Andrew Reid Lackey v. State of Alabama

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Download PDF REL: 09/28/2012 Notice: T h i s o p i n i o n i s s u b j e c t t o formal r e v i s i o n b e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e advance s h e e t s o f Southern R e p o r t e r . R e a d e r s a r e r e q u e s t e d t o n o t i f y t h e R e p o r t e r o f D e c i s i o n s , Alabama A p p e l l a t e C o u r t s , 300 D e x t e r A v e n u e , M o n t g o m e r y , A l a b a m a 3 6 1 0 4 - 3 7 4 1 ((334) 2 2 9 - 0 6 4 9 ) , o f a n y t y p o g r a p h i c a l o r o t h e r e r r o r s , i n o r d e r t h a t c o r r e c t i o n s may b e made b e f o r e t h e o p i n i o n i s p r i n t e d i n Southern R e p o r t e r . ALABAMA COURT OF CRIMINAL APPEALS OCTOBER TERM, 2011-2012 CR-07-1378 Andrew R e i d Lackey v. S t a t e o f Alabama Appeal from Limestone C i r c u i t (CC-05-814) Court On R e t u r n t o S e c o n d Remand WINDOM, P r e s i d i n g J u d g e . Andrew Reid Lackey appeals h i s two c o n v i c t i o n s and sentences o f death. capital-murder L a c k e y was c o n v i c t e d o f one c o u n t o f c a p i t a l m u r d e r f o r t h e m u r d e r o f C h a r l e s during t h e course of a robbery, Newman see § 13A-5-40(a)(2), Ala. CR-07-1378 Code 1 9 7 5 , and a s e c o n d c o u n t o f c a p i t a l m u r d e r f o r t h e m u r d e r of C h a r l e s Newman d u r i n g 1 3 A - 5 - 4 0 ( a ) ( 4 ) , A l a . Code Lackey's appeal is the course before this burglary, Court counts of c a p i t a l murder. in On March Court b e g a n on On M a r c h 3, 2008, t h e of circuit after which recommended t h a t L a c k e y be s e n t e n c e d t o 26, 2008, the circuit court conducted j u d i c i a l - s e n t e n c i n g h e a r i n g and s e n t e n c e d L a c k e y t o d e a t h . April § unusual found him g u i l t y c o u r t conducted the p e n a l t y phase of the t r i a l , death. an Lackey's t r i a l 2008, a f t e r w h i c h t h e j u r y the j u r y unanimously see explained before this turns to the m e r i t s of h i s appeal. two a 1975. p r o c e d u r a l p o s t u r e t h a t must be F e b r u a r y 25, of 29, 2008, a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l was a On appointed to represent L a c k e y on a p p e a l . Shortly after appellate c o u n s e l was appointed, Lackey i n f o r m e d h i s new a t t o r n e y t h a t he d i d n o t want t o a p p e a l h i s convictions sentences and of death. 1 According to Lackey, J a m e s B a r r y A b s t o n was a p p o i n t e d t o r e p r e s e n t L a c k e y on a p p e a l . A t some p o i n t s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , R a n d a l l S. S u s s k i n d and K r i s t e n M. N e l s o n , w i t h t h e E q u a l J u s t i c e I n i t i a t i v e , j o i n e d L a c k e y ' s a p p e l l a t e d e f e n s e team. I t does not appear t h a t t h e a t t o r n e y s f r o m t h e E q u a l J u s t i c e I n i t i a t i v e were a p p o i n t e d t o r e p r e s e n t L a c k e y ; i n s t e a d , t h e y a p p e a r t o have i n j e c t e d themselves i n t o the l i t i g a t i o n . 1 2 CR-07-1378 appellate counsel refused to l i s t e n wishes, and, on February 3, 2009, t o or t o comply w i t h h i s counsel filed c h a l l e n g i n g L a c k e y ' s c o n v i c t i o n s and s e n t e n c e s . a brief I n the b r i e f , c o u n s e l a r g u e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t t h e r e c o r d r a i s e s an i n f e r e n c e t h a t the S t a t e used i t s peremptory c h a l l e n g e s i n a r a c i a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y manner; t h e r e f o r e , t h i s Court remand t h e cause t o the circuit court with i n s t r u c t i o n s that court to hold a hearing pursuant U.S. 79 (1986). which i t agreed 28, 2010, counsel's appeal, should Batson v. K e n t u c k y , for 476 On A p r i l 16, 2009, t h e S t a t e f i l e d a b r i e f i n t o a remand f o r a B a t s o n Lackey, apparently hearing. frustrated with On October appellate r e f u s a l t o comply w i t h h i s d e s i r e not t o pursue wrote the Alabama A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l . In his L a c k e y t o l d t h e n A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l T r o y K i n g t h a t he an letter, "wish[ed] t o d r o p [ h i s ] a p p e a l and t o n o t c o n t i n u e t o a p p e a l [ h i s ] d e a t h penalty conviction." (Letter to Troy King attached e x h i b i t to the S t a t e ' s motion f o r a t i m e l y r u l i n g . ) l e t t e r goes on t o as Lackey's state: " I , Andrew R e i d L a c k e y , ... do n o t w i s h t o a p p e a l my d e a t h p e n a l t y c o n v i c t i o n b e y o n d t h e s o called 'automatic' level. "I [Equal have a l r e a d y w r i t t e n b o t h K r i s t e n N e l s o n o f Justice Initiative] and my original 3 an CR-07-1378 [appellate] attorney, James Barry Abston of Huntsville, ... s e v e r a l months ago. ... I am n e i t h e r crazy nor s u i c i d a l nor m e n t a l l y u n s t a b l e ; I s i m p l y w i s h n o t t o c o n t i n u e t o a p p e a l my d e a t h penalty conviction. " I , Andrew R e i d L a c k e y , w i l l f u l l y a n d k n o w i n g l y d e c l a r e my i n t e n t i o n s t o c e a s e and d e s i s t my a p p e a l s o v e r my d e a t h p e n a l t y c o n v i c t i o n . I d e c l a r e my intentions to entirely drop my criminal case a p p e a l s , f u l l y aware [ t h a t t h e a t t o r n e y general's o f f i c e ] w i l l s e e k an e x e c u t i o n d a t e , w h i c h I do n o t and w i l l n o t p r o t e s t . " Id. On November 5, 2010, t h i s Court, unaware d e s i r e t o receive only p l a i n - e r r o r review, with the requests, appellate remanded instructions court complied counsel's the and cause to the the of Lackey's and, i n a c c o r d a n c e attorney circuit f o r i t t o hold a Batson hearing. general's court The Court. A f t e r a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l and t h e a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l ' s turned circuit and, on December 13, 2010, t h e r e t u r n t o remand was f i l e d w i t h t h i s fully with b r i e f e d the Batson issue on r e t u r n t o remand, office Lackey t o t h i s Court f o r help e f f e c t u a t i n g h i s d e s i r e not to pursue h i s b r i e f s on a p p e a l and t o r e c e i v e o n l y p l a i n 4 error CR-07-1378 review. Specifically, Court a l e t t e r on A p r i l 11, 2012, Lackey 2012, his this stating: "Hello. My name i s Andrew L a c k e y . d r o p my B a t s o n i s s u e and n o t a p p e a l sentence. P l e a s e g e t i n t o u c h w i t h me." ( A p r i l 11, 2012 sent L e t t e r from Lackey.) I wish to my death T h e r e a f t e r , on J u n e 8, Lackey f i l e d a motion w i t h t h i s Court seeking t o invoke state-law right to r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f on appeal and "withdraw a l l b r i e f s f i l e d on [ h i s ] b e h a l f and t o w i t h d r a w other and documentation counsel " (June 8, 2012 explained that changed nor Id. arguments He he "does motion.) not wish for his conviction goes on to state p r e s e n t e d by t o be that he sentence reversed or "understands Lackey to under that th[is] law, [C]ourt review i.e., for plain o n l y as error." Id. the strictly Along m o t i o n , L a c k e y a t t a c h e d a copy o f a l e t t e r he s e n t counsel that law I n i t i a t i v e and Mr. with and his appellate Abston: " I t h a n k you f o r you work on my b e h a l f , b u t y o u r e f f o r t s do n o t m a t c h my d e s i r e s i n t h i s m a t t e r . 5 of required stated: "Dear E q u a l J u s t i c e be remanded." Alabama r e g a r d i n g a u t o m a t i c r e v i e w of d e a t h p e n a l t y cases asks any [appellate] In h i s motion, for his to CR-07-1378 " I have t r i e d t o make my w i s h e s c l e a r i n t h e past. I do n o t d e s i r e y o u r s e r v i c e s any f u r t h e r and your r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s hereby t e r m i n a t e d . Do not file anything ( A t t a c h m e n t t o J u n e 8, On J u n e 28, circuit 2012, court with d u r i n g which the d a n g e r s and f u r t h e r on my behalf." 