r M a s a nc st vi w t t f t re mi tonoft eca ms hr hol te , r h dva e he e ha no urhe xa na i hes li i n c sayb c us t ec u t o ii a s mmayj d me tul gicud da atr ai r l o s e e s r e a e h o r' rg n l u r u g n r i n l e n len tve ui n s n ng t m e isoft s c am s whihwa not e e dordit bedona he rt he e l i , c s r viwe sur ppea , whih i pe nty land c nde nde l s t nst r i H ow e r t si no a a c a e c r t r z ton oft or g na s m a y r lng. usai he ulng. ve , hi s t n c ur t ha ac e i a i he i i l um r u i The c tspr ornli di c a n a aler tve de e m i ton t tt r wer no ge ne i s s our ' i lng d ont i n t na i t r na i ha he e e nui s ue ofma e i f tont m e isofTir sc mon lw ne i e eorbr ac offduca y dut c am s t ral ac he rt a a' om a glg nc e h i ir y li , bu onl i of ra t e cl i s we e ba e on M ar h' a l ge f iur t pr ur a pe - c r nc t y ns a s hes a m r sd s s le d a l e o oc e r oc ur e e poiywhc rs t t e c o c re c ( No 1 9 p 1 - 5 , n t t s e t fh r ln wa l c ih e e wih a h c u r n e ECF . 7 , p. 2 1 j a d ha ap c o te ui g s s t ne on a usai d ppea . or rdi no a e st s fcenc ofe de eorm e ison t s c l The de d t ddr s he ufi i y vi nc rt he e ond a pec oft s cai s ie.heca m t tM a s br c e r - ta t ldutesofca ebyf lng s t he e l m , . t li ha r h ea hed xta con r c ua i r aii t pr rya s Ti ao t a o ope l dvie ar n he mountofi ur ncene de t r s bl a pr nty pr ec is ns a e d o ea ona y nd ude l ot t t co pl t i ur nc ne ds Thi i s i he e ad es e f t fr ttm e, n t r ne e s m m a y m e e ns a e e . s s ue s r dr s d, or he i s i i he e w d u r j g n p o e dng c re t p ndn b f r t ec u t ud me t r c e i s ur n l e ig eo e h o r. y 4 Le t c am sdo notde nd o a br a h ofa e r - nta t ld i s Ale na i l M a s . he l i pe n ec ny xta co r c ua ute . t r tve y, r h c e ontnds t t e n i is ale ha ve f t l ged lps i t s r a d ar vi we a a br c of s m e e r a es n hi eg r e e d s ea h o xta c r t ontac ual dute of c r , i c nnot be la e f t cl i e br a s be a e Ti r c nnot is ae t a i bl or he a m d e che c us a a a de monsr t aca alco tae us nncc i bewe n t al d br a he a t da gescli e byTir . ton t e he lege e c s nd he ma am d aa On t c us ton is M a s a g s fr t t tTi r s ne iton of a $8 milo he a a i s ue, rh r ue , is, ha a a' gota i n 9 li n stlme wih Cii nsPr ry l urnc Comorton (i tze ' - $11milon s toft ete nt t tze ope t ns a e ai ' i ns' ci ) li hor he $1 m ilon i t t lwi t m c a pr ur d by M a s - de e t a cli o a l ed 00 li n o a ndsor over ge oc e rh f a s ny a m f leg d t r i ur nc ' a t i a e t M a s Se ond, t t e e Ti r s ks t hol M a s la e unde - ns a e ' trbut bl o r h. c o he xt nt a a ee o d r h i bl f rt dif r e be we t $1 milon l slmi oft polcisa t $1 m ilon whih o he fe enc t en he 00 li os i t he i e nd he 30 li c Ti r pur t y s nt r t i t co a a poredl pe es orng he ndom i um pr ry, M a s cont ni ope t rh ends Ti r i una e t a a s bl o de ons r t a ca alc m ta e us onnec i be w e n M a s s a l ge l ps s a t c r g be a e a ton t e r h' le d a e nd he ove age ap c us lr pr ton oft Tir r sor ton cosswe e t pr a ge opori he a a e t a i t r he oductofwase a fa - eg. $36 t nd r ud . m ilon i r d f a fuil s dr ng outpr e e m a t d by Cii ns a $37 m ilon li ncure or r te s yi oc dur nda e tze , nd li c um e by faudul bilngss ons d r ent li ubmitd byva i r onsr ton ve te rous ec tuc i ndor . s 1 1 FA CT UA L R ECO R D A T SUM M AR Y JUD G M E N T4 1. Ti r i m a a a s nage by a e e e boa d ofgove nor w hi r i on t a ce of r t ne d n l ct d r r s ch eles he dvi e ai d pr es i s i m a ng bus ne s dec sons a i a i s e i t c m on e e e s of t of s onal n ki i s ii nd n dm ni t rng he om l m nt he c ondo i um pr r y. Ti r s i ur nc pr r m i ove s e by a i ur nc c m it e, s m ni ope t a a' ns a e og a s r e n n ns a e om te a ub- 4Th rctdfcs d a fo t ep ris s b sinsi tern we s mmayj d me t e e i a t, r wn r m h a t ' u miso n h e e d u r u g n e e pr ee ngs a t a l ga i of t pl ntf s o r tve t r am e oc di nd he le tons he ai i f pe a i hid nded c pl n , a e e t r om ai t r ihe undi put d o t ken i t lgh m os f vo a e t t pl i i f unl s o he w i e no e s e ra n he i t t a r bl o he a ntf , es t r s t d. co m it of t boar of gove nor ,whi m a r c m e tons t t boa d. l 2002,t m tee he d r s ch kes e om nda i o he r n he i ur nc c mit i er e ns a e om tec nt viwed s ve a i ur nce br r a r l ng on M a s s cam s of e r l ns a oke s nd, eyi rh' li exc ptona sz ,e ince,r s r esa c e i l i e xpere e ou c nd omm im e t e e lnts r c r omm e d t t t nt o xc le e vie, ec nde ha M a s be r t ne t ha e Ti r s i ur nc ne . The boa d ac e ed t c rh e ai d o ndl a a' ns a e eds r c pt he omm it e' te s r co me to a or lya s dM a s oft decson.M a s nt n confr e heara me e m nda i n nd a l dvie rh is ii r hi ur im dt r nge nt i an ç ag n s eng emen ofs r c 'l te da e Nove r26,2002,t r des rbi is fa Ti r s t e vi es' et r t d mbe he e c i ng tel s a a' t xc us ve i ur nce r s m a em e a r s fna i ad s a i ur nc br r' a s l i ns a , i k nag nt nd ik i nc ng vi or nd ns a e oke , nd e ' ie zi a numbe of s cii s nic s whi i c mitd t pe f m f Tir wihi t sr e t mi ng r pe fc e e ch t om te o ror or a a t n hi ol ( No.3 3 4 . NelHe t,te M as e c tv d sg ae t sr e t Tir a c u t ECF 0 -1 i wit h rh xe u ie e in td o ev he a a c o n , r gulry a tnde a pa tcpa e i alTir i ur nc c e a l te d nd ri i t d n 1 a a ns a e omm item e tngs. te ei M a s s c r c w ih Ti a w a t i e r newed, as m e or a i ed i a s e nt r h' ont a t t ar s w c e m i lz n ubs que ' nga m e ofs l ce ' l t