2005 California Government Code Sections 12925-12928 CHAPTER 4. DEFINITIONS

GOVERNMENT CODE
SECTION 12925-12928

12925.  As used in this part, unless a different meaning clearly
appears from the context:
   (a) "Commission" means the Fair Employment and Housing Commission
and "commissioner" means a member of the commission.
   (b) "Department" means the Department of Fair Employment and
Housing.
   (c) "Director" means the Director of Fair Employment and Housing.
   (d) "Person" includes one or more individuals, partnerships,
associations, corporations, limited liability companies, legal
representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptcy, and receivers or
other fiduciaries.
12926.  As used in this part in connection with unlawful practices,
unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context:
   (a) "Affirmative relief" or "prospective relief" includes the
authority to order reinstatement of an employee, awards of backpay,
reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses, hiring, transfers,
reassignments, grants of tenure, promotions, cease and desist orders,
posting of notices, training of personnel, testing, expunging of
records, reporting of records, and any other similar relief that is
intended to correct unlawful practices under this part.
   (b) "Age" refers to the chronological age of any individual who
has reached his or her 40th birthday.
   (c) "Employee" does not include any individual employed by his or
her parents, spouse, or child, or any individual employed under a
special license in a nonprofit sheltered workshop or rehabilitation
facility.
   (d) "Employer" includes any person regularly employing five or
more persons, or any person acting as an agent of an employer,
directly or indirectly, the state or any political or civil
subdivision of the state, and cities, except as follows:
   "Employer" does not include a religious association or corporation
not organized for private profit.
   (e) "Employment agency" includes any person undertaking for
compensation to procure employees or opportunities to work.
   (f) "Essential functions" means the fundamental job duties of the
employment position the individual with a disability holds or
desires.  "Essential functions" does not include the marginal
functions of the position.
   (1) A job function may be considered essential for any of several
reasons, including, but not limited to, any one or more of the
following:
   (A) The function may be essential because the reason the position
exists is to perform that function.
   (B) The function may be essential because of the limited number of
employees available among whom the performance of that job function
can be distributed.
   (C) The function may be highly specialized, so that the incumbent
in the position is hired for his or her expertise or ability to
perform the particular function.
   (2) Evidence of whether a particular function is essential
includes, but is not limited to, the following:
   (A) The employer's judgment as to which functions are essential.
   (B) Written job descriptions prepared before advertising or
interviewing applicants for the job.
   (C) The amount of time spent on the job performing the function.
   (D) The consequences of not requiring the incumbent to perform the
function.
   (E) The terms of a collective bargaining agreement.
   (F) The work experiences of past incumbents in the job.
   (G) The current work experience of incumbents in similar jobs.
   (g) "Labor organization" includes any organization that exists and
is constituted for the purpose, in whole or in part, of collective
bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning grievances, terms
or conditions of employment, or of other mutual aid or protection.
   (h) "Medical condition" means either of the following:
   (1) Any health impairment related to or associated with a
diagnosis of cancer or a record or history of cancer.
   (2) Genetic characteristics.  For purposes of this section,
"genetic characteristics" means either of the following:
   (A) Any scientifically or medically identifiable gene or
chromosome, or combination or alteration thereof, that is known to be
a cause of a disease or disorder in a person or his or her
offspring, or that is determined to be associated with a
statistically increased risk of development of a disease or disorder,
and that is presently not associated with any symptoms of any
disease or disorder.
   (B) Inherited characteristics that may derive from the individual
or family member, that are known to be a cause of a disease or
disorder in a person or his or her offspring, or that are determined
to be associated with a statistically increased risk of development
of a disease or disorder, and that are presently not associated with
any symptoms of any disease or disorder.
   (i) "Mental disability" includes, but is not limited to, all of
the following:
   (1) Having any mental or psychological disorder or condition, such
as mental retardation, organic brain syndrome, emotional or mental
illness, or specific learning disabilities, that limits a major life
activity.  For purposes of this section:
   (A) "Limits" shall be determined without regard to mitigating
measures, such as medications, assistive devices, or reasonable
accommodations, unless the mitigating measure itself limits a major
life activity.
   (B) A mental or psychological disorder or condition limits a major
life activity if it makes the achievement of the major life activity
difficult.
