1998 Fourth Circuit US Court of Appeals Case Law

Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation; Lorillard Tobaccocompany; Philip Morris, Incorporated; Rjreynolds Tobacco Company, Plaintiffs--appellants,andcoyne Beahm, Incorporated; Liggett Group, Incorporated, v. Food & Drug Administration; David A. Kessler, M.d.,commissioner of Food and Drugs, Defendants--appellees.attorneys General of the State of Minnesota; State Ofalaska; of Arizona; State of Arkansas; State of Colorado;state of Connecticut; State of Florida; State of Hawaii;state of Illinois; State of Indiana; State of Iowa; Stateof Louisiana; State of Kansas; State of Maine; State Ofmaryland; State of Massachusetts; State of Michigan;state of Mississippi; State of Missouri; State of Montana;state of Nevada; State of New Hampshire; State of Newjersey; State of New Mexico; State of New York; State Ofnorth Dakota; State of Ohio; State of Oklahoma; State Oforegon; State of Pennsylvania; State of Rhode Island;state of South Dakota; State of Texas; State of Utah;state of Vermont; State of Washington; State of Westvirginia; State of Wisconsin; the City and County of Sanfrancisco; Public Citizen; the American Academy Ofpediatrics; American Cancer Society; American Collegepreventive Medicine; American Heart Association; Americanlung Association; American Medical Association; Americanmedical Women's Association; American Public Healthassociation; American Society of Addiction Medicine; Thehmo Group; National Association of Elementary Schoolprincipals; National Association of Secondary Schoolprincipals; National Center for Tobacco-free Kids; Stateof Kentucky; Washington Legal Foundation ("wlf"); Marioandretti; Don Garlits; al Unser; Rusty Wallace; Caleyarborough; Richard Burr, Cass Ballenger, Howard Coble,united States Representatives, Lauchcloth, United Statessenator, Amici Curiae.coyne Beahm, Incorporated; Brown & Williamson Tobaccocorporation; Philip Morris, Incorporated; Rj Reynoldstobacco Company; National Association of Conveniencestores; Acme Retail, Incorporated; United States Tobaccocompany; Conwood Company, Lp; National Tobacco Company,lp; Pinkerton Tobacco Company; Swisher International,incorporated; Central Carolina Grocers, Incorporated; J.t.davenport, Incorporated; North Carolina Tobaccodistributors Committee, Incorporated; the Americanadvertising Federation; American Association of Advertisingagencies; Association of National Advertisers,incorporated; Magazine Publishers of America; the Outdooradvertising Association of America, Incorporated; Point Ofpurchase Advertising Institute; Lorillard Tobacco Company,plaintiffs--appellees,andliggett Group, Incorporated, Plaintiff, v. Food & Drug Administration; David A. Kessler, M.d.,commissioner of Food and Drugs, Defendants--appellants.attorneys General of the State of Minnesota; State Ofalaska; State of Arizona; State of Arkansas; State Ofcolorado; State of Connecticut; State of Florida; Stateof Hawaii; State of Illinois; State of Indiana; State Ofiowa; State of Louisiana; State of Kansas; State Ofmaine; State of Maryland; State of Massachusetts; Stateof Michigan; State of Mississippi; State of Missouri;state of Montana; State of Nevada; State of New Hampshire;state of New Jersey; State of New Mexico; State of Newyork; State of North Dakota; State of Ohio; State Ofoklahoma; State of Oregon; State of Pennsylvania; Stateof Rhode Island; State of South Dakota; State of Texas;state of Utah; State of Vermont; State of Washington;state of West Virginia; State of Wisconsin; City Andcounty of San Francisco; Public Citizen; the Americanacademy of Pediatrics; American Cancer Society; Americancollege Preventive Medicine; American Heart Association;american Lung Association; American Medical Association;american Medical Women's Association; American Publichealth Association; American Society of Addiction Medicine;the Hmo Group; National Association of Elementary Schoolprincipals; National Association of Secondary Schoolprincipals; National Center for Tobacco-free Kids; Stateof Kentucky; Washington Legal Foundation, ("wlf"); Marioandretti; Don Garlits; al Unser; Rusty Wallace, Caleyarb
Date: November 10, 1998
Citation: 161 F.3d 764
Ost-west-handel Bruno Bischoff Gmbh, Plaintiff,banchory Shipping Company, Limited, Intervenor-appellant,banco Wiese Limitado, Intervenor-appellee,siddiqui Owais; Syed Sajjud-ue-hassan; Syed Zaidi Hussainitiba; Ahmad Ashfaq; Ali Anwar; Muhammad Lal; Mohammadwazir; Muhammad Ilyas; Souza Jose; Shaikh Muhammadismail; Zafar Iqbal; Younos S/o Kundan Masih; Shamsuddins/o Nasar Glahi; Masih Hidayat; Khan Abdul Hameed; Temorisalman Wagas; Muhammad Talha; Syed Muhammad Irfan; Abdulhanan; Syed Hussain Shabbir; A.k. Pal; R.r. Amonkar;adinarayana Arjala; N.m. Pereira; M.s. Mahendra; K.p.madhanan; Dilip Pradhan, Crew Members of the M/v Pride Ofdonegal; Plaza Fueling Agents, Incorporated; Nicholsonterminal & Dock Company; Rhs Consultants, Incorporated;dreadnought Marine, Incorporated; New Star Supply Company,incorporated; White Stack Towing & Transportation