2012 motion.) this C o u r t remanded t h i s cause to i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r i t to conduct a circuit disadvantages c o u r t was to apprise of w a i v i n g to the appellate c o u n s e l , of i n v o k i n g h i s s t a t e - l a w r i g h t to r e p r e s e n t and hearing Lackey of his right the himself, o f s t r i k i n g t h e b r i e f s t h a t had b e e n f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f . B e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g , L a c k e y h i r e d new counsel") his t o a i d him i n having counsel ( h e r e i n a f t e r appellate counsel removed "new as attorneys. In accordance with this Court's order cause, the circuit court scheduled a 2012. On J u l y 12, 2012, appellate counsel, Lackey sought court seeking to a terminate, continuance filed and a remanding hearing motion a motion c o m p e t e n c y e v a l u a t i o n by a m e n t a l - h e a l t h for July whose expert. circuit a mental- The circuit court denied a p p e l l a t e counsel's motion f o r a continuance, 6 16, services i n the seeking the and CR-07-1378 on July 16, 2012, the c i r c u i t compliance w i t h t h i s Court's At the hearing, court conducted a hearing i n instructions. appellate counsel, in an attempt to remain c o u n s e l a g a i n s t Lackey's wishes, argued t h a t Lackey was i n c o m p e t e n t t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f and w h e t h e r to strike Lackey, a l l documents t h r o u g h new assertion filed counsel, t h a t L a c k e y was Lackey a l s o on h i s b e h a l f challenged appellate incompetent a r g u e d t h a t he in this Court. counsel's to represent himself. k n o w i n g l y and v o l u n t a r i l y waives his right to counsel, invokes h i s right to represent himself, and exercises filed his right on h i s b e h a l f . to s t r i k e a l l documents and In accordance w i t h t h i s Court's order remanding the cause, the c i r c u i t court a p p r i s e d Lackey t o the dangers and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f L a c k e y ' s d e c i s i o n himself and strike briefs a l lbriefs filed to represent on h i s b e h a l f . Lackey t e s t i f i e d t h a t he knows t h o s e d a n g e r s and has v o l u n t a r i l y made his decision. After order the hearing, denying evaluation and the c i r c u i t appellate finding that counsel's court issued motion a for Lackey i s competent t o 7 detailed a mental exercise CR-07-1378 his right found to represent h i m s e l f . The c i r c u i t court further that: " L a c k e y ' s motion t o p r o c e e d p r o se and t o s t r i k e a l l b r i e f s f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f i s made k n o w i n g l y , i n t e l l i g e n t l y , v o l u n t a r i l y , and w i t h f u l l knowledge and appreciation of t h e dangers and p o t e n t i a l p i t f a l l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such a d e c i s i o n . " (R. on r e t u r n t o remand 14.) Lackey's to motion The c i r c u i t court then granted t o t e r m i n a t e a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l ' s employment, proceed p r o s e , and t o s t r i k e a l l documents f i l e d on h i s behalf. On J u l y this Court. 16, 2012, t h e r e t u r n Because Lackey's t o remand was f i l e d was granted with permission to r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f on a p p e a l a n d t o s t r i k e a l l documents have b e e n f i l e d whether on h i s b e h a l f , t h i s the c i r c u i t court correctly C o u r t must determined that first review that Lackey c o m p e t e n t l y , k n o w i n g l y , a n d v o l u n t a r i l y made t h o s e d e c i s i o n s . If t h i s Court determines that the c i r c u i t c o u r t was c o r r e c t , i t must t h e n r e v i e w t h e s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h e e v i d e n c e t o s u s t a i n Lackey's plain death. convictions error, and s e n t e n c e s , and r e v i e w search the propriety the record f o r of h i s sentences of §§ 12-22-150, 13A-5-53, a n d 13A-5-55, A l a . Code 1975; R u l e 45A A l a . R. App. P. See a l s o S i b l e y v. S t a t e , 775 So. 2d 8 CR-07-1378 235, 240 ( A l a . C r i m . App. 1996); 404, 406 ( A l a . C r i m . App. B l o c k v. S t a t e , 744 So. 2d 1996). I. U n d e r A l a b a m a l a w , L a c k e y has t h e r i g h t t o w a i v e c o u n s e l on a p p e a l and t o r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f . So. 2d 837, together, confer 841 §§ (Ala. 12-22-130 upon a 2001) and defendant See Ex p a r t e S c u d d e r , ("We conclude 15-12-22(b)[, in a criminal 789 that, taken A l a . Code 1975,] case the right to r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f on a p p e a l i f he d e s i r e s t o do s o . " ) ; J o h n s o n v. S t a t e , 40 So. 3d 753, 756 ( A l a . C r i m . App. 2009) (inmates u n d e r a s e n t e n c e o f d e a t h have a r i g h t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s on appeal). Lackey also has counsel's b r i e f s s t r i c k e n . 317, 318 to have 2001) appellate 814 So. 2d ( r e t r a c t i n g a previous order counsel's b r i e f , and a l l o w i n g Clemons t o p r o c e e d p r o s e ) ; M c K a s k l e v. W i g g i n s , 465 U.S. c o u n s e l on right See Clemons v. S t a t e , ( A l a . C r i m . App. requiring the 168, 174, appeal, s t r i k i n g 178 (1984) ("[a] defendant's right to s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p l a i n l y e n c o m p a s s e s [an i n m a t e ' s r i g h t ] t o control ... participation allows his over own the defense, [and] defendant's c o u n s e l t o make o r [ i ] f ... objection substantially 9 counsel's effectively interfere with any CR-07-1378 s i g n i f i c a n t t a c t i c a l decisions, or to c o n t r o l the questioning of witnesses, o r t o speak matter of importance, eroded."). legally 389, of the defendant on any [the r i g h t t o s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ] i s To make t h o s e d e c i s i o n s , h o w e v e r , L a c k e y must be competent, knowingly instead and t h e d e c i s i o n and v o l u n t a r i l y . must have been See G o d i n e z v. Moran, made 509 U.S. 391 (1993) ( h o l d i n g t h a t a d e f e n d a n t must be c o m p e t e n t t o waive c o u n s e l ) ; J o h n s o n , 40 So. 3d a t 756-57 ( A l a . C r i m . App. 2009) ( h o l d i n g t h a t a d e a t h row i n m a t e ' s d e c i s i o n t o r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f on a p p e a l must be k n o w i n g a n d v o l u n t a r y ) ; So. 2d a t 240; B l o c k , S i b l e y , 775 744 So. 2d a t 406. A. First, court this abused waive counsel, Court determine whether i t s d i s c r e t i o n i n f i n d i n g Lackey the circuit competent t o t o p r o c e e d p r o s e , a n d t o s t r i k e a l l documents f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f . (Ala. must Crim. App. determination that Hodges v . S t a t e , 2005) (noting a person that 926 So. 2d 1060, 1069 a circuit i s competent t o s t a n d court's trial is r e v i e w e d f o r an abuse o f d i s c r e t i o n ) . The oneself competency s t a n d a r d t o waive counsel and t o r e p r e s e n t i s t h e same as " t h e c o m p e t e n c y s t a n d a r d 10 f o r standing CR-07-1378 trial." the Godinez, competency 509 U.S. standard h i m s e l f i f "he has a t 391. to lawyer w i t h a reasonable and ... he has ("A 402 counsel and to represent degree of r a t i o n a l understanding a r a t i o n a l as w e l l as f a c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g the proceedings 402, waive satisfies s u f f i c i e n t present a b i l i t y to consult with his U.S. Thus, a p e r s o n a g a i n s t him." (1960). See Dusky v. U n i t e d S t a t e s , a l s o Rule 11.1, A l a . R. sentenced f o r an offense i f that defendant l a c k s 362 Crim. defendant i s mentally incompetent to stand t r i a l of P. o r t o be sufficient p r e s e n t a b i l i t y to a s s i s t i n h i s or her defense by c o n s u l t i n g with of counsel understanding with and such t h a t he o b j e c t of counsel, and reasonable o f t h e f a c t s and the defendant."). is a degree rational the l e g a l proceedings However, " [ a ] p e r s o n whose m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n l a c k s the the to capacity to understand proceedings assist in a g a i n s t him, preparing his to the 420 U.S. 162, 171 Thus, an i n d i v i d u a l may nature consult defense c o m p e t e n t t o w a i v e c o u n s e l and r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f ] . " Missouri, against [is the "capacity to not Drope v. (1975). r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f on appeal w i t h d r a w a l l documents f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f o n l y i f t h a t has with appreciate 11 his position and and person make a CR-07-1378 rational further choice with litigation respect or on to continuing the other hand or abandoning whether he i s s u f f e r i n g f r o m a m e n t a l d i s e a s e , d i s o r d e r , o r d e f e c t w h i c h may s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t h i s capacity i n the premises." Peyton, 384 U.S. 312, 314 (1966). The t e s t Rees v. t o determine a person's "capacity to appreciate h i s p o s i t i o n a n d make rational choice," i d . , involves a determination a of the following: "'(1) whether t h a t p e r s o n s u f f e r s from a mental d i s e a s e , d i s o r d e r , o r d e f e c t ; (2) w h e t h e r a m e n t a l disease, d i s o r d e r , or defect prevents that person from u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s l e g a l p o s i t i o n and t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o h i m ; a n d (3) w h e t h e r a m e n t a l disease, d i s o r d e r , or defect prevents that person f r o m m a k i n g a r a t i o n a l c h o i c e among h i s o p t i o n s . ' " H a u s e r e x r e l . C r a w f o r d v . Moore, Cir. 2000) (quoting Lonchar 223 F.3d 1316, 1322 ( 1 1 t h v. Z a n t , 978 F.2d 637, 641-42 (11th C i r . 