Lacey v. Braxton et al, No. 7:2010cv00139 - Document 43 (W.D. Va. 2011)

Court Description: MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Jackson L. Kiser on 08/01/2011. (kab)
    Download PDF CL S OFFI U G DI COUX ERK' CE SI .. .. . Ar v vziv .o lk .A . I THE UNI N TED STATES DI STRI CO URT CT FO R T H E W E STER N DI STR I T O F V I G I I C R N A R O A N O K E D I ISIO N V FL D& IE zyA AUC 2 1 221 1 JULAC. UDL C RK I EX B : DEPUW YR D AU G H TO N W .LA C EY ,JR . , Pl nt f , ai i f Ci lAct on No.7: cvvi i 10- 00139 V. M EM O M N D UM O PI I N N O DA NI BM X TO N ,e aI, EL t . Defendant s. CLERK By: H on.Jacks L .K i on ser Se or U nied St esD i t c Judge ni t at s ri t D a ht W . c y, r , V igi a i a e pr ee ng pr K ,fl d a c vi r g sac i ug on La e J . a r ni nm t oc di o ie i l i ht ton, p ru n t 4 U. C.j1 3wihj rs ito v se i 2 U. C.j1 4 Plitf n me a u s a t o 2 S. 98 t u idcin e td n 8 S. 3 3. an if a s s defnda sDa e Br xt W a de oft Aug t Cor tona Ce e (ç ';StveHola, e nt nil a on, r n he usa reci l ntr t ACC') e lr A s it ntW a de oft A CC;Tr c La hor a A CC Tr t e Pr r m Supe vi o ;Phyli ssa r n he a y w n, n ea m nt og a r sr ls Byr t ACC La Li a y Super s ; d, he w br r vior ACC c r c i lofi r W o km a Grfi Se ge nt ore tona fce s r n, ifn, r a Stc e , e e ntCa e bur a Li ut na Pe r J hn J i kl r Li ut na nt r y, nd e e nt r y; o abe, e y D i e t r oft V igi a D put r c o he r ni De rme ofCore o (t pa t nt rdins tVDOC' ;a J m Gama aVDOC Regi lDie t .Pli if ' nd ol r n, ) ona rcor antf aleg t tt def nda s vi a ed hi c tt i la s a ut y rght t t f e e r i e of l es ha he e nt ol t s onsiutona nd t t or i s o he r e xe c s rlgo d ep o e s a p o e t Thed fnd nsfldamoin f rs mma yj d me t a d eiin, u r c s, nd r p ry. ee a t ie to o u r u g n , n pl i ifr s a ntf e ponde m a ng t m a t rr pe f di pos ton. A fe r e i t r c d,Ig a d, ki he te i or s ii t r evi w ng he e or r nt pl ntf sm oton t f l a s ppl m e a r pons de pl i if s m otonst sr ke a f ai i f i o ie u e nt l es e, ny a ntf i o t i nd or s ndi ,a grntdee nt'motonf sl r j a ons nd a fnda s i or tmmay udgmen . t PLAI FF' COMPLAI NTI S NT Pli ifhasbee asnc r me roft rlgi gr p Ho eofYa h(i wheh' antf n i ee mbe he ei ous ou us whe û Ya ' ) f s ve e n yea s The Yahweh f ih r qui e is m e be s t us a Book ofY a e t pr y or e nt e r. at e r s t m r o e hw h o a t hree tm esa da a m or ng,m i da a eveni . Y ahw i t pr i eongr t onalser ee on i y t ni d- y, nd ng s s actce ega i vi ea h Sa ur y, he r Sabba h,a a s ve f a t durng t ye r c t da t i t nd t e n e s s i he a . W hiehous da t Br wikCore to Ce e (( ',BCC ofi i sal l e t he uns c rcinal ntr ( BCC' ) tcal lowed pl i ift pur ha ea pos es a Ta ltpr ye s antf o c s nd s s li a r hawl aKi h Ya mul ,a a Book of ; ppa r ke' nd Ya e a t m ee w ih ot rY a i t t pr tc c m unalf ih w ih t e ie s e ch hw h nd o t t he hw s s o ac i e om a t t hes t m a Sa t The VDOC cl e t BCC and o de e pl ntf ta f r e t t ACC.BCC bbah. os d he r r d ai if r nse r d o he corec i lofi er pa ked pl ntf sbel ngs i o s x boxesbe or tans e rng hi . r tona tc s c ai i f ongi nt i f e r f ri m Pur ua t V DO C polc one oft s boxe ,c le a C tbox, c a ne t ie s pl i if s nt o i y, he e s a ld l ho ' ont i d he t m ' a ntf t d t ofi e she ne d i m e aey upon hi arva a BCC. Thes ie si ude a Bi e, ol he tc r edt m dit l s ri l t e tm ncl d bl The Book ofY a e a c bl ' t a f m e , t e TV c bl s Pl i i fwor a pa r o hw h, a e- r ns or r and hr e rv a e . a ntf e i f s ke s du i hi t a f r nea r r ng s r ns e . A fe pl i i fa rve a t AC C o Se e be 30,2009,a lofhi pe s lpr r y t r a ntf r i d t he n pt m r 1 s r ona ope t boxesw e e conts a e t de e m i i a hi br r i c t d o t r ne f nyt ng oughtf o t BCC w a c r ba The r m he s ont a nd. pr ry i nt r done by B CC s af w hie pac ng t bo s di no m a c t A CC ope t nve o y t f l ki he xe d t t h he de e f ndan s pr ry c r s e ,i c tng t pl i ift ts m e ofhi pr rywasmi sng, t ' ope t ontol he t ndi a i o antf ha o s ope t si i udi 300 s r on t pesa s r lboo . Ofa lt pr ry i a lhi boxes t e valnt ncl ng em a nd eve a ks 1 he ope t n 1 s , he qui e ofone box' c e s w asde ed c r nd. Pl n ifw a e t g i ve a lofhi pr r y s ont nt em ontaba ai tf nt d o r e 1 s ope t c ompli s b pr ry ofi e sle a t d hi heha t gre e h pi c ofpr pe t ant , ut ope t fc r i d nd ol m d o ive ac e e o ry separ el at y. Pl i ifalege t tde enda sW o km a Grfi a Sti kl who a e s r s d by antf l s ha f nt r n, ifn, nd rc and, r upe vie Lt Pe r r wel elgi . ry, emoved s r ie sasc ta nd. St f c ica e tn1oft ver i ousbooks eve al t m on r ba a f onfs t d e bec us t books had s e e s sna e i t m . Pl i ifw r e ( H a ki ' and hi a e he om one l e' m n he a ntf ot C B. w ns' s i a e num be i t booksand i onne A CC pr pe t c r ,m a lr , i a e r or nm t r n he nf d o ry ontol i oom and nm t ec ds saf u t f pon hi a va t the had pr vi usy l ga l c nge hi nam e f om D a s ni l ha e o l e ly ha d s r ' ught n La e J . o c y, r t Ba u hYa Ha ns Pli ifague t tt boo 's i els tntal bur ne ( s o r c h wki . antf r s ha he ks ezur iubsa ily de d hil a lt t pr ctce hi r lgi as s e oft boo w e e e ana or i na ur ofhi bele biiy o a i s e i on, om he ks r xpl t y n t e s if s t m , t c t ,m a r and pr c i e ofhi be i f . ys e and he us om nne , a tc s le s ' ' Pl i ifw e t t A CC Pr ry D e r m e o Oc obe 2,2009,w he e he w a t d a ntf nt o he ope t pa t nt n t r r s ol t thal oft ie si hi E tbox' w e e c r ba be us t y w e e a t r d,us d,or ha f he t m n s t ho ' r ont a nd ca e he r le e e una horze a t A CC . O f i i l c i c t d hi s a s a i s d hi har s e s s ut i d t he f c a s onts a e s ne ker nd s ue m d- ol d hoe . Pl i ifc antf ompl nst tACC sa fs z hi s ke sbe a et i i he sofb0t s s ai ha tf eied s nea r c us he nsde el h hoe w e e w or dow n a he co d alege y hi c t a r n nd ul l dl de on r band i i t s ns de he hoes Pl i ifc d no . a ntf oul t e e t A CC g nasum w ih hi ha d- ol s nt r he ym i t s r s ed hoesa nee t pur s s a r f om t nd ded o cha e ne ke s r he ACC c mi s r Howe r t s ke shewa t d t buy we e t s me s ke s om s a y. ve , he nea r s ol o r he a nea r confs a e w hi h ha n t be t s m e s yl s m os oft A C C i a esal o w o e. A CC i c t d, c ppe o he a t e hoe t he nm t s r sa fas c icaedt c bl -rv ta f me , c pl i ifpur ha e fom apr vi t f lo onfs t he a e ' r ns or r whih antf c sd r e ous c omm is r be us i wa a lgedl una ho i ed, pli ifal gest ti wasa ho ie s a y, ca e t s le y ut rz but a ntf le ha t ut rz d. ACC sa fa s c ss t hi Book ofYa h asat r dbe us t BCC c pli sofi e t f l o ont caed s hwe le e ca e he ha an' fc 'Pl ntf sae hercei TheBoo ofY ir yla TheSe nd Boo ofY ir . ( l' Rep.n 3 )!1 . ai if t ts e ved k s a nd co k sayl P . s (o. 0 8) s Pl ntf e ai t tt boo we eû a t yi na u eofhi belefs tm , andt cusom,ma r a ai if xpl ns ha he ks r ç naor n t r expl s i yse he t nne , nd prcieo hsb l f. ( mpl!5 . Plitf a k o e g sta, eie hsBo ko Ya we , rs nsaf a tc f i ei s' Co . 0) anif c n wld e h tb sd s i o f h h pio tf e ' ofi i ly confs t t e r lgi books buthe a l st ts a fco ca ed s ven m or booksbutdi notls fc a l ica ed hr e e i ous , lege ha t f nss t e e d it t ont c hem he onEs ton s tt pr ven hi fo g ivi t rc icai . ( . S p l me tl s ( o. 2 2) cai hee o e t m r m re ng hei onfs ton P1 s u p e na Re p.n 3 ' !6. ) us d cla t pet r parisbr n bi ng.De e ntW o km a t d pl i tf he c dnot e e r a o e i t oke ndi f nda r n ol a n if oul r m e t conta nd by r m ovi t cl a t pe be us i woul s ilbe a t r by is e dy he r ba e ng he e r a ca e t d tl le ed t d a d c ton. Pl i ifal o di notr c i hi Tali pr ye s lbe us i wast l r am ge ondii a ntf s d e e ve s lt a r haw ca e t oo a ge a a ar d ( m e a ' ACC sa falo s z t boa d ga e be aus t y we enot nd ppe e C ho m de. ' t f s eied wo r m s c e he r al d i t ACC at lowe n he lhoughVDOC De rme Opeai Pr dur (i ' 802. pa t nt rtng oce e $ DOP') 1 s ii ly pe t i a e t pos e st boar g es CC s af a s s i d hi c s e t pec fca l nnis nm t s o s s wo d am .A t f l o e ze s a s te plye be us t tpedoorbr durngt ta f r W iho a ope a ec s tepl ye , a r ca e he a oke i he r nse . t ut n r bl as e t a r pl i if s r lgi s r on t pe w e e eo i r d c r ba a ntf e i ous e m a s r ns de e ont a nd. A CC s a ft d pl ntf t tV D OC polc pe m is hi t e t r pa t m a l he t f ol ai if ha i y r t m o ihe y o i t c r ba t s e orha s e co e t t A CC a r ove t pr onta nd o om one ve om one m o he nd ec r he opery. On t Novembe 9, r 2009,sa ft d pl i ifhehadt pa t s p hi