Company,incorporated; Transworld, Incorporated, D/b/a Global Shipservices, Limited; Yukong Line Limited; Internationalpower Presses, Limited, Individually and As Agent for J.b.m.tools, Limited and G.k.w. Limited; American Diesel and Shiprepairs, Incorporated; P.j. Brand, B.v.; Bureau Veritasnorth America, Incorporated; Hyundai Canada Inc., A/k/ahyundai Corporation Candad; T. Parker Host, Incorporated;ceres Marine Terminals, Incorporated; Pervez A. Syed;twins Marine Repairs & Supplies, Incorporated; Oceanconsulting & Supply, Incorporated, Intervenor-plaintiffs, v. Project Asia Line, Incorporated; Project Asia Line,incorporated, in Personam; M/v Pride of Donegal, Herengines, Tackle, Appurtenances, Etc., in Rem; M/v Pride Ofdonegal, Her Engines, Machinery, Tackle, Furnishings,apparel, Etc., in Rem; Empire Shipping, S.a.; Empireshipping, S.a., Monrovia, Intervenor-defendants,perher Singh Satinder, Master of the M/v Pride of Donegal,party in Interest, New Sulzer Diesel U.s.incorporated, Movant.ost-west-handel Bruno Bischoff Gmbh, Plaintiff,banchory Shipping Company, Limited, Intervenor-appellee,banco Wiese Limitado, Intervenor-appellant,siddiqui Owais; Syed Sajjud-ue-hassan; Syed Zaidi Hussainitiba; Ahmad Ashfaq; Ali Anwar; Muhammad Lal; Mohammadwazir; Muhammad Ilyas; Souza Jose; Shaikh Muhammadismail; Zafar Iqbal; Younos S/o Kundan Masih; Shamsuddins/o Nasar Glahi; Masih Hidayat; Khan Abdul Hameed; Temorisalman Wagas; Muhammad Talha; Syed Muhammad Irfan; Abdulhanan; Syed Hussain Shabbir; A.k. Pal; R.r. Amonkar;adinarayana Arjala; N.m. Pereira; M.s. Mahendra; K.p.madhanan; Dilip Pradhan, Crew Members of the M/v Pride Ofdonegal; Plaza Fueling Agents, Incorporated; Nicholsonterminal & Dock Company; Rhs Consultants, Incorporated;dreadnought Marine, Incorporated; New Star Supply Company,incorporated; White Stack Towing & Transportation Company,incorporated; Transworld, Incorporated, D/b/a Global Shipservices, Limited; Yukong Line Limited; Internationalpower Presses, Limited, Individually and As Agent for J.b.m.tools, Limited and G.k.w. Limited; American Diesel and Shiprepairs, Incorporated; P.j. Brand, B.v.; Bureau Veritasnorth America, Incorporated; Hyundai Canada Inc., A/k/ahyundai Corporation Candad; T. Parker Host, Incorporated;ceres Marine Terminals, Incorporated; Pervez A. Syed;twins Marine Repairs & Supplies, Incorporated; Oceanconsulting & Supply, Incorporated, Intervenor-plaintiffs, v. Project Asia Line, Incorporated; Project Asia Line,incorporated, in Personam; M/v Pride of Donegal, Herengines, Tackle, 4 Appurtenances, Etc., in Rem; Empireshipping, S.a.; Empire Shipping, S.a., Monrovia,intervenor-defendants,perher Singh Satinder, Master of the M/v Pride of Donegal,party in Interest,new Sulzer Diesel Us Incorporated, Movant
Date: November 10, 1998
Citation: 160 F.3d 170
Columbia Union College, Plaintiff-appellant, v. Edward O. Clarke, Jr., in His Official Capacity As Member Ofthe Maryland Higher Education Commission; J. Glenn Beall,jr., Honorable, in His Official Capacity As a Member of Themaryland Higher Education Commission; Dorothy Dixon Chaney,in Her Official Capacity As a Member of the Maryland Highereducation Commission; Donna H. Cunninghame, in Her Officialcapacity As a Member of the Maryland Higher Educationcommission; John J. Green, in His Official Capacity and Asa Member of the Maryland Higher Education Commission; Jamiekendrick, in His Official Capacity and As a Member of Themaryland Higher Education Commission; Terry L. Lierman, Inhis Official Capacity and As a Member of the Maryland Highereducation Commission; Osborne A. Payne, in His Officialcapacity and As a Member of the Maryland Higher Educationcommission; R. Kathleen Perini; Charles B. Saunders, Jr.,in His Official Capacity and As a Member of the Marylandhigher Education Commission; Richard P. Street, Jr., in Hisofficial Capacity and As a Member of the Maryland Highereducation Commission; Albert Nathaniel Whiting, in Hisofficial Capacity and As a Member of the Maryland Highereducation Commission, Defendants-appellees.christian Legal Society; the Coalition for Christiancolleges & Universities; Union of Orthodox Jewishcongregation of America; the American Jewish Congress;american Civil Liberties Union Foundation of Maryland;americans United for Separation of Church and State; Theant-defamation League, Amici Curiae
Date: October 26, 1998
Citation: 159 F.3d 151
