2005 Texas Local Government Code CHAPTER 54. ENFORCEMENT OF MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES


LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE
CHAPTER 54. ENFORCEMENT OF MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES
SUBCHAPTER A. GENERAL PROVISIONS
§ 54.001. GENERAL ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY OF MUNICIPALITIES; PENALTY. (a) The governing body of a municipality may enforce each rule, ordinance, or police regulation of the municipality and may punish a violation of a rule, ordinance, or police regulation. (b) A fine or penalty for the violation of a rule, ordinance, or police regulation may not exceed $500. However, a fine or penalty for the violation of a rule, ordinance, or police regulation that governs fire safety, zoning, or public health and sanitation, including dumping of refuse, may not exceed $2,000. (c) This section applies to a municipality regardless of any contrary provision in a municipal charter. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. Amended by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1, § 7(a), 87(e), eff. Aug. 28, 1989. § 54.002. IMPOSITION OF FINE IN TYPE B GENERAL-LAW MUNICIPALITY. (a) The governing body of a Type B general-law municipality may prescribe the fine for the violation of a municipal bylaw or ordinance. (b) If a defendant in a Type B general-law municipality demands a jury trial, the fine may be imposed only on the verdict of a jury. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.003. REMISSION OF FINE BY TYPE A GENERAL-LAW MUNICIPALITY. On a two-thirds vote of the members present, the governing body of a Type A general-law municipality may remit a fine or a penalty, or a part of a fine or penalty, imposed or incurred under law or under an ordinance or resolution adopted in accordance with law. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.004. PRESERVATION OF HEALTH, PROPERTY, GOOD GOVERNMENT, AND ORDER IN HOME-RULE MUNICIPALITY. A home-rule municipality may enforce ordinances necessary to protect health, life, and property and to preserve the good government, order, and security of the municipality and its inhabitants. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.005. NOTICES TO CERTAIN PROPERTY OWNERS. (a) A governmental entity that is required by statute, rule, regulation, or ordinance to send a notice to an owner of real property for the purpose of enforcing a municipal ordinance may include the following statement in the notice: "According to the real property records of _____________ County, you own the real property described in this notice. If you no longer own the property, you must execute an affidavit stating that you no longer own the property and stating the name and last known address of the person who acquired the property from you. The affidavit must be delivered in person or by certified mail, return receipt requested, to this office not later than the 20th day after the date you receive this notice. If you do not send the affidavit, it will be presumed that you own the property described in this notice, even if you do not." The notice must be delivered in person or by certified mail, return receipt requested. (b) If a governmental entity sends a notice to the owner of the property to which the notice relates, as shown on or after the 10th day before the date notice is sent by the real property records of the county in which the property is located, and the record owner no longer owns the property, the record owner shall execute an affidavit provided with the notice by the governmental entity stating: (1) that the record owner no longer owns the property; and (2) the name and last known address of the person who acquired the property from the record owner. (c) The record owner shall deliver the affidavit in person or by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the governmental entity not later than the 20th day after the date the record owner receives the notice. (d) If the governmental entity receives an affidavit under Subsection (c), the governmental entity shall send the appropriate notice to the person named in the affidavit as having acquired the property. A notice sent under this subsection must include the statement authorized by Subsection (a). (e) A governmental entity that receives an affidavit under Subsection (c) shall: (1) maintain the affidavit on file for at least two years after the date the entity receives the affidavit; and (2) deliver a copy of the affidavit to the chief appraiser of the appraisal district in which the property is located. (f) A governmental entity is considered to have provided notice to a property owner if the entity complies with the statute, rule, regulation, or ordinance under which the notice is sent and if it: (1) complies with Subsection (a) and does not receive an affidavit from the record owner; or (2) complies with Subsection (d) and does not receive an affidavit from the person to whom the notice was sent under Subsection (d). (g) If a governmental entity complies with this section and does not receive an affidavit under Subsection (c), the record owner is presumed to be the owner of the property for all purposes to which the notice relates. (h) For purposes of this section, "real property" does not include a mineral interest or royalty interest. Added by Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., ch. 486, § 1, eff. Aug. 26, 1991. § 54.006. NONSEVERABILITY OF CERTAIN CONSOLIDATED OFFENSES. Section 3.04(a), Penal Code, does not apply to two or more offenses consolidated or joined for trial under Section 3.02, Penal Code, if each of the offenses is: (1) for the violation of an ordinance described by Section 54.012; (2) punishable by fine only; and (3) tried in a municipal court, regardless of whether the court is a municipal court of record. Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 4, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.