c r nd outoft ACC ort t t f ol antf o y o hi s ontaba he ha t ie sw oul be c he t m d onvered t V D OC pr t a be di pos d. Pl i ifw a e t m a a l t o opery nd s e a ntf nt d o ke 1 hi c r ba a l e f f m iy t m a o y one ti t t A CC t pi k- t pr pe t bu s onta nd vaiabl or a l o ke nl rp o he o c up he o ry, t sa ft d pl i tf t theco d onl s p t m ae i l out Howe , ai ifdi notha t f ol a n if ha ul y hi he tra s . ver pl ntf d ve eno h m one t m a lt m ,a s a fd lne t pa f t i s ppi Pl i ifc ude t t ug y o i he nd t f ec i d o y or he r hi ng. a ntf oncl s ha he ha no be n a e t pr orpr c i hi r lgi s nc a rvi a t A CC . Pl i ifa l ge s t e bl o ay a tce s e i on i e r i ng t he a ntf le s t tt ACC sa fwho m a ke hi Book ofYa h a c ta nd vi a e hi Fis Ame e ha he tf r d s hwe s on r ba olt d s r t ndm nt r g t t f e e r s ofr lgi i ht o he r e xe ci e e i on. A s ofDec m be 2009, a ntf w ase pl d asa i a e l w c e k i t A CC 1 w e r pl i i f m oye n nm t a l r n he a lbr r whe e i aesa e al w e t us co putr t t pet rl ga wor Pl i ifa lge i a y, r nm t r lo d o e m e s o y hei e l k. antf le s t ti a e 1 w d e ks a e a l e t do t i t ga w or on 1 eo pu er , oo. Pl i if ha nm t a r r low d o he r e l k he m t s t a ntf i tt ed a f alci lacton i D ecem ber2009 t pr ns iut eder vi i n o eventACC s af f om convertng hi t fr i s 4 pr ry c i e c r band i o sa epr ry.Afe t sa ton wasdim is d,pl ntf ope t onsder d onta nt t t ope t tr hi c i s s e ai if ce tda ti t prn aû otonf aW rtofPr bii 'Cs oin' onDe mbe 11 2009, rae nd red o it t i or i M ohi ton' M to ' ) ce r , t thei e ha nt ndedt fl t pr ve ACC sa ffom co ri ar lgi uspublca in. On o ie o e nt tf ' r nve tng e i o i to De e be 1 2009, f nda Bidt d pli ift tde e ntLa c m r 5, de e nt r ol antf ha f nda whor s i d hi M oto a n eze s i n nd r m oved isexhi t a a l ge e ght e pag r lg ousdoc e . A fe c uli w ih e t bi, n le d i e n e e i i um nt tr ons tng t La n,Biditnde t tr naepli ifsprs nj f t ngi o a1w lbrr co e . whor r ne d o emi t antf io ob or ypi t n a i a y mputr On Dec m be 22, e r 2009,pl ntf ,de e ntCa e bt y,a t o ot rs a fa t nde ai i f f nda nt r u nd w he t f te d pl ntf si tt i lhe rngt t r naehi asa i t l w ce k. Pl ntf al ge hedi ai if nsiutona a i o e mi t m n nma e a lr ai if le s d notr c i notc oft he rng,di notha tmet pr pa e,c dnotcalwines es a di e e ve ie he a i d ve i o e r oul l t s , nd d notr e ve a c oft r ulsf ni da , 1alege y i vi a i ofV D O C polc e ec i opy he es t or ne ys al l dl n ol ton i i s. Pl i ifw asnota l a ntf lowed t a alhi t r i t o and ne rr e ve a r s o ppe s e m na i n ve ec i d e pons t hi eo s gre ivanc s Pli ifa guest tLa e . antf r ha whor si e f r nc wih hi M o i deay hi fom flng n' nt re e e t s ton l ed m r ii t sac in, yi f i,orr e vi c e .Pl i ifalo c hi to pa ng or t ec i ng opis antf s ompl i t tACC saf c n s ehi ans ha t fa e s lgala gumen sbe or hetl t m wih ac t e r t f e ies he t our. Pl i i falegest tdef nda s Hola ,Br xt n,a G a n r vi w e hi gr e nc a ntf l ha e nt l r a o nd nua e e d s i va es a boutt s i d pr ry butdi no r medyhi c pl nt.The e or pl ntf c l st t he eze ope t d te s om ai s r f e, ai if oncude ha t y ai d a a ted i vi a i hi rg s antf s ntal te and adr toft f c ssa e he de nd bet n oltng s i ht .Pl i if e et r af he a t tt d i t sc vi a ton t de e ntJ be eo pli ng t tACC sa fvi a e hi rght t r lgi us n hi i l c i o f nda a , m a ni ha t f olt d s i s o e i o practce,butJabe neverr ponded. i es I J nua y 201 pl ntf r ques e pe m i s o f om t AC C Cha a n and Tr a m e n a r 0, ai if e t d r s i n r he pl i e t nt De rme t rcevet ea ne bradCû az ' ta durngPasove a t eg - yFe t pa t nt o e i ml ve d e M ta' rys i ) s r nd he ihtda as ofUnl a ne Br d. La ho n de e t r ue tbe us pl i i fha noty tbe a hor z d e ve d ea w r ni d he eq s ca e a ntf d e en ut i e t r c i M azata butt d hi t hecoul r ques a horz ton fom t VDOC Fat o e e ve t r ys ol m hat d e t ut ia i r he ih Re e Com m it e. Pl i i ffl d hi r ue twih t Faih R e ew Co m it e, r ie a ed vi w te a ntf ie s eq s t he t vi m te but e t r t t La r t the w asa Yahwi t La hor t d hi t ts t o who n ha s . w n ol m ha he houghtpl ntf pr c i ed ai if a tc Buddhim , s whos a r nt woul notbepr a ove t r eveM a z ta . Pli if e dhe e s d e-ppr d o ec i t a r ys antf a knowl dgest tLa c e ha whor s e nty r c z d t tpl i ifwa a Ya s a he n ubs que l e ogni e ha antf s hwit nd r e ve hi r ue t d M a za ta . ec i d s eq s e t r ys2 Asar ul oft s e nt,pl i ifge r l ale t tt def nda svi ae hi es t he e ve s antf ne aly lges ha he e nt ol td s rg sa pr ve ed hi fom pr c ii hi r lgi byconfs a i hi Book ofYawhe Ta lt iht nd e nt m r a tc ng s ei on ic tng s h, li, a rlgi books(delgi pr rf' ( ams1 1 a 31 .M or s iial pli if nd ei ous i i ous ope t ) Cli 6, 7, nd ) r e pecfc ly, antf a l ge 28 c a m s f r i f w hi a e s m a i d asf l s le s l i 3 or ele , eh r um rze olow : Cor e t o lOf i e s Pe r W or an,Gr f i a St i kl rvi a e pl i if s r c i na f c r r y, km i fn, nd r c e ol t d a ntf Fis Ame m e a RLUI r i ousrg sby a yi VDOC polc t rt nd nt nd PA elgi i ht ppl ng iy o c icae hi Book ofYa h,Talt a r lgi books whih al ge y onfs t s whe li, nd ei ous , c le dl de e hi hi a lt t pry( ams1, 3, 5,11 a 1 ; nid m s biiy o a Cli 2, 4, , nd 3) La whor vi a e pli ifsFis Am e n olt d antf ' rt ndmentrg t t feee r ie ofr i on i ht o he r xe c s elgi ( ai 1 ; Cl m 8) Cor e i lOfk e s Pe y,W or an,Gr f i a St i kl rvi a e t r d ona t r n' km if n, nd re e ol t d he 2Pli ifac antf knowldge t t f t i vi hi M at ta aenott bassofa i pende cai butar e s hat he acs nvol ng s za r ys r he i n nde nt l m e icu e t s o tee tn t whc d fn a t tyt p re uepanif ( ' Re p (o. 0 !3 () n ld d o h w h xe to ih ee d ns l o esc t litf. Pls s .n 3 ) 8a. ' ) 3Plitf ac an if knowldgesi hi co ai t hei s ngf onl t s z e ofhi r i ouspr t a i not e n s mpl nt hat s ui or y he eiur s s elgi opery nd s purui r le i t saci f t non-ei ousiems lket boa dgame ,TV ada e ,tpeplye , s ets or s ng eif n hi ton or he r lgi t , i he r s ptr a a r ca s te , s e k r.( mp.l n.. Plitf sy heicu e tefcsa u t n n-eiiu i mst s o ted fn a t' n a es Co l 5 6) anif a s n ld d h a t bo the o rl o s t o h w h ee d ns g e C r taya dcp iiu naueo ted fn a s a pl aina da u eo ( t bi r n a rco s tr f h ee d nt' p i to n b s f VDOCJp lc . .' (d. Plitf as a r c oiy . . 1 ) anif lo ' doesnotpr s nta acai a fcilchale t DOP 8 lunde RLUI Alhough llber l c tuepr j ee s l m a a lnge o 02. r PA. t i aly onsr o . ç c mpans Han sv. re , 4U. 51 5 0 2 ( 9 2 , d n ta t steimaesa v c t,uaso t o lit, ie Ken r40 S. 9, 2 - 1 1 7 )l o o c a h n t' d o ae s o ne deveopi saut y a co tttona cli t i aef ld t cla l r ieont f eoft co pl nt Se l ng tt or nd nsiu i l ams he nm t aie o e ry as he ac he m ai . e Brc v. rol l 7F.d241 2 3(t Ci.1 9 )( ti, .c n urn ) Be u et . t o Ha tn 7 5F.d o k Car l 0 3 , , 4 4h r 9 7 Lut J, o c rig ; a d tv Ciy f mpo , 7 2 g 1 1 ( h Ci.1 . Se aloGo don v. e ,574 F. 11 11 ( hCi.1 )(ec zi t t 274, 278 4t r 985) e s r Le ke 2d 47, 51 4t r 978 r ogni ng ha diti tc t ar note c ed t a s e t r e ofa at f t pr K. anit.Ev nih ddfcal s rc ours e xpe t o s um he ol dvoc e or he o plitf ) e f e i a il y . c l t polc i w o d f i bec et polc doe nots tntalybur n snc el hedr i ousbeleson halenge he iy, t ul al aus he iy s ubsa i l de i er y l elgi if isfce addr s compeli gove nm e ali e ess a pr de t l s r src i m e t s tsy t e t a , eses lng r nt ntr t, nd ovi s he ea t e titve ans o aif hos i e essby ise ptonsandpr sons ntr t t xce i ovii . Four e nt A m e m e ' due pr es c a e a V D OC polci by s i ng a te h nd nt s oc s l us nd i es e zi nd diposngofpli ifsrlgi pr ry( ai 1 1 1 a 1 ; s i antf ei ous ope t Cl ms 0, 2, 4, nd 5) Hola , a on,Gar a a J be vi l t d pl ntf ' Fi s Am e l r Br xt m n, nd a o a e ai i f s r t ndm e a nt nd RLU I rght by uphol ng s PA i s di ubor na e 'vi a i nsvi t gr e nc pr e s di t s ol t o a he i va e oc s ( ams6, , , , 6 2 , 8 a d2 ) Cli 7 8 9 2 , 7 2 ,n 9; La hor vi a e pl i if sFi s Am e e r g t f ee s e pe ii n t w n ol t d a ntf rt ndm nt i ht o r pe ch, tto he go r nt a ras eac es t co t ( ams1 20, ,23,a 24) venme , nd e onabl c s o urs Cli 9, 21 nd ' , La whom rtlae agans pli iffrflngacvi a oni fde a c t( am eaitd i t antf o ii i l di n e r l our Cli 22) a , . nd Ca e y vi a e t Fo te h Am e nt bur olt d he ure nt ndme ' duepr es ca edurng t nts oc s lus i he he r ng t de e m i whe herpl i ifs d s a em pl ed i t 1 w lbr r a a i o t r ne t a ntf houl t y oy n he a i a y nd t tBid vi a e pli ifsc tt i lrgh swhe s fr d pl i iffo hi ha r olt d a ntf' onsiutona i t n he ie antf r m s imaelw-irr o ( ams2 a d3 ) n t a lb a yj b Cli 5 n 0 . P an ifrq ssd caao y ij ci e a dlg l eif Pli tf a k tec u to litf e uet e lrt r ,nun tv , n e a r le. anif s s h o r t de lr t tt de e nt , t rby t i ove t t orpolces vi ae pl ntf ' co tt i l ca e ha he f nda s eihe he r r acs i i , ol td ai ifs nsiutona rg t.P an ifr q et p r n n ij n to st iv l aeDOP 8 2 1 p e e td fn a t ih s litf e u ss ema e t n u cin o n ai t d 0 ., r v n ee d n s ' f om w or ng i a pr pe t de rm e i a pr s n unl st y a e tai a r ki n ny o ry pa t nt n ny i o es he r r ned boutt polcy he i t tw oul r pl ce D O P 802. ;a pr ve La ho n fom w o ki i a prs Pl i if ha d e a 1 nd e nt w r r r ng n ny i on. a ntf r quessc e t ompe at y da a of$ 000pl $1000, f e ch da heca ns or m ges 20, us , 000 or a y nnotpr tc hi aci e s r lgi and punii da a sof$20, 00 fom t def nt and $5, 0 fom La r e i on tve m ge 000, 0 r he enda s 00 r who n. Pl ntf a l gesast ba i ofhi RLU I c ai st tt V D O C r ce ves f de alf ng. ai i f le he s s s PA l m ha he e i e r undi ( Compl !1 ) . 