   (C) "Major life activities" shall be broadly construed and shall
include physical, mental, and social activities and working.
   (2) Any other mental or psychological disorder or condition not
described in paragraph (1) that requires special education or related
services.
   (3) Having a record or history of a mental or psychological
disorder or condition described in paragraph (1) or (2), which is
known to the employer or other entity covered by this part.
   (4) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, any mental condition
that makes achievement of a major life activity difficult.
   (5) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, a mental or
psychological disorder or condition that has no present disabling
effect, but that may become a mental disability as described in
paragraph (1) or (2).
   "Mental disability" does not include sexual behavior disorders,
compulsive gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, or psychoactive
substance use disorders resulting from the current unlawful use of
controlled substances or other drugs.
   (j) "On the bases enumerated in this part" means or refers to
discrimination on the basis of one or more of the following:  race,
religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry, physical
disability, mental disability, medical condition, marital status,
sex, age, or sexual orientation.
   (k) "Physical disability" includes, but is not limited to, all of
the following:
   (1) Having any physiological disease, disorder, condition,
cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss that does both of the
following:
   (A) Affects one or more of the following body systems:
neurological, immunological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs,
respiratory, including speech organs, cardiovascular, reproductive,
digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and endocrine.
   (B) Limits a major life activity.  For purposes of this section:
   (i) "Limits" shall be determined without regard to mitigating
measures such as medications, assistive devices, prosthetics, or
reasonable accommodations, unless the mitigating measure itself
limits a major life activity.
   (ii) A physiological disease, disorder, condition, cosmetic
disfigurement, or anatomical loss limits a major life activity if it
makes the achievement of the major life activity difficult.
   (iii) "Major life activities" shall be broadly construed and
includes physical, mental, and social activities and working.
   (2) Any other health impairment not described in paragraph (1)
that requires special education or related services.
   (3) Having a record or history of a disease, disorder, condition,
cosmetic disfigurement, anatomical loss, or health impairment
described in paragraph (1) or (2), which is known to the employer or
other entity covered by this part.
   (4) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, any physical condition
that makes achievement of a major life activity difficult.
   (5) Being regarded or treated by the employer or other entity
covered by this part as having, or having had, a disease, disorder,
condition, cosmetic disfigurement, anatomical loss, or health
impairment that has no present disabling effect but may become a
physical disability as described in paragraph (1) or (2).
   (6) "Physical disability" does not include sexual behavior
disorders, compulsive gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, or
psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from the current
unlawful use of controlled substances or other drugs.
   (l) Notwithstanding subdivisions (i) and (k), if the definition of
"disability" used in the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
(Public Law 101-336) would result in broader protection of the civil
rights of individuals with a mental disability or physical
disability, as defined in subdivision (i) or (k), or would include
any medical condition not included within those definitions, then
that broader protection or coverage shall be deemed incorporated by
reference into, and shall prevail over conflicting provisions of, the
definitions in subdivisions (i) and (k).
   (m) "Race, religious creed, color, national origin, ancestry,
physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, marital
status, sex, age, or sexual orientation" includes a perception that
the person has any of those characteristics or that the person is
associated with a person who has, or is perceived to have, any of
those characteristics.
   (n) "Reasonable accommodation" may include either of the
following:
   (1) Making existing facilities used by employees readily
accessible to, and usable by, individuals with disabilities.
   (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules,
reassignment to a vacant position, acquisition or modification of
equipment or devices, adjustment or modifications of examinations,
training materials or policies, the provision of qualified readers or
interpreters, and other similar accommodations for individuals with
disabilities.
   (o) "Religious creed," "religion," "religious observance,"
"religious belief," and "creed" include all aspects of religious
belief, observance, and practice.
   (p) "Sex" includes, but is not limited to, pregnancy, childbirth,
or medical conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth.  "Sex" also
includes, but is not limited to, a person's gender, as defined in
Section 422.56 of the Penal Code.
   (q) "Sexual orientation" means heterosexuality, homosexuality, and
bisexuality.
   (r) "Supervisor" means any individual having the authority, in the
interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay off,
recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward, or discipline other
employees, or the responsibility to direct them, or to adjust their
grievances, or effectively to recommend that action, if, in
connection with the foregoing, the exercise of that authority is not
of a merely routine or clerical nature, but requires the use of
independent judgment.