e da ed Aug t 1 2003,c rng t pe i ofJ 1,2003 - J i ge nt ewi s' e t r t e us , ove i he r od une une 1 2 0 ,i efc wh nM as b o ee t s be tJ n 2 0 widsom p lc is e b Ciie s , 0 4 n fe t e rh r k rd he u j c u e 0 4 n tr o iy su d y tz n P o e t I u a c Co rto ( No.3 3 Ex.1, n a ani a e g g me t f e vc slte r p ry ns rn e po ain ECF 0 , 5 a d g i n n n a e n o s r ie etr dae J 24,2004, n e f c durngt pe i t cli sf Huria Fr nce a J an we e td une i fe t i he rod he am or rc nes a s nd e ne r ma e ( No. 0 Ex 6 . d . ECF 3 3, . j Pror t r t i ng M a s Tir e ge t s r ce of Ali d Appr s l Se v c s l i o e ani rh, a a nga d he e vi s le aia r i e , nc. (d 1ed' t appriet c çA1i ' o ) as he ondomi um buidi i caenda ye r 1 t o 1 a 1 ni l ng n l r as 988 hrugh 991 nd 998. On M a c 8, r h 2002, a ar ce ve a upda ed a ai a fom A li d, s on a i pec i t tha Ti r e i d n t ppr s l r le ba ed n ns ton ha d o ur e i 1998, w hi h ca c a ed t r pl c en va ue of t c cc r d n c l ul t he e a em t l he ondom i um buidi a ni l ng t $57, 1 00.Alid as c l a e t vaueofc ran optona e usonsr ltng t i e i 553.98. le lo acult d he l e ti i l xcl i ea i o nt ror 6 uni sr t e (. ca nes a ince , rc to ngu t,ec.t be$5, 9. 00. t tucurs eg. bi t, ppla s ai ondiini nis t ) o 51 040. l 2004, J c Qui a t c ima of Tir s i ur nce c n ak nln, he har n aa' ns a ommite, s te poke t a o r pr enttve fom Ali d a e es a i r le boutobt i ng a updaed a ia . Ali d r po d t twhie a ani n t pprs l le es nde ha l n upda e a as wa r quiedonl ono eve ysx y r ,ane a aia w a a s bl a woul t d ppr ial s e r y e r i ea s w ppr s l s dvia e nd d lkey r ie t vaue oft buidi by am a gi ofs ve t ni pe c t W he i was tmet i l a s he l he l ng r n e n o ne r en . nt i o r ne t Cii ns polc f t 2004- 05tr , a a t ne t M a s wiht si or ton a e w he tze ' iy or he 20 e m Tir ur d o rh t hi nf ma i nd a ke s dwhe he t 2002Alida as l sa a qua esa tngpoi f de e m i ngt i ur bl t r he le ppr ia wa n de t tri nt or t r ni he ns a e vaue oft Tir buidi l he a a l ng.He t r s wit e ponde i wrtng, t a not f mii r wih a ca e d, n ii $ m l a la t ny ni r r r m e t t tyou mus ge an updaed a ialt sye .l f c ,1diput t taf la aia equie n ha t t t pprs hi ar n a t s e ha ul ppr s l i r quie e y sx yea s l t r i a y oblga i i f l w ihi a A s oc a i m anda e r t r s e r d ver i r . f he e s n i ton, t als t n n s i ton t a he t na is r n erq rme t'( No. 0 , 1 , . 1 Tir cams oh v itr rtdt i ha n n u a c e uie n . ECF 3 3 Ex. 0 p 3 . a a li t a e nep ee hs ' t m e n t t 2002 Alid a a s lw a a o a hat he le ppr ia s dequae f is nee ,a r le upon He t' t or t ds nd e id wits e ndor e e of t sa oa h i d i ng nott s e ane a a s loft pr pe t a t tm e of s m nt hi ppr c n ec di o ek w ppr i a he o ry t he i t 2004he 2005 polc r new a . iy e l Qunln as a k dHe t wh te Tir wa alwe t ma eama u l dusme t ote i a lo s e wi eh r aa s lo d o k t n a aj t n t h a a s lby ba ki outt vaueofe ran buiti fx ur wihi ea h uni,esi ae byAlid ppr ia c ng he l e ti l-n t es t n c t tm t d le t beworhr hl $5. m ilo a Hewita s d,nwrtng,i- r i nopr em wihba ki o t oug y 5 li n, nd t dvie i ii ç-he e s l obl t c ng t 55mil n o to t e re ta pria. g No. 0 , 1 , 3 .Mr He t h ssn e he . li u f he u rn p as l' ECF o ' 3 3 Ex. 0 p. ) . wi a ic t s a e i de ii t s i ony, ha he r cog z d M a s had a g r oblga i t notf is t t d, n pos ton e tm t t e ni e rh ene al i ton o iy t i ur ds i l ng Tir ,ofa y underi ur e i s . He alo t sii d t ta a g r lr l ns e , ncudi aa n -ns anc s ues s e tfe ha s ene a ue M a s di a s isc i nt t ob a n ne pr ry a a s son an a r h d dvi e t le s o t i w ope t ppr i al nnual i .H ewent o s y bas s ont a t thebele d Ti r was unde -ns r d a t tm eofis 2004ha ive aa ri u e t he i t 2005 polc r wa be us i iy ene l ca e t ha r duc d t tue i ur bl vaue oft buidi on t ba i ofa o daed,t ye rol d e e he r ns a e l he l ng he ss n ut t wo- a d a as la ont bassofa to l opto le usons(ntrorvauee l i ) Fi ly, ppria nd he i ddiina ina xcl i i ei l xcusons. nal He t t sii d t thedi i f c ,dic st unde -ns a e is wih Ti aa s d t the wit e tfe ha d, n a t s us he ri ur nc s ue t ar nd ai ha s ci ly r c m e dt t hei ur ncec m it eor ra pe fca l e om nde ha t ns a om te de nupda e ope t a a s l n 2004. t dpr ry ppr i a i Heac knowl dge howe r t thedi notr c lwhehe heputt sa c i o wrtng. e d, ve , ha d e al t r hi dvi e nt ii Ros la Cr s t M a s clentr pr s nt tve a s gne t t Ti r a ount s a ed a he a i oe , he r h i e e e a i s i d o he a a cc , tt t r depostont tii t oblgainofbot t a sgne cintrpr s nttve( oe )a t cin ii ha t s he i to h he s i d le e e e ai Cr s nd he le t exe utve( wit t rviw c r esofeedt alci sona a lbasst e ur t tt y c i He t) o e e oveag fr o l lent n nnua i o ns e ha he a es fce tf rt cin ' ne d ( No 3 3 Ex., 6 ,a d t ta pato t i rviw, r ufiin o he l ts e s ECF . 0 , 8 p. 1 n ha s r f h s e e e M a s sg r lpr c i i t as isc rh' ene a a tce s o k t ondom i um c int t pr de a ne a a s e r ye . ni le s o ovi w ppr ial ve y ar Cr w a una a e,howe r ast whe he M a s i f t m ade s h a r que t t Ti r i e t r oes s w r ve , o t r r h n ac uc e s o a a n ihe 2003or2004.