4. D EPARTMENT O PERATI PROCEDURE 802. NG 1 DOP 802. (t f rPr rf' g de prs ofkil i t or niai a 1 tofende ope t ) ui s ion f as n he ga z ton nd diposton ofi at pr 'y w ihi VD O C f ltes. Pr s ii nm es' opett t n aciii opert m ay be eonf s t beeause i y i ea ed t i con r ba soln'l ne tade s d, gitd t anot i t e e sve, ut i d, s ta nd; t e , oa d, r d, ol or fe o her nma e; xc s i una horze o u wa td o atr do mo iidwi u wrte a t rz to DOP 8 2.( 1( , G) r n ne ' r le e r dfe t t i n uhoiain. , ho t 0 1Vl)E) ( . Conta ndi dei a ç n ie f bi nf e r pos e son,orrmovalfom aF DOCI rba s tned s û tm or dde or nty, s si a e r f iiy'orkgl ie i t pos e sonof ora e sbl t a ofe rt tha no be n aclt ' san tm n he s si , cc si e o, n fnde ha s t e s ciialyis t ora horz d frpose sonbyt ofe rlorhasno be obti db pe fc l sued o, ut ie o ss i he fnde l t en ane y t ofe ri a or ncewihope ai pr edurs. J=(1) Conta ndc n i l Sstt he fnde n cc da t rtng oc e ' . .11. r ba a ncude d lae '4 l orpe s r onalpr ry ofa t nots c fc l a horz f rpos es i o us b an ofende ' ope t ny ype pe iialy ut i ed o s son r e y f r' or(llaeorpes lpr ry,egadl sofhow a quie t i i r eorha bee tstt rona ope t r r es c rd,hat s nopeabl s n modii o atrdwihoutwrte pemisonll'1 I tsma notl n,tade s l,o gf fed r lee t itn r si .' d. nmae y oa r , el r i' t a pe s lpr ryt ea hot r J-(V)J( .Thepolc alor c niest ts ny rona ope t o c he . .z I ()5) d iy s e og z ha ome t t hobby'a C r t' o ryma notbealwedatalfciiis l (V)C)3) ' nd k af'pr pe t y c lo 1 a lte . d. 1 ( ( . Pr pe t t ta rvesw ih a i a e a i tali a i t t V D O C bu i de e m i d t o ry ha r i t n nm t t nii nt ke n o he t s t r ne o be S s low ed' m a be s ta i f rvi iorpi k- orm aied t a a es a t V D OC ' s al di ' y e s de o s t c up l o n ddr s t he S e ns Howe r t VDOC pa f t ss r ceonl uponi ta i a i ot VDOC.Luz xpe e. ve ,he ys or hi evi y niil ntke nt he d . (V)G)6) Pr pet r eve afe i ta itket ti ltrde d dial dwoul bemal l ( ( . o ry ec i d tr niil na ha s ae eme s lowe d ied a onl t i t se ns .l ( 1( () $ ofe rtanse rdt af iiyt tdoe not t y he nmae' xpe e d. VI)D)1. d fnde r fre o aclt ha s An pe ta ie o he wie a horze unde t spr e em us a r nui n t m t r s ut i d r hi oc dur t rangef diposton oft ie or s ii he tm aspr ded'byt polc l (V)C)4) ovi ' he iy. d. I ( ( . W he a i a e i t a f r e f om one V D O C f iiy t a he , a ofi e s r he a n n nm t s r ns e r d r ac lt o not r n tc r ea c s nd i nt i t i a e' pe s nve ores he nm t s r onalpr ry a c pl t a f m w ih a c ea h f t ofi e , ope t nd om e es or t opy c or he f e r frt i t stl,a i t boxedc ens DOP 802. ( () Thesndi fciiys d o he nmae' ie nd n he ont t. 1 F)1 . e ng a lt houl s i e an con r ba bef e s ppi t pr r y t t r c vi f c lt . e z y t a nd or hi ng he ope t o he e ei ng a iiy The r ce vi f ciiy' s a fm a a s de e m i whe herr c ved pr pe t i c r ba e i ng a lt s t f y l o t r ne t e ei o ry s ont a nd a ma s i i.I ( ( ( )g) W he ani t arve a t ne f clt wihpr ryt t nd y eze t d. V)F)5 ( . n nmae ri s t he w a iiy t ope t ha i di alow e a t ne f ciiy, he i a e i gi n t opporuniy t di pos oft pr ry b s s l d t he w a lt t nm t s ve he t t o s e he ope t y pe ti aviio t piki upormalngi a t i t' e ns l ( ( ( ( Pr ry nnitng str o c t ii t t he nmaes xpe e. d.V)F)5)9. ope t s be t ovst rpc u i h l f ru t t it d y .l ( I( () P o ryn t ipo e b u j c t iio ik- p s ed o p o hry a s d.VI)D)2 . r pet o d s sd y et rmeh di s j c t a mi srtv c nfs ain l .V)F)5 () Dialwe p o et i i he t o s ube t o d nitaie o ic to . d ( ( ( )t. slo d r p ry s no c re i osaepr pe t untla1a al a utt c icai aee use J. t onve td nt tt o ry i l ppe s bo he onfs ton r xha td. -. ps ( 1( .An i t ma admi srtvel a a t decso t c ic t pr ry.Ana l Vl)E) nmae y nitai y ppe l he iin o onfs ae opet ppea r ol i w oul c pe s a e c es uton d om l t t onve s on orr t ni t pr ry t t i a e t ke p, o m a l ri e ur ng he ope t o he nm t o e t i o oft f clt o pemiaviiort piki u l ( l() ut he a iiy, r r t st o c t p. d.VI)l. ADM I STRATI REMEDI NI VE ES DO P 866. ,l a e Gr e nc Pr e e,i a m ec ni m f i a e t r ol 1 nm t i va e oc dur s ha s or nm t s o es ve com pl nt ,a a a i sr tve dec sons a c le t s t nce ofpr dur s. The ai s ppe l dm ni t a i i i , nd ha l nge he ubs a oce e pr s pr de c r tonala i sr t sam e nst i ntf pot nta pr e a i oce s ovi s orec i dm nitaor a o de iy e il obl ms nd, f nec s a y,c r c t e pr em s i a tm e y m anne . A 1 i s a e greva e e pti s e s r or e t hos obl n i l r 1 s ues r i bl xce s ues abo polc es pr e es a dec s onsoft Vi gi a Pa ol Boar dici i r hea i ut i i , oc dur nd i i he r ni r e d; s plna y rng pena te a orpr edur le r s s a e a f r lc tdec s ons l w s a r ul tons a li s nd/ oc a r or ; t t nd ede a our ii , a nd eg a i ' nd , ot rm a t sbey t V D O C' c r . he ter ond he S ontol l t sa e ore e t t i ae Gre nc Pr dtr whe t y a er cevedi o t nma e r int d o he nm t i va e oce le n he r e i nt he VDOC.Prort s itng agreva e,t i t mus demonsr t t theha m a a go i o ubm ti i nc he nma e t tae ha s de od f ih e f t o i or a l r s ve hi c pl i tby s itng a i or a com pl i f r a t f or t nf m ly e ol s om a n ubm ti n nf m l a nt o m avaiabl i t rhousng uni l notr ol l e n hei i t. f es ved,t i at m us fl a r ar gr evance w ihi he nm e t ie egul i t n t rt cal hi y endardays f om t dat ofoccur ence ori dent Onl one i sue pergri r he e r nci . y s evance w ilbe l a e s d. Re argre nc m a r evet e lve sofr viw .A f iiy' wa de or ddr s e gul iva es y ec i hr e e l e e aclt s r n s r nt ndentc uc st fr t ( a ve l' e e oft gr e nce. I t i a e i di s ts i upe i e ond t he i s , ç e l ' r vi w l he i va f he nm t s s a i ted wih t de e m i i n,he m a a t he t r nato y ppea t de e m i ton t Le l1 ,whi h i done by t l he t r na i o ve I c s he Re ona Om buds an/ iec or Form os i s , gi l m Dr t . t s ues Leve 1 i t fnall lofr vi w . t f w l 1 s he i eve e e For he e i s a a a et Leve 11 t D e y D ie t orDi e t oft V D O C c s ues ppe l bl o l 1 , he put r c or r c or he onduc st fnal t he i r vi oft r gul rgreva . e ew he e a i nce PLAI FF' TRANSFER M OOTSHl REQUES FOR I UNCTI AND DECLARATORY RELI NTI S S T NJ VE EF. Plitf ma n i e r c ied caaoyn rij nci erle f rcamsba e o e e t an if y et r e ev e lz tr o nu tv eif o li h sd n v ns orpolci wihi t ACC.Durngt pe nc oft sa ton, a n ifwasta f re fom i es t n he i he nde y hi c i pli tf r ns e r d r t A CC t a he V DO C f iiy. tfr ns e ofa i a e f om a uni orl ton wher he i he o not r ac lt s a f r n nm t r t oca i e s s j c t t c l dpolc pr tc orc ton,oadifrntuni orl tonwheehei ub e t o he halenge iy, acie, ondii t fee t ocai r s n ln e s be t ot c aln e p lc , rcie o c n iinmo t h scamsf rij n tv o o g r u j c t he h l g d o iy p a tc , r o dto os i li o nu cie e a de l r t y r le ,e n i a c am f rmone da a ss wi . Unc a v.Ozmi ,507 nd c a a or e if ve f l i o y m ge ul ves' ' um a nt F.d28 , 6- 7( hCi. 0 7 (ol ci c s st s p r d s s a o ij n tv a d 3 1 28 8 4t r 2 0 ) c l t a e o u po t imis l f nu cie n e ng de lrtr r disa mootuponprs rsta frfom fciiyofc lnge acin) caao y eme e s ione' r nse r a lt hale d to . Plitf i noln e s b e t ot esafo c n iinsa teACC o teACC safs an if s o g r u j c t h tf r o d t t h o rh tf i er e a i ofV D O C polc es Be a e pl i ifi no l nge hous d a t A CC,a nt pr t ton i i . c us a ntf s o r e t he ny d ca ao yo ij cier le i hi fv