851 F.2d - Volume 851 of the Federal Reporter, 2nd Series

Opinions 1 - 500 of 519

City of Oxnard, Appellant, v. the United States, Appellee
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 344
In Re Morgan (robert Tyrone)
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 356
U.S. v. Edwards (frederick)
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 357
U.S. v. Grose (fred Lewis)
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 357
U.S. v. Henderson (carl)
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 357
Bellard v. St. Landry Prsh. Sch. Bd.*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Black v. Lynaugh*
Date: June 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Bush v. Union Carbide Corp.*
Date: June 21, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Cantrell v. Lynaugh*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Ferguson v. Bowen*
Date: June 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Graham v. Pennington
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Hawkins v. Smith*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Hill v. Gregory*
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
In Matter of Hill (troy Leon)*
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Jones v. State of Louisiana*
Date: June 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Joni M. v. Avoyelles Prsh. Sch. Bd.*
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Major Painting v. E.i. Dupont
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Parden v. Air Power of Nebraska
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Pinkston v. Lynaugh*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Richardson v. Travelers Ins. Co.*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Sidarous v. Ins*
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
South Central Transport v. Jetstream*
Date: June 21, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Carver*
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Garza-garcia*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Gibson*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Ignacio*
Date: June 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Lawrence*d
Date: June 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Lindley*
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Perales*
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
U.S. v. Sangster*
Date: June 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Yeager v. Lynaugh*
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 358
Adams v. Ludwig Sounds Specialties*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Ballard v. Cirs*
Date: June 30, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Benson v. Bearb*d
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Berger v. Universal Health Services*
Date: June 30, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Boudreaux v. Butler*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Cole v. Northwest Airlines, Inc
Date: June 30, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Couch v. Quinlan*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Davidson v. Lynaugh*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Farmland Industries v. Mcor Oil
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Gagne v. City of Galveston*
Date: June 29, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Moore v. Lynaugh*
Date: June 29, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Riley v. Butler*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Thomas v. Riley*
Date: June 29, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
U.S. v. Garza*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
U.S. v. Iddeen*
Date: June 29, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
U.S. v. Wright*
Date: June 30, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Williams v. Cabana*
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 359
Gallagher (stephen L., Jr.) v. Jones (rodger Kenneth)
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: July 19, 1978
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: May 16, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: July 16, 1987
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: May 23, 1984
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: August 13, 1986
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: February 26, 1914
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: January 30, 1978
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: May 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: December 23, 1983
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: October 7, 1987
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Unpublished Disposition
Date: December 1, 1986
Citation: 851 F.2d 360
Tilbury (norman) v. Walden (max W.)
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
U.S. v. Cook (albert Robert)
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
U.S. v. Lamb (graydon James)
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: November 13, 1986
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: November 23, 1985
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: April 15, 1982
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: February 3, 1987
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: February 13, 1987
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 23, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: October 23, 1983
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: March 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 27, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Unpublished Disposition
Date: June 22, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 361
Alexander v. Auburn University**
Date: May 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Blanco v. Wasco Products, Inc.*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Clark v. Laborers' Int'l Union
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Crum v. Dugger*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Furlow v. U.S. Parole Commission*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Green v. Clark County Board of Ed.***
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Green v. Federated Tax Service*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Harrigan Lumber v. Comr. of Irs**
Date: May 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Hemmerle Ind. v. Kassuba (walter)
Date: May 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Hurst v. Housing Authority
Date: May 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Mixon v. U.s.*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Salter v. Davis***