1992)). Before Frankie L. trial, Preston, determine whether the defense a Lackey time of the offense counsel licensed had Lackey clinical evaluated by psychologist, to s u f f e r e d from a mental d i s o r d e r a t and t o determine whether L a c k e y was competent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n h i s defense and t o s t a n d (C. 336.) D r . P r e s t o n d e s c r i b e d L a c k e y as " s o c i a l l y 12 trial. awkward, CR-07-1378 probably shy and anxious sufficiently confident verbally and in achieve beyond in in his writing, most u n f a m i l i a r surroundings, abilities to communicate strategize, to others and financially his age." i n t e r v i e w i n g Lackey m u l t i p l e times (C. has angry, depressed, suffered was an IQ score introverted involvements. emotionally Dr. perform Preston reported that stated that Dr. According and and Preston L a c k e y s u f f e r e d f r o m any relation He uneasy Preston detached preoccupations. 84. After Lackey was a n x i o u s , and u n c e r t a i n a b o u t h i s f u t u r e and f r o m low m o r a l e . highly In of 337.) and h a v i n g L a c k e y m u l t i p l e t e s t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , Dr. Lackey but t o Dr. in long did not, Lackey close interpersonal explained had Preston, that Lackey endured however, was suicidal state that s e r i o u s mental d i s e a s e or d i s o r d e r . to Lackey's competency t o s t a n d trial, Dr. P r e s t o n a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e M a c A r t h u r Competence A s s e s s m e n t T o o l . The results of the MacArthur Competence Assessment indicated that: " [ L a c k e y ] a p p e a r s t o have an a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s and c h a r g e s . L i k e w i s e , he s h o u l d be a b l e t o c o n s u l t w i t h h i s a t t o r n e y i n a reasonable way. He has the c a p a c i t y t o seek, i d e n t i f y , w e i g h , and b a l a n c e more r e l e v a n t and l e s s 13 Tool CR-07-1378 r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as t o u s e t h i s d a t a t o make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t h i s own c a s e . " (C. 341.) D r . P r e s t o n e x p l a i n e d h i s own c l i n i c a l d i a g n o s t i c impressions as f o l l o w s : " W i t h i n a reasonable degree of e v a l u a t i v e c e r t a i n t y , [and] b a s e d on h i s t o r y ( p e r s o n a l a n d c o l l a t e r a l ) , interviewing, and t e s t i n g , Mr. L a c k e y was n o t s u f f e r i n g from nor e x p e r i e n c i n g a mental d i s o r d e r w h i c h w o u l d compromise h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , mood, o r t h o u g h t s as t o b e i n g a b l e t o m o r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h right from wrong o r d i s t i n g u i s h and understand ' l e g a l ' from ' i l l e g a l ' b e h a v i o r . He i s a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l e g a l c h a r g e s he f a c e s ; p a r t i c i p a t e i n h ii s d e ff n s e ; h s de e c o n d u c t hi m s e l f p r o p e r l y d u r i n g 1f 1y hi Court proceedings; rt and a p p r e c i a t e t h e range o f p o s s i b l e s e n t e n c i n g outcomes." ^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^^u^ (C. 342.) ( F o o t n o t e o m i t t e d . ) that h i s examination introvert becomes Preston, who lacks anxious Lackey ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ At t r i a l , of Lackey around "has other people. testified t h a t Lackey i n social experienced ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Dr. P r e s t o n indicated confidence , i s an situations According repeated and t o Dr. episodes of p e r s i s t e n t d e p r e s s e d mood a n d s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a significant 1166.) weight change and s o c i a l withdrawal." At other times, Lackey "experienced repeated (R. episodes o f p e r s i s t e n t e l a t e d mood o r i n c r e a s e d mood, i n c r e a s e d e n e r g y level, racing thoughts and accompanied by heavy spending uncontrollable talkativeness and i n f l a t e d s e l f 14 confidence." CR-07-1378 Id. Lackey, with "thought thought i n s e r t i o n , thought withdrawal, broadcasting, however, had no experience auditory d i s t o r t i o n s or h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , grandiose b e l i e f s , beliefs jail or feelings awaiting spying on him trial, and of b e i n g uncontrolled." Lackey talking t h a t those thoughts are thought that a b o u t him. Dr. "not persecutory Id. other While people Preston were explained an uncommon r e s p o n s e f o r someone t h a t ' s i n j a i l b e c a u s e t h e y t y p i c a l l y a r e w a t c h i n g you." 1167.) Dr. Preston testified had s p e c i a l powers, but was r e f e r r i n g to h i s s k i l l s Dr. Preston generalized anxiety p o r t i o n of h i s l i f e . experiencing pessimism Preston, any later that his Preston legal however, t e s t i f i e d discovered Lackey and some d e p r e s s i o n , about Lackey i n d i c a t e d (R. that that he Lackey i n c o m p u t e r games. disorder Dr. that i t was stated in social has suffered phobia "concluded that anxiety, situation." that for a 1170.) was and] Dr. 15 suffer from c o n c l u d e d t h a t L a c k e y was s e v e r e m e n t a l d i s o r d e r and Lackey d i d not large [Lackey] hopelessness[, (R. from sane CR-07-1378 at the time of the offense and to a i d i n h i s defense. At the hearing and was competent t o stand trial 2 on L a c k e y ' s d e c i s i o n t o r e p r e s e n t himself on a p p e a l and t o s t r i k e t h e documents p r e v i o u s l y f i l e d on h i s behalf, new c o u n s e l explained t h a t he h a d met w i t h L a c k e y and t h a t he and L a c k e y were p r e p a r e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t L a c k e y i s c o m p e t e n t and t h a t right "he k n o w i n g l y and v o l u n t a r i l y w a i v e s h i s to appellate strikes plain the b r i e f s error Thereafter, counsel, terminates and r e q u e s t s review." on r e t u r n and t o remand 28.) t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t he i s i n c a r c e r a t e d i n p r i s o n f o r two c o n v i c t i o n s and services the Court to proceed to the (Supp. R. Lackey t e s t i f i e d their o f c a p i t a l murder t h a t he has b e e n s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h f o r b o t h c o n v i c t i o n s . He has n o t h a d any p r o b l e m s u n d e r s t a n d i n g where he was o r why he was i n p r i s o n . He t e s t i f i e d t h a t he was a l e r t d u r i n g t h e hearing. During the hearing, had represented L a c k e y named t h e two a t t o r n e y s him a t t r i a l . He t e s t i f i e d t h a t he met who with A f t e r i n t e r v i e w i n g L a c k e y ' s p a r e n t s and h i s b r o t h e r , Dr. P r e s t o n h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t Lackey might s u f f e r from A s p e r g e r ' s Syndrome, b u t he was u n a b l e t o c o n f i r m or disprove h i s hypothesis through examinations of Lackey. 