( No.303,Ex.8, 9 . ECF p. ) For is pa t Ti r c e t r , a a ont nds t t neihe H e it nor an ha t r w t, yone el e f om M a s eve s r r h, r rc e omm e d orad s dt ti o an ane a aia a t tm eoft 2004nde vie ha t bt i w ppr s l t he i he 2005polc r ne l i y e wa , a t tM a s ne r wa nedTir t ac l ulton of i ur bl vauepr di a e on at ye r nd ha rh ve r a a hat a c a i ns a e l e c t d wo- a o1 a aia, whiel ga l pe m isbl m i ladt f rls c r t n t tr a ona y a d ppr s l l e ly r s i e, ght e o a e s ove age ha ha e s bl nd pr udenty ne d t m e tiscom pl e i ur nc nee . l ede o e t et ns a e ds I Apr l2004, M a s pr e e a i ur ncepr pos t Ti a f r w a ofis 2004n i r h es nt d n ns a o al o ar or ene l t 05 wi t m polcy c ani apolc l slm i of $49, 350. Ti r ac eptd t co a ndsor i ont i ng i y os i t 970, 00. a a c e he ver ge p o o e b M as , le e l rl igo M as ' e ecs o p o e so a i d p nd n j g n i r p s d y rh alg dy eyn n rh s x r ie f r f sin ln e e e tud me tn 8 a s snga e sngt s fce yof ha c r . I J 2004, tze is dawi t m s es i nd ndor i he ufi inc t t ove age n une Cii ns s ue ndsor polc t Ti a i or a i t s l s lm i. The pr m i wa $253, 00,a r duc i of iy o ar nc por tng hi os i t e um s 362. e ton $40, 00fom t proryea . hiet polc pr de c r gef rde i r m ova ,i di not 000. r he i r W l he i y ovi d ove a o brs e l t d i l iaw and o di nce'c r ge ie.c r ge f expe e a s a e wih r buidi t ncude s l r na ' ove a , . ove a or ns s s ocit d t e l ng he sr ct e i compla ewihc r ntl al l ngc lwsa o di nce ( oppos dt t e tu ur n inc t ure oc buidi ode a nd r na s as e o hos i efc a tmeo o ii l o sr cin -ac v r g whihwa n t fe e b Ciie s n fe t t i f rgna c n tu to ) o ea e c s o o fr d y tz n . I de endi isha i oft Cii e ' n f ng t ndlng he tz ns 2004- polc r ne a , a s c t ndst t N e l 05 i y e w l M r h on e ha i H e it is clen exe utve,sm pl a t d on or r fom Ti r whe he s it a i ur nce w t, t i t c i i y c e de s r aa n ubm ted n ns a pr a t Cii nsi or ai t $49,970,530. vauai s idby Qui a a t t opos l o tze nc portng he 00 l ton upple nln, nd ha Ti r eihe di or s d ha unde s ood t t M a s w a not pr di a a s s r c or aa t r d houl ve rt ha rh s ovi ng ppr i al e vi es pur tng t is g of 'on t ac ur c oft a a s lva uesus d t s t t l s lm i. On t por i o si n f he c a y he ppr i a l e o e he os i t he l te ntM a s ct t c i na yl ng gec anedi isAugus 2003e atrpoi , r h ies o auto r a ua ont i n t t ngag m e ofs r c s e nt e vi e l te s a i t ti a s w il i pe nty ve iy ora he i a ei or a i pr de b u e t r t tng ha t r h l not nde nde l r f M ut ntc t nf m ton ovi d yyo ne s a y t pr pa eunde wrtng s ce s r o e r r ii ubmisonsa ot rdoc e sr i upon by i ur r ,and si nd he um nt eled ns e s you w ilbe s e y r ponsbl f t ac ur c a c pl t nes of s i or a i a ot l ol l es i e or he c a y nd om e e s uch nf m ton nd her doc t f nihedt M as a ori urr a lsgna a iai f ns a e. ( umens ur s o rh nd/ ns es ndwil i ny pplc ton ori urnc ' ECFNO. ' 301 Ex. p. . , 23, 2j M a s alo a gues t t Tir ' i ur nce c rh s r ha a a s ns a omm it e was comprs of s phitcae te ied o si td busnesmen (ncudi af me lf i urnc e c i a at ne a a a ountnt,alof i s i l ng or r ie ns a e xe utve, n tor y nd n cc a ) l whom we edie ty prvy t i o m a i s id byAlid, howi t tt val ton fxed i r r cl i o nf r ton, upple le s ng ha he ua i i n 200 w as out t d,and t t by 2004 i unde es i a e t buidi s val by r 2 da e ha t r tm t d he l ng' ue oughl 7 t 9 y o 9 pe c nt M a s as e t t t t i ur nc co mit e m a a i or e c c , r l i o r e . r h s rs ha he ns a e m te de n nf m d hoie e y ng n i or ai i kne t beout t d,t tket rs ofpr ee ngwihl s t n f lns a evaue nf m ton t w o dae o a he ik oc di t e s ha ul i ur bl l a r pl c m e c r ef t buidi i or rt a hiveacos- a ng on pr m i s- ag l nd e a e nt ove ag or he l ng n de o c e ts vi s e um oa whih i a t l a hi ve i t f m ofa $40, 00r c t cualy c e d n he or 000. edudi i polc pr m i f t 2004on n iy e um or he 05 polc ye r Ont sprdiae, as cone t tHe ta t ras bl whenhet Qui a s iy a . hi e c t M rh tndsha wit ced e ona y ook nln' not on t pr ry vaua i a smpl r lyedt m t Cii nswih a c r s es he ope t l ton nd i y ea he o tze t or e pondi r ques ng e t f cover or age. Tir diputst sc rcei to oft e ha bewe Qui a andHewitco e ng aa s e hi haa trzain he xc nge t en nln t, ntndi t t Qui an madehi cacultonsf smpl cos c ha nl s l ai or i e t ompaion dic son pur es a t n rs susi pos , nd he p s e ao ghsn t s t He t i o d r orc ieteb n ft He t' ide e d n j d me t a s d ln i oe o wi n r e t e ev h e eiof wi s n p n e t u g n t t a advie a t t widom of usng t e c c a i ns a t sari poi f c c atng nd c s o he s i hos alulto s he t tng nt or alul i i ur bl vaue.Tir con e ns a e l a a t nds t tM a s a t d unr as bl i br c ofis c ha rh c e e ona y, n ea h t omm o lw n a td ir d i a dut ofr s s uca y utes nd y ea onabl c r when i di notpr de Tir wih t be f ofis e a e, t d ovi a a t he ne h t i d pe d n j d me ta d a v c , u i t a smpy c n e e Quiln sfg r t Ciz ns n e n e t u g n n d ie b t nse d i l o v y d n a ' iu e o t e , i wihoutca i ngQui a ort i ur nc c t utoni nln he ns a e ommit on t rs ofunde-ns a eatnda tee he iks ri urne te nt t s aposur pa tc a l i lghtoft sza eco-ns a er quie e i pos d b Cii ns o uch t e, ri ulry n i he i bl i ur nc e r m nt m e y tze o1 he l ng (e rng t polc de t manti c rge i a amountequalt 00% oft buidi rquii he iyhol r o i an ovea n n rplc ntc t. e a eme os) Huni a sFr e a J nnem a a diec hi on Sout Fl i on Se e be 4,2004 c ne anc s nd ea de r t t h orda pt m r a Sep e r 25, 2005, r pec i l ca i over $1 milo i da a t t Ti r nd t mbe es tvey, usng 00 li n n m ge o he a a c ondomi um buidi Tir omptys it daca m t Ciie f t el s s Sho tya tr ni l ng. a apr l ubm te li o tz ns or hes os e . rl fe , i J nua y 2005,whie Tir wa enga d i a e nsve dr outpr d e c l f runde a n a r l aa s ge n n xpe i yoce m aled o r 10 buidi r mediton pr r m m a t