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Scott v. Muscogee County, Georgia*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
U.S. v. Johnson*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
U.S. v. Martin*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
U.S. v. Meneses*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
U.S. v. Pacha*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
U.S. v. Roberson*
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
U.S. v. Sheffield***
Date: May 17, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 362
Crum v. Roberts
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Eastern Cement v. Empresa Nacional**
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Field v. Lamar***
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
First Federal Savings & Loan v. Spath**
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
In Re Grand Jury Proceedings*
Date: May 18, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Moore v. U.s.***
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Peaden v. U.s.***
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Roudabush v. Snow***
Date: June 16, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Surratt v. Dugger***
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. De Izaguirre**
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Donaldson**
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Dorrego***
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Hamel*
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Hermanski*
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Hibbert***
Date: June 1, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Kaufman***
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Londono-henao***
Date: June 16, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
U.S. v. Williams**
Date: June 10, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Walker v. Claussen Concrete Co.**
Date: May 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 363
Alexander (dr. Milton J.) v. Auburn University
Date: June 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 364
Gunter (jerry Thomas) v. Coca-cola Company
Date: June 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 364
Ricks (marjorie) v. U.s
Date: June 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 364
United States of America, Appellant, v. David P. Baird
Date: June 24, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 376
In Re Thomas D. Powell, Appellant.in Re Brian Brown, Appellant
Date: July 15, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 427
In Re Grand Jury
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 499
United States of America, Appellant, v. Dominic Mariani, Appellee
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 595
Artesian Water Company, Appellant in No. 87-3622, v. the Government of New Castle County, Defendant/third-party Plaintiff, v. Landfill, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Material Transit,inc., a Delaware Corporation, Edgar Thomas Harvey, Edgarthomas Harvey, Jr., W. Lawrence Knotts, Henry A. Twardus,william Q. Saienni, Elme D. Saienni, Salvatore J. Saienni,dominic Cantera, Marian Cantera, Delaware Sand and Gravelcompany, a Delaware Corporation, Anita Dell Aversano,individually and As Executrix of the Estate of Joseph Dellaversano, Vincent Dell Aversano, Marcella Dell Aversano,stauffer Chemical Co., a Delaware Corporation, Havegindustries, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Champlain Cablecorporation, a Delaware Corporation, Angelo Terranova,stanley J. Twardus & Sons, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Andsca Services, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Third-party Defendants,artesian Water Company, v. the Government of New Castle County, Defendant/third-party Plaintiff, v. Landfill, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Material Transit,inc., a Delaware Corporation, Edgar Thomas Harvey, Edgarthomas Harvey, Jr., W. Lawrence Knotts, Henry A. Twardus,william Q. Saienni, Elme D. Saienni, Salvator J. Saienni,dominic Cantera, Marian Cantera, Delaware Sand and Gravelcompany, a Delaware Corporation, Anita Dell Aversano,individually and As Executrix of the Estate of Joseph Dellaversano, Vincent Dell Aversano, Marcella Dell Aversano,stauffer Chemical Co., a Delaware Corporation, Havegindustries, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Champlain Cablecorporation, a Delaware Corporation, Angelo Terranova,stanley J. Twardus & Sons, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Andsca Services, Inc., a Delaware Corporation, Third-party Defendants,appeal of New Castle County
Date: July 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 643
United States of America, Appellee, v. Howard C. Kennedy, Appellant
Date: September 29, 1987
Citation: 851 F.2d 689
In Re Grand Jury Proceedings
Date: July 15, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 860
Otto Presley, Appellant, v. United States of America, Appellee
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1052
United States of America, Appellee, v. Dale Dennis Dunn, Appellant
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1099
Roy C. Lewellen, Jr., Appellee, v. Gene Raff, Individually and in His Official Capacity Asprosecuting Attorney for the First Judicial District Ofarkansas; David Cahoon, Individually and in His Officialcapacity As Deputy Prosecuting Attorney for Lee County,arkansas; Henry Wilkinson, Individually and in His Officialcapacity As Circuit Court Judge for the First Judicialdistrict of Arkansas, Appellants.lafayette Patterson; Jeanne Kennedy; Doug Williams; Leecounty, Arkansas; Robert May, Jr., Individuallyand in His Official Capacity As Sheriffof Lee County.lafayette Patterson v. Robert Banks; Margie Banks; Reverend Almore Banks (four Cases).roy C. Lewellen, Jr., Appellee, v. Gene Raff, Individually and in His Official Capacity Asprosecuting Attorney for the First Judicial District Ofarkansas; David Cahoon, Individually and in His Officialcapacity As Deputy Prosecuting Attorney for Lee County,arkansas; Lafayette Patterson; Jeanne Kennedy;doug Williams, Appellant.lee County, Arkansas; Robert May, Jr., Individually and Inhis Official Capacity As Sheriff of Lee County; Henrywilkinson, Individually and in His Official Capacity Ascircuit Court Judge for the First Judicial District of Arkansas.roy C. Lewellen, Jr., Appellee, v. Gene Raff, Individually and in His Official Capacity Asprosecuting Attorney for the Eastern Judicial District Ofarkansas; David Cahoon, Individually and in His Officialcapacity As Deputy Prosecuting Attorney for Lee County,arkansas; Lafayette Patterson; Jeanne Kennedy; Dougwilliams; Lee County, Arkansas; Robert May, Jr.,individually and in His Official Capacity As Sheriff of Leecounty, Appellant.henry Wilkinson, Individually and in His Official Capacityas Circuit Court Judge for the First Judicialdistrict of Arkansas.roy C. Lewellen, Jr., Appellant, v. Gene Raff, Individually and in His Official Capacity Asprosecuting Attorney for the First Judicial District Ofarkansas; David Cahoon, Individually and in His Capacity Asdeputy Prosecuting Attorney for Lee County, Arkansas, Appellees.lafayette Patterson; Jeanne Kennedy; Doug Williams; Leecounty, Arkansas; Robert May, Jr., Individually and in Hisofficial Capacity As Sheriff of Lee County; Henrywilkinson, Individually and in His Official Capacity Ascircuit Court Judge for the First Judicial District of Arkansas