2 16 CR-07-1378 those two attorneys attorneys during often and appellate his assisted those what counsel they do knows h i s a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l for v i s i t e d him him. According e v e r y few to and Lackey, months and discussed c a s e , i n c l u d i n g an i s s u e i n v o l v i n g B a t s o n v. K e n t u c k y , U.S. 79 (1986). t o l d him off on and his t r i a l . L a c k e y t e s t i f i e d t h a t he understands consulted Lackey e x p l a i n e d that h i s a p p e l l a t e t h a t a Batson i s s u e arose because the a l l t h e b l a c k j u r o r s and r e t u r n t o remand Lackey and a understands the there are only that new he does trial seriousness two t h a t was [and] everything explained looks was okay." t h a t he plain-error convictions "kicked (Supp. want h i s R. stated c r i m e s and He s t a t e d t h a t he Court transcript (Supp. R. that knows he that l i f e i n prison without this the He conviction "does just the understands an to automatic make sure on r e t u r n t o remand 38.) He understands that r e s t r i c t i n g t h i s Court review and cases, over not of c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t s -- i n death-penalty review State illegal." ordered. p o s s i b i l i t y of p a r o l e or death. that attorneys 37.) testified overturned ... 476 will sentences. limit this Court's review L a c k e y s t a t e d t h a t he 17 to of his knows that CR-07-1378 his chosen course of a c t i o n w i l l by a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l he being r e s u l t i n the stricken. e x e c u t e d by Lackey stated lethal that sentence overturned he f i n d any in prison injection. does b e c a u s e he explained are and that that without he he not want h i s conviction a c c e p t s h i s g u i l t and the possibility get a sentence of of or because sentenced to parole. u n d e r s t a n d s what l e s s e r - i n c l u d e d could that plain error, he does n o t want t o f a c e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g life raised Lackey a l s o s t a t e d i s aware t h a t i f t h i s C o u r t does n o t he w i l l be issues less He offenses than life in p r i s o n w i t h o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p a r o l e , b u t he does n o t want to take the chance of r e c e i v i n g a sentence of l i f e w i t h o u t the p o s s i b i l i t y p a r o l e . 43, this 77.) Therefore, he Court conduct only (Supp. R. documents f i l e d and on h i s b e h a l f , to represent he will himself have According l i k e l y be b e c a u s e he has to executed. his appellate consistently s e n t e n c e d t h a t he d i d h i s c o n v i c t i o n s or sentences. 18 and h i m s e l f and s t r i k e s a l l wishes to terminate t o l d them s i n c e s h o r t l y a f t e r he was want t o c h a l l e n g e counsel a p l a i n - e r r o r review. L a c k e y s t a t e d t h a t he counsel on r e t u r n t o remand wants t o t e r m i n a t e L a c k e y , he knows t h a t i f he r e p r e s e n t s in prison According not to CR-07-1378 Lackey, a p p e l l a t e counsel t h a t he was " m e s s i n g up have i g n o r e d h i s w i s h e s and t o l d on r e t u r n to L a c k e y ' s t e s t i m o n y i s s u p p o r t e d by l e t t e r s he remand 43.) t h e i r case." has s e n t t o the Alabama A t t o r n e y this Court counsel notes that, n o t want t o c h a l l e n g e counsel until appellate sought counsel's At the h e a r i n g , believed he had what he d e s i r e s . was Lackey informed to Further, appellate s e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h t h a t he h i s c o n v i c t i o n s and s e n t e n c e s , d i d n o t r a i s e any Lackey G e n e r a l and t h i s C o u r t . although s h o r t l y a f t e r he (Supp. R. at that time, c o n c e r n s r e l a t i n g t o h i s competency represent himself and to terminate services. Lackey i n f o r m e d the c i r c u i t c o u r t t h a t sufficient mental health to tell He a d m i t t e d t h a t i n A u g u s t 2011 he was being on death however, he has h e l p e d him, but did appellate he the he court attempted t o commit s u i c i d e by c u t t i n g h i s w r i s t s , b u t he e x p l a i n e d of him that u n d e r a g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s as a r e s u l t row been and on his insomnia. medication, i t does n o t and Since the that time, medication a f f e c t h i s judgment. 3 He has further A t the h e a r i n g , a p p e l l a t e counsel s t a t e d t h a t the f a c t t h a t L a c k e y had b e e n p r e s c r i b e d and was t a k i n g p s y c h o t r o p i c d r u g s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t he i s incompetent. The record, however, does n o t e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r L a c k e y was taking p s y c h o t o p i c d r u g s , a n t i d e p r e s s a n t d r u g s , s l e e p a i d e s , o r some 3 19 CR-07-1378 testified his that h i s d e c i s i o n to proceed pro se, to counsel's representation, f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f and to strike Lackey an was Preston's attempt t o remain incompetent, report and testimony from argued Lackey p a r a l l e l universe. on that stress exist. counsel Lackey's indicating that he showing read that from suicide Dr. attempt also e l i c i t e d believes in a To r e b u t a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l ' s a r g u m e n t , t h e f o u n d L a c k e y t o be c o m p e t e n t . t h a t h i s p a s t s u i c i d e a t t e m p t was t h e r e s u l t and i n s o m n i a Finally, by Appellate counsel S t a t e e x p l a i n e d t h a t Dr. P r e s t o n Lackey e x p l a i n e d the case appellate shows t h a t he i s i n c o m p e t e n t . in s a y ] i t s s u i c i d e , ... i t ' s (Supp. R. on r e t u r n t o remand 4 7.) In of He g u i l t f o r what [he] d i d [ , although h i s appellate counsel not." a l l documents i s n o t an a t t e m p t t o commit s u i c i d e . e x p l a i n e d t h a t he i s " j u s t a c c e p t i n g and, terminate and t h a t those conditions Lackey t e s t i f i e d that the p a r a l l e l w h i c h he b e l i e v e s i s a spiritual world that no longer universe consists of heaven and h e l l . other type of drug. Accordingly, appellate counsel's a s s e r t i o n i s u n s u p p o r t e d by any e v i d e n c e i n t h e r e c o r d . 20 CR-07-1378 A f t e r the h e a r i n g , the circuit c o u r t i s s u e d an o r d e r in which i t r u l e d t h a t "Lackey i s l e g a l l y competent t o e x e r c i s e his r i g h t to proceed pro se and appellate proceedings." The circuit Before court's trial, (Supp. R. decision L a c k e y was to stand t r i a l , to c o n t r o l the course is on and i t was r e t u r n t o remand supported f o u n d by Dr. of h i s by the P r e s t o n t o be Dr. P r e s t o n ' s 13.) record. competent o p i n i o n t h a t he w o u l d have no p r o b l e m s a i d i n g h i s a t t o r n e y s . A t t h e h e a r i n g on h i s d e c i s i o n t o r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f , L a c k e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t "he sufficient present his lawyer[s, c o u n s e l , a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l , and new including t r i a l counsel,] with a reasonable has a as well a g a i n s t him." Rule 11.1, and insomnia, A l a . R. successfully to consult factual Dusky, Crim. which, as P. affects his ability F.3d at established was no to To he a t 402. the 21 of See he the also have been indicating that d i s o r d e r , or d e f e c t that choice. contrary, understands ... depression, Lackey, evidence t o make a r a t i o n a l 1322. that U.S. Other than s t r e s s , according treated, there and understanding 362 Lackey s u f f e r s from mental d i s e a s e , 223 with degree of r a t i o n a l understanding rational proceedings ability has the See Lackey's Hauser, testimony ramifications of CR-07-1378 proceeding p r o se and s t r i k i n g a l l documents filed on h i s b e h a l f , a n d he made a r e a s o n e d d e c i s i o n b e t w e e n a c c e p t i n g h i s guilt and punishment sentenced o r t a k i n g t h e c h a n c e t h a t he m i g h t be to l i f e i n prison without thep o s s i b i l i t y of parole. Rees v. P e y t o n , 384 U.S. a t 314. cannot the c i r c u i t court say that finding that counsel's Lackey was s e r v i c e t o him, documents f i l e d Accordingly, abused competent this Court i t s discretion t o terminate in appellate t o p r o c e e d p r o se, and t o s t r i k e a l l on h i s b e h a l f . B. Next, correctly must r e v i e w Lackey knowingly, a l l documents f i l e d i n t e l l i g e n t l y , and on h i s b e h a l f i n this 744 So. 2d a t 406. States Supreme C o u r t defendant has a r i g h t assistance court 40 So. 3d a t 756-57; S i b l e y , 775 So. 2d a t F a r e t t a v. C a l i f o r n i a , United whether t h e c i r c u i t made h i s d e c i s i o n t o w a i v e c o u n s e l , t o p r o c e e d p r o Johnson, Block, In the that and t o s t r i k e Court. 