   (s) "Undue hardship" means an action requiring significant
difficulty or expense, when considered in light of the following
factors:
   (1) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed.
   (2) The overall financial resources of the facilities involved in
the provision of the reasonable accommodations, the number of persons
employed at the facility, and the effect on expenses and resources
or the impact otherwise of these accommodations upon the operation of
the facility.
   (3) The overall financial resources of the covered entity, the
overall size of the business of a covered entity with respect to the
number of employees, and the number, type, and location of its
facilities.
   (4) The type of operations, including the composition, structure,
and functions of the workforce of the entity.
   (5) The geographic separateness, administrative, or fiscal
relationship of the facility or facilities.
12926.1.  The Legislature finds and declares as follows:
   (a) The law of this state in the area of disabilities provides
protections independent from those in the federal Americans with
Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-336).  Although the federal
act provides a floor of protection, this state's law has always, even
prior to passage of the federal act, afforded additional
protections.
   (b) The law of this state contains broad definitions of physical
disability, mental disability, and medical condition.  It is the
intent of the Legislature that the definitions of physical disability
and mental disability be construed so that applicants and employees
are protected from discrimination due to an actual or perceived
physical or mental impairment that is disabling, potentially
disabling, or perceived as disabling or potentially disabling.
   (c) Physical and mental disabilities include, but are not limited
to, chronic or episodic conditions such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis,
epilepsy, seizure disorder, diabetes, clinical depression, bipolar
disorder, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease.  In addition, the
Legislature has determined that the definitions of "physical
disability" and "mental disability" under the law of this state
require a "limitation" upon a major life activity, but do not
require, as does the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, a
"substantial limitation."  This distinction is intended to result in
broader coverage under the law of this state than under that federal
act.  Under the law of this state, whether a condition limits a major
life activity shall be determined without respect to any mitigating
measures, unless the mitigating measure itself limits a major life
activity, regardless of federal law under the Americans with
Disabilities Act of 1990.  Further, under the law of this state,
"working" is a major life activity, regardless of whether the actual
or perceived working limitation implicates a particular employment or
a class or broad range of employments.
   (d) Notwithstanding any interpretation of law in Cassista v.
Community Foods (1993) 5 Cal.4th 1050, the Legislature intends (1)
for state law to be independent of the Americans with Disabilities
Act of 1990, (2) to require a "limitation" rather than a "substantial
limitation" of a major life activity, and (3) by enacting paragraph
(4) of subdivision (i) and paragraph (4) of subdivision (k) of
Section 12926, to provide protection when an individual is
erroneously or mistakenly believed to have any physical or mental
condition that limits a major life activity.
   (e) The Legislature affirms the importance of the interactive
process between the applicant or employee and the employer in
determining a reasonable accommodation, as this requirement has been
articulated by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in its
interpretive guidance of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
12926.2.  As used in this part in connection with unlawful
practices, unless a different meaning clearly appears from the
context:
   (a) "Religious corporation" means any corporation formed under, or
otherwise subject to, Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110) or Part
6 (commencing with Section 10000) of Division 2 of Title 1 of the
Corporations Code, and also includes a corporation that is formed
primarily or exclusively for religious purposes under the laws of any
other state to administer the affairs of an organized religious
group and that is not organized for private profit.
   (b) "Religious duties" means duties of employment connected with
carrying on the religious activities of a religious corporation or
association.
   (c) Notwithstanding subdivision (d) of Section 12926 and except as
otherwise provided in subdivision (d) of this section, "employer"
includes a religious corporation or association with respect to
persons employed by the religious association or corporation to
perform duties, other than religious duties, at a health care
facility operated by the religious association or corporation for the
provision of health care that is not restricted to adherents of the
religion that established the association or corporation.
   (d) "Employer" does not include a religious corporation with
respect to either the employment, including promotion, of an
individual of a particular religion, or the application of the
employer's religious doctrines, tenets, or teachings, in any work
connected with the provision of health care.
   (e) Notwithstanding subdivision (d) of Section 12926, "employer"
does not include a nonprofit public benefit corporation incorporated
to provide health care on behalf of a religious organization under
Part 2 (commencing with Section 5110) of Division 2 of Title 1 of the
Corporations Code, with respect to employment, including promotion,
of an individual of a particular religion in an executive or
pastoral-care position connected with the provision of health care.