rwo l n t a ar a i a to hi rg t o a d e s e lr tr r nun tv eif n s a o ud o h ve e l mp c n s ihs r d rs t ij re hea srsfo t c ndto so t wa sVDOC poiisweea pida t eACC. he nu is se t r m he o i n r he y i lce r p le t h The eor,pli ifsr quessf de aao ya ijmci r le ast t ACC ar moo. r f e antf e t or clrtr nd nt tve eif o he e t Pl ntf m ay notr ai i f ecoverm oney f om t e def r hes endant vi a RLU I cl m , Sos on v.Texas, s a PA ai sam 1 1S. .1 51 1 63( 1, n ij n tv a d caao yrle f r w ACC safh n ld 3 Ct 6 , 6 201 ) a d nu cie nd e lrtr eif o ho tf a d e p o ry i vi a i ofR LUI i m oot A c or ng y, a ntf c r pe t n ol ton PA s . c di l pl i if annotpr e d wih hi oc e t s RLU I c ai s a PA l m bouthow D OP 80 1w asa i d a t AC C. 2. pple t he Ho ve, an ifrman wihnt VDOC a di s be t oDOP 8 2..Be a s we rplitf e i s t i he n s u jc t 0 1 cue pl i i fr a ntf eque t da a s f hi co tt i s ed m ge or s ns iutonalc ai s t a ton i a s notm oot Co na l m , he c i s l o ed. ve nt M e ao S. . v.CivofN.Chal t 493F.d421 429n. ( h Ci.2007)(ve i a di f C.LLC t reson, 3 , 4 4t r e nf panifsij n tv rle cam h sbe nmo td tea to i n tmo ti tepanifma b litf n u cie eif li a e o e ,h cin s o o f h litf y e t ntte t a las nomi lda s') l ild o t e t na mage . . e ' B. PLAm TI M AY NOT M OVE TO STRI D EFENDANTS'M OTI AND A FFI FF KE ON DAVI TS. Pli iffl amoi t srket dee nt'moin f s antf ied ton o ti he fnda s to or ummayj r udgmen a t nd a e n sma ei s pp r o ib c us heb le e t ed fn a t c mmitdpej r , n h v nne t d n u o t f t e a e eiv s h e e d n s o te ru y a d e movest c tf s nc i . A c t a srketfo apl a ng a i ufi i ntdefns o an he our or a tons our m y ti sr m e di n ns tc e e e r y rdunda ,i t i ,mpe tnen,ors a l matr' Fed.R.Ci P.1 9.SeeZi n e nt mmaerali ri t c ndaous te . ' v. 2( nama v.USTSN. S.l ,798F.Su 1 1 ( D. Y.199 ( tngt tCg oinst srke Y. .nc. pp. 28, 35 S. N. 2) noi ha tml to o ti aege r lydif vord') Ha e v Vol 305F.Supp. 980( D. i.1 Cd doubt r ne al sa e '; nlv pe, 977, E. W s 977) Any ast srki ofmatri pla ngs dber ol i fvorofpladi ') Howe r t o ti ng te n e di houl es ved n a e ng. . ' ve ,he d ume spli ifwa ssrc na enott e di . Se Fe R. v.P.7()( fni oc nt antf nt tike r s a ngs' e d. Ci pl ' a dei ng pl a ngsasa c pl i ;a a w e t a c pl i ;a a we t a c e c ai de i na ed a a e di om a nt n ns r o om a nt n ns r o ount r l m s g t s co e cl i ;a a w e t a c os c a m ;a t r pa t c pl i 'a a w e t a t r pa t unt r a m n ns r o r s l i hid- ry om a nt n ns r o hid- ry , co an ;a i bycour or ,arpl t a a we) Se aloLoweyv.Hofma 188F. D. mplit nd,f t der e y o n ns r. e s r f n, R. 651, ( . Al 1 (t i , i sorme a obeci ,orafda t ma no be 653 M D. a. 999) GMotons bref mornda, j tons fi vis y t atc dbyt motont srke.)( tng2J me W m.Moor e a.M oor sFe r lPrcie ta ke he i o ti ' cii ' a s e, t l, e' de a a tc 11 5 2.7 g1(de .1 9 ) W es v. I us.n .1 F. D. 8 , 9 ( . Fl. r 1 , 1 3 2 3 d 9 9 ; is PPG nd .I c, 48 R. 2 9 2 2 M D. a Ap . 3 1 )(t moton i notapl di andt amoi t srkeamoton i no pr runde 993 ç A i s ea ng, hus ton o ti i s t ope r ( e 1 9. Ac di y,1de pli ifsmotont srke, sncecedi lt de sons Rul) 2( ' 3. cor ngl ny antf i o ti and i r biiy cii a en t ip iieu nd fn a t' to frs mmayj d me t I ciet d tr ne r o d s ostv po e e d n s moi n o u r u g n , de ln o eemi wh t e d fnd n s c mmi e pej r a dd n panifsmoi nf rs n to s S eCo tr& eh r ee a t' o t d ru y n e y litf t to o a cin . e o e Gelv. rmaxCor ,496U. 384,404( 990)(k-l dititcout i beta uantdwih l Ha t r p. S. 1 tg he src ' s s cq i e t f t t l lba ' ltga i pr tc a t be ts t ed t de e m i w he a s nc i i he oca r s ii ton ac i es nd hus s iuat o t r ne n a ton s warntdt sr Rul 11' goal.)(upes di pa4byFed.R. v.P.11 )dsf ra e o eve e s s' s rede n l ' Ci 1X1 tae habo'a ndme ) Core v.Ros wood CaeCt.l ,388F. 990,1 3( h Ci.2004) r r' me nt; ly e r r.nc. 3d 01 7t r (sl ecso co eni Rul 11s nci aebetrl tot dicei oft dititc t çgDl iins nc r ng e a tons r te eft he srton he src our whihhasabid' e viw oft acualpostonstke byt ltgans). c r s ye e he t ii a n he ii t' SUMM ARY JUDGMENT STANDARD A pa t i enttedt s ry s il o ummayj me ki t pl di ,t dic r a dicos e r udg ntçf he ea ngs he sovey nd s l ur ma e i l on fl,and a a fda t s w t t r i no ge nei s a t a m aera f c a t ras ie ny f i vis ho hat he e s nui s ue s o ny t il a t nd ta t mo a ti e tte t j d me ta amatro lw. Fe R. v. 5 4 )3 Maeil a t h t he v n s n ild o u g n s te f a ' d. Ci P. 6 c . tra fcs ' a e t e ne es a y t e t i h t el m ent ofa pa t s c us ofa ton. A nder o v. be t r hos c s r o s abls he e s ry' a e ci s n Li rv Lobby.nc.477U. 242, ( 98 .A ge neis ofmaeilfctexit i,i viwi t l , S. 248 1 6) nui sue tra a ss f n e ng he r or a a1 r s bl i e e esdr wn t r fom i a lg mos f vor bl t t nonec d nd l ea ona e nf r nc a he er n i ht t a a e o he movi ng pa t ar as bl f c-i rc drt naveditfrt non- nt Ls The m ovi part ry, e ona e a tfnde oul eur r c o he mova . d ng y - ha t bur n o s i - t ha i , i i o t t di ti tcour - t tt r i a a e of s he de f how ng t t s po ntng ut o he s r c t t ha he e s n bs nce 3Theparisr ceve r ona ea ex i tno i t t c tma conve tam o i t dim ist r e e s te e i d eas bl nd plci tce hat he our y r ton o s s hat efr nce matr o tiet pla n sit amoinfrs mmayj d me t e teClr is e at l Ro e o on tc . t s usd he edig no e t o u r u g n wh n h ek su d i y sb r oie o me S e F d. Ci . l d ; s b r v. nion 5 8F.d 3 9 31 ( t Ci. 9 5 . e e R. v P. 2( ) Ro e o o Ga s , 2 2 0 , 0 4 h r 1 7 ) 12 e de e t s vi nc o uppor t nonm ovi pa t sca e. Cel t x Cor v.Ca r t,477 U . 31 3 t he ng r y' s ' ' oe p. te t S. 7, 25 ( 986) I t mo nts tsist sbur n,t nt non- va mus s tfrhs cii f t 1 . f he va aife hi de he he mo nt t e o t pe tc acs a i sbl ase de e t tde o t a e t e s e ofa ge ne i s off c f t i l Fe R. dm s i e vi nc ha m nsr t he xi t nce nui s ue a t or r a . d. Ci P. 6 c ,d. t3 2 23 A p ryi e tte t s mmayj d me t fterc r a awh l v. 5 () i a 2 - . a t s n i d o u r u g n i h e o d s o e ' l c d notl d ar tona tiroff c t fnd i f voroft nonoul ea ai l re ato i n a he mova . W ila sv. itn, 2 nt li m Grfi 95 F. 8 8 ( hCi.1 ) 2d 20, 23 4t r 991 . Conve s y,s rel ummar j y udgme ti i pprpraei t e de i s fce f a n s na o it f he vi nce s ufiint or r as bl f c -i rt r t n a ve di ti f voroft no m ovi pa t A nde s 477 U . e ona e a t tnde o e ur r c n a he nng ry. r on, S. a 2 .Ev ni t e ei n d s u ea t t ee d n ir fcs s mma yj d me ti as n t t 48 e f h r s o ip t s o h vie tay a t, u r u g n s lo o ' ppr i t w he e t uli a e f c ua conc us o t be dr w n a e i di put Ove sr tv. a opra e r he tm t a t l l i ns o a r n s e. r tee Kv. Ce . f l .Co.950F. 931 937(t Ci.1 ) A c t yneihe rs vedipue ntLie ns , 2d , 4h r 991 . our ma t r e ol s td f t orweght e de e, s l v. ir dyneCo .65F. 1 1 ( h Ci.1 , r acs i he vi nc Rusel M c o m , 3d 229, 239 4t r 995)no ma deemi to ofce biiy,Sosbe v. ur hy,797F. 1 1 ( h Ci.1 . ke tr nains rdi lt e e M p 2d 79, 82 4t r 986) Ra he , hepa t o t rt ry pposng t moton i e tte t ha hi orhe ve so oft f c sa e ed i he i s n ild o ve s r r i n he a t cc pt astue a mor ove , o ha a li e nalc lc sr ol i hi o he f vor Cha bonna sde r nd, e r t ve l nt r onfit es ved n s r r a . r ge Frnc v.Smih,597F. 406,41 ( hCi.1 .Howeve,dl he opposngpatestlt a e t 2d 4 4t r 979) r dwq n i ri el wo d fee tso is o eo whih i bltn l c nrditdb t rc r , ot a n r ao a l j r ifrn tre , n f c s aa t o ta ce y he e o d s h t o e s n be uy y co dbei vei, c ts ul nota ul le t a our ho d doptt tve son oft f c sf pur e o nzi on a ha ri he a t or pos s f lng motonf s i or ummayj r udgme . Sc tv.Hars 550U. 372,38 ( nt' ot ' ri, S. 0 2007) Furhemo e apa t . t r r , ry t a tc ea e a ge ne i s ofm a e i lf d t ough m e e s c a i ort buidi ofone t nno r t e nui s ue t r a a hr r pe ul ton he l ng i ee upona he . al v. r 769F. 21 21 (t Ci.1 .Theeor tl ee nfrnce not r' 'Be e Hady, 2d 3, 4 4h r 985) rf e,ûmlr uns upporeds ulton...snote ht d e tas t pec ai i noug o efa ummayj r udgmentmoton. Et sv. i ' mi ' Na 'As ' o Bu . Ed c Ra i l c, 3F.d 5 , 2( t Ci. 9 ) Mo e v r ap an if tl sn f s & u . do.n .5 3 5 6 4h r 1 95 . r o e, litf c nnotr yonar pons t amotonf s a el es e o i or umma yj me t a tasa n ndmen t c re t r udg nt o c n me t o or c deiin isi ac mplitc le g db ad fn a tsmo inf rs mmayj g n .S e fce ce n o an haln e y ee d n ' to o u r ud me t e Gimourv. t sM c l & Co.38 F. 1 2,1 5( t Ci.2004)(( pli ifma not l Gaes Donad , 2 3d 31 31 11h r : antf y A a n he c mplitt r u hag me t nab ifo po i s mma yj d me t' ; rlyW ht me