2010 Illinois Code
CHAPTER 765 PROPERTY
765 ILCS 5/ Conveyances Act.

    (765 ILCS 5/0.01) (from Ch. 30, par. 0.01)
    Sec. 0.01. Short title. This Act may be cited as the Conveyances Act.
(Source: P.A. 86‑1324.)

    (765 ILCS 5/1) (from Ch. 30, par. 1)
    Sec. 1. Livery of seizin shall in no case be necessary for the conveyance of real property; but every deed, mortgage or other conveyance in writing, not procured by duress, and signed by the party making the same, the maker or makers being of full age and sound mind, shall be sufficient, without livery of seizin, for the giving, granting, selling, mortgaging, leasing or otherwise conveying or transferring any lands, tenements or hereditaments in this state, so as, to all intents and purposes, absolutely and fully to vest in every donee, grantee, bargainee, mortgagee, lessee or purchaser, all such estate or estates as shall be specified in any such deed, mortgage, lease or other conveyance. Nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to divest or defeat the older or better estate or right of any person or persons, not party to any such deed, mortgage, lease, or other conveyance.
(Source: P.A. 80‑660.)

    (765 ILCS 5/2) (from Ch. 30, par. 2)
    Sec. 2. Every estate, gift, grant, deed, mortgage, lease, release, or confirmation of lands, tenements, rents, services or hereditaments made or had, or hereafter to be made or had, by any person or persons, being of full age and sound mind, and not procured by duress, to any person or persons, and all recoveries, judgments and enforcements had or made, or to be had or made, shall be good and effectual to him, her or them to whom it is or shall be so made, had or given, and to all others, to his, her or their use, against the judgment debtor, seller, donor, grantor, mortgagor, lessor, releasor, or confirmor, and against his, her or their heirs, claiming the same only as heir or heirs, and each of them, and against all others having or claiming any title or interest in the same, only to the use of the same judgment debtor, seller, donor, grantor, mortgagor, lessor, releasor or confirmor, or his, her or their heirs, at the time of the judgment, enforcement, bargain, sale, mortgage, covenant, lease, release, gift or grant made.
(Source: P.A. 84‑546.)

    (765 ILCS 5/3) (from Ch. 30, par. 3)
    Sec. 3. Where any person or persons be the owner of, or at any time hereafter shall be the owner of and in any premises, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, remainders, or other hereditaments, to the use, confidence or trust of any other person or persons, or of any body politic, by reason of any bargain, sale, fine, recovery, covenant, contract, agreement, will or otherwise, by any manner of means whatsoever, in every such case all and every such person or persons, and bodies politic, that have or hereafter shall have any such use, confidence or trust, in fee simple, for term of life, or for years or otherwise, or any use, confidence or trust in remainder or reversion, shall from thenceforth be the owner of, deemed and adjudged in lawful ownership, estate and possession of and in the same premises, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, remainders and hereditaments, with their appurtenances, to all intents, constructions and purposes in law of and in such like estates, as they had or shall have in use, confidence or trust of or in the same; and that the estate, right, title and possession that was or shall be in such person or persons that were or hereafter shall be the owner of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, to the use, confidence or trust of any such person or persons, or of any body politic, be from henceforth clearly deemed and adjudged to be in him, her or them that have or hereafter shall have such use, confidence or trust, after such quality, manner, form and condition as they had before, in or to the use, confidence or trust that was or shall be in them.
(Source: P.A. 80‑660.)

    (765 ILCS 5/4) (from Ch. 30, par. 4)
    Sec. 4. Any person claiming right or title to lands, tenements or hereditaments, although he, she or they may be out of possession, and notwithstanding there may be an adverse possession thereof, may sell, convey and transfer his or her interest in and to the same, in as full and complete a manner as if he or she were in the actual possession of the lands and premises intended to be conveyed; and the grantee or grantees shall have the same right of action for the recovery thereof, and shall in all respects derive the same benefit and advantage therefrom, as if the grantor or grantors had been in the actual possession at the time of executing the conveyance.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/4a) (from Ch. 30, par. 4a)
    Sec. 4a. Any person claiming any right, title, or interest in and to lands, tenements or hereditaments, under and by virtue of a title derived solely through a tax deed, whether he, she or they may be in or out of actual possession, shall not sell, convey or transfer his, her or their right, title and interest in and to the same by deed or conveyance, unless a legal description, sufficient to identify said lands, tenements or hereditaments by lot, when subdivided, and by tract or parcel when unsubdivided, is set out in said deed or conveyance.
    Any deed or conveyance hereinafter attempted to be made in which the right, title or interest sought to be conveyed was or is derived solely through a tax deed which does not conform to the provisions of this act shall be void and of no effect in law.
(Source: Laws 1929, p. 278.)

    (765 ILCS 5/5.1) (from Ch. 30, par. 4a.1)
    Sec. 5.1. In the event it is necessary to record or file a deed with an attached rider, such rider shall be permanently attached as an additional page on the back of the deed so as to facilitate any photostating, microfilming or other photographic process of reproduction of such deed and rider. Failure to comply with this Section shall not invalidate such instrument and the recordation thereof shall not be refused on such account.
(Source: Laws 1961, p. 2433.)