Renee Lowery; Lisa S. Peterson, Plaintiffs-appellees,andshelby Mcknight; Gregory Fleming; Sonya Hairston; Dynellejohnson; Nadra Smith; Ponnette Smith; Sheilasmith; Patricia Spencer; Edwardstokes, Plaintiffs, v. Circuit City Stores, Incorporated, Defendant-appellant.chamber of Commerce of the United States of America;washington Legal Foundation; Equal Employment Advisorycouncil; National Retail Federation; Equal Employmentopportunity Commission; Naacp Legal Defense and Educationfund, Inc., Amici Curiae.shelby Mcknight; Gregory Fleming; Renee Lowery; Nadrasmith; Ponnette Smith; Sheila Smith; Patriciaspencer; Edward Stokes; Lisa S.peterson, Plaintiffs-appellants,andsonya Hairston; Dynelle Johnson, Plaintiffs, v. Circuit City Stores, Incorporated, Defendant-appellee.chamber of Commerce of the United States of America;washington Legal Foundation; Equal Employment Advisorycouncil; National Retail Federation; Equal Employmentopportunity Commission; Naacp Legal Defense and Educationfund, Inc., Amici Curiae.shelby Mcknight; Renee Lowery; Lisa S. Peterson,plaintiffs-appellees,andgregory Fleming; Sonya Hairston; Dynelle Johnson; Nadrasmith; Ponnette Smith; Sheila Smith; Patriciaspencer; Edward Stokes, Plaintiffs, v. Circuit City Stores, Incorporated, Defendant-appellant.equal Employment Opportunity Commission; Naacp Legaldefense and Education Fund, Inc., Amici Curiae.renee Lowery, Plaintiff-appellee,andshelby Mcknight; Gregory Fleming; Sonya Hairston; Dynellejohnson; Nadra Smith; Ponnette Smith; Sheilasmith; Patricia Spencer; Edwardstokes; Lisa S. Peterson, Plaintiffs, v. Circuit City Stores, Incorporated, Defendant-appellant
Date: September 14, 1998
Citation: 158 F.3d 742
Kelly Broussard; Jim Stephens; Mark Zuckerman; Arnoldfischthal; John Hagar; Vincent Matera; Deniswickham; Mary Ann Wickham; Kenexcorporation; Ralph Yarusso,plaintiffs-appellees, v. Meineke Discount Muffler Shops, Incorporated; New Horizonsadvertising, Incorporated; Gkn Parts Industries;gkn, Plc; Ronald Smythe; Gene Zhiss;ted Pearce, Defendants-appellants,andmichigan Franchisees, Which Consists Of: Peter D. Beyer,ronald S. Slack, Susan I. Slack, Sherman J. Radford, Jayneradford, William J. Varney, Sr., William J. Varney, Jr.,sher-jay and Sons, Incorporated, and M.a.t.m., Incorporated,defendant.atl International, Incorporated; Blimpie International,incorporated; Burger King Corporation; Doctor'sassociates, Incorporated; Foodmaker, Incorporated; Goldencorral Corporation; Hardee's Food Systems, Inc.;international Dairy Queen, Incorporated; Mcdonald'scorporation; Mobil Oil Corporation; the Southlandcorporation; Secretary of Commerce of the State of Northcarolina; American Council of Life Insurance; Securitiesindustry Association; British American Business Council Ofnorth Carolina, Incorporated; American Association Offranchisees and Dealers; American Franchisee Association;sal Lobello; Goodwin Management Group, Inc.; Steven D.loye Family Limited Partnership; Ps & F Enterprises Inc.;stephen Parascondola; Robert Ott, Amici Curiae.kelly Broussard; Jim Stephens; Mark Zuckerman; Arnoldfischthal; John Hagar; Vincent Matera; Deniswickham; Mary Ann Wickham; Kenexcorporation; Ralph Yarusso,plaintiffs-appellants, v. Meineke Discount Muffler Shops, Incorporated; New Horizonsadvertising, Incorporated; Gkn Parts Industries;gkn, Plc; Ronald Smythe; Gene Zhiss;ted Pearce, Defendants-appellees,andmichigan Franchisees, Which Consists Of: Peter D. Beyer,ronald S. Slack, Susan I. Slack, Sherman J. Radford, Jayneradford, William J. Varney, Sr., William J. Varney, Jr.,sher-jay and Sons, Incorporated, and M.a.t.m., Incorporated,defendant.atl International, Incorporated; Blimpie International,incorporated; Burger King Corporation; Doctor'sassociates, Incorporated; Foodmaker, Incorporated; Goldencorral Corporation; Hardee's Food Systems, Inc.;international Dairy Queen, Incorporated; Mcdonald'scorporation; Mobil Oil Corporation; the Southlandcorporation; Secretary of Commerce of the State of Northcarolina; American Council of Life Insurance; Securitiesindustry Association; British American Business Council Ofnorth Carolina, Incorporated; American Association Offranchisees and Dealers; American Franchisee Association;sal Lobello; Robert Ott; Stephen Parascondola; Ps & Fenterprises Inc.; Steven D. Loye Family Limitedpartnership; Goodwin Management Group, Inc., Amici Curiae
Date: August 19, 1998
Citation: 155 F.3d 331
Ruth O. Shaw; Melvin G. Shimm; Robinson O. Everett; Jamesm. Everett; Dorothy G. Bullock, Plaintiffs,james Arthur Pope, A/k/a "art"; Betty S. Justice; Dorislail; Joyce Lawing; Nat Swanson; Rick Woodruff; J. Ralphhixson; Audrey Mcbane; Sim A. Delapp, Jr.; Richard S.sahlie; Howard B. Smith; H.m. Tyler, A/k/a "ted"; Ferrelll. Blount, Iii; H. Howard Danieley; Anthony G. Posey;rachel Nancy Rumley, Intervenors-appellants, v. Governor James B. Hunt, in His Official Capacity As Governorof the State of North Carolina; Dennis A. Wicker, in Hisofficial Capacity As Lieutenant Governor of the State Ofnorth Carolina and President of the Senate; Harold J.brubaker, in His Official Capacity As the Speaker of Thenorth Carolina House of Representatives; Elaine F.marshall, in Her Official Capacity As Secretary of the Stateof North Carolina; North Carolina State Board of Elections;edward J. High, in His Official Capacity As Chairman of Thenorth Carolina State Board of Elections; Jean H. Nelson, Inher Official Capacity As a Member of the North Carolinastate Board of Elections; Larry Leake, in His Officialcapacity As a Member of the North Carolina State Board Ofelections; Dorothy Presser, in Her Official Capacity As Amember of the North Carolina State Board of Elections; Junek. Youngblood, in Her Official Capacity As a Member of Thenorth Carolina State Board of Elections, Defendants-appellees,andralph Gingles; Virginia Newell; George Simkins; N.a.smith; Ron Leeper; Alfred Smallwood; Oscar Blanks; Davidmoore; Robert L. Davis; C.r. Ward; Jerry B. Adams; Janvalder; Bernard Offerman; Jennifer Mcgovern; Charleslambeth; Ellen Emerson; Lavonia Allison; George Knight;leto Copeley; Woody Connette; Roberta Waddle; William R.hodges, Defendants