Date: September 28, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1108
United States of America, Appellee, v. Dewey Sylvester Rans, Appellant
Date: December 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1111
United States of America, Appellee, v. Jonathan Sink, Appellant
Date: August 25, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1120
Elwood L. Moore, Appellant, v. Michael F. Hogan, Debtor, Appellee
Date: July 20, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1125
In Re Ole K. Nilssen
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1401
Alpine v. Poppell*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Bryant v. Lynaugh*
Date: July 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Casper v. Chevron*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Christenberry v. Rental Tools, Inc.*
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Cooper v. Marriott Corporation
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Deleon-mendez v. I.n.s.*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Fitzpatrick v. Lewis*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Fuller v. Alive Enterprises*
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Haas v. Lynaugh*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
In Re Carrathus (harvey C.)*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
In Re: Grand Jury Proceedings*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Jinks v. Edwards*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Johnson v. Tx Dept. of Corrections*
Date: July 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Norman v. Lynaugh (3 Cases)*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Prather v. Harris County*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Rochon v. State of Louisiana*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Rodriguez v. Nguyen*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Shannon v. Harvey*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Shirley v. Schraer*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Silsbee Land v. Howard (dee)*
Date: July 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Starks v. Bowles*
Date: July 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Trasher v. Coon*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
U.S. v. Joubert*
Date: July 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
U.S. v. Lara*
Date: July 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
U.S. v. Neve*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
U.S. v. Tijerina*
Date: July 5, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1419
Am. Marine Slip v. Daigle Towing
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Avondale v. Warner*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Balawajder v. Bowles*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Boland Marine & Manfc. v. N.l.r.b
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Broussard v. Xyz Insurance Co
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Hall v. Lynaugh*
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Johnson v. Marlin Drilling
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Lapeyrouse v. Ford Motor Co.*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Mitchell v. Cabana*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Ramirez v. U.s.*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Seal Mnf. v. Gen. Shopping Centers
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Seifullah v. Mcconn*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Sornson v. Ingram Petroleum Services*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
Tolbert v. Henderson*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Castro*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Fenuyi*
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Green*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Hayes*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Hooper*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Reyes-martinez*
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Tune*
Date: July 13, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Wolzen (2 Cases)*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Zamudio*
Date: July 14, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1420
U.S. v. Johnson (richard)
Date: July 7, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1421
U.S. v. Mejia (alberto)
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1421
Brown v. Eagle-picher**
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Burch v. Rame**
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Colyer v. Chism**
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Davis v. Parke, Davis & Company
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Erwin v. Phillips & Jordan, Inc.**
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Hayes v. Ellis**
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Pecan Shoppe v. Stuckey's Inc
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Phillips v. Martinez*
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Silverstrone v. Pga Tour, Inc
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
U.S. v. Barrett**
Date: July 6, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
U.S. v. Callaway***
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
U.S. v. Swain*
Date: July 11, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1422
Lathem (william Allen) v. Sentry Insurance
Date: July 12, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1423
John Doe, Appellant, v. Jay B. Stephens, et al
Date: July 15, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1457
Bowman (ernest) v. Mitchell (cliftia)
Date: June 8, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1500
Unpublished Dispositionin Re Gerald Drechsler, et al., Appellants
Date: May 18, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1500
Unpublished Dispositionjoan Bopst v. Marsh & Mclennan, Inc., et al
Date: April 29, 1988
Citation: 851 F.2d 1500