    (765 ILCS 5/6) (from Ch. 30, par. 5)
    Sec. 6. In cases where, by the common law, any person or persons might hereafter become the owner of, without applying the rule of property known as the rule in Shelley's Case, in fee tail, of any lands, tenements or hereditaments, by virtue of any legacy, gift, grant or other conveyance, hereafter to be made, or by any other means whatsoever, such person or persons, instead of being or becoming the owner thereof in fee tail, shall be deemed and adjudged to be, and become the owner thereof, for his or her natural life only, and the remainder shall pass in fee simple absolute, to the person or persons to whom the estate tail would, on the death of the first grantee, legatee or donee in tail, first pass, according to the course of the common law, by virtue of such legacy, gift, grant or conveyance.
(Source: P.A. 83‑388.)

    (765 ILCS 5/7) (from Ch. 30, par. 6)
    Sec. 7. If any person shall sell and convey to another, by deed or conveyance, purporting to convey an estate in fee simple absolute, in any tract of land or real estate, lying and being in this state, not then being possessed of the legal estate or interest therein at the time of the sale and conveyance, but after such sale and conveyance the vendor shall become possessed of and confirmed in the legal estate to the land or real estate so sold and conveyed, it shall be taken and held to be in trust and for the use of the grantee or vendee; and the conveyance aforesaid shall be held and taken, and shall be as valid as if the grantor or vendor had the legal estate or interest, at the time of said sale or conveyance.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/7a) (from Ch. 30, par. 6a)
    Sec. 7a. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), any instrument, including a will, which conveys, transfers, encumbers, leases or releases, or by which an agreement is made to convey, transfer, encumber, lease or release, or by virtue of which there is conveyed, transferred, encumbered, leased or released, any real property, whether described by a metes and bounds description or otherwise, which abuts upon any road, street, highway or alley, or upon any abandoned or vacated road, street, highway or alley shall be deemed and construed to include any right, title or interest in that part of such road, street, highway or alley which the abutting owner who makes any such instrument shall presently have or, which such owner, his heirs, successors and assigns subsequently acquires in such road, street, highway or alley unless such instrument by its terms expressly excludes, in the description of the property, such road, street, highway or alley. The right, title or interest acquired under such instrument in such road, street, highway or alley, by virtue of the provisions of this Act, shall be deemed and construed to be for the same uses and purposes set forth in such instrument with respect to the real property specifically described in the instrument. However, no covenants or agreements made by the maker of any such instrument with respect to any real property specifically described shall apply to or be enforceable with respect to any right, title or interest which is acquired solely by virtue of the provisions of this Act.
    (b) With regard to any public utility, as defined in Section 3‑105 of the Public Utilities Act, engaged in public water or public sanitary sewer service that comes under the jurisdiction of the Illinois Commerce Commission, any instrument, including a will, which conveys, transfers, encumbers, leases or releases, or by which an agreement is made to convey, transfer, encumber, lease or release, or by virtue of which there is conveyed, transferred, encumbered, leased or released, any real property, whether described by a metes and bounds description or otherwise, which abuts upon any road, street, highway or alley, or upon any abandoned or vacated road, street, highway or alley shall be deemed and construed to include any right, title or interest in that part of such road, street, highway or alley which the abutting owner who makes any such instrument shall presently have or, which such owner, his heirs, successors and assigns subsequently acquires in such road, street, highway or alley unless such instrument by its terms expressly excludes, in the description of the property, such road, street, highway or alley. The right, title or interest acquired under such instrument in such road, street, highway or alley, by virtue of the provisions of this Act, shall be deemed and construed to be for the same uses and purposes set forth in such instrument with respect to the real property specifically described in the instrument. However, no covenants or agreements made by the maker of any such instrument with respect to any real property specifically described shall apply to or be enforceable with respect to any right, title, or interest which is acquired solely by virtue to the provisions of this Act. "Conveyance" expressly excludes a road, street, highway, or alley if the legal description of the property uses the boundary of the road, street, highway, or alley closest to the property being conveyed as a boundary of the property being conveyed or expressly states that the road, street, highway, or alley is excepted from the property being conveyed. A conveyance does not expressly exclude a road, street, highway, or alley if the conveyance is described as being "subject to" the road, street, highway, or alley. The rights accruing in the abutting property owner under this Act shall be subject to all existing uses and easements located within the right‑of‑way; the rights shall also be subject to such future uses and easements as may be permitted to be located within the right‑of‑way under the provisions of the Illinois Highway Code or any successor statute thereto. This provision of this amendatory Act of the 93rd General Assembly is intended to clarify, by codification, existing law and is not intended to change the law.
(Source: P.A. 93‑357, eff. 1‑1‑04.)

    (765 ILCS 5/8) (from Ch. 30, par. 7)
    Sec. 8. In all deeds whereby any estate of inheritance in fee simple shall hereafter be limited to the grantee and his heirs, or other legal representatives, the words "grant," "bargain" and "sell," shall be adjudged an express covenant to the grantee, his heirs, and other legal representatives, to‑wit: that the grantor was the owner of an indefeasible estate in fee simple, free from encumbrances done or suffered from the grantor, except the rents and services that may be reserved, and also for quiet enjoyment against the grantor, his heirs and assigns unless limited by express words contained in such deed; and the grantee, his heirs, executors, administrators and assigns, may in any action, assign breaches, as if such covenants were expressly inserted: Provided, always, that this law shall not extend to leases at rack‑rent, or leases not exceeding 21 years, where the actual possession goes with the lease.
(Source: P.A. 80‑660.)