Date: August 19, 1998
Citation: 154 F.3d 161
Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation; Lorillard Tobaccocompany; Philip Morris, Incorporated; Rjreynolds Tobacco Company, Plaintiffs-appellants,andcoyne Beahm, Incorporated; Liggett Group, Incorporated, Plaintiffs, v. Food & Drug Administration; David A. Kessler, M.d.,commissioner of Food and Drugs, Defendants-appellees.attorneys General of the State of Minnesota; State Ofalaska; State of Arizona; State of Arkansas; State Ofcolorado; State of Connecticut; State of Florida; Stateof Hawaii; State of Illinois; State of Indiana; State Ofiowa; State of Louisiana; State of Kansas; State Ofmaine; State of Maryland; State of Massachusetts; Stateof Michigan; State of Mississippi; State of Missouri;state of Montana; State of Nevada; State of New Hampshire;state of New Jersey; State of New Mexico; State of Newyork; State of North Dakota; State of Ohio; State Ofoklahoma; State of Oregon; State of Pennsylvania; Stateof Rhode Island; State of South Dakota; State of Texas;state of Utah; State of Vermont; State of Washington;state of West Virginia; State of Wisconsin; the City Andcounty of San Francisco; Public Citizen; the Americanacademy of Pediatrics; American Cancer Society; Americancollege of Preventive Medicine; American Heart Association;american Lung Association; American Medical Association;american Medical Women's Association; American Publichealth Association; American Society of Addiction Medicine;the Hmo Group; National Association of Elementary Schoolprincipals; National Association of Secondary Schoolprincipals; National Center for Tobacco-free Kids; Stateof Kentucky; Washington Legal Foundation ("wlf"); Marioandretti; Don Garlits; al Unser; Rusty Wallace; Caleyarborough; Richard Burr, Cass Ballenger, Howard Coble,united States Representatives, Lauch Faircloth, Unitedstates Senator, Amici Curiae.coyne Beahm, Incorporated; Brown & Williamson Tobaccocorporation; Philip Morris, Incorporated; Rj Reynoldstobacco Company; National Association of Conveniencestores; Acme Retail, Incorporated; United States Tobaccocompany; Conwood Company, Lp; National Tobacco Company,lp; Pinkerton Tobacco Company; Swisher International,incorporated; Central Carolina Grocers, Incorporated; J.t.davenport, Incorporated; North Carolina Tobaccodistributors Committee, Incorporated; the Americanadvertising Federation; American Association of Advertisingagencies; Association of National Advertisers,incorporated; Magazine Publishers of America; the Outdooradvertising Association of America, Incorporated; Point Ofpurchase Advertising Institute; Lorillard Tobacco Company,plaintiffs-appellees,andliggett Group, Incorporated, Plaintiff, v. Food & Drug Administration; David A. Kessler, M.d.,commissioner of Food and Drugs, Defendants-appellants.attorneys General of the State of Minnesota; State Ofalaska; State of Arizona; State of Arkansas; State Ofcolorado; State of Connecticut; State of Florida; Stateof Hawaii; State of Illinois; State of Indiana; State Ofiowa; State of Louisiana; State of Kansas; State Ofmaine; State of Maryland; State of Massachusetts; Stateof Michigan; State of Mississippi; State of Missouri;state of Montana; State of Nevada; State of New Hampshire;state of New Jersey; State of New Mexico; State of Newyork; State of North Dakota; State of Ohio; State Ofoklahoma; State of Oregon; State of Pennsylvania; Stateof Rhode Island; State of South Dakota; State of Texas;state of Utah; State of Vermont; State of Washington;state of West Virginia; State of Wisconsin; City Andcounty of San Francisco; Public Citizen; the Americanacademy of Pediatrics; American Cancer Society; Americancollege of Preventive Medicine; American Heart Association;american Lung Association; American Medical Association;american Medical Women's Association; American Publichealth Association; American Society of Addiction Medicine;the Hmo Group; National Association of Elementary Schoolprincipals; National Association of Secondary Schoolprincipals; National Center for Tobacco-free Kids; Stateof Kentucky; Washington Legal Foundation ("wlf"); Marioandretti; Don Garlits; al Unser;
Date: August 14, 1998
Citation: 153 F.3d 155