240; Court found voluntarily se, this 422 U.S. 806, 819-22 explained to represent of counsel, that, although a h i m s e l f and t o waive t h e the i n t e l l i g e n c e 22 (1975), of the waiver of CR-07-1378 counsel his must be s c r u t i n i z e d . 4 "When an [ a p p e l l a n t ] manages own [ a p p e a l ] , he r e l i n q u i s h e s ... many o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l benefits associated with Because an appellant represent himself previously filed benefits, benefits and who and invokes chooses to represent intelligently' I d . a t 835. h i s state-law to on h i s own b e h a l f " i n order 'knowingly the r i g h t to counsel." strike traditional t h e [ a p p e l l a n t ] must forgo those relinquished ... [and] he s h o u l d be made aware o f t h e d a n g e r s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , so t h a t t h e r e c o r d establish that 'he knows what h e ' s d o i n g trial 422 U.S. a t 8 3 5 ) . court advises (quoting "While i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t the engage, as i t d i d i n t h i s which i t e x p r e s s l y will and h i s c h o i c e i s made w i t h e y e s o p e n . ' " S i b l e y , 775 So. 2d a t 242-43 Faretta, to a l l documents w a i v e s many himself right case, i n a c o l l o q u y i n t h e defendant o f 'the dangers and disadvantages o f s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , ' such a c o l l o q u y i s n o t mandated." App. Moody v. S t a t e , 888 So. 2d 532, 554 ( A l a . C r i m . 2003) ( q u o t i n g T o m l i n v. S t a t e , 601 So. 2d 124, 128 ( A l a . T h i s C o u r t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t F a r e t t a i s n o t d i r e c t l y on p o i n t because t h a t case i n v o l v e d a defendant's r i g h t t o represent himself at t r i a l . 422 U.S. 806. However, i n S i b l e y and J o h n s o n , t h i s C o u r t a n a l o g i z e d t h e w a i v e r o f c o u n s e l a t t r i a l a n d t h e w a i v e r o f c o u n s e l on a p p e a l . 4 23 CR-07-1378 1991)). record "The u l t i m a t e t e s t i s w h e t h e r as a w h o l e that a defendant's i t 'appear[s] from t h e w a i v e r o f c o u n s e l and d e c i s i o n t o r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f were k n o w i n g a n d i n t e l l i g e n t . ' " Moody, 888 So. 2d a t 554 569, ( q u o t i n g Teske 571 ( A l a . C r i m . App. 1 9 8 7 ) ) . focus of the inquiry is on v. S t a t e , 507 So. 2d "Under t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e 'the p a r t i c u l a r facts and circumstances i n v o l v e d , " i n c l u d i n g the background, e x p e r i e n c e , and conduct (quoting Johnson In court of the accused."'" Tomlin, 601 So. 2d Moody, at 128-29, 888 So. 2d a t 554 quoting in v. Z e r b s t , 304 U.S. 458, 464 ( 1 9 3 8 ) ) . Sibley may determining v. State, consider whether this Court the f o l l o w i n g an appellant's held that the nonexclusive decision circuit factors knowing voluntary: "'(1) [T]he background, e x p e r i e n c e and conduct o f t h e d e f e n d a n t i n c l u d i n g h i s age, e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , and h i s p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h ; (2) t h e e x t e n t t o which the [ a p p e l l a n t ] had c o n t a c t w i t h lawyers p r i o r t o t h e [ a p p e a l ] ; (3) t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h a r g e s , t h e p o s s i b l e d e f e n s e s , and t h e p o s s i b l e p e n a l t y ; (4) t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e , e v i d e n c e and c o u r t r o o m decorum; (5) t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n c r i m i n a l t r i a l s ; (6) ... w h e t h e r t h e w a i v e r o f c o u n s e l was t h e r e s u l t of m i s t r e a t m e n t o r c o e r c i o n ; or ([7]) whether 24 in to represent h i m s e l f a n d , i n t h a t c a s e , r e f u s a l t o f i l e a b r i e f was and turn, CR-07-1378 t h e d e f e n d a n t was t r y i n g t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e e v e n t s o f the 775 [appeal].'" So. 2d a t 239 ( q u o t i n g S t r o z i e r v . Newsome, 871 F.2d 995, 998 (11th C i r . 1989)). See a l s o U n i t e d S t a t e s v . C a s h , 47 F.3d 1083, 1088-89 ( 1 1 t h C i r . 1995) (same f a c t o r s ) . "'"All f a c t o r s n e e d n o t p o i n t i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . " ' " So. 3d a t 757-58; S i b l e y , 775 So. a t 243 F.3d (quoting Cash, 47 a t 1089). After reviewing Court i s convinced on J o h n s o n , 40 appeal, strike years on r e t u r n t o remand, that Lackey's d e c i s i o n t o represent t o terminate a l l documents voluntary. the record counsel's filed representation, on h i s b e h a l f was himself and t o knowing and D u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g , L a c k e y t e s t i f i e d t h a t he i s 28 old, that he g r a d u a t e d from h i g h school, and t h a t attended C a l h o u n Community C o l l e g e f o r a l m o s t 2 y e a r s . can a n d w r i t e , a n d he h a s no d i f f i c u l t l y read this the E n g l i s h language. he Lackey understanding L a c k e y s t a t e d t h a t he was p h y s i c a l l y i n good shape a n d was n o t s u f f e r i n g f r o m any m e n t a l h e a l t h issues t h a t w o u l d p r e v e n t h i m f r o m e x p l a i n i n g what he w a n t s t o o c c u r i n h i s appeal. Lackey informed the c i r c u i t court that he understands t h a t he h a s b e e n c o n v i c t e d o f two c o u n t s o f c a p i t a l m u r d e r a n d 25 CR-07-1378 has been s e n t e n c e d t o d i e f o r each c o n v i c t i o n . Lackey, he knows t h a t representation, file on his i f he represents behalf, terminates h i m s e l f , and this Court He actions explained and likely t h a t he result in counsel's review the s t a t e d t h a t he being trial knows h i s executed. does n o t want t o c h a l l e n g e s e n t e n c e s b e c a u s e he to s t r i k e s a l l documents his will appellate will t r a n s c r i p t for p l a i n error only. According his a c c e p t s h i s g u i l t and He convictions does n o t want t o t a k e t h e c h a n c e t h a t he m i g h t r e c e i v e a s e n t e n c e o f l i f e p r i s o n w i t h o u t the p o s s i b i l i t y of Lackey t e s t i f i e d many t i m e s and them. He t h a t he t h a t he has s t a t e d t h a t he has had parole. met with appellate counsel no p r o b l e m s c o m m u n i c a t i n g informed appellate counsel challenge counsel his filed convictions a brief against t h a t he w a n t s t o t e r m i n a t e to represent his instructions sentences. from himself the The or sentences, h i s wishes. Lackey to challenge counsel his Alabama explained Attorney General, 26 this have and ignored convictions r e c o r d e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t L a c k e y has want appellate a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l ' s employment because a p p e l l a t e not but with shortly a f t e r t h e y became i n v o l v e d i n h i s a p p e a l t h a t he d i d n o t to in and sought help Court, and new CR-07-1378 retained counsel in removing e f f e c t u a t i n g h i s d e s i r e not appellate to challenge counsel and his convictions and sentences. Lackey i n f o r m e d the invoking that had to been represent s t r i k i n g t h e documents t h a t have b e e n f i l e d on h i s behalf. s t a t e d t h a t he not right not h i m s e l f and has his he or o f f e r e d any into court threatened He coerced circuit been p r o m i s e d a n y t h i n g inducement t o take the a c t i o n s he seeks to or take. L a c k e y t e s t i f i e d t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t , i f t h i s C o u r t does not overturn "greatly his convictions accelerate [ w i l l ] be s e t and 46.) Lackey counsel and "likely result the time sentences, stated in that his actions will [his] execution i n which c a r r i e d out." striking date (Supp. R. he knows [his] convictions by firing on [being] c a r r i e d out Upon q u e s t i o n i n g on r e t u r n t o remand that a l l documents f i l e d death sentence[s] being t o remand 55.) or " the his behalf of (Supp. R. than life in prison and without 27 receive the [his] on return court, Lackey stated sentences i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y be a l e s s e r - i n c l u d e d offense will u p h e l d and t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t i f h i s c o n v i c t i o n s and reversed, appellate convicted a sentence of possibility of are less parole. CR-07-1378 Lackey, however, t e s t i f i e d t h a t he d i d not chance of r e c e i v i n g a sentence of l i f e possibility of Lackey error Criminal the i n prison without the parole. testified review want t o t a k e and that that Procedure. he he basically understands understands the Lackey t e s t i f i e d Alabama t h a t he could adversely affect c o n v i c t i o n s or sentences. to Lackey the The consequences, s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and collateral circuit dangers, striking and the a l l briefs challenges court of complicated, h i m s e l f and t o s t r i k e future Rules knows t h a t A l a b a m a R u l e s o f A p p e l l a t e P r o c e d u r e can be v e r y and h i s d e c i s i o n t o r e p r e s e n t plain- fully to his explained disadvantages of a l l a p p e l l a t e documents, and L a c k e y s t a t e d t h a t he i s aware o f t h o s e c o n s e q u e n c e s , d a n g e r s , and disadvantages. During the Lackey against briefs and insisted hearing, documents that that the the circuit court strongly f i r i n g h i s appellate counsel other intelligently, himself, hearing, filed on i s his desire. circuit court found and his behalf, At the that striking but conclusion Lackey and v o l u n t a r i l y made t h e d e c i s i o n t o to terminate appellate counsel's 28 advised the Lackey of the knowingly, represent employment, and to CR-07-1378 strike a l l documents f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f . supports circuit the c i r c u i t court court's conclusion. d i d not e r r i n f i n d i n g intelligently, The r e c o r d fully Therefore, t h a t Lackey the knowingly, a n d v o l u n t a r i l y made h i s d e c i s i o n . C. B a s e d on t h e e x t e n s i v e c o l l o q u y b e t w e e n t h e c i r c u i t court and L a c k e y a n d L a c k e y ' s q u e s t i o n i n g b y c o u n s e l , t h i s C o u r t i s convinced that Lackey "'not only [competently,] knowingly, i n t e l l i g e n t l y , and v o l u n t a r i l y , waive[d] h i s r i g h t t o c o u n s e l , but also [chose behalf].'" So. to Johnson, 2d a t 2 4 3 ) . This strike a l l documents 40 So. 3d a t 758 Court filed (quoting i s f u r t h e r convinced on h i s S i b l e y , 775 that when L a c k e y " ' d e c i d e d t o [ s t r i k e t h e b r i e f s f i l e d on h i s b e h a l f a n d restrict this Court's] review o f h i s c o n v i c t i o n and d e a t h s e n t e n c e [ t o p l a i n e r r o r ] he c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e h i s p o s i t i o n a n d he knew t h a t h i s l i f e was a t s t a k e . ' " 758 775 So. 2d a t 2 4 4 ) . (quoting circuit court Sibley, J o h n s o n , 40 So. 3d a t d i d n o t e r r by g r a n t i n g 29 Therefore, Lackey's motion the to CR-07-1378 terminate appellate counsel's employment, h i m s e l f , and t o s t r i k e a l l documents f i l e d to represent on h i s b e h a l f . 5 II. Next, State's this evidence convictions. Court to must review sustain the sufficiency Lackey's two of the capital-murder L a c k e y was c o n v i c t e d c a p i t a l m u r d e r p u r s u a n t 13A-5-40(a)(2), § A l a . Code 1975, w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e S t a t e t o p r o v e t h a t he i n t e n t i o n a l l y m u r d e r e d C h a r l e s Newman d u r i n g t h e course of a robbery, pursuant the a n d he was c o n v i c t e d o f c a p i t a l t o § 13A-5-40(a)(4), State t o prove that Newman d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e "In sustain all determining A l a . Code 1975, he i n t e n t i o n a l l y which r e q u i r e d murdered Charles of a burglary. the sufficiency a conviction, a reviewing evidence murder of the evidence c o u r t must a c c e p t i n t r o d u c e d by t h e S t a t e , accord to as t r u e the State a l l On J u l y 23, 2012, a f t e r t h e c i r c u i t court granted Lackey's motion to represent himself and t o t e r m i n a t e a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l ' s employment, a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l f i l e d a m o t i o n i n t h i s C o u r t a s k i n g t h i s C o u r t t o remand t h e c a u s e t o the c i r c u i t c o u r t w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r i t t o h o l d another h e a r i n g on L a c k e y ' s c o m p e t e n c y a n d h i s d e c i s i o n t o w a i v e counsel and t o r e p r e s e n t h i m s e l f . This Court returned appellate counsel's motion because they f a i l e d t o serve L a c k e y , who now r e p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f , o r t h e a t t o r n e y L a c k e y h i r e d t o h e l p h i m t e r m i n a t e a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l ' s employment, and b e c a u s e a p p e l l a t e c o u n s e l no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t L a c k e y . 5 30 CR-07-1378 l e g i t i m a t e inferences therefrom, a l i g h t most f a v o r a b l e 597 So. 2d 721, 724 471 So. 2d 485, 489 in determining and c o n s i d e r a l l e v i d e n c e i n to the prosecution." ( A l a . 1991) (citing F a i r c l o t h v. ( A l a . C r i m . App. 1 9 8 4 ) ) . the sufficiency of Powe v. S t a t e , State, "'The t e s t evidence to used sustain a c o n v i c t i o n i s w h e t h e r , v i e w i n g t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i g h t most favorable to the prosecution, a r a t i o n a l f i n d e r of f a c t have f o u n d t h e d e f e n d a n t g u i l t y b e y o n d a r e a s o n a b l e Nunn v. S t a t e , 697 So. 2d 497, 498 ( A l a . Crim. could doubt.'" App. 1997) ( q u o t i n g O'Neal v. S t a t e , 602 So. 2d 462, 464 ( A l a . C r i m . App. 1992)). "When t h e r e i s legal evidence from which the j u r y c o u l d , by f a i r i n f e r e n c e , f i n d t h e defendant g u i l t y the t r i a l court should submit [the case] t o t h e j u r y , and, i n s u c h a case, t h i s court w i l l not d i s t u r b the t r i a l c o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n . " Sale v. State, (quotations 8 So. 3d and c i t a t i o n s 330, 338 omitted). ( A l a . Crim. "The r o l e c o u r t s i s n o t t o s a y what t h e f a c t s a r e . judge whether the evidence i s legally App. of a p p e l l a t e Our r o l e sufficient submission o f an i s s u e f o r d e c i s i o n [by] t h e j u r y . " Stewart, 900 quotations omitted). So. 2d 475, 477 ( A l a . 2004) 2008) ... i s t o to allow Ex p a r t e (citations and F u r t h e r , i n a c a p i t a l case i n which the 31 CR-07-1378 defendant pleads in determining proof." § guilty, whether 13A-5-42, principles, this sufficient evidence " [ t ] h e g u i l t y p l e a may be c o n s i d e r e d the state h a s met A l a . Code 1975. Court holds that [ i t s ] burden of Applying the t o s u s t a i n Lackey's State two these presented capital-murder convictions. At trial, following. the State presented A t 7:34 p.m. evidence on O c t o b e r indicating the 3 1 , 2005, the Athens P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t r e c e i v e d a n d r e c o r d e d an emergency c a l l t h a t o r i g i n a t e d f r o m C h a r l e s Newman's h o u s e . telephone and During that c a l l , Newman c o u l d be h e a r d s t a t i n g , "Don't do t h a t " "Leave me a l o n e . " (State's a s k e d , "What do y o u w a n t ? " overheard telephone on t h e r e c o r d i n g , e x h i b i t #1.) Newman also I d . H i s a s s a i l a n t , who c o u l d be responded repeatedly by a s k i n g , "Where's t h e v a u l t ? " I d . Detective Katrina Flannigan, then a p a t r o l o f f i c e r with t h e A t h e n s P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , was d i s p a t c h e d t o Newman's h o u s e following t h e emergency telephone call. When s h e d i d n o t r e c e i v e an answer a t t h e f r o n t d o o r , D e t e c t i v e F l a n n i g a n to the rear of the residence. 