    (765 ILCS 5/9) (from Ch. 30, par. 8)
    Sec. 9. Deeds for the conveyance of land may be substantially in the following form:
    The grantor (here insert name or names and place of residence), for and in consideration of (here insert consideration), conveys and warrants to (here insert the grantee's name or names) the following described real estate (here insert description), situated in the County of ...., in the State of Illinois.
    Dated (insert date).
(signature of grantor or grantors)

    The names of the parties shall be typed or printed below the signatures. Such form shall have a blank space of 3 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches for use by the recorder. However, the failure to comply with the requirement that the names of the parties be typed or printed below the signatures and that the form have a blank space of 3 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches for use by the recorder shall not affect the validity and effect of such form.
    Every deed in substance in the above form, when otherwise duly executed, shall be deemed and held a conveyance in fee simple, to the grantee, his heirs or assigns, with covenants on the part of the grantor, (1) that at the time of the making and delivery of such deed he was the lawful owner of an indefeasible estate in fee simple, in and to the premises therein described, and had good right and full power to convey the same; (2) that the same were then free from all incumbrances; and (3) that he warrants to the grantee, his heirs and assigns, the quiet and peaceable possession of such premises, and will defend the title thereto against all persons who may lawfully claim the same. Such covenants shall be obligatory upon any grantor, his heirs and personal representatives, as fully and with like effect as if written at length in such deed.
(Source: P.A. 91‑357, eff. 7‑29‑99.)

    (765 ILCS 5/10) (from Ch. 30, par. 9)
    Sec. 10. Quitclaim deeds may be, in substance, in the following form:
    The grantor (here insert grantor's name or names and place of residence), for the consideration of (here insert consideration), convey and quit claim to (here insert grantee's name or names) all interest in the following described real estate (here insert description), situated in the County of ...., in the State of Illinois.
    Dated (insert date).
(signature of grantor or grantors)

    The names of the parties shall be typed or printed below the signatures. Such form shall have a blank space of 3 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches for use by the recorder. However, the failure to comply with the requirement that the names of the parties be typed or printed below the signatures and that the form have a blank space of 3 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches for use by the recorder shall not affect the validity and effect of such form.
    Every deed in substance in the form described in this Section, when otherwise duly executed, shall be deemed and held a good and sufficient conveyance, release and quit claim to the grantee, his heirs and assigns, in fee of all the then existing legal or equitable rights of the grantor, in the premises therein described, but shall not extend to after acquired title unless words are added expressing such intention.
(Source: P.A. 91‑357, eff. 7‑29‑99.)

    (765 ILCS 5/11) (from Ch. 30, par. 10)
    Sec. 11. Mortgages of lands may be substantially in the following form:
    The Mortgagor (here insert name or names), mortgages and warrants to (here insert name or names of mortgagee or mortgagees), to secure the payment of (here recite the nature and amount of indebtedness, showing when due and the rate of interest, and whether secured by note or otherwise), the following described real estate (here insert description thereof), situated in the County of ...., in the State of Illinois.
    Dated (insert date).
(signature of mortgagor or mortgagors)

    The names of the parties shall be typed or printed below the signatures. Such form shall have a blank space of 3 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches for use by the recorder. However, the failure to comply with the requirement that the names of the parties be typed or printed below the signatures and that the form have a blank space of 3 1/2 inches by 3 1/2 inches for use by the recorder shall not affect the validity and effect of such form.
    Such mortgage, when otherwise properly executed, shall be deemed and held a good and sufficient mortgage in fee to secure the payment of the moneys therein specified; and if the same contains the words "and warrants," the same shall be construed the same as if full covenants of ownership, good right to convey against incumbrances of quiet enjoyment and general warranty, as expressed in Section 9 of this Act were fully written therein; but if the words "and warrants" are omitted, no such covenants shall be implied. When the grantor or grantors in such deed or mortgage for the conveyance of any real estate desires to release or waive his, her or their homestead rights therein, they or either of them may release or waive the same by inserting in the form of deed or mortgage (as the case may be), provided in Sections 9, 10 and 11, after the words "State of Illinois," in substance the following words, "hereby releasing and waiving all rights under and by virtue of the homestead exemption laws of this State."
    Mortgages securing "reverse mortgage" loans shall be subject to this Section except where requirements concerning the definiteness of the term and amount of indebtedness provisions of a mortgage would be inconsistent with the Acts authorizing "reverse mortgage" loans, or rules and regulations promulgated under those Acts.
    Mortgages securing "revolving credit" loans shall be subject to this Section.
(Source: P.A. 91‑357, eff. 7‑29‑99.)

    (765 ILCS 5/12) (from Ch. 30, par. 11)
    Sec. 12. In deeds made by sheriffs, guardians, administrators, executors, trustees, commissioners, or other persons, under and by virtue of any judgment, order or proceeding of any court, it shall be unnecessary to copy any such judgment, order or proceeding in such deed; but it shall be sufficient to refer to the same by the title of the cause, the name of the court, the date at which such proceedings were had, or the judgment or order obtained.
(Source: P.A. 79‑1360.)

    (765 ILCS 5/13) (from Ch. 30, par. 12)
    Sec. 13. Every estate in lands which is granted, conveyed or bequeathed, although other words heretofore necessary to transfer an estate of inheritance is not added, shall be deemed a fee simple estate of inheritance, if a less estate is not limited by express words, or do not appear to have been granted, conveyed or bequeathed by construction or operation of law.
(Source: P.A. 84‑549.)