Friends of the Earth, Incorporated; Citizens Localenvironmental Action Network, Incorporated;sierra Club, Plaintiffs-appellants, v. Laidlaw Environmental Services (toc), Incorporated,defendant-appellee.south Carolina Chamber of Commerce; Environmentalmanagement Association of South Carolina; South Carolinamanufacturers Alliance; California Public Interest Researchgroup; Florida Public Interest Research Group; Illinoispublic Interest Research Group; Massachusetts Publicinterest Research Group; Public Interest Research Group Inmichigan; Public Interest Research Group of New Jersey;ohio Public Interest Research Group; Oregon State Publicinterest Research Group; Washington Public Interestresearch Group; United States of America; South Carolinadepartment of Health and Environmental Control, Amici Curiae.friends of the Earth, Incorporated; Citizens Localenvironmental Action Network, Incorporated;sierra Club, Plaintiffs-appellees, v. Laidlaw Environmental Services (toc), Incorporated,defendant-appellant.south Carolina Chamber of Commerce; Environmentalmanagement Association of South Carolina; South Carolinamanufacturers Alliance; California Public Interest Researchgroup; Florida Public Interest Research Group; Illinoispublic Interest Research Group; Massachusetts Publicinterest Research Group; Public Interest Research Group Inmichigan; Public Interest Research Group of New Jersey;ohio Public Interest Research Group; Oregon State Publicinterest Research Group; Washington Public Interestresearch Group; United States of America; South Carolinadepartment of Health and Environmental Control, Amici Curiae
Date: July 16, 1998
Citation: 149 F.3d 303
Clarence Hines; John Cooke Wilson; Orlando Brinson;khalil Kasson Ali Al-munin; Coy S. Gunter; Lumumba Mumiatafari-i A/k/a Lummie Hearns; Malik Baqi; Tahrim Supremec. Jihad; Kenneth Washington; Salaam A. Hakim A/k/amichael Bailey; Zakariya Abdul Shahid; Ray Charlesdegraffenreid; Maurice Livingston; Demarcus Marshall;hakim Sabur Muhammad; Ras Kolonji Muata Kafele; Williejames Asbury; Mustafa Abdullah A. Al-mujahid; John Michaelgladney; Davis Young; Bruce Scott; Chris Lefever; Dashelstrobert; Vincent Kemp; Larry Bobean; Royce Mauricecollins; John Brinson; Gary L. Moore; Jame A. Khaliq;lester Young; Philip H. Tanner; Michael Landry; Donchellwade Blatch; William R. Smith; Mark T. Larsen; Kahimkhamil Muhammad; Adrian Hicks; Matin Abdul Ali Muntaqima/k/a Marshall L. Land; Yusuf Ahmad Abdullah Muhammad;heyward Harrison, Jr.; Barry Alan Fowler; Raheem Abdullahal-raqib; James B. Patterson; Don Eric Robertson; Tyronemitchell; Omar Abdel al Numit A/k/a John James Bell; Cecilallen Simmons; Joseph T. Jackson; Willie Gary; Kojosoweto Ameen; Malcom Omawale Abdullah; Gerald Garner;quash A. Abbass A/k/a Charles James Lee A/k/a Rush Abdul B.ali Abu Abbass; Gregory L. Fennell; Ras Kolonji Mutatakafele; Edward Bull; Freddie Green; Utamu Mfume; Curtisa. Nicholas; Jimmy L. Belton; Kevin Smith; Ras Njonjo Afikhafre; Frank J. Burgess; Eddie L. Hall; Steven Phillips;theodore Harrison, Jr.; Kevin Smith; Roderick Dennisfolks; Llewellyn Nelson; Lummie Hearins; Shaka Macumbazulu X A/k/a Michael W. Montgomery; Gregory Campbell;gregg L. Ray; Rufus Muldrow; Khayri Abdullah Muhammad;derrell Edwards; Donald Lloyd; Timothy C. Baker; Ahmad M.mujihadin A/k/a Robert Frost; Tafara Moyenda A/k/a Robertfrost; Jerome Williams; Elvis C. Taylor; Everton Bincrosby; William J. Copeland; Owen Henderson; Charlessergio Hagler, Jr.; Colville Brissett; Ahmad Kans Abdulsattar; Marchs A. Joseph; Mikail Abdullah; Ronniebrightman; Terry Michael Cassell, Plaintiffs-appellants,andtommy E. Blackmon; William Whaley; Reginald R. Ferguson;michael Campbell; Van Tyler, Jr.; Ismail Abdurrashid; Mack Allen Davis, Plaintiffs,andunited States of America, Intervenor, v. South Carolina Department of Corrections; State of Southcarolina; David Beasley, Governor; Michael Moore,director, South Carolina Department of Corrections; Omarshaheed; Terry Brooks; Ralph Medlock; Edsel T. Taylor,warden; Robert Ward, Warden; Susan Hilton; John W.porter; Ray Reese; Yohance Moyenda; Lt. Fnu; Sgt. Fitts;deputy Warden Mccants; Warden Montgomery; Bernard Walker,deputy Warden; Marvin T. Jarrett; Riley James; Ricardogrant; Yasin Abdul-hakim; Abreham Peoples; James D.robinson, Asu Supervisor; Geraldine Miro, Warden; Lauriebessinger, Warden; Chaplain Scotland; J.p. Hall; Glynnsherman, Chaplain; Jim Beam, Warden; Oscar Faulkenberry;c.j. Cepak, Warden; Vaughn Jackson; William Weldon,warden; William Davis, Warden; George Martin, Iii, Warden;tony Strawhorn; Sam D. O'kelley; Milan O'bradovich;elaine Robinson, Deputy Warden; Joseph Black, Deputywarden; Philip Mcleod; Larry Batson; Clarence Benjamin;r. Woodberry; Fred Thompson; Officer Martin; N. Mclendon;irc Brown; R. Adams; Morris Elmore; John Pate; Paulbutler; John Maxey; J.d. Wessinger; Frank Maddox;sergeant Casey; T. White; Correctional Officer Manigo; W.richardson; E. Spigner; R. Rice; P. Little; Correctionalofficer Lee; S. Chisholm; N. Mcfadden; S. Muhammad; Garybutts; Six Unknown Correctional Officers, in "riot" Unit;bobby Rutherford; James Savage; Richard Bundrick; Nataliewilliams; William Martin; Terrel Cannon, Sr.; W.richardson; Reggie Rouse; Dr. Boolware, Defendants-appellees.clarence Hines; John Cooke Wilson; Orlando Brinson;khalil Kasson Ali Al-munin; Coy S. Gunter; Lumumba Mumiatafari-i A/k/a Lummie Hearns; Malik Baqi; Tahrim Supremec. Jihad; Kenneth Washington; Salaam A. Hakim A/k/amichael Bailey; Zakariya Abdul Shahid; Ray Charlesdegraffenreid; Maurice Livingston; Demarcus Marshall;hakim Sabur Muhammad; Ras Kolonji Muata Kafele; Williejames Asbury; Mustafa Abdullah A. Al-mujahid; John Michaelgladney; Davis Young; Bruce Scott; Chris Lefever; Dashelstrobe
