The Alabama Supreme Court was created by Article VI, Section 139 of the Alabama Constitution. In addition to reviewing appeals from lower courts and the Alabama Public Service Commission, the Alabama Supreme Court has the authority to review disputes that involve an amount in controversy greater than $50,000, if no other Alabama court has jurisdiction over the dispute. Article IV, Section 140 of the Alabama Constitution describes the organization of the Court and the scope of its jurisdiction.
The nine justices on the Court, including the Chief Justice, are elected for six-year terms. To be eligible, a candidate must be no older than 70, licensed to practice in Alabama, and a resident of Alabama for at least one year. If a justice retires, resigns, dies, or is removed from office before the end of their term, the Governor of Alabama will appoint a replacement. To retain their seat, that justice must run in the next general election that is at least one year after they are appointed. Removing a justice requires either an impeachment procedure or an investigation by the Judicial Inquiry Commission that results in a complaint filed with the Alabama Court of the Judiciary.
The Alabama Supreme Court has issued many rules that control procedures and practices in courts throughout the state. These include rules of evidence, civil procedure, appellate procedure, judicial administration, and disciplinary procedure, among other rules. The Court also has issued seven canons of judicial ethics to govern the actions of judges in the state.