    (765 ILCS 5/14) (from Ch. 30, par. 13)
    Sec. 14. When an estate hath been, or shall be, by any conveyance limited in remainder to the son or daughter, or to the use of the son or daughter of any person to be begotten, such son or daughter, born after the decease of his or her father, shall take the estate in the same manner as if he or she had been born in the life time of the father, although no estate shall have been conveyed to support the contingent remainder after his death.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/15) (from Ch. 30, par. 14)
    Sec. 15. Purchasers of school or canal lands or town lots may, by indorsement in writing on their certificates of purchase, transfer and assign all right and title to the lands or lots purchased, or transfers or assignments of such certificates may be made upon a separate paper, and the transferees or assignees may in like manner transfer and assign all such certificates; and in all cases where certificates have been or shall hereafter be transferred or assigned, patents shall issue in the name of the last transferee or assignee.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/16) (from Ch. 30, par. 15)
    Sec. 16. The county board of any county may authorize any officer or member of its board to execute and deliver all deeds, grants, conveyances and other instruments in writing, which may become necessary in selling, transferring or conveying any real estate belonging to its county and such deeds, grants, conveyances and other instruments, if made without fraud or collusion, shall be obligatory upon the county to all intents and purposes.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/19) (from Ch. 30, par. 18)
    Sec. 19. The acknowledgment or proof of any deed, mortgage, conveyance, power of attorney, or other writing of or relating to the sale, conveyance, or other disposition of lands or real estate, or any interest therein, by a married woman, may be made and certified the same as if she were a feme sole, and shall have the same effect.
(Source: P. A. 77‑435.)

    (765 ILCS 5/20) (from Ch. 30, par. 19)
    Sec. 20. Deeds, mortgages, conveyances, releases, powers of attorney or other writings of or relating to the sale, conveyance or other disposition of real estate or any interest therein whereby the rights of any person may be affected, may be acknowledged or proven before some one of the following courts or officers, namely:
    1. When acknowledged or proven within this State, before a notary public, United States commissioner, county clerk, or any court or any judge, clerk or deputy clerk of such court. When taken before a notary public or United States commissioner, the same shall be attested by his official seal; when taken before a court or the clerk thereof, or a deputy clerk thereof, the same shall be attested by the seal of such court.
    2. When acknowledged or proved outside of this State and within the United States or any of its territories or dependencies or the District of Columbia, before a justice of the peace, notary public, master in chancery, United States commissioner, commissioner to take acknowledgments of deeds, mayor of city, clerk of a county, or before any judge, justice, clerk or deputy clerk of the supreme, circuit or district court of the United States, or before any judge, justice, clerk or deputy clerk, prothonotary, surrogate, or registrar of the supreme, circuit, superior, district, county, common pleas, probate, orphan's or surrogate's court of any of the states, territories or dependencies of the United States. In any dependency of the United States such acknowledgment or proof may also be taken or made before any commissioned officer in the military service of the United States. When such acknowledgment or proof is made before a notary public, United States commissioner or commissioner of deeds, it shall be certified under his seal of office. If taken before a mayor of a city it shall be certified under the seal of the city; if before a clerk, deputy clerk, prothonotary, registrar or surrogate, then under the seal of his court; if before a justice of the peace or a master in chancery there shall be added a certificate of the proper clerk under the seal of his office setting forth that the person before whom such proof or acknowledgment was made was a justice of the peace or master in chancery at the time of taking such acknowledgment or proof. As acknowledgment or proof of execution of any instrument above stated, may be made in conformity with the laws of the State, territory, dependency or district where it is made. If any clerk of any court of record within such state, territory, dependency or district shall, under his signature and the seal of such court, certify that such acknowledgment or proof was made in conformity with the laws of such state, territory, dependency or district, or it shall so appear by the laws of such state, territory, dependency or district such instrument or a duly proved or certified copy of the record of such deed, mortgage or other instrument relating to real estate heretofore or hereafter made and recorded in the proper county may be admitted in evidence as in other cases involving the admission of evidence of certified copies.
    3. When acknowledged or proven outside of the United States before any court of any republic, dominion, state, kingdom, empire, colony, territory, or dependency having a seal, or before any judge, justice or clerk thereof or before any mayor or chief officer of any city or town having a seal, or before a notary public or commissioner of deeds, or any ambassador, minister or secretary of legation or consul of the United States or vice consul, deputy consul, commercial agent or consular agent of the United States in any foreign republic, dominion, state, kingdom, empire, colony, territory or dependency attested by his official seal or before any officer authorized by the laws of the place where such acknowledgment or proof is made to take acknowledgments of conveyances of real estate or to administer oaths in proof of the execution of conveyances of real estate. Such acknowledgments are to be attested by the official seal, if any, of such court or officer, and in case such acknowledgment or proof is taken or made before a court or officer having no official seal, a certificate shall be added by an ambassador, minister, secretary of legation, consul, vice consul, deputy consul, commercial agent or consular agent of the United States residing in such republic, dominion, state, kingdom, empire, colony, territory, or dependency under his official seal, showing that such court or officer was duly elected, appointed or created and acting at the time such acknowledgment or proof was made.
    4. Any person serving in or with the armed forces of the United States, within or outside of the United States, and the spouse or former spouse of any such person, may acknowledge the instruments wherever located before any commissioned officer in active service of the armed forces of the United States with the rank of Second Lieutenant or higher in the Army, Air Force or Marine Corps, or Ensign or higher in the Navy or United States Coast Guard. The instrument shall not be rendered invalid by the failure to state therein the place of execution or acknowledgment. No authentication of the officer's certificate of acknowledgment shall be required and such certificate need not be attested by any seal but the officer taking the acknowledgment shall indorse thereon or attach thereto a certificate substantially in the following form:
    On (insert date), the undersigned officer, personally appeared before me, known to me (or satisfactorily proven) to be serving in or with the armed forces of the United States (and/or the spouse or former spouse of a person so serving) and to be the person whose name is subscribed to the instrument and acknowledged that .... he .... executed the same as .... free and voluntary act for the purposes therein contained, and the undersigned further certifies that he is at the date of this certificate a commissioned officer of the rank stated below and is in the active service of the armed forces of the United States.
                              ...............................
                              Signature of Officer
                              ...............................
                              Rank of Officer and Command to
                              which attached.
    5. All deeds or other instruments or copies of the record thereof duly certified or proven which have been acknowledged or proven prior to August 30, 1963, before either of the courts or officers mentioned in this Act and in the manner herein provided, shall be deemed to be good and effectual in law and the same may be introduced in evidence without further proof of their execution, with the same effect as if this amendatory Act of 1963 had been in force at the date of such acknowledgment or proof.
(Source: P.A. 91‑357, eff. 7‑29‑99.)