Date: June 23, 1998
Citation: 148 F.3d 353
Pneumo Abex Corporation; Whitman Corporation; City Ofportsmouth, Virginia, a Municipal Corporation;portsmouth Redevelopment and Housingauthority, Plaintiffs-appellees, v. High Point, Thomasville and Denton Railroad Company,defendant-appellant,norfolk Southern Railway Company; Norfolk & Western Railwaycompany, Defendants & Third Party Plaintiffs-appellants,andcsx Corporation; Erie Lackawanna, Incorporated;consolidated Rail Corporation; Greenlease Holding Company;lake Terminal Rail Company; New York, Susquehanna & Westernrailroad Company; Usx Corporation; John C. Holland, Jr.;cambria & Indiana Railroad Company; Florida East Coastrailway Company, Defendants,csx Transportation, Incorporated; Florida East Coastindustries, Incorporated; Fruit Growers Express Company,incorporated; Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Company,incorporated; Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroadcompany, Incorporated; Union Railroad Company,incorporated; Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad Company,incorporated, Defendants & Third Party Plaintiffs,kaufman & Canoles, P.c., Party in Interest, v. the Runnymede Corporation; Holland Investment Andmanufacturing Company, Incorporated; American Premierunderwriters, Incorporated; Wimco; Wimco Metals,incorporated; Wilmat Holdings, Incorporated; Triangleindustries, Incorporated; Illinois Central Railroadcompany, Third Party Defendants.virginia Manufacturers Association; American Automobilemanufacturers Association; Institute of Scraprecycling Industries, Incorporated,amici Curiae.pneumo Abex Corporation; Whitman Corporation; City Ofportsmouth, Virginia, a Municipal Corporation;portsmouth Redevelopment and Housingauthority, Plaintiffs-appellees, v. Csx Transportation, Incorporated; Fruit Growers Expresscompany, Incorporated, Defendants & Third Partyplaintiffs-appellants,andcsx Corporation; Erie Lackawanna, Incorporated;consolidated Rail Corporation; Greenlease Holding Company;high Point, Thomasville and Denton Railroad Company; Laketerminal Rail Company; New York, Susquehanna & Westernrailroad Company; Usx Corporation; John C. Holland, Jr.;cambria & Indiana Railroad Company; Florida East Coastrailway Company, Defendants,florida East Coast Industries, Incorporated; Norfolksouthern Railway Company, Norfolk & Western Railway Company;pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Company Incorporated;richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad Company,incorporated; Union Railroad Company, Incorporated;bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad Company, Incorporated,defendants & Third Party Plaintiffs,kaufman & Canoles, P.c., Party in Interest, v. the Runnymede Corporation; Holland Investment Andmanufacturing Company, Incorporated; American Premierunderwriters, Incorporated; Wimco; Wimco Metals,incorporated; Wilmat Holdings, Incorporated; Triangleindustries, Incorporated; Illinois Central Railroadcompany, Third Party Defendants.virginia Manufacturers Association; American Automobilemanufacturers Association; Institute of Scraprecycling Industries, Incorporated,amici Curiae.pneumo Abex Corporation; Whitman Corporation; City Ofportsmouth, Virginia, a Municipal Corporation;portsmouth Redevelopment and Housingauthority, Plaintiffs-appellants, v. High Point, Thomasville and Denton Railroad Company,defendant-appellant,csx Transportation, Incorporated; Fruit Growers Expresscompany, Incorporated; Norfolk Southern Railwaycompany; Norfolk & Western Railwaycompany, Defendants & Thirdparty Plaintiffs-appellees,andcsx Corporation; Erie Lackawanna, Incorporated;consolidated Rail Corporation; Greenlease Holding Company;lake Terminal Rail Company; New York, Susquehanna & Westernrailroad Company; Usx Corporation; John C. Holland, Jr.;cambria & Indiana Railroad Company; Florida East Coastrailway Company, Defendants,florida East Coast Industries, Incorporated; Pittsburgh &lake Erie Railroad Company, Incorporated; Richmond,fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad Company, Incorporated;union Railroad Company, Incorporated; Bessemer and Lakeerie Railroad Company, Incorporated, Defendants & Thirdparty Plaintiffs,kaufman & Canoles, P.c., Party in Interest, v. the Runnymede C
Date: April 29, 1998
Citation: 142 F.3d 769