d r o an h o g r u n i re p sng u r u g n .) Baca i ' e Ska ka.nc. BalleM e 'I t, 2F. x 556,563& n. (t Ci.2008)( 0 ns I v. tel m l ns.26 App' 16 4h r No. 7108 , ia ea 2008W L 238562,a *6,2008U. App.LEXI 1 6,a *1 20( i t t 4) avalbl t t S. S 91 t 8- notng ha o he c r uis sm ia l pr hi ta pl i iff om r i i ne c a m s i opposton t s m a y t r i c t i l ry o bi a ntf r a s ng w l i n ii o um r j udgmen a notngt tdititcourswihi t FourhCic tha a e Gimour. t nd i ha src t t n he t r ui ve doptd l ) D. ADM m I STRATI EXHAUSTI VE ON ThePrs Lii in Ref m Ac ($ t 'rquie aprs rt exha ta1avalbl ion tgato or t : A' e rs ione o PLI ) us 1 ia e a nitai rme e beor brngi acai und r42U. C.j1983.42U. C.j 1 e() dmi sr tve e dis f e i ng l m e S. S. 997 a. Se W oodf dv. e or Nco,548U. 81 8 ( S. , 5 2006)(ttngt t(l xha toni nol rlf t t sai ha Ceq usi s onge eto he dicei oft dititc tbuti ma or ) Pore v. se,534U. 51 532( 2) srton he src our, s ndat f'; tr Nus l S. 6, 200 (ttngt tt PLRA a i t C l i t s t,whehe t yi vege rlcr umsa esor sai ha he pples o ç lnmae uis t r he nvol nea ic tnc a pa tc a e s ,a whehe t yalgee e svef c ors ot rwr ';800hv. riulr piodes nd t r he le xc s i ore ome he ong' l t Chur r 532U. 731 739 ( )(i ngt tt PLRA r quiesa nitai e usin ne, S. , 2001 fndi ha he e r dmi srtve xha to prort t flng ofa f de a ci lrght s te n i t f m ofr le t i a es e i no i o he ii e r l vi i s ui ve f he or ei f he nm t e ks s t a ia et oughe usi ofa nitai rme es.Purua t t PLRA,prs r mus valbl hr xha ton dmi srtve e di ) s nt o he iones t notj ti taetmey g ivane , mus alotmel a alt oug allvesofa ia e us niit i l re es but t s i y ppe hr h l e l valbl a nitai rviw a de a ofrle .W oodf d,5 U. a 93( di t t1 PLRA dmi srtve e e ny nil eif or 48 S. t hot ng ha he r quiesd o re us i ' i tt i nala i sr tve r m e esbef e f lng a f r l e r t pe xha ton' of ns iuto pr dm ni ta i e di or ii ny ede a 14 s t h le gn p io c n iins.Topr p rye h us acam, n imaemu ttl g iva c s uic aln ig rs n o dto ) o el x a t li a n t s ie re n e w ih sufi entdet lt al pr s ofici s oft possi e constt i t tci ai o ert i on t al he bl iutonalcl m sw hi ar now ai ch e a l e asa ba i f r i . Se Sm ih v. leg d s s or elef e t Rodr g ,N o. 06- vi uez 7: c 00521, 2007 U . D it LEX I S. s . S 43571 2007W L 1 , 768705 ( . Va J 1 2007)(ii M c ev.Fe BurauofPrs ns W D. . une 5, ctng Ge d. e io , l1 F. x47l 476( 0t Ci. 8 App' , 1 h r 2004).Fal et e us i a a fr tvedee et t ) iur o xha t s n fimai fns ha de e nthast bur n ofpl di and pr ng. A nde s n v.X YZ Cor .H e 1h Se v . l , f nda he de ea ng ovi ro r a t r s . nc. 407F. 674,681( h Ci. ) 3d 4t r 2005 . The de e f ndant a l e pl i iff ie t exha ta m i sr tver medi a utt Talt s leg antf a ld o us d nita i e es bo he li. How e , ai iffl d a c ofG a m an' Le l1 r s ver pl ntf ie opy r s ve 1 e pons di c s ng pl i if s a aloft e s us i a ntf ppe he Tal ' c n ic to whih sae t a Le e 1 wa t els lv lo rv e f rta is e ( .s lts o fsain, c tts h t v l 1 s h a te e f e iw o h t su . Pl i ' Re p( 30)EnclA- ) Ac di y,hercoddoe nots ppor defnda s agume ,a s no. . 3. cor ngl t e r s u t e nt' r nt nd t e aeno e tte t s mmayj d me t bo tu e h use a miitaier me isf rte h y r t n ild o u r u g n a u n x a td d n srtv e de o h Ta ltc a m . li l i E. QUALI EDI FI MMUNI F DAMAGES TY ROM Pl i ifnam est def nda s i t rpe s lca cii s 4and t def nda sas e t he a ntf he e nt n hei r ona pa te , he e nt s r t de e e ofqua i i i m uniy. U nde t doc r ne ofqua ii i m uniy,ç f ns lfed m t r he ti lfed m t i gover e ofi i s nm nt fc al pe f m i dic ei na y f tonsge r ly a es e de fom la lt f cvi da a si of r ror ng s r to r unc i ne al r hi l d r ibiiy or i l m ge ns a ast rc hei onduc doesno vi a ec e ry e t bls d saut y o c tt i rght o whih a t t olt l a l sa ihe t t or r onsiutonal i s f c r a ona e pe s w oul ha 110w1. H a l v.Fizc a d, 7 U . 800, 81 ( 982) e s bl r on d ve 14 4' row . ' t er l 45 S. 81 . Qualfe i iid mmuniyi a i t s n mmuniyfom s trt rt nameedefns t la lt Thus t r ui ahe ha r e e o ibiiy. , 4Tot e e pl n ifs t defnda si t rofiilc pacte f da a , ne t ra sa e norisof i al he xtnt aitf ues he e nt n hei fca a iis or m ges ihe t t t fci s a t i t ero fc a c pa i e a ep r o sf rpu p s so j 1 8 d ma e a to sa a ee tte t s v r in ci n h i fiil a ct s r e s n o r o e f 9 3 a g s c i n nd r n ild o o e eg ng i i m uniy. Sos a on,1 1S.Ct at1 ,W ilv. ihi n De tofSt ePolc , 4 1U. 5 , 071 n 1 (98 ) m t sm 3 . 663. l M c ga p' at ie 9 S. 8 7 - , .0 1 9 . whe he a de e t r f ndantca c a m qualte i uniy i apur quesi of1 w a i pr ry n li ii d mm t s e ton a nd s ope l dee mi pr ra.Sa i v. t,533U. 1 4,200- ( )( fe byPe ronv. tr ned etil ucer Kaz S. 9 01 2001 modiid as Calh n, 29S. . 08(a 21 2 0 )( emi iglwe c u t t ediceint d tr n la a 1 Ct 8 J n. , 0 9 p r t n o r o rs h s rto o eemie t whihquaiidi c lfe mmuniypr t a lzefrt) A pl ntf be r t bur n t s t ta t ong o nay isl. ai if a s he de o how ha dee an ' c fnd ts onductvi ae t pli ifsrght Br ntv. ut 994F. 1 1 ( hCi. oltd he antf' i . va M h, 2d 082, 086 4t r 1 .Howe r adee tmus de taet tt rg wa no clarye tbls da t 993) ve, fndan t monsrt ha he iht s t e l sa ihe t he tmeoft i i ntt r c veq lte i i he ncde o e ei uaiid mmuniy.He yv.Pur l 501F. 374,378(t Ci. t nr nel, 3d 4h r 2007) çr unlwf nes oft a o mus bea rntwhe asese fom t pes veof . lhe a ul s he din t ppa e n s s d r he rpedi a ob e tveyras bl ofiilc ge wihknowl eofetbls d lw. Lo zv. n j ci l e ona e fca har d t edg sa ihe a ' pe ' Robi on,91 F. 48 489( hCi.1 .SeeAnde s nv.Criht 48 U. 635,640 ns 4 2d 6, 4t r 990) ro ec on, 3 S. ( 987)(ihi i nott s yt ta ofiilaci i pr e tdbyquaii i 1 tf s s o a ha n fca ton s otce lted mmuniyu es t t nl s he ve y a ton i que ton ha pr vi l be n he d unl w f ... i i t s y t ti t lghtof r ci n si s e ous y e l a ul but t s o a ha n he i pr-xitnglw t unlwf ne smus bea e .) trrviwi pli ifsalgai , ee si a he a ul s t pparnt'.Afe e e ng antf le tons l ' fnd t tpl i iff l t s i ha antf ais o how t tade e ntvi aed o ofpl ntf ' rght .Ac r ngl ha f nda ol t ne ai ifs i s co di y, t def nda sar e il d t qualf e i m uniy f om da age i t i i vi lc pa te . he e nt e ntte o ii d m t r m s n he r ndi dua a cii s Le St nda d f Fi s A m e m e Cl i s gal a r or r t nd nt a m I a esSc ea l r t i pr t c i a f r d b t Fis A m e nm t d l ry e a n o e tons f o de y he r t ndm e , nc udi is nt i l ng t d r c i t tno 1 w s l pr bi t f ee e r s ofr lgi ' O ' i e tve ha a ha l ohi t he r xe ci e e i on. Lone v. t t ofSha z ' Es a e ba z, 48 U. 342,348( 987) Howe r i t 'Fis Ame 2 S, 1 . ve ,nmaes rt ndme rghsmus bebaa edwih nt i t t lnc t pr s 'i tt i i ons ns iutonalne of s urt di dplne a ge a a i sr t o . 1 a 3 Thus eds ec iy, s i , nd ner l dm ni t a i n d. t 49. , t pr s r ul ton t ta i esi a es c tt i lr g s i t ld i i i r a ona y r l t û i on eg a i ha brdg nm t ' ons iutona i ht s va i f t s e s bl e a ed a t l ii t pe ogi li e et.' Lovelç v.Le 472F. 1 4,1 ( h Ci.2006)(ii o egtmae nol ca ntr ss'' aç ç, 3d 7 99 4t r ctng Tur rv.Saly,482U. 78,84( 98 ) W hehe ar ai i r s bl r ltdde nds ne fe S. 1 7). t r egulton s ea ona y eae pe On : ( )g l t rt r i at ld,rtona c nne ton'bewe n t prs rgultonor 1 W hehe he e s ç i ai l o ci ' t e he ion e ai va a ton andt i e es a s re byt gover nt orwhehe t si e e ti d o r e ci he nt r t s e td he nme , t r hi ntr s s s emot s a t rnde t polc abirr orirtonal'( whehe ûatr tvemea of s o e r he iy r tay rai ''2) t r 'lenai 7 ns e r i i t r g . .r a n ope t pr s i a e y' n i r t ta ksbr y xe c s ng he i ht . em i n o i on nm t s ' a nqui y ha s oadl w he he i a esw er de i d ofa lf m sofr lgi e r i e orw he he t y we e t r nm t e pr ve 1 or e i ous xe c s t r he r a l t p riiaei oh ro s r a c so t i fi ( )wh ti c t ed sr d b e o a t p t n te b e v n e f her at 3 a mpa t h e ie c h; a co m oda i woul ha o s urt sa f i a e ,a t a l to ofprs n c m ton d ve n ec iy t f ,nm t s nd he locai n io rs c ;a ( whehe t r e s a l ous e s atmai 't t c le d e oures nd 4) t r hee xit ny i obvi , a y le tves'o he halnge rgultonora ton, c ma s s t ti i t tras bl buti (nse dla e ai ci whih y ugge tha t s d e ona e, s i ta n no e xagge a e r pons t pr s co e ns r t d es e o i on nc r . I . t2 0( i n Tu n r 4 2U. a 8 -2 .Th p io e h st b r e o p o ft d s r v d a 0 ct g r e , 8 S. t 99 ) e rs n r a he u d n f r o o ip o e i t vai t ofaprs n r gul ton pur ua t t Tur ra l i . Ove t v. z ta,539U. he ldiy i o e ai s nt o he ne na yss ron Baz e t S. 1 1 ( 26, 32 2003) . Pl n iff ist s aitf al o how t tCore tonalOfi e sPe