SUBCHAPTER B. MUNICIPAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ORDINANCES
§ 54.012. CIVIL ACTION. A municipality may bring a civil action for the enforcement of an ordinance: (1) for the preservation of public safety, relating to the materials or methods used to construct a building or other structure or improvement, including the foundation, structural elements, electrical wiring or apparatus, plumbing and fixtures, entrances, or exits; (2) relating to the preservation of public health or to the fire safety of a building or other structure or improvement, including provisions relating to materials, types of construction or design, interior configuration, illumination, warning devices, sprinklers or other fire suppression devices, availability of water supply for extinguishing fires, or location, design, or width of entrances or exits; (3) for zoning that provides for the use of land or classifies a parcel of land according to the municipality's district classification scheme; (4) establishing criteria for land subdivision or construction of buildings, including provisions relating to street width and design, lot size, building width or elevation, setback requirements, or utility service specifications or requirements; (5) implementing civil penalties under this subchapter for conduct classified by statute as a Class C misdemeanor; (6) relating to dangerously damaged or deteriorated structures or improvements; (7) relating to conditions caused by accumulations of refuse, vegetation, or other matter that creates breeding and living places for insects and rodents; (8) relating to the interior configuration, design, illumination, or visibility of business premises exhibiting for viewing by customers while on the premises live or mechanically or electronically displayed entertainment intended to provide sexual stimulation or sexual gratification; or (9) relating to point source effluent limitations or the discharge of a pollutant, other than from a non-point source, into a sewer system, including a sanitary or storm water sewer system, owned or controlled by the municipality. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. Amended by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 343, § 1, eff. June 14, 1989; Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., ch. 753, § 3, eff. June 16, 1991; Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 472, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. § 54.013. JURISDICTION; VENUE. Jurisdiction and venue of an action under this subchapter are in the district court or the county court at law of the county in which the municipality bringing the action is located. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.014. PREFERENTIAL SETTING. If the municipality submits to the court a verified motion that includes facts that demonstrate that a delay will unreasonably endanger persons or property, the court shall give a preference to the action brought by the municipality when setting cases filed under this subchapter. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.015. PROCEDURE. (a) The only allegations required to be pleaded in an action brought under this subchapter are: (1) the identification of the real property involved in the violation; (2) the relationship of the defendant to the real property or activity involved in the violation; (3) a citation to the applicable ordinance; (4) a description of the violation; and (5) a statement that this subchapter applies to the ordinance. (b) The standard of proof is the same as for other suits for extraordinary relief. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.016. INJUNCTION. (a) On a showing of substantial danger of injury or an adverse health impact to any person or to the property of any person other than the defendant, the municipality may obtain against the owner or owner's representative with control over the premises an injunction that: (1) prohibits specific conduct that violates the ordinance; and (2) requires specific conduct that is necessary for compliance with the ordinance. (b) It is not necessary for the municipality to prove that another adequate remedy or penalty for a violation does not exist or to show that prosecution in a criminal action has occurred or has been attempted. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.017. CIVIL PENALTY. (a) In a suit against the owner or the owner's representative with control over the premises, the municipality may recover a civil penalty if it proves that: (1) the defendant was actually notified of the provisions of the ordinance; and (2) after the defendant received notice of the ordinance provisions, the defendant committed acts in violation of the ordinance or failed to take action necessary for compliance with the ordinance. (b) A civil penalty under this section may not exceed $1,000 a day for a violation of an ordinance, except that a civil penalty under this section may not exceed $5,000 a day for a violation of an ordinance relating to point source effluent limitations or the discharge of a pollutant, other than from a non-point source, into a sewer system, including a sanitary or storm water sewer system, owned or controlled by the municipality. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 472, § 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. § 54.018. ACTION FOR REPAIR OR DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURE. (a) The municipality may bring an action to compel the repair or demolition of a structure or to obtain approval to remove the structure and recover removal costs. (b) In an action under this section, the municipality may also bring a claim for civil penalties under Section 54.017. (c) The municipality may file a notice of lis pendens in the office of the county clerk. If the municipality files the notice, a subsequent purchaser or mortgagee who acquires an interest in the property takes the property subject to the enforcement proceeding and subsequent orders of the court. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987. § 54.019. IMPRISONMENT; CONTEMPT. (a) A person is not subject to personal attachment or imprisonment for the failure to pay a civil penalty assessed under this subchapter. (b) This subchapter does not affect the power of a court to imprison a person for contempt of valid court orders or the availability of remedies or procedures for the collection of a judgment assessing civil penalties. The remedies under Section 31.002, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, are preserved. Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 149, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1987.