John R. Roy; Gary Waller; David Rhoten; Crystal Galloway;gary W. Holmes; Eric T. Bushey; M.t. Hammond; John R.lillard; David H. Dixon; Gary Semones; Richard Mcmanus;jason Hentz; Patricia H. Dupuis; Curtis Scott Ward; Miketanner; Gary A. Seibert; Robert Mckeever; John L.windhorn; Bobby Daggerhart; Melissa P. Harrison; Jay F.burton; Teresa Hill; Dwight C. Nolff; Thad C. Miller;david W. Shull; David E. David; Patricia H. Barnett;joseph J. Rooney; Kevin G. Hicks; Robbie Kubler; Daltone. Shull, Jr.; John v. Ruff, Jr.; Eric Mcfarland; Jamesgarcia; Cynthia D. Plant; Robert D. Mcclanahan; George E.hardy; Fern Jenkins; Mildred H. Miller; Linda W. Semones;michael K. Kaczmarek; Michael G. Jones; Joey Keisler;rhett Loudenback; Joseph A. Bastedo, Sr.; David C. Hunter;loretta Hunter; Betty Koerner; J. Stuart Platt; Evelynj. Williams; Jacqueline Fink; Jonathon L. Humphrey;carroll W. Bledsoe, Jr.; Jonathan M. Sebring; Alice H.bennett; Tony L. Wingard; Kenneth L. White, Iii; Morrisf. Anderson; Stephen C. Sightler; Jeff Barchus; Anthonybruce Taylor; Tami Leigh Steinlage, Plaintiffs-appellants,anddaniel C. Force; B.l. Burnes; John W. Smith, Plaintiffs, v. County of Lexington, South Carolina, Defendant-appellee.john R. Roy; Gary Waller; David Rhoten; Crystal Galloway;gary W. Holmes; Eric T. Bushey; M.t. Hammond; John R.lillard; David H. Dixon; Gary Semones; Richard Mcmanus;jason Hentz; Patricia H. Dupuis; Curtis Scott Ward; Miketanner; Gary A. Seibert; Robert Mckeever; John L.windhorn; Bobby Daggerhart; Melissa P. Harrison; Jay F.burton; Teresa Hill; Dwight C. Nolff; Thad C. Miller;david W. Shull; David E. David; Patricia H. Barnett;joseph J. Rooney; Kevin G. Hicks; Robbie Kubler; Daltone. Shull, Jr.; John v. Ruff, Jr.; Eric Mcfarland; Jamesgarcia; Cynthia D. Plant; Robert D. Mcclanahan; George E.hardy; Fern Jenkins; Mildred H. Miller; Linda W. Semones;michael K. Kaczmarek; Michael G. Jones; Joey Keisler;rhett Loudenback; Joseph A. Bastedo, Sr.; David C. Hunter;loretta Hunter; Betty Koerner; J. Stuart Platt; Evelynj. Williams; Jacqueline Fink; Jonathon L. Humphrey;carroll W. Bledsoe, Jr.; Jonathan M. Sebring; Alice H.bennett; Tony L. Wingard; Kenneth L. White, Iii; Morrisf. Anderson; Stephen C. Sightler; Jeff Barchus; Anthonybruce Taylor; Tami Leigh Steinlage, Plaintiffs-appellants,anddaniel C. Force; B.l. Burnes; John W. Smith, Plaintiffs, v. County of Lexington, South Carolina, Defendant-appellee
Date: April 14, 1998
Citation: 141 F.3d 533
John M. Asquith; Ricky L. Knowles; Billy D. Randall;wayne H. Williamson; J. Blake Lindsey; Jeffattlessey; John Doe; Mary Roe, Andothers Similarly Situated,plaintiffs-appellees, v. City of Beaufort; Colonel Jesse Altman, Jr., Chief Ofpolice; Jefferson Dowling, Captain; Michael Lee, Sergeant;john Doe, and Other Unnamed Police Officers; David Taub,mayor; Dr. Charles A. Bush; Edie Rogers; Donnie Beer;fred S. Washington, Jr., Members of the City Council; Deanhunter, Beaufort City Manager, in Their Official Capacities;william Rhett; Nancy Rhett; Roger Karr; Neil B. Lipsitz,in Their Individual Capacities, Defendants-appellants.american Alliance for Rights and Responsibilities, Amicus Curiae.george Daughety; Richard Simpson; Calvary Baptist Church,plaintiffs-appellees, v. City of Beaufort; David Taub, Mayor; Dr. Charles A. Bush;colonel Jesse Altman, Jr., Chief of Police; Edie Rogers;donnie Beer; Fred S. Washington, Jr., Members of the Citycouncil; Dean Hunter, Beaufort City Manager, Defendants-appellants.american Alliance for Rights and Responsibilities, Amicus Curiae.william Bradley Lindsey, Through His Guardian Ad Litemjeffery Blake Lindsey, Plaintiffs-appellees, v. City of Beaufort; William R. Neal, Chief of Police;jefferson Dowling, Captain; Brad Payne, Officer; Unnamedpolice Officers; David Taub, Mayor; Dr. Charles A. Bush;edie Rodgers; Donnie Beer; Fred S. Washington, Jr.,members of the City Council; Dean Hunter, Beaufort Citymanager, All in Their Official Capacities, Defendants-appellants.american Alliance for Rights and Responsibilites, Amicus Curiae
Date: March 19, 1998
Citation: 139 F.3d 408
John D. West, on Behalf of Himself and All Other Employeesof Anne Arundel County Maryland Similarly Situated, et Al;marianne C. Anderson; Michael C. Andresky; Susan L.bailey; Brian L. Bond; Charles W. Boyer; Richard A.brock; Daniel Brown; Anthony W. Burke, Sr.; Tracy L.burke; Guy Steven Childers; Kim J. Cissna; Riccardocolella; Larry P. Collison; Michael Albert Connor;michael E. Cox, Jr.; Timothy Crawford; Arnita Y. Dunham;michele Delalla; Grafton G. Deitz, Jr.; James H. Edwards,jr.; Mara L. Eicens; Wayne Eisenhardt; Karen Estepp;douglas G. Fishel, Jr.; Terry A. Gero; James L. Glime;james E. Goetz; Jeffrey P. Gormley; John Greene; Kathleend. Grote; Russell Lloyd Harris; Sharon M. Henry; Michaezwilliam Herz; Lisa A. Housand; Joseph M. Huber; Williamw. Isennock; Daniel L. Jarzynski; C. Edward Jett; Robertfrederick Johnson; Stephen E. Jones; Richard Allen Joy;clifford C. Kooser, Ii; James David Kruger; Douglas P.marshall; Michael J. Marsiglia; William L. Merson;timothy L. Mikules; Michael Steven Moore, Jr.; Greg A.novak; George L. Pfeffer, Jr.; Noldon Pope; Mark Stevenpraschak; Patrick O. Prendergast; Carol Ann Rabinowitz;cynthia E. Ray; Hurshel W. Shank, Jr.; Cecilia W.sledgeski; Gregory Lee Smith, Iii; Randolph S. Spies;thomas Stag; Peter G. Staley; Logan Starr, Sr.; Frank R.stamm; David Sterling; Michael Swain; Keith D. Swindle;john Steven Thompson; Timothy Aldyn Tucker; Robert T.vaccaro, Jr.; Robert Valderas; Marcus D. Wallace; Williamh. Ward; Khris Edwin Wildt; William Mark Wilhelm; Davidk. Williams; Raymond J. Schmidt; Kimberly S. Schneider;michael Andrew Smith; John B. Wellman; Robert A. Harsh;robert Anthony Mead; James Carroll Rostek, Sr.; Rand J.lindgren; Raymond Gene Cullison, Jr.; Dawn Rodriguez;david R. Klinger; William H. Phillips; Bruce E. Fritz;charles Edward Yetter; R. Thomas Crow, Ii; Debbieschueler; William A. Cooper, Jr.; Steven K. Frye; Michaelc. Huffman; Joseph M. Jordan; David James Geslois;russell E. Davies, Jr.; Erick A. Esker; Donald Weigel;ralph David Ritchie; Kenneth S. Banke; Jeannie Squillaci;harry Joseph Joyave; Michael B. Ladd; William L. Bethea,iii; John E. Lamb; Daniel T. Woolston; Patrick J.carmody; Clarence Gerard Hayes; Brett J. Howe, Plaintiffs-appellees,united States of America, Intervenor, v. Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Defendant-appellant,city of Baltimore, Maryland, Amicus Curiae.john D. West, on Behalf of Himself and All Other Employeesof Anne Arundel County Maryland Similarly Situated, et Al;marianne C. Anderson; Michael C. Andresky; Susan L.bailey; Brian L. Bond; Charles W. Boyer; Richard A.brock; Daniel Brown; Anthony W. Burke, Sr.; Tracy L.burke; Guy Steven Childers; Kim J. Cissna; Riccardocolella; Larry P. Collison; Michael Albert Connor;michael E. Cox, Jr.; Timothy Crawford; Arnita Y. Dunham;michele Delalla; Grafton G. Deitz, Jr.; James H. Edwards,jr.; Mara L. Eicens; Wayne Eisenhardt; Karen Estepp;douglas G. Fishel, Jr.; Terry A. Gero; James L. Glime;james E. Goetz; Jeffrey P. Gormley; John Greene; Kathleend. Grote; Russell Lloyd Harris; Sharon M. Henry; Michaezwilliam Herz; Lisa A. Housand; Joseph M. Huber; Williamw. Isennock; Daniel L. Jarzynski; C. Edward Jett; Robertfrederick Johnson; Stephen E. Jones; Richard Allen Joy;clifford C. Kooser, Ii; James David Kruger; Douglas P.marshall; Michael J. Marsiglia; William L. Merson;timothy L. Mikules; Michael Steven Moore, Jr.; Greg A.novak; George L. Pfeffer, Jr.; Noldon Pope; Mark Stevenpraschak; Patrick O. Prendergast; Carol Ann Rabinowitz;cynthia E. Ray; Hurshel W. Shank, Jr.; Cecilia W.sledgeski; Gregory Lee Smith, Iii; Randolph S. Spies;thomas Stag; Peter G. Staley; Logan Starr, Sr.; Frank R.stamm; David Sterling; Michael Swain; Keith D. Swindle;john Steven Thompson; Timothy Aldyn Tucker; Robert T.vaccaro, Jr.; Robert Valderas; Marcus D. Wallace; Williamh. Ward; Khris Edwin Wildt; William Mark Wilhelm; Davidk. Williams; Raymond J. Schmidt; Kimberly S. Schneider;michael Andrew Smith; John B. Wellman; Robert A. Harsh;robert Anthony Mead; James Carroll Rostek, Sr.; Rand J.lindgren; Raymond Gene Cullison, Jr.; Dawn Rodriguez;d
Date: February 18, 1998
Citation: 137 F.3d 752
United States of America; Nancy Mellette, Plaintiffs-appellees,shannon Richey Faulkner, Individually and on Behalf of Allothers Similarly Situated, Plaintiff, v. James E. Jones, Jr., Chairman, Board of Visitors of Thecitadel, the Military College of South Carolina; Carroll A.campbell, Jr., Governor of the State of South Carolina; T.easton Marchant, Adjutant General of the State of Southcarolina; Barbara S. Nielsen, Superintendent of Educationof the State of South Carolina; William F. Prioleau, Jr.;william E. Jenkinson, Iii; Leonard C. Fulghum, Jr.; Jamesm. Leland, Jr.; John A. Mcallister, Jr.; David S. Boyd,jr.; Julian G. Frasier, Iii; James W. Bradin; Larry J.ferguson; Steven D. Peper, Members of the Board of Visitorsof the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina;wallace I. West, Jr., Director of Admissions and Recruitingat the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina;claudius E. Watts, Iii, President of the Citadel, Themilitary College of South Carolina, in Their Officialcapacities; State of South Carolina; the Citadel, Themilitary College of South Carolina; the Board of Visitorsof the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina,defendants-appellants.nancy Mellette, Plaintiff-appellant,shannon Richey Faulkner, Individually and on Behalf of Allothers Similarly Situated; United States Ofamerica, Plaintiffs, v. James E. Jones, Jr., Chairman, Board of Visitors of Thecitadel, the Military College of South Carolina; Carroll A.campbell, Jr., Governor of the State of South Carolina; T.easton Marchant, Adjutant General of the State of Southcarolina; Barbara S. Nielsen, Superintendent of Educationof the State of South Carolina; William F. Prioleau, Jr.;william E. Jenkinson, Iii; Leonard C. Fulghum, Jr.; Jamesm. Leland, Jr.; John A. Mcallister, Jr.; David S. Boyd,jr.; Julian G. Frasier, Iii; James W. Bradin; Larry J.ferguson; Steven D. Peper, Members of the Board of Visitorsof the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina;wallace I. West, Jr., Director of Admissions and Recruitingat the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina;claudius E. Watts, Iii, President of the Citadel, Themilitary College of South Carolina, in Their Officialcapacities; State of South Carolina; the Citadel, Themilitary College of South Carolina; the Board of Visitorsof the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina,defendants-appellees
Date: February 11, 1998
Citation: 136 F.3d 342