32 Detective Flannigan went noticed CR-07-1378 that, although t h e g l a s s storm d o o r was c l o s e d , t h e wooden b a c k d o o r was open a n d t h a t t h e r e was b l o o d on t h e s t o r m door. D e t e c t i v e F l a n n i g a n summoned t h e o f f i c e r w i t h h e r t o t h e back. the house, door. a The o f f i c e r so t h e y t o l d h e r t h a t he c o u l d s e e a b o d y entered Newman's house through the back I n s i d e , t h e y f o u n d Newman's body on t h e f l o o r couch and a green chair, and a l a r g e U n d e r n e a t h t h e c h a i r was a s e t o f d e n t u r e s cordless telephone. puddle inside between of blood. and t h e base t o a Detective Flannigan n o t i c e d bloody shoe p r i n t s l e a d i n g t o t h e back door from t h e body and c o u l d s m e l l t h e s c e n t o f gunpowder. L a t e r t h a t e v e n i n g , O f f i c e r W i l l i a m Watson, O f f i c e r Bobby McCalphin, and S g t . C l a y t o n Jordan of t h e Madison Police D e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n d e d t o a s h o o t i n g v i c t i m who t e l e p h o n e d t h e p o l i c e from a Chevron g a s o l i n e s t a t i o n . The o f f i c e r s arrived Lackey t o l d Officer t o f i n d L a c k e y s i t t i n g o u t s i d e on a c u r b . Watson t h a t he h a d b e e n Officer Lackey's shot, and Lackey lifted his shirt. Watson saw two g u n s h o t wounds, one i n t h e c e n t e r o f chest and another on t h e s i d e o f h i s c h e s t . When a s k e d how he was s h o t , L a c k e y r e s p o n d e d , " ' I have no i d e a . d o n ' t know a n y t h i n g . I j u s t know I've b e e n s h o t . ' " 33 I (R. 566.) CR-07-1378 L a c k e y w o u l d n o t e x p l a i n where he was when he was s h o t , n o r w o u l d he e x p l a i n how he came t o be a t t h e g a s o l i n e Officer parked Watson saw a white i n front of the gasoline attention Altima's was drawn Nissan station. to the Altima exterior. Looking Watson c o u l d s e e b l o o d Altima automobile Officer because through station. Watson's of blood t h e windows, on t h e Officer on t h e s t e e r i n g w h e e l a n d f r o n t d a s h , what a p p e a r e d t o be an i n s u l a t e d p i z z a b a g a n d a r a d i o s c a n n e r in the front-passenger seat, two pistols i n the front- passenger f l o o r b o a r d , and a b l o o d y k n i f e w i t h a broken t i p i n the rear floorboard. Sgt. stations Jordan telephoned i n neighboring sheriff's counties b e e n any r e p o r t e d s h o o t i n g s departments and p o l i c e t o determine that evening. i f there had The A t h e n s P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n d e d t h a t i t was i n v e s t i g a t i n g a s h o o t i n g , a n d Sgt. Jordan informed and t h e Athens P o l i c e Department about Lackey h i svehicle. During brand a search .38 r e v o l v e r ; of the Altima, officers an 8mm pistol; starter found a Rossi a knife with a b r o k e n t i p ; an i n s u l a t e d p i z z a b a g ; a p o l i c e s c a n n e r ; a r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t f o r t h e A l t i m a s i g n e d b y L a c k e y ; a s t u n gun w i t h a 34 CR-07-1378 missing electrode; a baseball b a t t i n g glove; a utility belt; two f l a s h l i g h t s ; two b l a c k t u b e s o c k s f i l l e d w i t h n y l o n rope; a pack pair of s i x b o t t l e s of super glue; of blood-stained eyeglasses; hammer w i t h a t o w e l several screwdrivers; gym b a g s ; i t ; a roll packs of duct Paypal license, several credit business that under Officer Lackey had i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e name " J a c o b J a y Looney of Silver's restaurant from reflected fries. He a l s o r e c o v e r e d t o be an e l e c t r o d e Altima. I n a box s i t t i n g h i s internet-sales Police house. Department John The bills and near t h e back door. The of a chicken believed mother a n d a r e c e i p t f r o m a Long Newman's an o r d e r Lackey's McDeal." r e c e i p t were f o u n d f o l d e d t o g e t h e r receipt Lackey's i n h i s name, a n d a the Athens c o l l e c t e d two o n e - d o l l a r b i l l s cheese cards c a r d i n t h e name o f " J a c o b M c D e a l . " testified tape; of b a t t e r i e s ; a p a i r of n i g h t - v i s i o n g o g g l e s ; and a w a l l e t , which c o n t a i n e d driver's a an a x e ; a sledgehammer; a wrapped around five two b l a c k sandwich a piece and c h i l i - o f m e t a l t h a t was from t h e stun gun f o u n d i n t h e on t h e f i r e p l a c e mantel, Officer L o o n e y f o u n d a b i l l o f s a l e f o r Newman's p u r c h a s e o f t h e R o s s i brand .38 revolver. Doris 35 Langster, Newman's friend, CR-07-1378 t e s t i f i e d t h a t she s o l d t h e R o s s i that he t y p i c a l l y .38 r e v o l v e r t o Newman a n d c a r r i e d the revolver i n a pocket in his robe. Dr. E m i l y Ward, a p a t h o l o g i s t w i t h t h e A l a b a m a D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e n s i c S c i e n c e s ("DFS"), p e r f o r m e d t h e a u t o p s y on Newman. Dr. Ward f o u n d t h a t Newman s u f f e r e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f 54 s t a b wounds a n d l a c e r a t i o n s t o h i s h e a d , i n c l u d i n g s t a b wounds t o both eyes, and a broken nose. Newman h a d s e v e n wounds on h i s n e c k , one o f w h i c h s e v e r e d h i s c a r o t i d a r t e r y , a n d m u l t i p l e cuts The exit t o h i s hands. wound was on t h e l e f t that discoloration, object, that sustained a g u n s h o t wound. e n t r a n c e wound was on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f h i s c h e s t , testified the Newman a l s o the exit wound i n d i c a t i n g that such as t h e f l o o r , entrance side of h i s chest. was Newman was when he was s h o t . wound was s u r r o u n d e d the p i s t o l surrounded was a t a c l o s e and t h e D r . Ward by against purple a hard Additionally, b y gunpowder, i n d i c a t i n g range when fired. I n Dr. Ward's o p i n i o n , Newman d i e d as a r e s u l t o f numerous s h a r p a n d b l u n t - f o r c e i n j u r i e s o f t h e h e a d a n d n e c k a n d a g u n s h o t wound to the chest. D r . Ward a l s o t e s t i f i e d , was l i k e l y d e a d p r i o r t o b e i n g 36 shot. t h o u g h , t h a t Newman CR-07-1378 A subsequent long-time investigation revealed f r i e n d Newman's g r a n d s o n Newman t e s t i f i e d a t t r i a l that Lackey D e r r i c k Newman. was a Derrick t h a t he h a d p r e v i o u s l y t o l d Lackey o f Newman's w e a l t h a n d t h a t Newman h a d a v a u l t i n h i s h o u s e . D e r r i c k Newman t o l d L a c k e y t h a t t h e v a u l t c o u l d be a c c e s s e d b y a door next t o t h e s t a i r w e l l . Additionally, D e r r i c k Newman t e s t i f i e d t h a t he a n d L a c k e y h a d b e e n t o a Long John Silver's r e s t a u r a n t two d a y s b e f o r e h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s m u r d e r a n d t h a t Lackey had o r d e r e d a c h i c k e n sandwich and c h i l i - c h e e s e The computers Wilmoth, a Organized Crime Johnson a t L a c k e y ' s a p a r t m e n t were s e i z e d . computer-forensics analyst Information to analyze Lackey's "Jacob" t o "Damian" Within Wilmoth 6 t h e messages, from Brian the Regional C e n t e r , was a s k e d b y L t . F l o y d t h e computer apartment. with fries. hardware recovered r e c o v e r e d messages January "Jacob" 2005 wrote through t o "Damian" impending h e i s t ; h i s reconnaissance of t h e t a r g e t , from sent July from 2005. about an t h e house o f an " o l d r i c h guy," a n d i t s v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s ; h i s c o l l e c t i o n of s u p p l i e s f o r t h e h e i s t ; t h e c a s h a n d g o l d he b e l i e v e d was A t t r i a l , "Damian" was i d e n t i f i e d l i v e d i n England. 