dbyCiiens Cii nsas M a s f rac ofTir sls l ng e ai og a nda e tz , tze ked r h o opy a a' a t pr ry a aia , i c tng t i ne d t si or ton t a s s whehe Ti r hadm e is ope t ppr s l ndi a i hat t ede hi nf ma i o s e s t r aa tt c i ur nceoblga i ofi urng 1 o-ns a i ton ns i 00% oft r pl c m e c tof hebuidi he e a e nt os t l ng. M a s i or e r h nf m d Ti r t t tz nshad r quese t a a s , di not ntont s ae r s f isr que t a a ha Cii e e t d he ppr ialbut d me i he t td ea on or t e s. I J y 2005,Cii nsno i d Ti r ofispostont tt polc di notC e et' ie,t t n ul tze tse a a t ii ha he i y d t s , . . ha r ' t polc c r d onl one oc ure ,pr vi ng a ma mum of$5 000, he i y ove e y c r nce o di xi 0, 000. Ti r t t a a ook he poston t tt polc a t a ia l r e and t r f e pr ded a m a m um of$1 000, ii ha he i y u om tc ly es t he e or ovi xi 00, 000. The ef e Ti r s dCii nst r s vet diput a i M a ch, r or , a a ue tze o e ol he s e nd n r 2006,ag ee t s tl is cli r d o e te t am a i tCii nsf $ 89 milon, oug y$1 milon l st n t t a a ia ef t s par t gans tze or li r hl 0 li es ha he ot l va lbl or wo e ae oc ure e unde hepolc a r c r nc s rt i y, nd oughl $30milonl st nist nantci t r t ai coss y li es ha t he i pa ed esor ton t (xc edi $1 milon)Ac r ngt Tir isde iint a e l st nf lpolc vauefom e e ng 20 li . co di o aa,t cso o cc ptes ha ul iy l r Ciiens no wihsa ng t known magniude ofisl s wa lr y m o i t by Cii ens tz , t t t ndi he t t os , s a gel tvaed tz ' a s ri oft C s e ton he t r i ur nc 'is a a a fr tvedef ns i t c r geltgai n. unde -ns a e' s ue s n fima i e e n he ove a ii to I e r y 2005,i t pr e s of r w i Ti r ' w i t m polc M a s o a ned a n al n he oc s ene ng a a s nds or i y, r h bt i n upda e pr ry appr i aloft Ti r c t d ope t as he a a ondom i um buidi and i r la o t ne r por ni l ng, n e i nce n he w e t rc e omm e d a i r as i Ti r s i ur bl vauet $68, 800 -a ne l 40% i r as fom nde n nc e e n a a' ns a e l o 345, ary nc e e r t t r omm e d i t pr c di polc ye r ha ec nde n he e e ng iy a . I .D I V SCU SSION A .Sum m ary Judgm ent St andard of R e ew vi S mmayj d me t sa p o it i t pe dng , e sto sa da fd vi , iwe i te u r u g n i p rprae fhe la i sd po i n n fi a t ve d n h i s lght os f vor bl t t non- ovi pa t dem ons r t t t he e i no ge nei s ofm at r a i m t a a e o he m ng ry, ta e ha t r s nui s ue eil fc a d ta t emo i gpat i e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. wai v Hilb r u h a t n h t h v n ry s n ild o u g n s te f a S n . ls o o g 11 Cny. h Bd,1 F3 8 5 ( 1h Ci.1 9 ) Tod fa amoin f rs mmay j d me t t e t Sc . 46 .d 5 1 t r 9 8 . ee t to o u r u g n , h nonmovi pa t m a not ey o û e ea l a i , but us r s çi sc ntpr tvee de ' ng ry y r l n m r leg tons' m t aie sgni a oba i vi nce ta wo l b s fi in fraj r t fn f rta pat fa a c v Dut 'Drh Ho s , n . 1 6 h t ud e u foe t o u y o i d o h t r ch n e . fk s a u e I cs 4 y. F.d 8 2 8 5 ( 1h Ci.1 98 .S mmayj dg n i a p o raed e et erc r tk n a a 3 3 , 3 1 t r 9 ) u r u me t s p r p it t r h e o d a e s wh whol c d notla ar tona ti off tt fnd f t nonm ovi pa t.' W ilams v Vir e oul e d ai l rer ac o i or he ng ry ' li . to Se v .Cor 1 F. 1 1 ( 1hCi.1 ) r s p, 44 3d 438, 441 1 t r 998 . B. Fl i s I pe ntT or R ul or da' nde nde t e l t sca e, a s a g st tTi r sc am sf br c offduc a ydut a neg i nc a e n hi s M r h r ue ha a a' l i or ea h i i r y nd lge e r ba r b Fl i s i pe ntt 4 r e, whih post t ta pa t t a c r t c n r co r red y orda' nde nde ol ul c is ha ry o ontac a e ve e nom i l si t ta ns t ot rconta tng pa t o y whe t e i addii l wr ul co c os n or gai t he he rci ry nl n her s tona , ongf c onduc c r bl t t t rywhi a oun st at tnde nde a s pa at fo t cai t ha gea e o ha pa t ch m t o or i pe nt nd e r e r m he l med c nrc b e c Se egS u h r BelT l d F /Co vHa f, 6S 2 4 ( a 1 8 ) Mo r e o ta t ra h. e . o t en l e. r c. . nt43 o.d 0 Fl. 9 3 ; n o v.Sar t Cn/ Sc Bd. 746So. 530 ( a 2dDCA 1 (xit eofco rc basat t asoa y. h. , 2d Fl. 999) e senc nta t r or cam r lt t e o mi rs t a wees b e to c n rc a e taspaaei e e d n tr li eai o c no c iks h t r u j c f o ta t bs n e rt nd p n e t o q ng be us a o he r e wo d unf ry s f ec ca e ny t r ul ul ail hit onomi rs pa te co d ha s fed t r ug c ik ris ul ve hit h o h bagani . r i ng) Ar bl Fl i s inde nde t t r e' i but a pr lm i r ve son, or sm pl gua y, orda' û pe nt or ul ' s i ei na y r i i e pr dec s o , wha l trbe a eknown a t ic r t prviy e ono i l sr e'- ar e e e s r of t ae c m s he ûontacual i t c m c os ul ' ul whihsmial post,;( t t toni ba r wheeadee ntha notcommitdabr c of c i lry is (A) or aci s red r fnda s te ea h dut a r fo a br ch ofconta t' Ti a I a 402,cii I de l s Co o Am.v Am. y pa t r m ea r c .' ar L t tng n m. n . fN . . Avi i I ,891So. 532, 53 37( a.2004 a Wei rv.Yac Cl Poi Esats l , aton, nc. 2d 6- Fl ) nd ma ht ub nt t e , nc. 223So. 1 0,1 ( a.4tDCA 1 )(kNj ca eofaci i tr c nars fom abr c ofa 2d 0 03 Fl h 969 $( o us ton n o t a ie r ea h 1 2 d t e itn b vrueo c nr c.) Un e t i viw,t eFlrd S p e Co r' r srcino uy x sig y it f o ta t' . d r hs e h o i a u r me u ts etito f ' t c r dua prviy ec he onta l i t onomi l sr e,a c os ul nnounc d i Ti a . nec s rl s e wih i t e n ar J $ es a iy w pt t t he c olar conc pt of t S nde or l y e he é pende t tnle. W hie t s m a be a l c l a nec s a y i nt or l ' ' l hi y ogi a nd e sr i lc to o Tir 1 - a do ewhihwo l r q ies mmayrj dino M as sf d p nd n mp iain f a a 1 - n n c ud e ur u r ee o f rh' Sn e e e t i t tr e' hal nget Tir sr mai ngt tcli s- t e t fndsi