r W or a Grfi a ha rci fc r ry, km n, ifn, nd St i e vi a ed pl ntf ' r i ousrght by a yi V D O C polc t rckl r ol t ai i f s elgi i s ppl ng iy o c icae hi Bi e, li, r lgi boo , c a l edl de e hi hi onfs t s bl Talt and ei ous ks whi h leg y ni d m s a lt t pr y.5 biiy o a DO P 802. i r s bl r a e t V D O C' l ii a e pe ogi li t r tt m a nt i 1 s ea ona y el t d o S eg tm t nol ca n e es o i a n i tt tonals c iy. Pl i ifw a notpe m it d t ke p t Tali bec us s a fde m e i ns iu i e ur t a ntf s r te o e he lt a e t f e d t û e a 'a çl r e 4 hom m de' nd ta ge nough t c ra t i be ... hi m ake i a s c iy c e n. o ove w n d w ch s t e ur t onc r ' ' ( .'Br Supp.M ot Summ . Enc. ) Thelr s wlwoul e iyhi c rba fo Defs . . J. lB. age ha d asl de onta nd rm sghti li on t bed,et rc u e up o f de a woul m a i mor da r f r i f a d he ihe r mpl d r ol d, nd d ke t e nge ous o c r tona sa ft appr c pl ntf. Thepolc a s pe m isACC sa ft pr hi tac a td, oreci l t f o oa h ai if iy lo r t t f o o bi r fe 5A spr ousy dicus ed, pl ntf sRLU I cl m chalngi how Pe W or a Grfi a Stiklra i evi l s s ai if PA ai le ng ny, km n, ifn, nd rc e ppled polcy i m oot d by hi t a f , he c nno r ove damage unde RLU I . Pl ntf ' r quess f da a s i s e s r ns er and a t ec r s r PA ai if s e t or m ge unde t Fis Am e r he r t ndmentr m a n,how e r e i ve . t Om e a ' s wl6 The Book ofYa h wa atr d fom isorg nalf m bec us t ; h m de, ha . hwe s le e r t i i or a e he bi ng de a hed a had be n r a t c d w ih cl a t pe. A n i a e' a lt t hi c r band ndi tc nd e e ta he t e r a nm t s biiy o de onta w ihi t br t n he oken bi ng a c r notunde ne t t c e rt pe aspl i tf s ndi nd ove , r a h he l a a a n i f ugge t ,i a va i ss s ld s c iy c e n. I a l e i a a t r s a e,s a fw oul ha t vi ous y i pe tt book' e urt onc r f low d n n le ed t t t f d ve o gor l ns c he s co a bi ng t s r h f contaba pos i y da a ng t pr r y,i t d ofa vi ua ver nd ndi o ea c or r nd, s bl m gi he ope t ns ea s l s a c ofa unale e book f o a a ove ve e rh n tr d r m n ppr d ndor Pl ntf w oul al o be a rs ofa he . ai i f d s t ik not r i a e pl ci c r band i i t br n pa t oft book w ihouthi know l dge. Alho h nm t a ng ont a ns de he oke r s he t s e t ug pl i ifa guesi pa t ha s a fs z t Book ofY a e bec us i had c e rt pe on t a ntf r n r t t t f ei ed he hw h a e t la a he bi ng,t a i sr tver or r vea st ti wass i edbec us ofisdia da e c ton. ndi he dm nitai ec d e l ha t ez a e t lpi t d ondii Furhe r t polc pe misat r d pr rywih wrte pe m ison,butpl ntf f ie t t nno e,he i y r t le e ope t t it n r s i ai if al d o des r be a a t m ptt ha hi ale e Book ofYawheh be e e e f om t ge r lpolc c i ny te o ve s t r d xc pt d r he ne a i y. St f co i c t d t n ofhi t e ve r lgi booksbe a e pl ntf ha w rte hi l al a f nfs a e e s w l e i ous c us ai i f d it n s eg , r lgi na e i i t m i t d ofhi bi t V D O C nn e D OP 802. pr hi t i a e fom e i ous m ns de he ns ea s rh, m . 1 o bis nm t s r r c vi a t r i a e' pr ry t pr ve co lc ove t f s s i i orm o e m unda e ei ng no he nm t s ope t o e nt nfi t r he t, w ndlng, r ne pr ry diput st tha t potntalt c us a es ltng t e tt s c iy a dicplne. ope t s e ha ve he e i o a e n caa i hr a o e urt nd s i i Fu t r or pl i ifwasnotde i ofalf r sofhi r lgi e r s be a e rhe m e, antf prved l o m s e i ous xe cie c us pl n i fr t ne t o ofhi t el r lgi booksa had pe s i f om W a den Br t t ai t f e ai d w s w ve e i ous nd nni s on r r r on o o an ane a unat r d Book ofYa h.Pli ifwa a s no ba r fom pur ha i bt i w nd le e hwe antf s lo t red r c sng r i i ie sfo a ove vendor o pr yi by hi s l ora he Ya s i a e.The elg ous t m r m ppr d s r a ng m e f not r hwit nm t polcy' r edy t per i pl ntf t m ai contsca ed pr i s em o m t ai i f o l i t opert or alow s eone t r y l om o ecovert he pr opert i t bes aler i t t confscat and converti i o s at pr y s he t t natve han o i e t nt t e opert and t polcy y, he i. 6Pl ntf de c i st Tali asl ngcr t butha ng am a a t e ' t . ai if s rbe he lt ooki ocheed vi nuf cur rs ag 18 i no a e gge a e r pons . s t n xa r t d es e To t ext ntpl ntf com pl nst unspeci i pri of i al di notprovi hi he e ai if ai hat fed son fci s d de m w ih a he Book of Ya heh,Tali , r i ousbooks pl ntf f ist s a e a c tt i t not r w lt or elgi , ai i f a l o t t ons iutonal c ai . û-he e c nnotpos i y be a c tt t o lorl lr uie e t tt gove m e l m i- r a l s bl ny ons iu i na ega eq r m nt ha he nz nt pr de m a e i l f eve y r i on a s c pr c i e i t sdi r e cot ty. A tm os , ovi t r a s or r elgi nd e t a tc d n hi ve s mr t (ei ous maeil c rlgi q tras annotbede e t prs r i s oneofest s yt m. Cr v. nid o iones f ome fr o uppl he ' uz ' Beo,405U. 31 323(1 2)( ge,C..c uni ) Stt ofi asar notafr tvel t S. 9, 97 Bur r J, onc ng . ae fcil e fimai y r q ie b teCo siu ino RLUI t a ss panifi h ss iiu lo r y S eFlrrv e urd y h n ttto r PA o s it lit n i prt a j u ne . e o e . f Co r tonPi She m,N. ,639F. 91 923- ( h Ci. 1. ngegai dyon vuvi A. 3d 6, 24 9t r 201 ) Pl i if f ist s a ntf a l o how t tLa r vi a e pl i if sFis A m e e rghtt ha who n ol t d a ntf rt ndm nt i o t f ee e r s ofr i on. he r xe ci e elgi Pl i iff ist des rbe i hi co pl ntan co tt i a ntf a l o c i n s m ai y ns iutonalcl i a tt f e e c s a m bou he r e xer i e ofr lgi aga ns La hor The onl pos i e a l ton i vest conf s on w he he e i on i t w n. y s bl lega i nvol he ui t r pl i i fc ul r e i M a za ta . H o e r pl n if c ed t the i no plr ui a c a m a ntf o d e e ve t r ys w ve , ai t f onc es ha s t z s ng l i i vi t M azata buto yi l dt fcsa ba kgr nvol ng he t rys nl ncude he a t s c ound i or to ( nf main. Compl! 1 , . 00. Pl' Res !38. Ac r ngl pli iffist saeacli a ns La nf aFis .s p. ) co di y, antf al o tt am gai t whor or rt Am e e f e e r s ofr lgi cl i . ndm nt r e xe d e e i on a m Pl i iff ist s antf al o how t tCo r c i lOfi r Pe W or a Grfi , a ha r e tona fce s ny, km n, ifn nd Sti kl rvi a e due pr e s a VD O C polc esby s z ng a di pos ng of r c e ol t d oc s nd ii ei i nd s i pl i if s r lgi uspr ry. a ntf e i o ope t Cor e tona O fk e s Pe r W or a Gr fi a St i kl rdi notvi a e due pr es r c i l t r r y, km n, itn, nd r c e d ol t oc s by s i ng a dipos ng ofpl i if sr lgi pr ry. The de i ton ofpr r y m a e zi nd s i a ntf e i ous ope t prva i ope t y i plcat cons iutonalrght i t deprvaton i accom pls w ihoutpr di t pr m i e tt i i s f he i i s i hed t ovi ng he opert y 19 owne duepr ce soflw.Par tv.Ta o , U. 527,537( 981 .Seeas Cae v. r o s a rat ylr 451 S. 1 ) lo ry Pi ,435U. 247,259 ( )(d oc urlduepr s r e aeme t pr tc pes nsnot phus S. 1977 t ed a pr oce s uls r ant o oe t ro fo t ed p iain, u fo t emitk no u j tte d p iainof. . r p ry'.To r m h e rv to b t r m h sa e r nusi d e rv to i . p o e t' ) de e m i whehe a c tt i lvi ai n ha o ure a c t us de e m i wha t r ne t r onsiutona ol to s cc r d, our m t t r ne t p o e u a p o e to tesaeh sp o ie i c nu cin wiht p lc a d wh t e to e r c d r l r tcin h tt a r vd d n o j n to t he o iy n eh r h s pr e e w e e s f c entt e ur t tde i tonspur uantt t polc a e l f . oc dur s r uf i i o ns e ha pr va i s o he i y r aw ul Zi r nv.Burh, U. 11 1 ( 990 .W he t de i toni ma purua t s me nemo c 494 S. 3, 26 1 ) n he prvai s de s nt o o ofi i polc t i ae mus bea f ded s ec fcal iy, he nm t t for om ombi ton ofpr de i ton no i a a na i e prvai tce nd c nc t behead.Lha e o r d sThepr ryowne s d ha acha et behe dbeor hei ope t r houl ve nc o ar f e s de i doft pr t whe ve s hapr dur i fasbl J. Purua t DOP 80 1 tll prve he opery ne r uc oce e s e i e. Jz s nt o . 2.,sa f ciiy m a s i e, s a lt y e z and houl r ai c t y of t pr pe t untla de e m i ton r a di d et n us od , he o ry i t r na i eg r ng co ic tonha be madegj'a 'theof rs ul begi nnottc tonoft nfs ai s en ,' nd'll fende ho d ve ii ai he c i ca i a t r g t appe be or t pr ry i per a nty c i ca ed. U nde t onf s ton nd he i ht o al f e he ope t s m ne l onf s t ' ' r he esabls polc i t pr ryma bec ic tdi,n t ihed iy,nmae ope t y ontsae f mongot rr s ,(lj prpe t i he ea ons lthe o ry s c r ba ' I t sc e, ai ifsie swe e c ic t d asco r ba a t VDOC' onta nd.' n hi as pl ntf ' t m r onfs a e nta nd, nd he S polcy ofpr di a c ica i notc and a opporuniy t cha l nge t c i c ton i i ovi ng onf s ton i e n t t o le he onfs a i s s fcintt s ts ypli tf sd pr es rghti t sca e ufi e o a if a n if ue oc s i n hi s . Tot e e pl i ifa guest tt o fc r di no f l w VDOC polc whe he xt nt antf r ha he fi e s d t olo iy n c onss a i hi pr r y, s c a m doe notr s t t l velofa co tt i lvi a i . The c tng s ope t hi l i s i e o he e ns iut ona ol ton i e i na orneglg deprva i n ofpe s na pr r y by a pr s e pl ye a i out i t nt nto l i ent i to r o l ope t i on m o e d ng s de he s ope ofofk i lpolc orc t doesnotr s t t l velofa c tt i lvi a i s l ng as c t a iy usom i e o he e ons iutona ol ton o o t sxt pr de a a qua e pos - prva i r m e Se H uds v. Pal er,468 U . 