    (765 ILCS 5/22) (from Ch. 30, par. 21)
    Sec. 22. Where any deed, conveyance or power of attorney has been or may be acknowledged or proved in any foreign state, kingdom, empire or country, the certificate of any consul or minister of the United States in said country, under his official seal, that the said deed, conveyance, or power of attorney is executed in conformity with such foreign law shall be deemed and taken as prima facie evidence thereof: Provided, that any other legal mode of proving that the same is executed in conformity with such foreign law may be resorted to in any court in which the question of such execution or acknowledgment may arise.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/23) (from Ch. 30, par. 22)
    Sec. 23. All deeds, conveyances and powers of attorney, for the conveyance of lands lying in this state, which have been or may be acknowledged or proved and authenticated as aforesaid or in conformity with the laws of any foreign state, kingdom, empire or country, shall be deemed as good and valid in law as though acknowledged or proved in conformity with the existing laws of this state.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/24) (from Ch. 30, par. 23)
    Sec. 24. No judge or other officer shall take the acknowledgment of any person to any deed or instrument of writing, as aforesaid, unless the person offering to make such acknowledgment shall be personally known to him to be the real person who and in whose name such acknowledgment is proposed to be made, or shall be proved to be such by a credible witness, and the judge or officer taking such acknowledgment shall, in his certificate thereof, state that such person was personally known to him to be the person whose name is subscribed to such deed or writing, as having executed the same, or that he was proved to be such by a credible witness (naming him), and on taking proof of any deed or instrument of writing, by the testimony of any subscribing witnesses, the judge or officer shall ascertain that the person who offers to prove the same is a subscribing witness, either from his own knowledge, or from the testimony of a credible witness; and if it shall appear from the testimony of such subscribing witness that the person whose name appears subscribed to such deed or writing is the real person who executed the same, and that the witness subscribed his name as such, in his presence and at his request, the judge or officer shall grant a certificate, stating that the person testifying as subscribing witness was personally known to him to be the person whose name appears subscribed to such deed, as a witness of the execution thereof, or that he was proved to be such by a credible witness (naming him), and stating the proof made by him; and where any grantor or person executing such deed or writing, and the subscribing witnesses, are deceased or cannot be had, the judge or officer, as aforesaid, may take proof of the handwriting of such deceased party and subscribing witness or witnesses (if any); and the examination of a competent and credible witness, who shall state on oath or affirmation that he personally knew the person whose handwriting he is called to prove, and well knew his signature (stating his means of knowledge), and that he believes the name of such person subscribed to such deed or writing, as party or witness (as the case may be), was thereto subscribed by such person; and when the handwriting of the grantor or person executing such deed or writing, and of one subscribing witness (if any there be), shall have been proved, as aforesaid, or by proof of signature of grantor where there is no subscribing witness, the judge or officer shall grant a certificate thereof stating the proof aforesaid.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/25) (from Ch. 30, par. 24)
    Sec. 25. If any grantor shall not have duly acknowledged the execution of any deed or instrument entitled to be recorded, and the subscribing witness or witnesses be dead, or not to be had, it may be proved by evidence of the handwriting of the grantor, and of at least one of the subscribing witnesses, which evidence shall consist of the testimony of two or more disinterested persons swearing to each signature.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/26) (from Ch. 30, par. 25)
    Sec. 26. A certificate of acknowledgment, substantially in the following form, shall be sufficient:
State of (name of state),  )
                           ) ss.
County of (name of county).)
    I (here give name of officer and his official title) certify that (name of grantor, and if acknowledged by the spouse, his or her name, and add "his or her spouse") personally known to me to be the same person whose name is (or are) subscribed to the foregoing instrument, appeared before me this day in person, and acknowledged that he (she or they) signed and delivered the instrument as his (her or their) free and voluntary act, for the uses and purposes therein set forth. Dated (insert date). (Signature of officer). (Seal). (Source: P.A. 91‑357, eff. 7‑29‑99.)

    (765 ILCS 5/27) (from Ch. 30, par. 26)
    Sec. 27. No deed or other instrument shall be construed as releasing or waiving the right of homestead, unless the same shall contain a clause expressly releasing or waiving such right. And no release or waiver of the right of homestead by the husband or wife shall bind the other spouse unless such other spouse joins in such release or waiver.
(Source: P.A. 80‑346.)

    (765 ILCS 5/28) (from Ch. 30, par. 27)
    Sec. 28. Deeds, mortgages, powers of attorney, and other instruments relating to or affecting the title to real estate in this state, shall be recorded in the county in which such real estate is situated; but if such county is not organized, then in the county to which such unorganized county is attached for judicial purposes. No deed, mortgage, assignment of mortgage, or other instrument relating to or affecting the title to real estate in this State may include a provision prohibiting the recording of that instrument, and any such provision in an instrument signed after the effective date of this amendatory Act shall be void and of no force and effect.
(Source: P.A. 89‑160, eff. 7‑19‑95.)