SUBCHAPTER C. QUASI-JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY ORDINANCES
§ 54.031. SUBCHAPTER APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN MUNICIPALITIES. This subchapter applies to a municipality that by ordinance implements the subchapter. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., ch. 753, § 5, eff. June 16, 1991. § 54.032. ORDINANCES SUBJECT TO QUASI-JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT. This subchapter applies only to ordinances: (1) for the preservation of public safety, relating to the materials or methods used to construct a building or improvement, including the foundation, structural elements, electrical wiring or apparatus, plumbing and fixtures, entrances, or exits; (2) relating to the fire safety of a building or improvement, including provisions relating to materials, types of construction or design, warning devices, sprinklers or other fire suppression devices, availability of water supply for extinguishing fires, or location, design, or width of entrances or exits; (3) relating to dangerously damaged or deteriorated buildings or improvements; (4) relating to conditions caused by accumulations of refuse, vegetation, or other matter that creates breeding and living places for insects and rodents; or (5) relating to a building code or to the condition, use, or appearance of property in a municipality. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 582, § 1, eff. June 2, 1997. § 54.033. BUILDING AND STANDARDS COMMISSION. (a) The governing body of the municipality may provide for the appointment of a building and standards commission to hear and determine cases concerning alleged violations of ordinances. (b) A commission appointed for the purpose of hearing cases under this subchapter shall consist of one or more panels, each composed of at least five members, to be appointed for terms of two years. (c) The appointing authority may remove a commission member for cause on a written charge. Before a decision regarding removal is made, the appointing authority must hold a public hearing on the matter if requested by the commission member subject to the removal action. (d) A vacancy shall be filled for the unexpired term. (e) The governing body, by charter or ordinance, may provide for the appointment of eight or more alternate members of the commission who shall serve in the absence of one or more regular members when requested to do so by the mayor or city manager. The alternate members serve for the same period and are subject to removal in the same manner as the regular members. A vacancy is filled in the same manner as a vacancy among the regular members. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 3, eff. Sept. 1, 2001. § 54.034. PROCEEDINGS OF COMMISSION PANELS. (a) All cases to be heard by the commission may be heard by any panel of the commission. A majority of the members of a panel must hear a case. (b) A majority of the entire commission shall adopt rules for the entire commission in accordance with any ordinances adopted pursuant to this subchapter. The rules shall establish procedures for use in hearings, providing ample opportunity for presentation of evidence and testimony by respondents or persons opposing charges brought by the municipality or its building officials relating to alleged violations of ordinances. (c) The governing body of the municipality by ordinance shall designate the appropriate official of the municipality who shall present all cases before the commission panels. (d) Meetings of the commission panels shall be held at the call of the chairman of each panel and at other times as determined by the commission. All meetings of the commission and its panels shall be open to the public. Each chairman of a panel, or in the chairman's absence each acting chairman, may administer oaths and compel the attendance of witnesses. (e) Each commission panel shall keep minutes of its proceedings showing the vote of each member on each question or the fact that a member is absent or fails to vote. Each commission panel shall keep records of its examinations and other official actions. The minutes and records shall be filed immediately in the office of the commission as public records. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 2, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 5, eff. Sept. 1, 2001. § 54.035. NOTICE. (a) Notice of all proceedings before the commission panels must be given: (1) by personal delivery or by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the record owners of the affected property, and each holder of a recorded lien against the affected property, as shown by the records in the office of the county clerk of the county in which the affected property is located if the address of the lienholder can be ascertained from the deed of trust establishing the lien and/or other applicable instruments on file in the office of the county clerk; and (2) to all unknown owners, by posting a copy of the notice on the front door of each improvement situated on the affected property or as close to the front door as practicable. (b) The notice must be posted and either personally delivered or mailed on or before the 10th day before the date of the hearing before the commission panel and must state the date, time, and place of the hearing. In addition, the notice must be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality on one occasion on or before the 10th day before the date fixed for the hearing. (c) The commission may file notice of a proceeding before a commission panel in the Official Public Records of Real Property in the county in which the affected property is located. The notice must contain the name and address of the owner of the affected property if that information can be determined from a reasonable search of