unnec s r t r a h t s or ul 'c le o a a' e ni or am he our i t es a y o e c hi is bec us i c udest t Ti a' r m a ni c s ue a e t oncl ha ar s e i ng omm on lw t r cli a e ne es a iy ba ed a o t a ms r c s rl s on e r - onta t ldute ofc e.Th , e n a s i t tFl i 1 w silhol ,a bewe n xta c r c ua i s ar us ve s um ng ha orda a tl ds s t e pa tesi c r cua prviy,t t no t t tonwilleunl sa br a h oft c r c i a tnd ri n onta t l i t ha or aci l i es ec he onta t s te ed by s ea tona conduc whi h amoun st a i pende t t i t sc e t t tcam sof om ddii l t c t o n nde nt or, n hi as he or li Ti r a e bas on t br c of d is whih a e no co r c ua l g o aa r ed he ea h ute c r t nta t ly r unde a t r f e d, nd he e or , i via y f l outi t r a oft 'i pe ne t bl al sde he e ch he tnde ndentt tr l 'i a e nt Seege r l l r or ue' n ny ve . ne al n e y Esaeo ti, 1 tt fGat No. 2CA1 6 2 3W L 5 4 3 ( o. p. v. , 01 ) s 2 9, 01 9 71 4 Col Ap No 7 2 3 . C . Com m on Law T ortD ut es of Insurance Brokers i Fl r dal w hasl r cog z d t ta i ur nc br row e a f d i r dut ofc r t t oi a ong e ni e ha n ns a e oke s i uc a y y a e o he i ur Se Wac a l .Se v,l .v Too y,994 So. 98 987 ( a.2008 . Thi dut ns ed. e hovi ns r . nc . me 2d 0, F1 ) s y i mpos sa o i ton ont br ke t i or a e ai t c r gei ha s c e a t ci nts e n blga i he o r o nf m nd xpl n he ove a t s e ur d t he le ' die ton a i t e ntt br r ma uniae a c nges i t c r ge,t b oker i r c i nd, n hc ve he oke kes l tr l ha n he ove a he r s oblgaedt a s t i ur oft ec nges I a 987.l a ton t t oblga i i i t o dvie he ns ed hos ha .d t n ddii o he i tons mpos d e byvit oft br rsfd i r saus Fl i l w i pos sas pa aedut ofca euponabr r rue he oke ' i uc a y t t , orda a m e e r t y r oke , r quii i t us r ona e c e i t pr ur m e ofr que t d i ur nc c r e.Toome a e rng t o e eas bl ar n he oc e nt e s e ns a e ove ag y t 990n. ctngRomovAme xI .Co.930So. 643, ( a. DCA 2006) r v de e 949 4, ii de ns , 2d 654 F1 3d , e . ni4 So. 1 ( a. 2d 97 Fl 2007) a 5Fl i Torsj1 24( , nd orda t 50. 2007)(xpli ngt ta ag ntma bela e e ani ha n e y ibl 13 t ac t m e ,t ough br ac ofc r c orneg i nce f t f l et pe f m a a e m e t o uso r hr e h onta t lge , or he aiur o ror n gr e nt o Pr ur i ur eC rge. OC C ns anc ovea ) Alhoug s efduc a y a g ner lc t h om i i r nd e a omm on l w dutesofca e o ra Toome a 990 a i r ve l p, y t Ctns a e br r wil tnha bohafducayduyt t ri ur prncpal andac i ur nc oke s lofe ve t i ir t o hei ns ed- i i s ommon 1w dut opr rypr erquesedi urt c a ' , lge ea brac ofi ir dut a yt opel ocur e t ns awe overge' negi nc nd e h fduca y y ) c am sa editnc a s pa ae c us sofa ton, a e no ne s a iy c e ensve. Toome a l i r s i t nd e r t a e c i and r t ce s rl o- xt i y t 9 0 (x se c o fd cayd t d e n tp e e t u yfo c n i eigb t ab e c o fd cay 9 e itn e f iu ir uy o s o rv n j r r m o sd rn oh r a h f iu ir dut cam andanegi nc cli . y li lge e am) I t sdi r iy c e,hec tsoblga e t a y Flrdalw . A c r f r di o Ti a n hi ve st as t our i i t d o ppl o i a a e ul ea ng f ar Is L howst tt Fl i Supr meCour e es e no i e i t r ce fom esa ihe Fl i ha he orda e t xpr s d nt nton o e de r t bls d orda 1w gove ni fd i r a comm on lw dute ofc r owe by i ur ncea sa br r t a r ng i uc a y nd a is a e d ns a gent nd oke s o t i c i nt .Fur he r , he pr s nt d w ih w ha a he r le s t nno e w n e e e t t ppea st be anove q s i ofFl i l w , r o l ue ton orda a t s c t so i a e t de i t is t wa i a a st Fl i Supr Co t ul decde hi our i blg t d o c de he s ue he y t ppe r he orda eme ur wo d i i,SeeEr eHaieFor I v. dM ot Co,260F. 1 1 ( tCi.2001.A lc of t ni r i nc. For or . 3d 285, 290 11h r ) ak e i tFl i ca e 1w on a is doesnota ol af de alc t isdut t de dewha t xplci orda s a n s ue bs ve e r our of t y o ci t he Fl i Supr m eCour woul hol i pr e e wih t is Se Fr e ord e t d d f es nt d t he s ue. e e man v Fis Uni NatI . r t on ' , 329F. 1 ( 1hCi. ) Acc di y,nt scaet c t tde i whehe a unde 3d 231 1 t r 2003 . or ngl i hi s he our mus cde t r nd r wha cr um sa st Fl i Supr meCour woul lkel fndt tt ee t bls dfduca ya t ic t nce he orda e t d i y i ha hes sa ihe i ir nd common l w du i ofc r m a gi rs t a e nc d d y r quii a br rt a s t a tes a e y ve ie o n nha e ut e rng oke o dvie he i ur ona o it lvel ofc a ,ie. dut t a fr ai l ma r co m e tonst t ns ed ppr pra e e s over ge . a y o fim tvey ke e m nda i o he i ur d o t s cii t ns e n he pe fc ypesa a nd mount ofco r ger a ona y a pnl ntynee d t m e tt s ve a e s bl nd de l de o e he i ur d' c pl t i ur nc ne . ns e s om e e ns a e eds 14 1 G e ra R ul N o Dut t A dvi e on Cle ' I ur e N e ds . ne l e: y o s i nt s ns anc e Asa ge r pr ne al oposto a i ur nc age tha no dut t a s t i ur d a t t ii n, n ns a e n s y o dvie he ns e s o he i ur d' i ur nc co r ge ne ds Ga y Kna , An tto fib ly o n u e o Ag n o ns e s ns a e ve a e . r pp noain, a ii fl s r r r e t f t I s r r o Falr t Ad ie Is r d a t Co e a eNe d ,8 A. R. t 2 9,j ,1 91W L n u e f r iu e o vs n u e s o v r g e s 8 L. 4b 4 3 9 7 640 ( 991,ctng,i e ala,Fiz rikv Ha s,57Ca. 4h 91 67 Ca. rzd 445, 41 1 ) ii ntr i tpat c . ye lApp.t 6, lRpt . ( lCtApp.1t s.1 ;Mur y v Kuhn,90N. 2d 266 ,682N. 2d 97 ( Y.1 ; Ca. . SDit 997) ph . Y. E. 2, N. 997) Nes v Davi on,15 W i. 67 , N. . 3 ( i.1 ;Harsv. me s I Exch. lon . ds 5 szd 4 456 W 2d 43 W s 990) t Far r ns , . 461M ih.1 597N.W .2d47( ih.1 ) c , M c 999 .Furhemor t ge rlr eofnodut t advie t r e,he nea ul yo s c int a utt ri ur ene dsi e l a i abl t i ur nc br r . Eme s Elc.Co. le s bo hei ns anc e s qualy pplc e o ns a e oke s r on e p Mar h & Mc ennan Cos, 362 S, . 