    (765 ILCS 5/28b) (from Ch. 30, par. 27b)
    Sec. 28b. Whenever a power of attorney relating to or affecting real estate in this State, executed by a person who is in the service or employment of the Federal Government and who is reported by the Federal Government or an agency or department thereof as lost, missing, missing in action or being held incommunicado or imprisoned in any foreign country, shall be recorded in the county in which such real estate is situated, together with an affidavit, executed by the attorney‑in‑fact or agent, setting forth that he has not or had not, at the time of doing any act pursuant to the power of attorney, received actual knowledge or actual notice of revocation or termination of the power of attorney, by death or otherwise, or notice of any facts, indicating the same, any person dealing in good faith with the person named in such power of attorney, so recorded, as agent or attorney in fact in any transaction within the powers expressed in such power of attorney shall not be required to ascertain whether or not the person who executed such power of attorney be then living, and any bona fide purchaser for value who accepts a deed, mortgage, lease, or other instrument relating to or affecting real estate in this State, executed by the person named as agent or attorney in fact in the power of attorney so recorded, pursuant to the powers expressed in such power of attorney and in the name of the principal, shall be protected against any claim that such power of attorney, so relied upon, had been terminated by the death of the principal or had been otherwise revoked, unless prior to the execution and delivery of such deed, mortgage, lease, or other instrument there shall have been filed in the office of the recorder of the county where the power of attorney is recorded, (1) an instrument duly executed and acknowledged, revoking the powers contained in the power of attorney, or (2) an affidavit in proof of the death of the person who executed such power of attorney. For the purposes of this Section the term "bona fide purchaser" shall be deemed to include "bona fide mortgagee".
    No report or listing, either official or otherwise, of "missing" or "missing in action", as such words are used in military parlance, shall constitute or be interpreted as constituting actual knowledge or actual notice of the death of such principal or notice of any facts indicating the same, or shall operate to revoke the agency.
(Source: P.A. 83‑358.)

    (765 ILCS 5/29) (from Ch. 30, par. 28)
    Sec. 29. Where an original deed, mortgage or other instrument relating to or affecting the title to real estate, having tracts of land therein described lying in different counties, has been or may hereafter be recorded in any of such counties, it shall be lawful to record a certified copy of such deed or other instrument in counties where the original has not been recorded; and the recording of such certified copy heretofore or hereafter shall be notice in the same manner that the filing and the recording of the original would be, and copies from such records shall be prima facie evidence to the same extent as if the original had been so recorded.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/30) (from Ch. 30, par. 29)
    Sec. 30. All deeds, mortgages and other instruments of writing which are authorized to be recorded, shall take effect and be in force from and after the time of filing the same for record, and not before, as to all creditors and subsequent purchasers, without notice; and all such deeds and title papers shall be adjudged void as to all such creditors and subsequent purchasers, without notice, until the same shall be filed for record.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/31) (from Ch. 30, par. 30)
    Sec. 31. Deeds, mortgages and other instruments of writing relating to real estate shall be deemed, from the time of being filed for record, notice to subsequent purchasers and creditors, though not acknowledged or proven according to law; but the same shall not be read as evidence, unless their execution be proved in manner required by the rules of evidence applicable to such writings, so as to supply the defects of such acknowledgment or proof.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/31.5)
    Sec. 31.5. Assignment of rents; perfection.
    (a) In this Section:
    "Assigning" includes granting, pledging, transferring, conveying, or assigning an interest in rents.
    "Assignment" includes grants, pledges, transfers, conveyances, or assignments of an interest in rents.
    "Assignor" or "assignee" includes, respectively: (i) grantor or grantee; (ii) pledgor or pledgee; (iii) transferor or transferee; (iv) conveyor or conveyee; (v) lender or borrower; and (vi) assignor or assignee. "Assignor" also means a lessor or sublessor.
    "Instrument" includes any written deed, grant, mortgage, deed or trust, lease, assignment, release, or any other writing pertaining to land or real property or any interest therein or appurtenant thereto, including an interest in rents.
    "Rents" means all items that constitute leases, rents, and profits arising from real property under applicable State law.
    (b) If an instrument assigning the interest of the assignor in rents arising from the real property described in the instrument is recorded, pursuant to this Act, in the county in which the real property is situated, then the interest of the assignee in those rents is perfected upon that recordation without the assignee taking any other affirmative action.
    The recordation is constructive notice to subsequent purchasers, creditors, and third parties of the content and effect of the assignment with the same force and effect as any other duly recorded instrument or conveyance of an interest in real property under Sections 30 and 31 of this Act. From the time of the recordation, the assignee has a superior claim to the rents that are subjected to the assignment, as against all parties whose claims or interests arise or are perfected thereafter.
    (c) This Section applies whether the assignment is absolute, conditional, or intended as security.
    (d) Unless otherwise agreed to by the parties, the mere recordation of an assignment does not affect who is entitled, as between the assignor and the assignee, to collect or receive rents until the assignee enforces the assignment under applicable law.
    (e) The fact that the assignee may permit the assignor to collect rents under the terms of an assignment does not affect the validity, enforceability, or priority of an assignment perfected in the manner set forth in subsection (b).
(Source: P.A. 89‑39, eff. 1‑1‑96.)