the instruments on file in the office of the county clerk, a legal description of the affected property, and a description of the proceeding. The filing of the notice is binding on subsequent grantees, lienholders, or other transferees of an interest in the property who acquire such interest after the filing of the notice and constitutes notice of the proceeding on any subsequent recipient of any interest in the property who acquires such interest after the filing of the notice. (d) A municipality must exercise due diligence to determine the identity and address of a property owner or lienholder to whom the municipality is required to give notice. (e) A municipality exercises due diligence in determining the identity and address of a property owner or lienholder when it searches the following records: (1) county real property records of the county in which the property is located; (2) appraisal district records of the appraisal district in which the property is located; (3) records of the secretary of state, if the property owner or lienholder is a corporation, partnership, or other business association; (4) assumed name records of the county in which the property is located; (5) tax records of the municipality; and (6) utility records of the municipality. (f) When a municipality mails a notice in accordance with this section to a property owner or lienholder and the United States Postal Service returns the notice as "refused" or "unclaimed," the validity of the notice is not affected, and the notice is considered delivered. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 3, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 6, eff. Sept. 1, 2001. § 54.036. FUNCTIONS. A commission panel may: (1) order the repair, within a fixed period, of buildings found to be in violation of an ordinance; (2) declare a building substandard in accordance with the powers granted by this subchapter; (3) order, in an appropriate case, the immediate removal of persons or property found on private property, enter on private property to secure the removal if it is determined that conditions exist on the property that constitute a violation of an ordinance, and order action to be taken as necessary to remedy, alleviate, or remove any substandard building found to exist; (4) issue orders or directives to any peace officer of the state, including a sheriff or constable or the chief of police of the municipality, to enforce and carry out the lawful orders or directives of the commission panel; (5) determine the amount and duration of the civil penalty the municipality may recover as provided by Section 54.017. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 4, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. § 54.037. CIVIL PENALTY. (a) A determination made under Section 54.036(5) is final and binding and constitutes prima facie evidence of the penalty in any court of competent jurisdiction in a civil suit brought by the municipality for final judgment in accordance with the established penalty. (b) To enforce any civil penalty under this subchapter, the municipal secretary or clerk must file with the district clerk of the county in which the municipality is located, a certified copy of the order of the commission panel establishing the amount and duration of the penalty. No other proof is required for a district court to enter final judgment on the penalty. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 5, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. § 54.038. VOTE. A majority vote of the members voting on a matter is necessary to take any action under this subchapter and any ordinance adopted by the municipality in accordance with this subchapter. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 6, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 7, eff. Sept. 1, 2001. § 54.039. JUDICIAL REVIEW. (a) Any owner, lienholder, or mortgagee of record jointly or severally aggrieved by any decision of a commission panel may present a petition to a district court, duly verified, setting forth that the decision is illegal, in whole or in part, and specifying the grounds of the illegality. The petition must be presented to the court within 30 calendar days after the date a copy of the final decision of the commission panel is personally delivered or mailed by first class mail, certified return receipt requested, to all persons to whom notice is required to be sent under Section 54.035. The commission panel shall personally deliver or mail that copy promptly after the decision becomes final. In addition, an abbreviated copy of the order shall be published one time in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality within 10 calendar days after the date of the delivery or mailing of the copy as provided by this subsection, including the street address or legal description of the property; the date of the hearing, a brief statement indicating the results of the order, and instructions stating where a complete copy of the order may be obtained, and, except in a municipality with a population of 1.9 million or more, a copy shall be filed in the office of the municipal secretary or clerk. (b) On presentation of the petition, the court may allow a writ of certiorari directed to the commission panel to review the decision of the commission panel and shall prescribe in the writ the time, which may not be less than 10 days, within which a return on the writ must be made and served on the relator or the relator's attorney. (c) The commission panel may not be required to return the original papers acted on by it. It is sufficient for the commission panel to return certified or sworn copies of the papers or of parts of the papers as may be called for by the writ. (d) The return must concisely set forth other facts as may be pertinent and material to show the grounds for the decision appealed from and shall be verified. (e) The allowance of the writ does not stay proceedings on the decision appealed from. (f) The district court's review shall be limited to a hearing under the substantial evidence rule. The court may reverse or affirm, in whole or in part, or may modify the decision brought up for review. (g) Costs may not be allowed against the commission panel. (h) If the decision of the commission panel is affirmed or not substantially reversed but only modified, the district court shall allow to the municipality all attorney's fees and other costs and expenses incurred by it and shall enter a judgment for those items, which may be entered against the property owners as well as all persons found to be in occupation of the property subject to the proceedings before the commission panel. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 7, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 8, eff. Sept. 1, 2001; Acts 2003, 78th Leg., ch. 701, § 1, eff. Sept. 1, 2003. § 54.040. LIEN; ABSTRACT. (a) An abstract of judgment shall be issued against all parties found to be the owners of the subject property or in possession of that property. (b) A lienholder does not have standing to bring a proceeding under Section 54.039 on the ground that the lienholder was not notified of the proceedings before the commission panel or was unaware of the condition of the property, unless the lienholder had first appeared before the commission panel and entered an appearance in opposition to the proceedings. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 8, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. § 54.041. COMMISSION PANEL DECISION FINAL. If no appeals are taken from the decision of the commission panel within the required period, the decision of the commission panel is, in all things, final and binding. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 836, § 9, eff. Sept. 1, 1993. § 54.042. MUNICIPAL COURT PROCEEDING NOT AFFECTED. This subchapter does not affect the ability of a municipality to proceed under the jurisdiction of the municipal court. Added by Acts 1989, 71st Leg., ch. 1113, § 1, eff. Aug. 28, 1989. § 54.043. ALTERNATIVE ADJUDICATION PROCESSES. A municipality by ordinance may adopt a civil adjudication process, as an alternative to the enforcement process prescribed by the other provisions of this subchapter, for the enforcement of ordinances described by Section 54.032. The alternative process must contain provisions relating to notice, the conduct of proceedings, permissible orders, penalties, and judicial review that are similar to the provisions of this subchapter. Added by Acts 1997, 75th Leg., ch. 582, § 2, eff. June 2, 1997. § 54.044. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING. (a) As an alternative to the enforcement processes described by this subchapter, a municipality by ordinance may adopt a procedure for an administrative adjudication hearing under which an administrative penalty may be imposed for the enforcement of an ordinance described by Section 54.032 or adopted under Section 214.001(a)(1). (b) A procedure adopted under this section must entitle the person charged with violating an ordinance to a hearing and must provide for: (1) the period during which a hearing shall be held; (2) the appointment of a hearing officer with authority to administer oaths and issue orders compelling the attendance of witnesses and the production of documents; and (3) the amount and disposition of administrative penalties, costs, and fees. (c) A municipal court may enforce an order of a hearing officer compelling the attendance of a witness or the production of a document. (d) A citation or summons issued as part of a procedure adopted under this section must: (1) notify the person charged with violating the ordinance that the person has the right to a hearing; and (2) provide information as to the time and place of the hearing. (e) The original or a copy of the summons or citation shall be kept as a record in the ordinary course of business of the municipality and is rebuttable proof of the facts it states. (f) The person who issued the citation or summons is not required to attend a hearing under this section. (g) A person charged with violating an ordinance who fails to appear at a hearing authorized under this section is considered to admit liability for the violation charged. (h) At a hearing under this section, the hearing officer shall issue an order stating: (1) whether the person charged with violating an ordinance is liable for the violation; and (2) the amount of a penalty, cost, or fee assessed against the person. (i) An order issued under this section may be filed with the clerk or secretary of the municipality. The clerk or secretary shall keep the order in a separate index and file. The order may be recorded using microfilm, microfiche, or data processing techniques. (j) An order issued under this section against a person charged with an ordinance violation may be enforced by: (1) filing a civil suit for the collection of a penalty assessed against the person; and (2) obtaining an injunction that: (A) prohibits specific conduct that violates the ordinance; or (B) requires specific conduct necessary for compliance with the ordinance. (k) A person who is found by a hearing officer to have violated an ordinance may appeal the determination by filing a petition in municipal court before the 31st day after the date the hearing officer's determination is filed. An appeal does not stay enforcement and collection of the judgment unless the person, before filing the appeal, posts a bond with an agency designated for that purpose by the municipality. Added by Acts 2001, 77th Leg., ch. 413, § 9, eff. Sept. 1, 2001.

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