7 ( o.zol t ihe i ur nc a ntnori urnc . s L . W 3d M zlnet r ns a e ge ns a e br ker ha a ge r du y t a s t i ur on t i ur d ' i ur nc ne ds oron t o s ve ne al t o dvie he ns ed he ns e s ns a e e he a alblt o p riu a c v r g l S nDig As e lr, n . .Wo kCo o Le sI s S r . v ia ii f atc lr o ea e ; a e o s mbe s I c v r mpf r s n . e v, y I ,220 Ca. 4t 1 , 1 Ca . pt. 621 ( 1 . nc. lApp h 363 63 ll r 3d k , Ca. App.4hDit 201 ;XM l e n.I . Ct t s. 3) ntr , nc v Chi Oc Shlpig Co. 1 F. zd 301( D. Y.zooolbr rc tbela ef . na ean p n , 21 supp. S. N. t oke anno ibl or f iur t pr ea tona i ur nc c r ge i wa ne ra ke t obt i a ha no c ntnui al e o ocur ddii l ns a e ove a t s ve s d o an nd s o i ng d t t a vieis rdo is rn en e s ; a pa Wied Cabe l c v Cnt. fRo ka d 3 uy o d s n u e n n u a c e d ) T p n r r l, n . . y o c l n , 05 A. 2d 665,761N. S. 237( Y. Di 2003)br rhadno c i ng duyt a s , D. Y. Zd N. APP. V. ( oke ontnui t o dvie g deordiec clen onobti nga tonalc r ea e s ngofs cilr ltons p) ui r t it ani ddii oveag bs nt howi pe a eai hi . 2. dspe i lR e at o hi 'Exc pt o d c a l i ns p' e in A lhough t c tha notbee a e t l t a Fl i ca e diec l on poi , t ei a t he our s n bl o oca e ny orda s r ty nt her s w e l de l l- ve oped bod o c s l w t oug ut t c r whi h es a i hes a e e i t t y f a e a hr ho he ounty c t bl s n xc pton o he ge r lr e ofno dut t a s . The e e i be omesope a i whe an i ur nce br r ne a ul y o dvi e xc pton c r tve n ns a oke e o a s a e age i a is c a r a i hi ' ih is c i nt t r by ti rng a e nc d nc ur ge nd ng s n spe i l el tons p' w t t le , he e r gge i n nha e dut ofca et a viet clen a y r o d s he i t boutt a o ofc r ge pr n l ne de t m e tisco plt he m unt ove a ude ty e d o e t m e e i ur nc ne ds Se ge r l Pe e v Schu herEnt ., I .22P.d481( a ka2001 a ns a e e . e ne aly t r . mac er nc, 3 Als ) nd Fiz r c v.Ha s 57Ca . 4t 91 67 Ca . pt .zd4 ( l . tpat i k ye , lApp. h 6, ll r t 45 Ca. App.1t s.1 . Ct SDit 997) Cas exa e s e mpls uppori afndi ofaSs ilrltons p'i ude ( )whe et a nt tng i ng ipeca eai hi 'ncl 1 r he ge m ir pr s nt t na ur oft c r e bei ofe e o pr ded, a dt ei u e j siiby s e e e ed he t e he ove ag ng f r d r ovi n h ns rd u tfa l r id on t tr pr entton i s l c i t polc s eeg. t rck spr a 452;( whee ele ha e es a i n e e tng he i y; e . Fipati , u a t z 2) r t ag vol a iyas umedt r po i lt f s l c i t a opra ei ur nc polc f t he ent unt rl s he es nsbiiy or e e tng he ppr i t ns a e iy or he i ur ( e es agee torpr miet t i ur , eeeg.HarsvFar r ls.Exc ns ed by xpr s r men o s o he ns ed)s . t mes n hange, 461Mih.1 597N. . 47, - (999) ( wheet a nthed is foutasha nge rie c , W 2d 5152 1 ;3) r he ge l tel vi xpets i a g ve fe d ofi ur nc bei s ug by i ur d,a t i ur d r i o t texpe ts s n i n il ns a e ng o ht ns e nd he ns e eled n ha rie; ee e. Merdi Til Cor vGai r, N. 2d634,(nd. . g. i an te p. ne 946 E. l CtApp. 1 ;War hou eFo ,I . 201 ) e s ods nc v Copo a eRik MgmtS r . 5 0S 2 4 2( a 1t . r rt s . e v, 3 o.d 2 Fl. SDCA 1 8 ); 4 wh r t ea e t r r ke 9 8 () e e h g n o b o r e r s d b oa dic ei n t s r i t i ur d' ne ds a r ceved c xe cie r d s r to o e vce he ns e s e , nd e i ompe ai a ve t ns ton bo he c t aypr m i pa df t e r a cepr de s e. .Si r v. usom r e um i or he xpe t dvi ovi d, ee g , ntos Hamon,1 N . . 48 H 478, 810A. 553 ( H.2002 ;Merdi Til Cor vGai r spr a ( wheet a ntwas 2d N. ) i an te p. ne , u q nd 5) r he ge i tmat y ivol i t i ur d' busnes a f is or r gul l ga t i ur d a c or n i el n ved n he ns e s i s far , e ary ve he ns e dvi e as i t nc i m ai t ni pr r c r e.Bu l w v M adl k, A r A pp 466, 206 S. . 8 ssa e n n ai ng ope ove ag eo oc 90 k. W 3d 90 ( k. .App.2005) The ea ot rc s ss s t tatiroffc ma e gei amuli e Ar Ct . s nd he a e ugge t ha re a t y nga n tpl f c o a l i t de e m i whehera br r s r d a ( pe i lr l tons p' wih is cle . a t r nayss o t r ne t oke ha e t c a e a i hi ' t t int s Consderto ma i l (1 rpr e ai byt b oke a ise rie;( rpr e ains i ains y ncude ) e es nttons he r r boutt xpe ts 2) e esntto byt brke a t br a t o t covea obti d;3)t lngha de hofher ltons p; he o r bouthe e dh f he rge ane ( he e t nd pt t eai hi 1 6 ( t e e oft br rsi veme i t cle ' de sonma nga isi ur nc nee ; 4)he xtnt he oke ' nvol ntn he ints cii ki boutt ns a e ds () i or to vol e e byt br r a t clents i urncene ds and() pa ntof 5 nf main unterd he oke bouthe i ' ns a e ; 6 yme a tona co pe a i f ad s ys r i e . ddii l m ns ton or vior e v c s 3. S ci R e atons p' -A Fac ualD e er i i f t Jur s spe al l i hi ' t t m naton or he y W he he a i ur ncebr t r n ns a okers r d at pe a r a i hi ' t isci nti aquesi of ha e l cil eltons p'wih t le s s ton fc f rt j r . W heeterc r c n ansd s u e fcs ter s ui no whihc ul pr vd a t o he u y r h e o d o ti ip td a t,h e olto f c o d o ie c peen s t nta e de et s om t t ubsa il vi nc o uppor afndi ofaS pe a r ltons p'be wee abr t i ng s cil ea i hi ' t n okera s nd is c i nt s m a yj d me ti i rpe;t matrmus b r s v d b aj r Se eg H il t le , um r u g n s mp o r he te t e eole y u y. e .. l, . Pe e s Car r Bee (' etl ,P. . .C.v XL S i t I sur t r on, pe , f D izer L L . pecal n ance Co. 261 F. Supp. 5 y , zd 46 ( D. . .zol ls mmay j d me tp e ld d b f c is e o q e to o wheh rs ca S. W Va 3 tu r u g n r cu e y a t su n u sin f te pe il r ai hi exit bewee ag ta i ur ) Sout Ba Car ovas ul As oc P. v SCS eltons p sed t n en nd ns ed ; h y di c ar s ., C. Age y,l ,l A. 3d939,963N. S. 688@ . APP. V. 