    (765 ILCS 5/32) (from Ch. 30, par. 31)
    Sec. 32. All deeds which may be executed by any administrator, executor, guardian, commissioner, sheriff, or other officer, of any real estate sold in pursuance of any judgment upon being acknowledged or proved before any officer authorized to take acknowledgment or proof of deeds, and certified as other deeds, shall be admitted to record in the county where the real estate sold is situated.
(Source: P.A. 83‑706.)

    (765 ILCS 5/33) (from Ch. 30, par. 32)
    Sec. 33. All original wills duly proved, or copies thereof duly certified, according to law, and exemplifications of the record of foreign wills made in pursuance of the law of congress in relation to records in foreign states, may be recorded in the same office where deeds and other instruments concerning real estate may be required to be recorded; and the same shall be notice from the date of filing the same for record as in other cases, and certified copies of the record thereof shall be evidence to the same extent as the certified copies of the record of deeds.
(Source: Laws 1871‑2, p. 282.)

    (765 ILCS 5/35) (from Ch. 30, par. 34)
    Sec. 35. Every deed, mortgage, power of attorney, conveyance, or other writing, of or concerning any lands, tenements or hereditaments, which, by virtue of this act, shall be required or entitled to be recorded as aforesaid, being acknowledged or proved according to the provisions of this act, whether the same be recorded or not, may be read in evidence without any further proof of the execution thereof; and if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court that the original deed, so acknowledged or proved and recorded, is lost or not in the power of the party wishing to use it, the record, or a transcript thereof, certified by the recorder in whose office the same may be recorded, may be read in evidence, in any court of this state, without further proof thereof; provided that if said deed, mortgage, power of attorney, conveyance, or other writing, or the acknowledgment thereto shall recite that the grantors therein sealed said instrument but the record of such instrument in the recorder's office fails to show the seal of said grantors, it will be presumed that said instrument was properly sealed and that the omission of such seal arose in the transcription thereof in the recorder's office.
(Source: Laws 1941, vol. 1, p. 416.)

    (765 ILCS 5/35a) (from Ch. 30, par. 34a)
    Sec. 35a. Whenever a deed shall recite, either in the body of the said deed or in the acknowledgment thereto, that said deed was sealed by the grantors therein, such recital shall be deemed to constitute an adoption by said grantors of any seal appearing on said instrument, including the seal of the notary public or other officer taking such acknowledgment, as their private seal, and shall constitute such instrument a sealed instrument.
(Source: Laws 1941, vol. 1, p. 416.)

    (765 ILCS 5/35b) (from Ch. 30, par. 34b)
    Sec. 35b. All deeds or mortgages heretofore irregularly executed by the omission of a seal are validated and made effective as though such omitted seal had been affixed.
(Source: Laws 1941, vol. 1, p. 416.)

    (765 ILCS 5/35c)(from Ch. 30, par. 34c)
    Sec. 35c. Whenever any deed or instrument of conveyance or other instrument to be made a matter of record is executed there shall be typed or printed to the side or below all signatures the names of the parties signing such instruments including the witnesses thereto, if any, and the names of the parties or officers taking the acknowledgments. The absence or neglect to print or type the names of the parties under the signatures shall not invalidate the instrument.
    Whenever any deed or instrument of conveyance or other instrument to be made a matter of record is executed, the signatures of the parties making the conveyance shall be acknowledged by a notary public appointed and commissioned by the Secretary of State or by one of the courts or officers designated in Section 20 of this Act. Failure to comply with this provision shall not invalidate the instrument.
    Whenever any deed or instrument of conveyance is executed the name and address of the owner or owners to whom subsequent tax bills are to be sent shall be endorsed on the instrument. The absence or neglect of any one to comply with this provision shall not invalidate the instrument.
    Whenever any deed or instrument of conveyance is executed and is to be made a matter of record wherein a metes and bounds description is incorporated, the metes and bounds description shall contain the section, township and range with an identifiable point of beginning. Subsequent courses shall contain approximate linear distance and direction values, direction being defined as any one or more of the following:
        a. The angular relationship of the described course
     to a described course.
        b. The bearing of the described course relative to
     the bearing of a described course.
        c. The relationship of the described course to a
     known line, or a point thereon, such as a previously described course in the same description or a line of a section or fraction thereof or a line in a platted lot or block.
    If references are made to existing monuments or points or lines of previously recorded conveyances, the instant description shall contain sufficient information so that it may be located without reference to matters outside the instant description.
    The neglect to comply with the provisions of this Section shall not invalidate the instrument.
(Source: P.A. 94‑821, eff. 1‑1‑07.)

    (765 ILCS 5/35d)
    Sec. 35d. Execution; permanent index number. In a county with 3,000,000 or more inhabitants, whenever any deed or instrument of conveyance is executed, the grantor of residential property shall provide the grantee of the property with an individual permanent index number or numbers that specifically represent the legal description provided for in the deed or instrument of conveyance. If the individual permanent index number or numbers do not specifically represent the legal description in the deed or instrument of conveyance, the grantor shall provide one of the following:
        (1) proof that a proper application for division
     which requests division of property, a portion of which would result in a permanent index number or numbers that represent the legal description found in the deed or instrument of conveyance, has been filed with the county assessor;
        (2) a recorded plat of subdivision that would result
     in the issuance of a permanent index number or numbers as described in subdivision (1); or
        (3) a recorded condominium declaration that would
     result in the issuance of a permanent index number or numbers as described in subdivision (1).
    If the grantor fails to provide the grantee with either a permanent index number or numbers that represent the legal description found in the deed or instrument of conveyance or one of the documents listed in subdivision (1), (2), or (3), the grantor shall be personally liable to the grantee for taxes pursuant to Section 1‑145 of the Property Tax Code and attorney's fees. The grantor's liability shall continue to accrue until the permanent index number or numbers that represent the legal description found in the deed or instrument of conveyance or one of the documents listed in subdivision (1), (2), or (3) is delivered to the grantee. The grantor's failure to provide the permanent index number or numbers shall not invalidate the deed or instrument of conveyance. A receipt from the county assessor confirming that a proper application has been filed and that it meets the requirements set by the county assessor shall be deemed to be evidence of proper application for division.
(Source: P.A. 92‑450, eff. 8‑21‑01.)