517 he t e ovi s n de t a tde i ton e dy. e on m S. 20 ( 98 ;Pa rtv.Ta or 451U. 527( 981. 1 4) rat yl , S. 1 ) Pl i ifus d t V D O C' g i va e pr e est a alt c i c ton. Furhe m or , a ntf e he S r e nc oc dur o ppe he onts a i t r e t V igi a Tor Cl i sA c i a s a ia e t pl i if1 Se W a m sv. Pr t i r 772 F. he r ni t am t s l o va l bl o a ntf . e dhn oc m e , 2d 75( hCi.1 )( di t r medi a ia eunde t Vigi aTo1 Cl msAc t be 4t r 985 hol ng he e es valbl r he r ni 4 ai to s fcintpos- prvai rmedis ; l ev. ufi e tde i ton e e l Balanc Younc,1 F.Supp.2d762,767 ( . Va 30 W D. . 2000 .M or ve,acai t tprs ofiil ha notf l dt i o polcesor ) eo r l m ha ion fcas ve olowe her wn ii pr e esa s doe no s a e a c tt i lc ai . Se Unie St t s v.Ca r ,440 U . oc dur l o s t t t ons iutona l m e td a e ce es S. 7 752- ( 978) Rici v. y.ofFara Va.907F. 1 1 (t Ci.1 41, 55 1 ; c o Cnt ifxs , 2d 459, 469 4h r 990) ( di t ti sae1w gr nt mor pr ed alrght t nt Consiutonrquie ,asae' hol ng ha f tt a a s e oc ur i s ha he tt i e rs tt s f l et a debyt lw i notafde a duepr es is ) aiur o bi hat a s e rl oc s sue .Acc di y, ai iff l t sae or ngl pl ntf ais o tt a c ni bl c tt i og za e ons iutonalc a m t tt de e nt i e i ly orneglge l de i d hi of l i ha he f nda s nt ntona l i nty prve m hi pe s s r onalpr ry i vi a i ofduepr e sbe a et r a esa er medi c pa e of ope t n olton oc s c us he e r tt e es a bl a d e sngplitf' alg dij r . d r si an ifs l e n u y e d. Pl ntf f ist s w t tHola ,Br xt n,Ga m a and J be vi at pli ifs ai if a l o ho ha lr a o r n, a ol ed antf Fis A m e rt ndm e a RLU I r g sby uphol ng s nt nd PA i ht di ubor na es vi a i vi di t ' ol tons a t grevance pr he i ocess. A spr vi l di c s pl ntf sRLU I cl i c l ngi how Br xt a H olar e ousy s us ed, ai if PA a m hale ng a on nd l a i d polc i m oo ed by hi t a f r a he c l o r co rda a unde R LUI . pple iy s t s r ns e , nd a m t e ve m ges r PA Bec us pl i iff ied t esa ih aco tt i lde i to conc r ng t c icai n o a e antf a l o t bls nsiutona prva i n e ni he onfs to f hi r i o pr t ora lt t pr di ehi r i i n, antf l ca l f ist e t bls t tt s elgi us opery biiy o a c s elg o pli if ogi ly a l o s a ih ha he gre nc r e s t tuphe d s a f s a i vi a e hi eons iutona r gh s. Se Sha v. i va e evi w ha l t f d ons ol t d s tt i l i t e w Stoud,1 F.d 79l 799( h Ci.1 4)(upevior la lt r uies i e ai knowldg t t r 3 3 , 4t r 99 s r s y ibiiy eq < ,ntr la, e e ha 7 ai ifsat hei ar dy s e ngr ifi saeco tpurua t t Vigi aTor Cli Ac . pl ntf t es s lea e ki ele n tt ur s nt o he r ni t ams t as b r iaec e tdapev sv a u e s n bers o c n t u in ln u ya da u o dn t r ae r a i e nd nra o a l ik f o si to a ij r n n t a fr t ec u a l b t e t s pev s rsia to a tep antf' c n ttto a ij r ) fimai a s l i ewe n he u r io ' n cin nd h li ifs o si in l nu y . v nk u Pl i i ff ist s a nt f a l o how t tLa ha whor vi a e pl i if s Fis A m endm e rgh t n ol t d a ntf rt nt i t o f e s c pe ii t go n e ,a r as r e pee h, tton he ver m nt nd e onabl a c st c t . e c es o our s Pl i ifa g st tLa antf r ue ha whor vi a e hi Fis Ame e rght t fe s ec t n olt d s rt ndm nt i s o r e pe h, o peii t gove n e ,a r s bl a e st c t whe s confs atd hi M oton i t tton he r m nt nd ea ona e cc s o ours n he ic e s i n he 1w lbr r i De mbe 2009.Pl i ifa guest t M oton woul bel uc a't t saci a i a y n ce r antf r hat he i d l i l' o hi ton. cr A cour r vi w s 4 a l ged vi a i oft pe ii c a e i t s m e m a rasa t e e t le an ol ton he tton l us n he a nne ny ot r a l ge vi a i oft r gh t e ge i f e s e h.' G r y v.La ,885 F. 399,41 he le d ol ton he i t o nga n r e pe c ' a cke 2d 2 ( hCi.1 .TheTur ranayssa i t aprs rscam t ta ofiilaci purua 7t r 989) ne l i pples o ione ' li ha n fca tng s nt t polc vi a ed hi Fi s A m e en r g t f e s c Fort s c ai , he polc t t o i y ol t s rt ndm t i ht o r e pee h. hi l m t i y ha i a e l w lbr r cl ksm a notus t l w lbr r co put st t doc e s ot rt nm t a i a y er y e he a i a y m er o ype um nt he han l ga w or i r s bl r l t d t l gii a e pe o c li e e t . Prs of i i s m us r ton e l k s ea ona y e a e o e tm t nol gi a nt r s s i on f c al t ai t s a e 1 w lbr r r s ce a ong m a i a es a i a esm a d a td he c r a i a y e our s m ny nm t , nd nm t y r f ocum e s f r nt o pe s lorl lpur eseihe byha orbywrtngr our so sdet lw lbr r r ona ega pos t r nd ii es ee ut i he a i a y. l a esha a cons iutona r gh t r s bl axes t c t t c l nm t ve tt i l i t o ea ona e l s o our s o halenge t i he r co c i o vi e t t i cons iu i na r g s Se Bo nvi tons r ndi a e he r tt t o l i ht . e undsv.Sm ih,430 U . 81 83S t S. 7, ( 977) Howe r E 1 . ve,d Boundsdi notce t a a ta fee tndi rg t alw lbrr o lga d rae n bsrd,r sa ng iht o a i ay r e l as it nc ' t s optonsar m ea f e urng t r s bl a qua e oppor uniy t pr e s s a e'' he e i e ns or ns i $ ea ona y de t a t t o es nt cai vi ai off l med oltons unda e alco tt i lrgh st t c t. Le sv. Case 518 U . m nt nsiutona i t o he ours' wi ' v, S. 3 351( 996 ( i Bounds 430a 8 ) Thus Bo doesnotr uieapatc a 43, 1 ) quotng , t 25 . , unds eq r riulr m e hod t e tr r s bl ac es t coursbu r qui e onl a sa e pr vi d c pa lt t t o nsze ea ona e c s o t t e r s y t t - o de a biiy o brng a a ton r a e t a c i i lappe ,c l t r la t k,orc vi r ght vi a i l a 356. i n c i el t d o r m na al ola e a tac i l i s ol ton. d. t The r g ofr as i ht e onabl ac s t c t G s a il r t t unde l ng cl i ,w ihout e ce s o our s i nc la y o he i r yi am t whc apli tf c n th ves fee ij r b b igs u o t c u t' Ch itp r Hab a, ih anif a no a u frd nu y y en h t u of o r. rso he v. r u ' 536U. 403,41 ( S. 5 2002) Thus apli ifmus aloStt t undel ngcai i a o da e . , antf t s d ae he s ryi l m n cc r nc wi F d rlRueo Ci l o e u e8 a ,u ta i iweeb i id pe d n l p ru d' t e ea l f viPr c d r ()j s s f t r eng n e n e ty u s e . h ' Chrsophe,536U. a 41 (ntr f not omit ) û-l prdiaecli ( t be it r S. t 7 i enal oot e ted . tfhe e c t am musj g de crbe w e le ugh t a y t ç nf i ous t ta t s s i d l no o ppl he no rvol ' es nd o how t tt G r ha he a guabl na ur of e' t e t unde l ng c am i mor t n ho ' l a 41 he ryi l i s e ha pe. d. t 6.Acc di y,n or rt pl d abac wa d ' or ngl i de o ea k r l ki de a ofr a ona e ac es t c t c ai ,apl i i fm us i i y w ih s cii iy a oo ng ni l e s bl c s o ours l m a ntf t dentf t pe fc t non-rvol l lcl i t ta de e nts a tons pr ve e hi f om ltga i Chr s op r f i ous ega a m ha f nda ' c i e nt d m r ii tng. i t he , 536 U . a 41 1 .Le i ,51 U . a 353 n. Thi r quie e m ea t ûi a e m us c e S. t 5- 6, w s 8 S. t 3. s e r m nt ns he snm t t om f w a d w ih s e hi m or t va a c l or a l ga i ofi onve e e o de a i or r t om t ng e han gue nd onc us y le tons nc ni nc r l y n hi i tga i orpr e uto ofl la tons ...Thef c t ta i a em a notbe a et s nsi ton os c i n ega c i . a t ha n nm t y bl o lt aei e a tyt ema n r d sr si no s fce tt de nsr t t ea t a ij r ee n ig t n x cl h n e he e ie s t ufiin o mo tae h cu ln u y lme t i ofa a es t co t c a m .' G odf e v. a hi t Cnt sV a. She if N o.7: c 001 n cc s o urs l i ' r v W s ng on y. . r f , 06- v- 87, 2007U. DitLEXI 6051 a *39,2007W L 2405728 a *1 ( . Va.Aug.17, ) S. s. S 9, t , t 3 W D. 2007 (ii Le s 51 U. a 351 . ctng wi, 8 S. t ) La hor di notvi a e pl i if srghtt r as bl a e s t cou s by c i c tng t w n d ol t a ntf i o e ona e cc s o rt onf s a i he M o i Pl n iff ist elbo aeho s t o bie ' antf fom flngt sa to t ton. aitf a l o a r t w he û hi t d'pl i if r ii hi ci n, o pr 23 whih t M oton i alege y c ucal o h w h wa prj d c d. Pl i ifeve ac c he i s l dl r i , r o e s eu ie 8 antf n knowl dge e s t tLa n' aci ,a mos,û ly ( tnott al prve e pli ifsa lt t purue ha whor s tons t tûdea ed ye otly e ntd) antf biiy o s t i a t n. ( mpl!8 . F rh r r, litf fist s o t a s c e so h sM oin h s ci ' Co . 