6 37 a s an i n d i v i d u a l who CR-07-1378 in t h e house; h i s i n t e n t i o n t o use a p i z z a bag as a p l o y t o g a i n e n t r y i n t o t h e h o u s e ; a n d h i s d e s i r e f o r money. within Lackey's computer's (C. 298¬ 318.) Also, internet history, Wilmoth f o u n d a p r e v i o u s s e a r c h o f Newman's a d d r e s s . R o b e r t B a s s , who was a f o r e n s i c s c i e n t i s t w i t h t h e DFS, analyzed several pieces of bloodstained f r o m Newman's house a n d f r o m t h e A l t i m a . evidence c o l l e c t e d Bass t e s t i f i e d that L a c k e y was a DNA m a t c h f o r b l o o d s t a i n s f o u n d on t h e s w e a t s h i r t he was w e a r i n g on t h e n i g h t wheel of the Altima, o f t h e murder, on t h e i n t e r i o r on t h e s t e e r i n g o f t h e back door t o Newman's h o u s e , a n d on t h e s t o r m d o o r on t h e r e a r o f Newman's house. Newman was a DNA m a t c h f o r b l o o d s t a i n s f o u n d on t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e b a c k d o o r t o h i s house a n d on t h e i n t e r i o r o f the storm door. B a s s a l s o t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e r e was a m i x e d - DNA p r o f i l e on t h e t r i g g e r g u a r d on t h e R o s s i .38 r e v o l v e r , on t h e t r i g g e r on t h e s t a r t e r p i s t o l , a n d on t h e hand b r a k e l e v e r on the Altima, and t h a t Newman a n d L a c k e y were the l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t o r s o f t h a t DNA. Crystal Kissel, a forensic scientist with t h e DFS, t e s t i f i e d t h a t Newman was a DNA m a t c h f o r b l o o d s t a i n s f o u n d on 38 CR-07-1378 t h e s o l e s o f t h e b o o t s L a c k e y was w e a r i n g on t h e n i g h t o f t h e murder. Jacquelyn Bowling, a forensic scientist with t h e DFS, t e s t i f i e d t h a t Newman a n d L a c k e y were DNA m a t c h e s f o r v a r i o u s b l o o d s t a i n s on t h e b l u e j e a n s L a c k e y was w e a r i n g on t h e n i g h t of t h e murder. John K i l b o u r n , a f o r e n s i c s c i e n t i s t w i t h A n a l y t i c a l and Forensic Associates, examined the bloody shoe prints n e a r Newman's b o d y . K i l b o u r n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e shoe were made b y a s o l e that were t h e same l e n g t h h a d an i d e n t i c a l a n d w i d t h as t h e l e f t w e a r i n g on t h e n i g h t o f t h e m u r d e r . found prints s o l e p a t t e r n and boot L a c k e y was 7 Tammy S l i g h , a f o r e n s i c s c i e n t i s t w i t h t h e DFS, t e s t i f i e d t h a t a p i e c e o f m e t a l t h a t was l o d g e d i n Newman's s k u l l , which was found found during in the Altima. t h e a u t o p s y , was t h e t i p o f t h e k n i f e She a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e t h r e e b u l l e t s a n d one b u l l e t j a c k e t r e c o v e r e d f r o m Newman's house h a d b e e n f i r e d from the Rossi .38 revolver. remained i n t h e r e v o l v e r had been A l lfive cartridges that fired. K i l b o u r n was u n a b l e t o d e f i n i t i v e l y s t a t e t h a t t h e shoe p r i n t was made b y L a c k e y ' s b o o t b e c a u s e o f t h e u n e v e n n a t u r e o f t h e l i n o l e u m f l o o r i n g on w h i c h t h e shoe p r i n t was made. 7 39 CR-07-1378 Here, Lackey's t h e S t a t e p r e s e n t e d an i r o n c l a d c a s e guilt, establishing and i t s evidence o v e r w h e l m i n g l y established t h a t L a c k e y i n t e n t i o n a l l y m u r d e r e d Newman d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a b u r g l a r y and a r o b b e r y . Code 1975. Because §§ 1 3 A - 5 - 4 0 ( a ) ( 2 ) and ( a ) ( 4 ) , A l a . t h e S t a t e met i t s b u r d e n o f p r o o f , L a c k e y i s n o t e n t i t l e d t o any r e l i e f . III. Pursuant t o § 13A-5-53, A l a . Code 1975, t h i s Court i s r e q u i r e d t o address t h e p r o p r i e t y o f Lackey's c o n v i c t i o n s and his of, sentence of death. two c o u n t s murder L a c k e y was i n d i c t e d f o r , a n d c o n v i c t e d of c a p i t a l f o r t h e murder murder -- one c o u n t o f Newman during of capital the course r o b b e r y , s e e § 1 3 A - 5 - 4 0 ( a ) ( 2 ) , A l a . Code 1975, of a a n d one c o u n t of c a p i t a l m u r d e r f o r t h e m u r d e r o f Newman d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a burglary, The s e e § 1 3 A - 5 - 4 0 ( a ) ( 4 ) , A l a . Code 1975. record does d e a t h was i m p o s e d prejudice, not r e f l e c t that Lackey's sentence of as t h e r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p a s s i o n , o r any o t h e r arbitrary factor. See § 13A-5- 5 3 ( b ) ( 1 ) , A l a . Code 1975. The circuit circumstances court correctly outweighed found t h a t the mitigating 40 the aggravating circumstances. In CR-07-1378 making this determination, the c i r c u i t court found t h a t the State proved the existence of the f o l l o w i n g three circumstances: 1) t h a t t h e c a p i t a l o f f e n s e was c o m m i t t e d w h i l e L a c k e y was e n g a g e d 5-49(4), robbery, capital i n t h e c o m m i s s i o n o f a b u r g l a r y , see § 13A- A l a . Code committed while 1975; Lackey offense found t h a t circumstance The was that the c a p i t a l engaged offense i n the commission was of a was e s p e c i a l l y h e i n o u s , a t r o c i o u s , o r c r u e l capital offenses, see § 13A-5-49(8), Code 1975. Regarding prior 2) see § 1 3 A - 5 - 4 9 ( 4 ) , A l a . Code 1975; a n d 3) t h a t t h e when compared t o o t h e r Ala. aggravating mitigating mitigating the c i r c u i t court t h e d e f e n s e e s t a b l i s h e d one s t a t u t o r y m i t i g a t i n g -- that Lackey criminal activity, circuit circumstances, court also circumstances: h a d no significant h i s t o r y of s e e § 1 3 A - 5 - 5 1 ( 1 ) , A l a . Code 1975. found the 1) t h a t following L a c k e y was nonstatutory "different" i n t h a t he l i v e d i n a w o r l d o f c o m p u t e r games; 2) t h a t L a c k e y was shy, i n t r o v e r t e d , and s o c i a l l y awkward w i t h few f r i e n d s ; 3) t h a t L a c k e y , a t a young age, was d i s t a n t , c o l d , a n d d e t a c h e d ; 4) t h a t L a c k e y ' s f a m i l y members t e s t i f i e d t h a t L a c k e y was a k i n d , good c h i l d , a n d t h a t he d i d n o t b u l l y o t h e r c h i l d r e n ; 5) 41 CR-07-1378 that Lackey's family moved frequently when he was a young c h i l d , c a u s i n g L a c k e y t o change s c h o o l s a n d p r e v e n t i n g L a c k e y f r o m b e c o m i n g e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a d o c t o r ; 6) t h a t L a c k e y seemed y o u n g e r t h a n h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l age; 7) t h a t L a c k e y was influenced by others, so appreciate the r e a l i t y that often Lackey may not o f what he was d o i n g ; 8) t h a t a b s o l v e d D e r r i c k Newman d u r i n g t h e p e n a l t y p h a s e , circuit sentencing properly weighed mitigating order the shows that aggravating the Lackey which the The r e c o r d s u p p o r t s t h e c i r c u i t to 13A-5-53(b)(2), reweigh mitigating the sentence of death i s proper. aggravating sentenced to court and the Lackey to court's findings. A l a . Code aggravating circumstances circuit circumstances c i r c u m s t a n c e s and c o r r e c t l y Section Court fully c o u r t v i e w e d as a g e s t u r e o f k i n d n e s s . The death. easily 1975, r e q u i r e s circumstances determine whether and this the Lackey's A f t e r independently weighing the c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t h e m i t i g a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h i s Court f i n d s that Lackey's death sentence i s a p p r o p r i a t e . As Court required must excessive now by § 13A-5-53(b)(3), determine whether or d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e when 42 A l a . Code Lackey's 1975, sentence this is compared t o t h e p e n a l t y CR-07-1378 imposed i n s i m i l a r cases. of murder d u r i n g burglary. offense a r o b b e r y and Further, was L a c k e y was the c i r c u i t especially one convicted count court heinous, found t h a t the v. S t a t e , W a s h i n g t o n v. Brown v. So. 2d 857, State, 922 So. State, Therefore, excessive 775 this nor Finally, 11 So. Court 3d this cruel when of death has State. See 1999); 2d 145 ( A l a . C r i m . App. 2005); (Ala. Crim. 2007). 901 that the sentence App. was neither disproportionate. t h i s C o u r t has m e t i c u l o u s l y a f f e c t e d Lackey's has f o u n d no m e r i t searched the e n t i r e substantial rights. t h a t may This have Court t o any i s s u e p r e s e r v e d b e l o w f o r a p p e l l a t e r e v i e w and no i n d i c i a o f p l a i n e r r o r . App. capital ( A l a . C r i m . App. r e c o r d f o r any e r r o r , p l a i n o r p r e s e r v e d b e l o w , adversely a 863 866, finds or A sentence been imposed f o r s i m i l a r c r i m e s t h r o u g h o u t Melson count o f murder d u r i n g atrocious, compared t o o t h e r c a p i t a l o f f e n s e s . o f one See R u l e 45A, A l a . R. P. Accordingly, death are Lackey's convictions and h i s sentences affirmed. AFFIRMED. Welch, Kellum, Burke, and J o i n e r , J J . , c o n c u r . 43 of