    (765 ILCS 5/36) (from Ch. 30, par. 35)
    Sec. 36. Whenever upon the trial of any cause in this state, any party to the cause, or his or her agent or attorney in his or her behalf, shall, orally in court, or by affidavit to be filed in the cause, state under oath that the original of any deed, conveyance or other writing, of or concerning lands, tenements and hereditaments, which shall have been or may hereafter be acknowledged or proved according to the laws of this State, and which by virtue of any of the laws of this state, shall be required or be entitled to be recorded, is lost, or not in the power of the party wishing to use it on the trial of any such cause, and that to the best of his or her knowledge the original deed was not intentionally destroyed or in any manner disposed of for the purpose of introducing a copy thereof in place of the original, the record of such deed, conveyance or other writing, or a transcript of the record thereof, certified by the recorder in whose office the same may have been or may hereafter be recorded, may be read in evidence in any court in this state, with like effect as though the original of such deed, conveyance or other writing was produced and read in evidence.
(Source: P.A. 83‑345.)

    (765 ILCS 5/37) (from Ch. 30, par. 36)
    Sec. 37. All affidavits required to be made and produced under the foregoing section, may be made in any county in this state, before any officer authorized by the laws of this state to administer oaths and affirmations, and may also be made out of this state, before any judge, clerk of a court, notary public, or commissioner appointed under the laws of the state of Illinois to take acknowledgments of deeds and administer oaths and affirmations, and certified to by the said officer, under his seal of office, if such officer have an official seal; but if taken and certified by any officer who does not require or use an official seal, the certificate of the proper clerk or other officer of the official character of the person certifying to such oath or affirmation shall also be produced with such affidavit and certificate.
(Source: Laws 1965, p. 3396.)

    (765 ILCS 5/38) (from Ch. 30, par. 37)
    Sec. 38. The term "real estate," as used in this act, shall be construed as co‑extensive in meaning with "lands, tenements and hereditaments," and as embracing all chattels real. This act shall not be construed so as to embrace last wills, except as herein expressly provided.
(Source: P.A. 84‑551.)

    (765 ILCS 5/38a) (from Ch. 30, par. 37 1/4)
    Sec. 38a. Whenever the owner of any real estate situated as hereinafter set forth, shall have received by judgment, settlement, or compromise, payment or satisfaction for permanent or continuing injuries or damages to said real estate, because or on account of any nuisance of the kind hereinafter described, then whoever shall hereafter acquire by any means, any interest, either in fee simple, for life, for years, or for any lesser term, in any real estate contiguous or in proximity to any nuisance, or which is affected by the maintenance or operation of any instrumentality whereby the nuisance is caused or is existing, shall be deemed to acquire such interest in such real estate subject to such nuisance as it exists at the time of the acquisition of such interest, and shall not maintain any civil action, for or on account of any such injury or damages satisfied as above.
(Source: P.A. 79‑1360.)

    (765 ILCS 5/38b) (from Ch. 30, par. 37 1/2)
    Sec. 38b. The invalidity of any portion of section 38a shall not affect the validity of any other portion thereof which can be given effect without such invalid part.
(Source: Laws 1933, p. 298.)

    (765 ILCS 5/38c)
    Sec. 38c. (Repealed).
(Source: P.A. 91‑326, eff. 1‑1‑00. Repealed by P.A. 92‑225, eff. 8‑2‑01.)

    (765 ILCS 5/39)(from Ch. 30, par. 37a)
    Sec. 39. Every mortgage or trust deed in the nature of a mortgage shall, as to lands not registered under the provisions of an act entitled "An Act Concerning Land Titles," approved and in force May 1, 1897, as subsequently amended, from the time it is filed of record, and in the case of lands registered under the provisions of said act entitled "An Act Concerning Land Titles," approved and in force May 1, 1897, as subsequently amended, from the time it is registered, or from the time of the filing of a caveat as provided in said Act, be a lien upon the real estate thereby conveyed situated in the county in which such instrument is recorded or registered, for all monies advanced or applied or which may at any time thereafter be advanced or applied thereunder on account of the principal indebtedness which such mortgage or trust deed shall purport to secure and including such other monies which may at any time be advanced or applied as are authorized by the provisions of such mortgage or trust deed or as are authorized by law; provided, that as to subsequent purchasers and judgment creditors, every such mortgage or trust deed shall, as to the monies advanced or applied thereunder on account of the principal indebtedness evidenced by the notes, bonds or other instruments therein described and thereby secured, be a lien only from the time such monies are advanced or applied, unless such monies are advanced or applied within 18 months after the date of such recording or registration, or filing of such caveat, or unless the mortgagee is by contract obligated to make such advances or applications, and provided further, that nothing in this Act contained shall affect any lien arising or existing by virtue of the Mechanics Lien Act.
(Source: P.A. 96‑328, eff. 8‑11‑09.)

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