3lge neis ofmaeil nc nc. 05 D. Y. Zd Y. Di zol t nui sue tra f c e sed r ga di whe he i ur nc age yha s ci lr l tons p wih i ur d, pr l ng a t xit e r ng t r ns a e nc d pe a e a i hi t ns e ecudi s mma yj dg n o is r d' camsf rn gie c a d b e c o td cay d t ) Bu lw v u r u me t n n u e s li o e lg n e n r a h f i u ir u y ; eo Ma lc ,9 Ar Ap 46 ,2 6 S. .3 8 0 ( k. . p. 0 )( tn q sin o fc o do k 0 k. p. 6 0 W d 9 Ar CtAp 20 5 noi g ueto f a t n whe he s c a r lto hi e se be wee i ur e a nt a i ur s a t ti r a t r pe i l e ai ns p xit d t n ns anc ge nd ns ed o s o rgge n e nc ddut ofcae . nha e y r) D .Applc i ofLaw t t Rec d i aton o he or W iht eprnc plsi m i t c tnow e m i whe he t e de e i t sc s t hes i i e n nd, he our xa nes t r he vi nc n hi a e i r as bl s c ptbl ofs s e ona y us e i e uppori afndi off c t tM ar hs r d ads i r a i hi ' tng i ng a t ha s ha e ûpecal eltons p' w ih Ti r t r by t i rng ahe g e d dut of ca e on t pa t M a s t a s Ti r on t a a, he e r gge i i ht ne y r he r of r h o dvi e a a t a ou ofc r e p ude l ne ed t m e tisco pl t i ur nc ne . I t fnde off c he m nt ove ag r nty ed o e t m e e ns a e eds f he i r a t we et c l t ts ha( pe i lr ltons p'e se , M a s i t pr pe l c r dwiha r o onc ude ha uc s c a ea i hi ' xit d s r h s hen o ry ha ge t n e nc d dut ofc r t advieTi r on isc r e ne ds et rasa heght ne fduca y dut nha e y ae o s a a t ove ag e , ihe i e d i ir y owe t t i ur d, a ge r c mon l dut ofr as bl ca e orbot d o he ns e ne al om aw y e ona e r , h. Ti r haspr s nt e de ofal tr r l tons p wihM arh;ha i r ledo M a s aa e e ed vi nce ong-e m e ai hi t s t tt e i n rh t ke p i a a s d ofispr t i ur nc ne a wel a isc o e t ppr ie t opery ns a e eds s l s t ompla ew ih t t r ofis i nc t he e ms t i ur nc polces t tM a s t ough e c i Ne lHe t, r gul ry pa tcpa e i Ti r ns a e ii ; ha r h, hr xe utve i wit t a l ri i t d n a a i ur nc c ns a e omm item e tngst ofe co ela ad ceo Ti r s i ur ncer quie nt a te e i o f r uns nd vi n a a' ns a e r me s nd ne ds t tM a s gene a l hol is l o asa e r i t fel ofpr ryc ualyi ur nce e ; ha r h r ly ds t ef ut n xpe t n he i d ope t as t ns a ; t tM a s s c fc l hel is f out t Tir i t s c s a is çe l i i tr nc , rs ha rh pe ii aly d tel o a a n hi a e s t txc usve nsla e i k ma ge ta rs fna i a s a i ur nc br r'r ponsbl f pe f m i a s y na men nd ik i nc ng dvior nd ns a e oke ,'es i e or ror ng dvior s r c undermuli e i ur e lne (ncudi c evies tpl ns anc i s i l ng ommeca pr ry a ge rlla lt ril ope t nd nea ibiiy; c ommer i umbr l c i e boie a m a hi r die t s a ofi er la lt , g a s a cal ela, rm , l r nd c ne y, r c or nd tc s ibiiy l s nd wi t m i ur e a t tTir i fd deate l i ywihM a s onalmatr r aedt ndsor ns anc ) nd ha a a n a l xcusvel t rh 1 tes elt o isi ur nc cove ag nee ,ncudi ispr pe t i ur ec ve a . Thes f c s i c e t dby t ns a e r e ds i l ng t o ry ns anc o r ges e a t ,f r die t f c fnde , ul s he a t i r co d uppor fndi t tM a s hed is f o t Ti r asahi y s le e r t i ngs ha rh l tel ut o a a ghl kil d xpe t i t pr ry ca uat i ur nc fel c e wih r la e by Ti r t tM a s vol a iy n he ope t s ly ns a e i d, oupl d t e inc a a; ha r h unt rl pa tcpae i t ca c a i ofTir ' i ur nc ne ;a t tM a s r ti d br d dic e i rii td n he l ulton a a s ns a e eds nd ha r h ea ne oa s r ton i s r ci t ne ds ofTi a and r eve exta c pe a i fom i f pe f m i t e n evi ng he e ar ec i d r om ns ton r t or ror ng hos a s ydrs m a dvior sik nage nt's r i es me ' e v c . Thec u t lo fn sa e u t e ie c t p e ld s mmayj d me to t q e to o o r as i d d q ae v d n e o rcu e u r u g n n he u si n f whet rM a s b ea heda e nc dut ofca et pr rya s Ti ao t s fcinc ofis he r h r c ny nha ed y r o ope l dvie ar n he ufi e y t i ur e c r ge. The e i evi ncet tHe t bei ve Ti r sr i e on t 2002 Alid ns anc ove a r s de ha wit le d a a' elanc he le a a s lwo d c us Ti r t beunde -ns e a t tm eoft 2004- polc r ne , butdi ppr i a ul a e a a o ri ur d t he i he 05 iy e wal d no s r t s opi on wih Tir ;t tM a s or naiy r om me pr ur nc ofa u t d t ha e hi ni t a a ha r h di rl ec nds oc a e n pda e a a s on a a ppr ial n nnua bass t al ofiscle s butt tM a s di notdo s i t sc s ; t t l i o 1 t i nt , ha rh d o n hi a e ha He t f l t poi outt e se ofCiie spatc a co-ns a er rme (eq rng wit aied o nt he xitnce tz n' riulr i urnc equie nt r uii c r t beplce a 1 pec oft rplc me c t a fiedt war oft da r of oveage o a d t 00 rent he e a e nt os) nd al o n he nges p oee di i br a oft tc i ur nc r uie e t r e ng n e ch ha o-ns a e eq r m n . W hiet r i alo e de t tTir si ur nc c l he e s s vi nce ha a a' ns a e omm it emembe swe ea r , f om te r r wa e r diec de lngswihAlid, ha a updatd a prs li 2004woul lke y s r t ai t le t t n e p ia n d i l how a i r s ofs ve n nc ea e e n t ni pe c nti pr t vaue,a t r f e we e a las on no i off ct hi i tng t o ne r e n opery l nd he e or r t e t tce a s ghlgh i he unde -ns a pr bl t c tdoesnotfnd t ss fce t de ea t e se e ofa s il ri ur nce o em, he our i hi ufi int o f t he xit nc peca r ltons p bewee t pa i sasam at roflw .Thus w hie M a s a gue t tTi r m a a ea i hi t n he rte te a l r h r s ha a a de n , i o m e vol a yde ii n t knowi y r ucet tue i ur bl va ueoft buidi i or r nf r d, unt r c so o ngl ed he r ns a e l he l ng n de t s vem one on polc pr mi o a y i y e ums - agoalTir i f ta hive - t sf c , e n i tue wo d a a n ac c e d hi a t ve f r , ul notope at t r i r e o eleve M a s a a m at rof lw , fom a o i a i i m a ha as umed t r h, s te a r ny blg ton t y