2005 Florida Code - STATUTE OF FRAUDS, FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS, AND GENERAL ASSIGNMENTS UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACTSChapter 725

TITLE XLI

STATUTE OF FRAUDS, FRAUDULENT TRANSFERS, AND
GENERAL ASSIGNMENTS

CHAPTER 725

UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACTS

725.01  Promise to pay another's debt, etc.

725.03  Newspaper subscription.

725.04  Voluntary payment; pleading.

725.05  Satisfaction for less than amount due.

725.06  Construction contracts; limitation on indemnification.

725.07  Discrimination on basis of sex, marital status, or race forbidden.

725.08  Design professional contracts; limitation in indemnification.

725.01  Promise to pay another's debt, etc.--No action shall be brought whereby to charge any executor or administrator upon any special promise to answer or pay any debt or damages out of her or his own estate, or whereby to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another person or to charge any person upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage, or upon any contract for the sale of lands, tenements or hereditaments, or of any uncertain interest in or concerning them, or for any lease thereof for a period longer than 1 year, or upon any agreement that is not to be performed within the space of 1 year from the making thereof, or whereby to charge any health care provider upon any guarantee, warranty, or assurance as to the results of any medical, surgical, or diagnostic procedure performed by any physician licensed under chapter 458, osteopathic physician licensed under chapter 459, chiropractic physician licensed under chapter 460, podiatric physician licensed under chapter 461, or dentist licensed under chapter 466, unless the agreement or promise upon which such action shall be brought, or some note or memorandum thereof shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged therewith or by some other person by her or him thereunto lawfully authorized.

History.--s. 10, Nov. 15, 1828; RS 1995; GS 2517; RGS 3872; CGL 5779; s. 10, ch. 75-9; s. 933, ch. 97-102; s. 60, ch. 97-264; ss. 227, 294, ch. 98-166.

725.03  Newspaper subscription.--No person shall be liable to pay for any newspaper, periodical or other like matter, unless the person shall subscribe for or order the same in writing.

History.--s. 1, ch. 379, 1851; RS 1997; GS 2519; RGS 3874; CGL 5781; s. 934, ch. 97-102.

725.04  Voluntary payment; pleading.--When a suit is instituted by a party to a contract to recover a payment made pursuant to the contract and by the terms of the contract there was no enforceable obligation to make the payment or the making of the payment was excused, the defense of voluntary payment may not be interposed by the person receiving payment to defeat recovery of the payment.

History.--ss. 1, 2, ch. 21902, 1943; s. 1, ch. 29737, 1955; s. 41, ch. 67-254.

Note.--Former s. 52.24.

725.05  Satisfaction for less than amount due.--When the amount of any debt or obligation is liquidated, the parties may satisfy the debt by a written instrument other than by endorsement on a check for less than the full amount due.

History.--s. 1, ch. 71-94.

725.06  Construction contracts; limitation on indemnification.--

(1)  Any portion of any agreement or contract for or in connection with, or any guarantee of or in connection with, any construction, alteration, repair, or demolition of a building, structure, appurtenance, or appliance, including moving and excavating associated therewith, between an owner of real property and an architect, engineer, general contractor, subcontractor, sub-subcontractor, or materialman or any combination thereof wherein any party referred to herein promises to indemnify or hold harmless the other party to the agreement, contract, or guarantee for liability for damages to persons or property caused in whole or in part by any act, omission, or default of the indemnitee arising from the contract or its performance, shall be void and unenforceable unless the contract contains a monetary limitation on the extent of the indemnification that bears a reasonable commercial relationship to the contract and is part of the project specifications or bid documents, if any. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the monetary limitation on the extent of the indemnification provided to the owner of real property by any party in privity of contract with such owner shall not be less than $1 million per occurrence, unless otherwise agreed by the parties. Indemnification provisions in any such agreements, contracts, or guarantees may not require that the indemnitor indemnify the indemnitee for damages to persons or property caused in whole or in part by any act, omission, or default of a party other than:

(a)  The indemnitor;

(b)  Any of the indemnitor's contractors, subcontractors, sub-subcontractors, materialmen, or agents of any tier or their respective employees; or

(c)  The indemnitee or its officers, directors, agents, or employees. However, such indemnification shall not include claims of, or damages resulting from, gross negligence, or willful, wanton or intentional misconduct of the indemnitee or its officers, directors, agents or employees, or for statutory violation or punitive damages except and to the extent the statutory violation or punitive damages are caused by or result from the acts or omissions of the indemnitor or any of the indemnitor's contractors, subcontractors, sub-subcontractors, materialmen, or agents of any tier or their respective employees.

(2)  A construction contract for a public agency or in connection with a public agency's project may require a party to that contract to indemnify and hold harmless the other party to the contract, their officers and employees, from liabilities, damages, losses and costs, including, but not limited to, reasonable attorney's fees, to the extent caused by the negligence, recklessness, or intentional wrongful misconduct of the indemnifying party and persons employed or utilized by the indemnifying party in the performance of the construction contract.

(3)  Except as specifically provided in subsection (2), a construction contract for a public agency or in connection with a public agency's project may not require one party to indemnify, defend, or hold harmless the other party, its employees, officers, directors, or agents from any liability, damage, loss, claim, action, or proceeding, and any such contract provision is void as against public policy of this state.

(4)  This section does not affect any contracts, agreements, or guarantees entered into before the effective date of this section or any renewals thereof.

History.--s. 1, ch. 72-52; s. 935, ch. 97-102; s. 31, ch. 2000-372; s. 10, ch. 2001-211.

Note.--Former s. 768.085.

725.07  Discrimination on basis of sex, marital status, or race forbidden.--

(1)  No person, as defined in s. 1.01(3) shall discriminate against any person based on sex, marital status, or race in the areas of loaning money, granting credit, or providing equal pay for equal services performed.

(2)  Any violation of this section may be brought in the courts of this state by the individual upon whom the discrimination has been perpetrated in a civil action, and said individual shall be entitled to collect, not only compensatory damages, but, in addition thereto, punitive damages and reasonable attorney fees for a violation of this section.

History.--ss. 1, 2, ch. 73-251.

725.08  Design professional contracts; limitation in indemnification.--

(1)  Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 725.06, if a design professional provides professional services to or for a public agency, the agency may require in a professional services contract with the design professional that the design professional indemnify and hold harmless the agency, and its officers and employees, from liabilities, damages, losses, and costs, including, but not limited to, reasonable attorneys' fees, to the extent caused by the negligence, recklessness, or intentionally wrongful conduct of the design professional and other persons employed or utilized by the design professional in the performance of the contract.

(2)  Except as specifically provided in subsection (1), a professional services contract entered into with a public agency may not require that the design professional defend, indemnify, or hold harmless the agency, its employees, officers, directors, or agents from any liability, damage, loss, claim, action, or proceeding, and any such contract provision shall be void as against the public policy of this state.

(3)  "Professional services contract" means a written or oral agreement relating to the planning, design, construction, administration, study, evaluation, consulting, or other professional and technical support services furnished in connection with any actual or proposed construction, improvement, alteration, repair, maintenance, operation, management, relocation, demolition, excavation, or other facility, land, air, water, or utility development or improvement.

(4)  "Design professional" means an individual or entity licensed by the state who holds a current certificate of registration under chapter 481 to practice architecture or landscape architecture, under chapter 472 to practice land surveying and mapping, or under chapter 471 to practice engineering, and who enters into a professional services contract.

(5)  This section does not affect contracts or agreements entered into before the effective date of this section.

History.--s. 1, ch. 2000-162; s. 11, ch. 2001-211.
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