   (f) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a nonprofit
public benefit corporation formed by, or affiliated with, a
particular religion and that operates an educational institution as
its sole or primary activity, may restrict employment, including
promotion, in any or all employment categories to individuals of a
particular religion.
   (2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) or any other provision of law,
employers that are nonprofit public benefit corporations specified in
paragraph (1) shall be subject to the provisions of this part in all
other respects, including, but not limited to, the prohibitions
against discrimination made unlawful employment practices by this
part.
12927.  As used in this part in connection with housing
accommodations, unless a different meaning clearly appears from the
context:
   (a) "Affirmative actions" means any activity for the purpose of
eliminating discrimination in housing accommodations because of race,
color, religion, sex, marital status, national origin, ancestry,
familial status, or disability.
   (b) "Conciliation council" means a nonprofit organization, or a
city or county human relations commission, which provides education,
factfinding, and mediation or conciliation services in resolution of
complaints of housing discrimination.
   (c) (1) "Discrimination" includes refusal to sell, rent, or lease
housing accommodations; includes refusal to negotiate for the sale,
rental, or lease of housing accommodations; includes representation
that a housing accommodation is not available for inspection, sale,
or rental when that housing accommodation is in fact so available;
includes any other denial or withholding of housing accommodations;
includes provision of inferior terms, conditions, privileges,
facilities, or services in connection with those housing
accommodations; includes harassment in connection with those housing
accommodations; includes the cancellation or termination of a sale or
rental agreement; includes the provision of segregated or separated
housing accommodations; includes the refusal to permit, at the
expense of the disabled person, reasonable modifications of existing
premises occupied or to be occupied by the disabled person, if the
modifications may be necessary to afford the disabled person full
enjoyment of the premises, except that, in the case of a rental, the
landlord may, where it is reasonable to do so condition permission
for a modification on the renter's agreeing to restore the interior
of the premises to the condition that existed before the modification
(other than for reasonable wear and tear), and includes refusal to
make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or
services when these accommodations may be necessary to afford a
disabled person equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling.
   (2) "Discrimination" does not include either of the following:
   (A) Refusal to rent or lease a portion of an owner-occupied
single-family house to a person as a roomer or boarder living within
the household, provided that no more than one roomer or boarder is to
live within the household, and the owner complies with subdivision
(c) of Section 12955, which prohibits discriminatory notices,
statements, and advertisements.
   (B) Where the sharing of living areas in a single dwelling unit is
involved, the use of words stating or tending to imply that the
housing being advertised is available only to persons of one sex.
   (d) "Housing accommodation" means any building, structure, or
portion thereof that is occupied as, or intended for occupancy as, a
residence by one or more families and any vacant land that is offered
for sale or lease for the construction thereon of any building,
structure, or portion thereof intended to be so occupied.
   (e) "Owner" includes the lessee, sublessee, assignee, managing
agent, real estate broker or salesperson, or any person having any
legal or equitable right of ownership or possession or the right to
rent or lease housing accommodations, and includes the state and any
of its political subdivisions and any agency thereof.
   (f) "Person" includes all individuals and entities that are
described in Section 3602(d) of Title 42 of the United States Code,
and in the definition of "owner" in subdivision (e) of this section,
and all institutional third parties, including the Federal Home Loan
Mortgage Corporation.
   (g) "Aggrieved person" includes any person who claims to have been
injured by a discriminatory housing practice or believes that the
person will be injured by a discriminatory housing practice that is
about to occur.
   (h) "Real estate-related transactions" include any of the
following:
   (1) The making or purchasing of loans or providing other financial
assistance that is for the purpose of purchasing, constructing,
improving, repairing, or maintaining a dwelling, or that is secured
by residential real estate.
   (2) The selling, brokering, or appraising of residential real
property.
   (3) The use of territorial underwriting requirements, for the
purpose of requiring a borrower in a specific geographic area to
obtain earthquake insurance, required by an institutional third party
on a loan secured by residential real property.
12928.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, there is a
rebuttable presumption that "employer," as defined by subdivision
(d) of Section 12926, includes any person or entity identified as the
employer on the employee's Federal Form W-2 (Wage and Tax
Statement).


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