3) u temo e p an if al o h w h t u c s n i to o ' c u db m o eta u t h peo t a t eM oi nc udo e c meten n rv o st s, s o l e r h nj s a o r h t h to o l v ro h o fiolu e ta e de ed b hi ea le atemptt havem ei ere ewih prs a i sr ton.Se Lac y v. vi nc y s rir t o nt f r t ion dm nitai e e Brxt e a.No.7: c 00476( . Va.Dec 7,2009)( s si La y' Pettonf a a om t 1, 09-vW D. . dimisng ce s ii or n Exta di r W rtt ts r or na y i ha oughta or rp e ntng prs ofk il fom t ng hi pe s n de r ve i ion t a s r aki s r onal prpery) M o e r pli ifdoesnotnee t bea i t lw clr i or rt a ce swrtng o t . r ove , antf d o n nmae a ek n de o c s ii i t um ent orfl l ns r s i e egaldocum ent s. f . Pl ntf f l t s ai if ais o how t tLa hor unc tt i l r t la e ag ns hi f r ha w n ons iutonaly e a i t d ai t m o t lng a c vi ac i i f de alc t ii i l ton n e r our . Cl m sofr a i ton b pr s n i at s a e g ne a l te e wih s ptc s be us ai et la i y i o nm e r e r ly r at d t ke i i m ca e Sev r a t dicpl eb prs no fcasi b d fnto ûeaitr i t esns t a i t l e y c ef s i i y io fiil s y ei i n rtl o y'n h e e h t t l n i a rs ndst prs rmic epo o ione sonduc.'Coc q v.Mori,73F. 1 1 7( hCi.1 ; t' hrn rs 3d 310, 31 4t r 996) Ada v.Ri ,40F. 72,74(t Ci.1 .Toprvaionacai ofrtlai a i t ms ce 3d 4h r 994) e l l m eaiton, n nmae m us de onsr e t the enga d i pr e e c t m tat ha ge n ot ct d onduc and t thi pr e t d c uc m o i t d t ha s ot c e ond t tva e t rt it ya t Se Hua v.Bd.ofGovenor ofUni ofN. ,902F. 11 11 (t he ealaor c. e ng r s v. C. 2d 34, 40 4h B Peiin ri ld dac p ofh Moini hsrs o s t ted fn a t' t nfrsnmayj d me t t o e ncu e o y te to n i ep n e o h ee d n s moi o u z r u g n. t o Th fc p t in rh da c s t ac p o tes ie d cz n d e n tsp ra ifrn eo p eu ie e at eio e a c e s o o y fh ez d o l t o s o u po t n nee c f rj dc . t me Fu t r or ,t doc e wasnottc u a't t sacin a pli ifi e rbem e he um nt <r cil' o hi to s antf ntndedt us i onl i s o e t y n uppor ofhi t s ac us tont tprs ofi asgene al a bir rl a c prcousy vi at VDOC polc c a i ha ion fcil r ly r ta iy nd a ii l ol e iy. Theçcucil'documen hes tr a' t oughtt r ove asa a tch en t t M otonw a aSprng 2004newsete o ec r n ta m t o he i s i l tr fom BCC t thea ot ri aesm a unde t gui nceofacha an. TheW i er2004ne lte r edt r ha nd he nm t de r he da pli nt wsetr eus he s m ea tcl fom t Sprng200 newseterbutco ai ddifr a t k a dif entpoems.Howe ,ACC a ri es r he i 4 lt nt ne feent rwor nd fer ver safalowedt pos e sonoft Sprng2004ne lterb dialw e t W i e 2004 ne se tr whihhad tf l he s s i he i wset ut s lo d he ntr w lte , c difr nta t ka difr ntpoe s Pl ntf a now l gest thewa ceai t eiht n- gee bi a a fe e rwor nd fe e m . ai if ck ed ha s r tng he g ee pa xhi t s < rf sm ie ' t orgi , hit pa docu e , t fl - h oft e bi r vea st ti wa sor d i t nea ac i l ' of he i nal t ry- ge m nt and he ie pat he xhi t e l ha t s t e n plitf sdie t y cale ç ltn boa d.' an if r col ld E ei bul r' 24 Ci.1 . r 990) Eve i pl ntf d a tng oft e bis waspr e t d c uc , a ntf f ist n f ai i ps r f i he xhi t ot c e ond t pl i i f a l o es a i h a ne be w e n t conts a e doc e sa La hor sm otva i t r t i t t bls xus t e he i c t d um nt nd w n' i ton o e ala e. Pl i iff is t esabls how La hor kne ofhi fr tpe ii Lac v v. ax on. ta . snce a ntf a l o t ih w n w s is tton, e Br t e ls i s w asnota na e def nda a t pe ii w a ne rs r on a V D OC saf . The fr t he m d e nt nd he tton s ve e ved ny t f is pe ii w a a r dy di m i s d by t tm e La hor c i ea ed t e bis a pl i t f di not tton s lea s se he i w n onf s t he xhi t , nd a n if d ha a ac i n pe ng f whi h he c d be r t i t d a i t B e i r i o a tcl s ve n to ndi or c oul e ala e ga ns . s des elgi us ri e pl i ifdes r be asbei i t Spr ng a W i e 200 ne s e t r ,t c i ca ed a ntf ci d ng n he i nd nt r 4 w l te s he onf s t do e sal o i ude a ari e c ii alofc r c i s t m sunr a e t pl i i f sr lgi cum nt s ncl d n tcl rtc or e tons ys e el t d o a ntf ' e i on orhi M oton. l lg oft r cor pl ntf f ist e t bls a uncons iutona r t la i s i n i ht he e d, ai i f a l o s a i h n tt i l e a i ton. S eAt n o v Bo n, F.d 1 27 1 2 ( t Ci. 9 6 ( rclim)(p c ltvea d e kis n . h 91 3 1 , 1 9 8h r 1 9 ) pe t a s e uai n r c us yalegai c nnots oncl or l tons a uppor r t itoncli ;W rghtv. tl No. - 9, F. t ealai am) i Viae, 91753 937 2d 604( ihe i f ltxtf ma a 1 U. App. publs d n ul-e or t t 991 S. LEXI 1 230,a *2,1 W L 1 S 5 t 991 27597at*1 ( h Ci.J y 1 1 1 (ttngr t ito cli ba e onmeeconcus r satme sc nno 4t r ul 6, 99 ) sai ealain am s d r l oy t e nt n t wihsmz dee nt s t t d fnda s' ummayj me moto . r udg nt in) Pl ntf f is t s ai if a l o how t tCa e r vi a e due pr es dur ng t hea i t ha nt bu y ol t d oc s i he rng o deemi whehe pli ifs d sa e oye i t l lbrr ( ai 3 tr ne t r antf houl ty mpl d n he aw i ay Cl m 0) a t tBi d vi a e pl i i f sc tt i nd ha r ol t d a ntf ons iutonalr g sw he s fr pl i iff om i ht n he ied a ntf r hsp io o i rs nj b. The Due Pr s Cl us oft Foure t A m e ooe s a e he t en h ndm e m a t s ve a p oc dur l nt nda es e r l r e a s f ua dsbe or a i aem a bepunihe f vi ai prs n dicplna y r eswih t l s a eg r f e n nm t y s d or oltng i o s i i r ul t he os ofpr ryorapr t t lbe t i t r t s a ea ne g eonduc tme. W olfv. ope t o eced i ry n e es, uch s r d ood ti f McDonnel, 8U. 539,557- ( 974) Theelmie duepr s rght i l a nc l41 S. 58 1 . s i td oce s i s ncude dva ed, 25 wrte notceoft c r ,wrte fnd ngs a almiedrgh t c lwine s s Seei a itn i he ha ges it n i i , nd i t i t o al t s e . d. t 563- How ever pl ntf doesnothave a pr ect pr t i er i r ai ng hi i at 64. , ai if ot ed opery nt est n et ni s nm e 1w cekj ba d t s wa no e tte t W o f' d ep o e sp o e to .S e eg.Gis nv. a lr o n ,hu , s t n ild o lfs u r c s r tcins e , . , b o M c r,631F. 95,98( h Ci.1 0) Be us i t ha noi pende c tt i l Eves 2d 7t r 98 . ca e nmaes ve nde nt onsiutona rg t oap io j b p io o fcasma g n rlytr n t a imaefo h s o f ra y ih t rs n o , rs n fiil y e eal emiae n n t r m i j b o n r s wihoutofe ng f de a duepr es prncpls CoursofAppe sc it nty hol t t ea on t f ndi e r l oc s i i e . t al onsse l d ha a imaese pe tto o k e i as ctcp io o o a yj b d e n ti lc t a n n t ' x cain f e png pe i rs nj b, r n o , o s o mpiae i pr ecedpr ryi e et ae v. t SttsBur uofPrs ,65F. 48,5 ( hCi. ot t ope t ntr s.Bul r Unied ae ea ions 3d 0 5t r 1 ) Se e. ,Coa e v. ur hv,8 F. 1 8,1 (t Ci.1 ( di t ti es 995 . e, a. klv M p 84 2d 21 221 9h r 989) hol ng ha nmat ha nopr ecedprpe t i ers i c i ngi wor rla epr aml Flti v.Solm,8 ve ot t o ry nt e t n ontnui n k-ee s ogr ; ite e 27 F. 276,279( hCi.987 (pi ngt ti t ha no c tt i lrghtt beasi dt 2d 8t r1 ) o ni ha nmaes ve onsiutona i o sgne o ap riua j b ; n rm v Pa ai, 0 F.d 5 5 5 6( 0hCi.1 8 )(o cu igt a t e a t lr o ) I g n . p l 8 4 2 9 , 9 1 t r 9 6 c n ldn h t h c a Consiutondoe notcraeapr ryi ees i prs e oyment;Adamsv.J mes 78 tt i s et ope t ntr t n ion mpl l a , 4 F. 1 1 ( 1h Ci.1986)(ttngt ta sg ntt j a lw cek doe no i t 2d 077, 079 1 t r sai ha sinme o ob s a lr s t nves i t wihapr ryi ees i contnuaton a s hl Gi o v.M c s 631F. 95, ( h nmae t ope t ntr t n i i s uc ; bs n Ever, 2d 98 7t Ci. 98 )( o dn t t rs n rse pe tto o ke pn p io j bd e n ta u tt a r 1 0 h l ig ha p io e ' x cain f e ig rs n o o s o mo n o p o lyitr s s b e tt d ep o e sp o e to ) Br a v. en r 51 F.d 2 3 2 0( d rpe' n ee t u j c o u r c s r tcin ; v n W r e , 6 2 3 , 4 3 t Ci.9 )(e s nigt tnmae se pe tto o k e i j bi n tap o e t itr s s be tt r1 75 ra o n ha i t ' x cain f e png o s o r p ry ne et u j c o duepr es pr eci .Pl ntf' cai t tCa e yo Biddi notf l VDOC polcis oc s ot ton) ai ifs l ms ha ntbur r r d olow ie orpr ed e a s doe no s a e a c tt i lcl i . Se U nie St t y.Ca er s 440 U . oc ur s l o s t t t onsiutona a m e t d a es c e, S. 741, 55( 978 ;Ri i v.Cnt ofFara Va.907F. 1 752- 1 ) cco v. ifx- , 2d 459,1 ( h Ci.1 469 4t r 990) ( di t ti sae1w grnt mor pr edurlrg st nt Consiutonr r ,asae' hol ng ha f tt a a s e oc a iht ha he tt i equies tt s 26 f llet a debyt lw i notafde a duepr e sis ) Ac di l pl ntf f l t aitr o bi hat a s e rl oc s sue . cor ngy, ai if ais o e t bls t tCa e y vi a e due pr e sorB id u ons iutona l tr hi f o hi prs n s a ih ha nt bur ol t d oc s r nc tt i ly i ed m r m s i o ' Job. 11. 1 Fort f eg ng r as ,1gr ntpli if smoton t tl as e ntlr s e, n he or oi e ons a a ntf i o ie uppl me a e pons de y pl i if s m oton t s rke a m o i n f s nc i , g a def nda s m oton f rs m a y a ntf i o t i nd t o or a tons and r nt e nt ' i o um r j d me t u g n. TheCl r i die t d t s nd c e oft sm e andum opi on a t a ompa ng e k s r c e o e opis hi mor ni nd he cc nyi o de t pl i ifa c r r o antf nd ouns lofr cor f rt defnda t . e e d o he e n s ENTER: i 1 - d yo- , 01 . Ths s1 a f - 1 2 # Se rU nie St t D i t i t udg ni t d a es s rc e 27