ve s o pr pe l a s Ti r ont s t i yofisi ur nc c r esa t wa noft rs at nda o ry dvie a a he ufk enc t ns a e ove ag nd o r he iks te nt t isunde i ur d posur ot r ns e t e. The f tt tTir i ur nce c ac ha a a ns a omm it e me be sha a ce st t s m e i or ton, or te m r d c s o he a nf ma i c dr a t s m epolc l ng gea M a s doe no r iveM a s fom isoblga i t pr de oul e d he a i y a ua s r h s t ele r h r t i ton o ovi ar c e omm e ton on wha wa t m os pr nta oac t pr e tTir si ur nc ne , a nda i t s he t ude ppr h o ot c a a' ns a e eds nd t wa noft fna al ns ue esofdi tng fom t ta oac . l i a a e t M a s t t o r he i nci co eq nc veri r ha ppr h f t ppe r d o r h ha t e f c i pr mi s vi ac eve b de e sng t i ur bl vaue oft buidi wa not he fe tve e um a ngs hi d y pr s i he ns a e l he l ng s e o o c ly u tfe b tec re p n igtn n il ikatn a tot er d cini t ls l t c n mialj siid y h o r s o dn i a ca rs te d n t h e u to n he o s i mi 19 - pa tc a l i lghtofCii n' ha s c i ur nc r quie nt - t bur n wa on M a s , as ri ulry n i tze s r h o-ns a e e r me s he de s rh teis rn ee p r i t i e u to t s r isp o e so a j g n wi Tir a dalw Tir h n u a c x e tn h s q ain,o hae t r fsi n lud me t t aa n lo a a h t ma a if r dj dg n o t eb sso t t d ie o ke n n o me u me t n h a i f ha a v c . As t r or sa ,t r i no i e ton t tM a s ga a pr es i he ec d t nds he e s ndi a i ha r h ve ny of sonala c or dvi e wa ni r a di t widom orf l ofr yi ont 200 Ali a as lasasa tngpoi f r ng eg r ng he s oly el ng he 2 led ppr ia t ri nt or fxi t i ur bl vaueoft co i ng he ns a e l he ndomi um buidi , butr t t ti smpl ( oo or r 'fom ni l ng aher ha t i y i k de s'r t Qui ana / t Tir i urnc commit , ns rngt co teeme r diceeque to nl ndorhe aans a e tee a wei he mmit mbe s srt sins a bout r s i ef ct sf c i r toni t c c ai ofns a eval ,but t wa ni pe misbl a or or onsde a i n he alul ton i ur bl ue wihout r ng a o t h d n e of u h a a p o c o o frn a vieo bet u g n atr ait . b u t e a g r s c n p r a h r feig d v n s j d me t l n tv s e V . C O N CLU SI N O Ha i c rf lyrviwe t ee i e tayrc r d veo df rs mmayj d me t vng aeu l e e d h v d nir e o d e lpe o u r u g n and wih due r r f rt m itn a o a s isons fo c t ega d o he te nd r l ubm s i r m ouns l t c tfndst r a e e , he our i he e r gt ne is ofm ae ilf d a t whehe a k pe i lr ltons p' e s e be we n M a s a nui s ues tra a s o t r d c a e ai hi ' xit d t e s r h nd Tir s a t j tf t ei o i o o e h n e c mmo -a d te o c r - mo es cfc ly aa o s o usiy h mp st n f n a c d o n lw u is f ae i r pe iial, a d y t pr de r s bl a pr ntr co mendai on t optm a amountofc r ge ut o ovi ea ona e nd ude e m tons he i l ove a ne d t bes pr t c t i e e t oft i ur . ede o t o e t he nt r s s he ns ed Furhe m o e s d t tiroff c fndt ts ha' pe i lr l tons p'di e s, t r by t r r , houl he re a t i ha uc ' c a e ai hi ' d xit he e s i mposng t dut t advie t r or as r ve l ge neis sofm a e ilf c ont que ton i he y o s , he ec d lo e a s nui s ue t ra a t he si ofwhe he M arh br c t td y ofca eby f lngt pr ry a s Tir a t ar s na e t r s ea hed ha ut r aii o ope l dvie a a s o ea o bl andpr nta ountofcove ag t mee isc ude m r eo t t ompl t ne , t ki i o ac ountt co-ns r e ee eds a ng nt c he i u anc c aus i pos unde t C ii ns'polc ati s ; b f ii t a e t Ti r t tt s l c e l e m ed r he tze iy s ue y a lng o l r a a ha he e e t d i ur bl vaueoft pr ry, whiht polc l slm i hi d, lf Tir sgni a l unde ns a e l he ope t on c he iy os i t nge et a a i fc nty r 20 i ur d,a by f ii t wa n Ti r oft s c t fna alrs at nda tt isunde -ns t ns e nd a lng o r a a he pe ik i nci iks te n o t ri ur d pos ur t e. Fi ly,hec tfndst r a eg neis ofma e i f c ont i s ofca a i , ie. nal t our i he e r enui s ues t ral a t he s ue us ton . whe he Tir wo d ha c e adif e c r e ofc t r a a ul ve hos n fer nt ou s onduc , vz a upda edpr t a as l t i. n t opery ppr ia a s e ton ofhi r l slm is ha i known t t i woul be r quie t r so et buidi nd elc i ghe os i t, d t ha t d e r d o e t r he l ng a or ng t c r ntc i t e cc di o ure ode n he ventofa l s hadi known t tCii ns' iy i os ; t ha tze polc mpos d a c e oi ur ncer quie e ma tngt ttmai ai c r gec ns a e r m nt ndai ha i nt n ove a omm e ur t wih cos of e a ngt ns a e t t r plci he buidi a ha i known t tr i nc on a out t a aia , whiel ga l per isbl c d l ng; nd d t ha ela e n daed ppr s l l e ly m s i e, oul e ei t a d xpos t o n i underi ur nc ' co r ge de e e i t4 e ntofa l sa a tnda c r e ns a c' ve a f ns n le ve os nd te nt ove ag li ain.I oh rwods t ee i ag n n is eo maeil a tf raj r a t wh te Tir i g to n t e r , h r s e uie su f tra f c o u y s o eh r aa t wo d ha s htt m odiy t t r sa condii ofiswi t m c r gei 2004- ha ul ve oug o f he e m nd tons t ndsor ove a n 05 d M arh s tsi d isfduca ya o ge r dut ofr as bl ca e t gi pr rc r ge a ce s aife t i ir nd/ r ne al y e ona e r o ve ope ove a dvi a m a a opra e di c os e t Ti r unde t cic s a esoft sc e. nd ke ppr i t s l ur s o a a r he r um t nc hi as The e or be aus t r cor i s c ptbl t co pe i , r as na e i er nc on t r f e, c e he e d s us e i e o m tng e o bl nf e es he quesi o d y, e c a c ato i i tons f ut br a h nd aus i n,t s ORDERED and ADJUDGED t tDef ntM a s USA , I s r w e m oto f ha enda rh, nc' ene d i n or s mmayj d me tE No. 6 i d nid. u r u g n ECF 28 1 s e e DONE and SI GNED i Cha n mbcr a W e tPam Bea h, Fl i ,t s 1 t da ofJ nua y, s t s l c orda hi 3b y a r 1* D a e T, . u e ni l K H y U nie St t lt i tJ t d a es s rc udge Copi pr de t couns . es ovi d o el